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BEAD BEFOEE THE GROLIER CLUB OF NEW-YORK, MARCH WITH ADDITIONS AND NEW ILLUSTRATIONS
THE GKOLIER CLUB
Copyright, 1889, by William Matthews.
The De Vinne
A DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTEATIONS.
contemporary design. The ornaments are of solid face and not formed into scrolls. The frame is formed
of simple geometrical figures.
THE MAIOLI STYLE. A contemporary
design. The ornaments are chiefly azured, which the reproduction but faintly illustrates. The two shields are inlaid with color, and the inner field is studded with gold dots enriching the center in contrast
to the outer field of the design.
A contemporary design.
(French.) The ornaments
The frame is elaborately designed and intersected, forming the chief feature of the design. The scroll-work is
THE EVE STYLE.
(French.) A contemporary design. The ornaments are circular The frame is composed of scrolls, flowers and branches.
variously shaped compartments skillfully connected intersected circles, the centers of which are filled with
flowers and circular scrolls. The branches of laurel and other foliage surrounding these compartments form the chief feature of an five design.
THE GASCON STYLE. (French.) A contemporary design. The frame is similar in its compartments and connections to an five design. The ornaments are dotted on the face instead of solid line. This dotted ornament is the distinguishing feature of a Gascon
THE KOGER PAYNE A contemporary
u La Pucelle." design for a copy of small this is a good example of the style. The Though ornaments are characteristically floral and graceful in the stalk. They are arranged in individual and not in connected form. There is an entire absence of scroll-work and fillets. Roger Payne seldom failed to decorate appropriately, so the wreath border and the fleur-de-lis are thus used in this instance. The gold-dot studding a la Maioli, another feature of this style, is shown in the four center corners, and it is evident the four corners of the border were intended to be studded in like manner.
(1853). Frontispiece (American.) For a copy of the " Alhambra " by Owen Jones. The cover is of light brown or yellow russia. The frame of the outside design is inlaid with red and the panels with blue morocco, leaving the scroll-work yellow. The frame of the border of the inside design is inlaid with blue with the intersected and quartered circles and diamonds in red. The panel is of white vellum, the fillet and half-diamond figures of which are inlaid with blue and the full- diamond figures with yellow morocco. A special feature of this design is its complete decorative treatment in outline, without the aid of engraved ornaments.
For a copy of Longmans' edition of the " New Testament," bound by William Matthews of New- York. The cover is of light brown morocco. The frame is inlaid with light blue and the centers of the four symbolic figures with
interlacing the frame
partment without crowding and
This design exemplifies perfectly a complete decorative treatment without the aid of engraved tools, and the illustration affords proof of the exactness of its execution.
and the processes . for granted means Extra Binding.AN ADDRESS ON MODERN BOOKBINDING PRACTICALLY CONSIDERED. the latter machinery. in distinction from publishers' work. It may be well to by observe that these two branches are distinct in character. By Extra Binding I mean that which the binder is called upon to do for that this private libraries. HAVE been requested by the Council of the Grolier Club to address you on the subject of Modern Bookbinding I take it Practi- cally Considered. the former being chiefly done by hand.
for by the result of much meets the demands of speed and cheap- . The mechanical processes by which we bind the enormous issues of the modern printing largely American. so exten- the present cloth fabric that sively for now used commercial binding was then unknown.10 MODEBN BOOKBINDING different that they employed in each are so separate description." the general character of which has many features and processes resembling those of centinction from the Library style turies ago. is When I was born. This machine binding. Publishers' work was then bound in paper-covered boards." because I think the Commercial binding of the day deserves that term. in dis- which we designate as "Extra Binding. in spite of in a sense to be its faults. with a paper label a style attractive to the it eye of the modern collector. I press are the results to say of am pleased modern invention. unwrinkled insures him uncut and lightly sawed back. demand have Had I chosen the title of my address I would omitted the term "Modern. and the deserves absence of faults which machinery has introduced. as edges. ingenuity it commended.
No. and that as it is principally practiced in our time." or fine handwork. of such excellence that they have served as patterns for already been well done all time since. rich for their missals artists of and when. when ivory and gold were none too . 11 ness and affords a style of ornamentation suitable to the requirements of the masses. however. Mine is not the pleasure to all its narrate the historic past. that has . and capa- bilities would appear marvelous I assume. A history of the growth of this branch of bookbinding would not only be interesting in setting forth the development of the various machines and the struggles of their inventors. To impart all . binding is my subject. but I am sure the statistics of its growth to us. at a later period. all aspired to have their favorite authors bound in tapestry and velvet. bedecked with rare and costly jewels. with chivalry and romance when kings and queens.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. nobles and men of letters. by our president but mine is the more prosaic duty to describe as practically as possible the principles of the art. high repute invented designs for the decora- tion of the covers. that "Extra.
I have my long experience seen a binding perfect in all its parts. . and to encourage the various branches connected there- with is. the aim and purpose of the Grrolier Club. to give every facility to its members to acquire a knowledge of the art of book-making. as I understand it. never in For. I believe vidually accomplish. believe me. and to qualify you with the ability of an expert to judge of the excellences and defects of a binding. for in every specimen both will be found. that it is not by what we indi- by what we advanced .12 MODEKN BOOKBINDING important information regarding the manufacture of books. to enable you to order your binding in a clear and technical manner. but to others. trusting in your kind indulgence. My effort will be to specify the principles that I consider constitute good binding : not to describe all the minute processes necessary to binders. as . severally impart Art is and therefore I cheerfully undertake to do my part. make you amateur on the art attempt most of the treatises but to impart that information to which will qualify you know the characteristics of a well-bound book.
I my craft are at am convinced that there are difficulties peculiar to bookbinding. has afforded more pleasure and happiness to people of culture than any other art. I think its difficulties It is also a difficult art. I may be very ignorant of the difficulties of other arts that have been mastered more successfully. and that the productions of the most eminent and successful of the best very imperfect. of Joined with printing. but from the fact that my own has for ages received such great patron- age and encouragement. thus preserving the literature of ages and affording the student a facility of reference. purpose is to permanently preserve the best and noblest thoughts of mankind. It has made possible the founding of libraries.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. should be considered and borne in mind by every patron and criticizing connoisseur. Every single . And it is eminently deserving the study it and effort of patrons and artisans to raise it to a higher perfection than has ever reached. it which it is a necessary part. It is a 13 very important art "by : it has been patronized all and encouraged ages of the learned and the wealthy in Its its existence.
14 MODEBN BOOKBINDING book that the binder receives requires a somewhat that is. of the material he has to imperfections. wonderful how little the latter is consulted either in the paper or form of imposition of any publication. and dependent as the printer upon it is the binder to set forth his art to good advantage. the processes must be different treatment modified according to the material that constitutes the book. difficulty is the sensitiveness. and then looking for flexibility in the one and solidity in the otner. Another. or to the style that the caprice of his cus- tomer demands. The publisher and the printer too often ignore the possibilities of the binder's art supplying him with paper as rigid as iron or as spongy as tissue. as it were. Take any of your well-seasoned bindings from a cool library into an overheated parlor and you will soon observe . Connected as binding is is with printing. work with and its unavoidable Leather cannot be procured without the rugged and hardy goat must get some flaws many a scratch and scar on his valuable hide. Leather also contracts with heat and expands with cold. and his skin should not be expected without blemish.
it must also be borne in mind that the mechanical parts of the binding are so numerous and so dependent on each other that I . gold-leaf to the influence and impure all is But the difficulty more annoying than the demand which the arbitrary fancies of ignorant customers often make. or enough to be made it flexible ? morocco surface ? of good quality though has a flaw on Does the board warp and the gold tarnish because of influences over which the binder has no control. is the taste displayed the binder's ? own or that of his patron In addition to these difficulties with the material part. subject to damp and of climate dryness. however well seasoned. therefore. and the gas. difficulties : pocket size. above all. and. breaking through of these all rules and established principles.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. In your on book- binding weigh well these Is the paper of the book substantial enough to be pliable made Is the its solid. 15 also The millboard is that he uses. Some demands are so ridiculous that they are only equaled by the request of the pious old lady desired a Bible who made for her of large pica print of criticisms. the curling of the upper cover.
Bounding. Covering and Finishing not only with appropriate design but in the perfect working of every separate tool. laying press. the forwarder's ham- mer. is identical. Cutting. his principles are the same. : me briefly mention these Folding. The modern extra binder methods and is a lineal descendant of the ancient binder. besides many less important points. Headbanding. Squaring of Boards.16 MODERN BOOKBINDING it avow Let would be almost a miracle if the binding in all its parts was perfect. his tools are almost identical with those the beat- used by the craft four hundred years ago ing hammer. Backing. and rolls are all similar to his. Modern workmanship chiefly differs from the old in its greater exactness and neatness its mechanism . Papering. fillets. and the finisher's tools. Sewing. Lining of Back. Beating and Pressing. and cutting plow. Collating. but it is often lacking in the solidity and strength of the old. the sewing frame. The sewing of many old volumes . Gilding or Coloring of Edges. upon the perfection of each of which the excellence of all the other parts more or less depends.
The Finishing. three of the most important principles of a well-bound book . In getting ready the volume for binding. The Forwarding. The Preparing. or the pulling to pieces (if the volume has been previously bound). the collating. and the sewing. Third. The preparing. ready. The principal branches or departments of Extra : Binding are First. or decoration of the cover. By the we are in general the gainers of an exactness and neatness unknown to the ancient binder. Fourth. involves the fold- ing. or insertion beating and pressing. is 17 good to-day as when it was done centuries ago. The Covering. or getting Second. the plating. and to his application in all the branches of his art.PEACTICALLY CONSIDERED. The old binder's aim was undoubtedly strength his as . crudity of workmanship was largely means he adopted division of labor to obtain this owing to the strength. or getting ready. the of illustrations.
The The rules to observe in this department. though simple. On true folding depends equal margins and squareness of page. are important. it to. We all know that the by the folded.18 are involved. and Flexibility. or a Lortic. whose equal among lectors in this respect I never volume before he sent from. knew. if these principles are not ob- A careful master binder gives this depart- ment his chief care. collated every and after he received it The bill was paid as soon as he . late The* first is careful collating. col- Mr. his The success of workmanship very largely depends on the volume being properly prepared. printed sheet is so imposed it printer that it cannot be read until is and that the several sheets do not become a book until they are arranged consecutively. the binding will be finished. whether by a Trautz. directing the initiatory parts of ulti- the work with an intelligent foresight of the mate requirements of the binding. James Lenox. the binder. Strength. So important are is these. I care not how handsomely the cover lamentably deficient served. MODEEN BOOKBINDING These are Solidity. a Cape.
From his careful collating I made the and rule that every book of value. if . his house. At and my next visit I was admitted to the inner hall. its title. on its receipt. ultimately. I none the in the vestibule. found every never before. to his splendid library. Mr. transacted his business with and when through unlocked the outer door and let me go. soon came. after many visits. should be collated list page by page examined. From him I first of his De Bry I from duplicate lectors learned how to split paper. taking the key with her. leaf perfect. and some perfected with illustrations split off copies. The maid who admitted me locked the front door. me wiser as to the beautiful house and its contents. I shall never forget my first visit to where he summoned me on business. preface. sensation at the peculiarity of I recol- my my situation. leaving lect me standing in the vestibule a prisoner.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEKED. of contents an illustrated book. He was one of the few col- who knew the inside as well as the outside of his collection. Lenox. and then closed the inner one. 19 both blank and printed. however. every plate checked .
and section by section pulled apart or separated. the leaves should be damped and pressed in smooth boards. are removed. for no book can be solid made with these impressions in. A volume beating is the best process to spongy book is very unsatisfactory. by found imperfect. any. while the margins have received no impression. and particle of old glue removed. and the volume subjected to beating and pressing accordingly. every thread and For the better beating illustrations or and pressing of the volume the if maps. then the texture of the paper and date of publication are examined. The impression types having stretched the center of the page some- what. No is process of pressing or rolling equal to the oldof the fashioned beating hammer.20 MODEKN BOOKBINDING its list . confines the stretch to the center. if dition returnable by him to the person from whom he had purchased it. the impressions of the type are heavy. I would have the satisfaction of returning it to my customer in a conthen. For the permanent solidity of the obtain it. If the volume is perfect it is then divested of its old cover. as in many old volumes. causing the cock- . If.
conscientious binding cannot be obtained without a frequent outlay of extra labor. shifting the sheets at every blow. ling 21 that it is renders This always observed in old books. and here I would remark that if the patron knew how often. After this the sheets in thin sections must be pressed for twenty-four hours in smooth boards in a screw Sometimes with very old books it is necessary to repeat the operation. is Beating as art. and with a eight or ten sheets in his of twelve or fourteen left hammer pounds weight in his right hand brings successive blows on the sheets on a solid block of stone or iron. Good. books newly printed can be beat only on the margins. necessary that the margins be equally stretched by the hammer to give freedom to the swell. and therefore no comparison should be used by a . From the fear of set-off. the binder has to repeat his processes. it used to be practiced now almost a lost The workman takes hand. but old printed volumes should be beat all over the page. he would be less strict in confining him to a price.PRACTICALLY CONSIDERED. or hydraulic press. to produce first-class work.
to avoid the pasting of the illustration to the leaf it backs or faces. see that the half title. having been handled First. When the volume is taken out of press every leaf should lie flat and the volume should be as paper is solid as a brick. one side will suf- The jaconet should then. be brought round the sheet. This will insure flexibility and free opening. if these the volume is required The result will well repay the tedious operation. since first collated. If the illustrations are on thick All plates paper. . and maps that have been removed can now be replaced. immediately before sewing. provided the of proper quality. . to insure the free opening up of the illustration to the back of the book. be re-collated. if on moderately thin paper. Many volumes bound . they should be guarded with jaconet on both sides fice. should now. in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have large notches cut in the back for the twine bands notches should be repaired in best binding.22 MODEKN BOOKBINDING patron of the dishonest work of one binder to reduce the honest price of another. The book. or section of the sheet.
all precede the text text. foredge but which is more important. a convenient Lastly. the full title. to view them. the principles involved. as practiced by some pictorial paper and magazine printers. collate view of the illustration or its title ? the sheets by signature marks from beginning to end. check the illustrations by the list and see that they face the required pages. 23 list the dedication. in the order index. the of illustrations. Placing this class of illustrations both ways. and if the volume large this is an annoying labor. the preface. then the and lastly the any. When the illustrations are printed lengthways of the book always place them with the title running from bottom to top of the page. if named. the list of contents. has to turn the volume from left to right is and from right to left. Strength and Flexibility are Strength is the first princi- . is an error which should be immediately corrected. Second. And now the all-important branch of sewing must engage our attention. When so placed the reader. Some few argue the opposite of this rule by asserting that the title or reading on the plate should always go to the .PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED.
it becomes rather a necessity to hide them by making the back rigid and difficult to open but we all know . all acknowledge its importance . then it is useless to sew the book so flexibly that the free opening of the sheets exposes these defects . considering the variety of material that comes to his hand. if the volume composed of perhaps of thin text and heavy illustrations. quality. or if the age of the volume has rotted or weakened . firmly vol- To diffi- insure both these principles in the sewing is a cult problem for the binder to solve. what a dreadful reader. and yet the ume when bound must open flexibly and freely. If the volume has been previously bound as the ma- jority of the publications are at the present day by machine methods. however. sacrifice of comfort this is is to the single Again. leaves. Flex- ibility. with deep saw-cuts in the back. the economy of the whole art. in fact.24 MODEBN BOOKBINDING we is pie in binding it is. necessary to the convenient and it comfortable use of every book. is a luxurious In the perfect binding of any book both these principles must exist the sheets must be and permanently secured.
because the free open- ing of a flexible back will wrinkle and destroy the For these leathers a parThis is untially flexible style may be aimed at. The French binders prefer to preserve the beauty of the finished back of their bindings rather than to give their customers the luxury of a flexible binding. flexibility and strength cannot be And not only has the binder to take into consideration the material to be sewed. doubtedly the reason why all books bound in Paris finish of these leathers. owing to its polished surface . 25 the back of the sections. the style of sewing best adapted to insure adopted. in crushed levant are so rigid and difficult to open. best adapted to insure strength and flexthat technically styled Raised bands. Calf.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. back. or Flexible sewing. nor is crushed levant. With these and the style ibility is some other exceptions considered. is not suitable for a flexible back. for all leathers are not equally suitable for a flexible whether dull or polished in the finish. Whenever it is practicable it is the very best for durability and convenience. 4 It is . but also the leather with which the volume is to be covered.
26 MODEEN BOOKBINDING much the method adopted by the old binders. hence strength is in sewing is avoided. There are no gashes or furrows for the glue to fill and ible. the needle's point is all that can be seen. however. The ami in our day is cheapness . and thankful ought we to be to them that not only was it aimed at but Strength was their object. The sewing so effectually covered up in the binding that the public cannot examine winked. the back is perfectly flex- There bands of hard twisted cord springs at the back. not so on their part for flexibility. mam secured. throwing which act as so many its the sheets up to open freely without danger of strain. The thread takes course through the center of . they used double bands generally thongs of raw- hide suitable for lacing into their wooden boards. rigidly bind the back are five . any binder who sewed his books on Eaised-band sewing requires no saw marks. as for strength. its quality. and are therefore easily hood- Efforts to depart long ago from the system of the old binders caused a law to be enacted in England fining false bands.
render the back very stiff and rigid. it and books of reference . Dictionaries. in should be employed in every case of fine bind- ing where the material and the style of cover renders Morocco of an unpolished finish is the best leather to use where this style of sewing is it practicable. making in succession an entire circle of each band. sewing. giving a cuts. thus " : ^ ~ IS This style of sewing is specially suited for Bibles. The band. hugging them close to the sections. together .PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. adopted. It is three or four times the cost of the ordinary. and must not be also expected in cheap work. that the bands It must be understood upon which the sheets are sewed in this style are the veritable bands on the back of the book when sewing false finished. Cyclopaedias. or sunk-band. 27 the sheet. and the glue that sinks into these sawwith the back lining necessary to cover them. Here the sheets are sawed with three or five furrows to admit the bands of twine and give the needle greater freedom. Sunk-band is the ordi- nary style of the book sewing of our time. whereas in the ordinary style of bands are used. fact.
as entirely abandoned as a prinpublishers of stand- Were our ard literature willing to pay two or three cents extra . True. Every one who compares an English and an American cloth-bound book will observe how much more it freely the English book opens. not needing saw marks. is also much weaker than in the raised-band the thread only making a half instead of a full the band. it a permanent one it by sawing it and and lining though flexibility was glueing ciple of bookbinding. but the English consider cloth as a temporary binding. publishers of France and style The Germany favor the better by issuing most of their publications either in paper or cloth sewed cheaply with a sharp pointed needle. circle of This style of sewing is customary on much of our best library work. The sewing style. may be said the binding is too free and the back not strong enough. force is used the result is often a broken back. whereas we try to make it.28 MODEEN BOOKBINDING and when resistance to the free opening of the book. because American publishers have a greater regard for cheapness than the fitness of their publications for rebinding. with muslin and paper.
Four or six of these leaves are overcast neatly together and then sewed still through like folded sheets. The sewing of the volume finishes the col- work in the preparatory department. as this enables these sheets the better to hold the end-paper and withstand the working of the boards. music. the invention of machine that did not require saw-cuts.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. and the like. and the style of sewing that will insure both strength and flexibility. and the lector will bear in mind the important principles here involved solidity in the thorough beating and pressing of the sheets. would help to bring about what I have for some a sewing time been promoting. If the book . The and last sheet of every well-bound book should be overcast. called overcasting. 29 per volume to have their publications sewed on tape without saw-marks. There is another style of sewing. they would effect a great im- provement in binding and confer a benefit on the A demand of this kind book-loving community. for single leaves. as in volumes of steel illus- trations. but better if the first illustrations are guarded with jaconet.
in. the difference of cost will be small on a binding costing dollars. and the sheets have not been deeply sawed order the raised band sewing.30 is MODEEN BOOKBINDING. to be bound in morocco. .
That which is alike suitable. from the preparing are largely The processes here mechanical in distinction from the finishing. are Forwarding the book.|HE volume now goes to the forwarding department. and the cutting of the edges. In determining lining is the the question it must be remembered the 31 . the glueing. selection of suitable inside linings or ends has difficult always been a question of taste and judgappropriate. and backing of the volume. The ment. The term forwarding is somewhat technical. they more dependent on the skill of the hand than the head. The chief principle involved is trueness. is literally the forming or shaping of are the attaching of the The operations end-papers. rounding. the squaring and lacing in of the boards. and beautiful cannot easily be obtained. and implies that the volume in this department is forwarded to the finishing.
but either in harmony or agreeable contrast. often select for . If the cover is plain the linings may ing . also be simple. and the fading of color by time. resisting the grease of the leather. Their appropriateness and beauty depend Therefore on the color and richness of the cover. these points must be borne in mind in the selection.32 MODEEN BOOKBINDING on open- inside finish. The French. The eye therefore seems to look for some- thing in consonance with the cover not necessarily similar in tint or richness. which is leather inside the board collector. . especially in tint. the insides of handsome bindings moire silk but this does not work well with leather. the first attraction ing it. though we often see exceptions to this in richly decorated insides to Janseniste bindif the cover is handsomely tooled the linings are more appropriate if rich. the stain of paste. and is more pleasing to the feminine eye than to the taste of either the binder or In their more costly bindings they adopt the double style. To establish their suitable- ness the quality of the linings should be permanent in character. to the cover. whom we our best guides in their are apt to acknowledge as taste.
Lewis. . In their ordinary library bindings they use marbled paper. lavender. leaving the selection of the fly-leaf a matter still to be determined. is In such case there style. paste. Crimson. and is more durable in color than the tinted paper. nothing left but to adopt the double In . and its colors are unfad- It is true it lacks the richness necessary for a very richly decorated binding. and other English binders during the time of Dibdin. a distaste for marbled paper have justly created but its suitableness is Its it by the use and of centuries. nately. and violet tinted papers were very much used by their use Mackenzie. 33 though different in color to the This leads to expensive ornamentation and only half solves the question. who approved : but time has condemned them they show the stain of grease from the turning in leather and by the fading of the colors. Marbled paper does not show the stains of grease and paste. permanent resists the character has been proved by time: stains of grease ing. similar in quality outside. the Unfortucareless bad taste of marblers and the judgment of binders in established selection .PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED.
I have lately it is with one color only it had a paper marbled a deep crimson. did not become popular. have never seen them surpassed. If marcolor would produce patterns with the principal favoring or agreeable in contrast to the prevailing shades of leather. I have Vellum are in a volume covered in dark olive morocco. or for purposes of inside decorative illumination. be paper of the very best quality. they should only be used for books printed on vellum.34 MODEKN BOOKBINDING general bindings I favor. instead of intermingling in a hodge- podge manner every color they possess. from the lack of anything better. marbled paper . . effect is agreeable. however. and the fly-leaves very subject to the stain of the turning in leather and are likely to warp and curl. they would help to correct the distaste for marbled paper that now used prevails. though extensively used many In richness I years ago. it should. the marbling in good taste. and the prevailing biers color either in harmony or agree- able contrast with the color of the cover. The richly de- decorated papers introduced by signs De la Kue from by Owen Jones.
strength in the thorough rubbing of good and hot glue between the to sections. work The back of the volume must be is rounded true. . The fly-leaves. and flexi- bility in the careful lining of the back preparatory covering. on trueness of cutting depends trueness of margins. 35 whatever they may be. having been securely attached. and the test of the quality of his trueness. cut the concave of that edge will be untrue the millboards will stand must be squared unevenly and the squares truly.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. or the volume finisher's design be untrue. the important principle to be observed in forwarding is trueness. as I have said. The form and shape is its of the book depends on the forwarder. otherwise when the foredge . the volume is forwarded. are dependent in a measure on the forwarding and covering processes : for instance. more important than all. Strength and flexibility. But. . the meant the projections of the boards that extend beyond the book when it is cut by these are must be equal and regulated in size according to the size of the volume and. the principles named as all impor- tant in preparing the volume.
dust is easily removed from it. and it is elegant in appearance. the metal leaf preserves the edge of the paper. The backing which to is the spreading form grooves for the boards and joints for the book. gilding of the f oredge in the The round is very superior . must be exactly true. Gilding over carmine or marble adds richness and beauty to the edges. While all in the press the back soaked with paste and it. cut on the edges and then sent to the gilder or marbler as the order may require. the it refuse or outside glue cleaned from rendering more flexible. After the processes of glueing. A gilt edge is the only proper edge for a hand- somely bound volume. and backing. Thus the processes of the forwarder are important in the production of a well-bound book. the boards are laced to the book with the bands is the volume was sewed on . When the back is dry the volume is taken from the press. or the boards will open askew like a door crookedly of the back with a hammer hinged. then the volume placed in the standing press for at least twenty-four hours to set solidly the new form is it has assumed. rounding.36 MODEKN BOOKBINDING of the volume.
You know the profession has a style of binding peculiar to itself calf of a tan-colored sheep or lately an "underdone pie-crust" color. but cut and I desired a the edges have once been handsome and permanent bind- ing. is very tender. It is often a doubtful point with the collector what This leather is best for the cover of his volumes. is best determined by a knowledge skins. gild- ing the tops only.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEKED. to gilding flat. I should preserve uncut books that came into my if hands in that state. I was astonished to see fully . 37 usually all as in ordinary binding it is done. was called lately to see a law library by its bind- ing committee. of the qualities of the various Sheepskin ing. easily rubs. As a collector. as I have heard it called. skin I is fairly In the substance of a roan the strong. whether as a roan or skiver. and soon looks shabby. when split in two the upper half fleshy half a fleslier. the under or The surface of sheep. but slightly weaker as a skiver. is the commonest leather used for bindit is When unsplit called a roan . I should full gild. is called a skiver.
Eepeated . dust and was asked the I informed the committee that the covers of law books are generally to give washed with oxalic acid is them a clean appearance. soon renders the leather as rotten as blotting-paper. with the heat and gas of the library. is one of the tricks of the trade. as one of the committee I recom- observed. was shown into . then. seldom tested with accuracy that this. less in the long run and the volumes less often absent from their shelves to the binder's. like so I many indexes or open doors. I know that if morocco backs were used in the binding of volumes in all our public libraries the binding bills would be skin.38 one-eighth MODEBN BOOKBINDING of the books with the hollow backs broken at one joint and pointing out at right angles from their proper position. This.the rottenness of the leather crumbling reason. and the binder so careless a chemist that its strength is . and with a view to suiting their taste in color I bound them a volume in a tancolored morocco. but I fear the few extra cents of expense caused them to resolve to continue sheep- and even skiver sheep at that. mended a morocco back.
rebinding is 39 destructive to books. very higher in price than roan. Calfskin. especially the colored calf of English manufacture. or bastard. Cogswell was organizing the Astor Library. he insisted on having a con- siderable number of the volumes he collected bound in blue skiver backs certainly attained : and corners.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. is very beautiful. over thirty-five years ago. Library commit- tees as a rule adopt a false cheapness. it is as strong as goatskin is and resists but on the surface tender like sheep It is and shows many imperfections. It is soft and pleasant to the . Wlien Dr. Low prices he he afterwards prided himself on getting so many books bound for so little money. How long these them used. if any of little are still intact they is must have been very Sheepskin therefore not durable for the covers of books that are to receive is it suitable much usage. better skin than sheep for school It is little by far a and library books. Of late years a skin has been introduced for bookbinding called a Persian. bindings stood I know not . nor for elegant finish. in the substance tearing.
in fact. it soils from the moist hand and is not in strength as desirable as we would wish. Russia seems to be a cowhide certainly not the was led in my apprenticeship to beliable It is of the same nature as calfskin to calf crack.40 MODEBN BOOKBINDING its hand. with contrasting colored labels for add variety and much beauty to the bookcase. hence many a noble folio got clad . I will that do not recommend pol- ished calf or tree-marbled calf as superior in wear to the plain. delicate tints and brilliant colors. its has nothing but scent to recommend it. A few samples of these buffalo hide I lieve. is its more brittle than English It and red color fades very quickly. True. but is nevertheless an excellent leather for the covers of duodecimos is and very suitable say here for ordinary standard I literature. In my youth in it was very expensive and esteem for consequently held great strength and durability. as many suppose. titles. styles are well to possess. the covers of both are to more liable warp and show scratching and rubbing. and it cer- tainly has not the quality to resist insects.
the great its demand for lately has no doubt extended geographical limit. in it 41 in that their possessors now wish had been is morocco. is and I see similar definition in Stormonth's new dictionary. skin for fine binding equal to that of the is Webster says morocco though a cheaper kind also a chiefly from the goat. No goat. The difference existing . is made from sheep. superior to all other skins in strength and grain and the from the Levant. stoutness.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. and some Cape and other 6 district goatskins are now . the grain. its surface is capable of tak- If the breed came originally which we are it led to believe. He says morocco a fine kind of grained leather prepared from goatskin and often from sheepskin. Levant morocco is the skin of the monarch breed of goat. in the ordinary turkey morocco is simply a difference in the breed of the animal. beauty of finish which ing. and quality depending on the locality of the breed. the skin de luxe for bookbinding. These definitions are misleading: morocco is goatskin and goatskin only sheepskin is used only for an imitation.
one satisfaction in this the strength is that just as great. it is particularly appropriate for bibliog- But for all books of constant reference. literature. . was in use before its introduction. Bind. and your choice ones in levant. for your periodicals. just enough to vary the library raphy. that colored skiver will answer for books to which you seldom refer. volumes of the duodecimo Kussia should be used sparingly. therefore. For your better guidance I repeat. The ordinary turkey morocco it is so called from the pebble grain which and to distinguish it from the smooth and straight-grained morocco that takes. your volumes as often as you can in turkey morocco. especially Calfskin is best for standard size. and for volumes you desire to bind at a low price it will even answer . while appearance is always rich and satisfactory. its when grained hard will resist wear its longer than other leathers. It has all the it requisite qualities for fine is and durable binding: stronger than any other kind of skin excepting levant.42 MODEBN BOOKBINDING is undoubtedly used. and when properly tanned surface is very difficult to tear . like .
but there are sore and perplexing hindrances to the best laid schemes. The late Thomas Barton. risk. are quiet in their taste. your rare and precious treasures cover in levant and have it crushed. cyclopaedias. use morocco. seen the error of both these. told me that the greatest error he ever made in his library was in deciding that his Shaksperian collection. which was very large. and think to make the least offense or mistake by the selection of quiet browns. green for ity. all and The selection of color is another vexed question. Some are in favor of classification red for military. fine books of choice value. should all be bound in red morocco. and trouble he For instance. by colors. I have P. Others again favor sober colors. all 43 all and heavy volumes. so large was resolving upon. such as botany.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. brown for divin- and so on. He did not see the expense. a collection is made through and supplied from distant many years of one's life . to his whom Richard Grant White dedicated Shakspere. all large art works. This is largely a matter of fancy and might work well in a mixed library.
After several tleman of very quiet taste. Strong. And even then. years he moved into a new house." said he. who was a gen- began his collection with a preference for sober browns. as we stood in front of over a thou- sand volumes on Shakspere. "will I arbitrarily determine a certain color for a class of literature. he pointed out after all his pains the various shades of red he had been obliged to accept. he me that when his books had been placed in the . the then prevailing taste in cabinet work. and allowed his cabinet-maker to build his bookcases of black walnut. "Never again. it gorgeously in purple or green but in order to carry out whim the beautiful cover had to be torn off and the volume rebound in red to match his collection. with- out thinking of the effect of his brown bindings told ." Again. Antique calf and brown morocco were his usual orders. and when he received he often found . He told me lie often had to order the purchase of a Shaksperian work from the bound his sale of a celebrated library in it Europe. the late George T.44 MODEBN BOOKBINDING points and unforeseen circumstances.
and largely encourage of a wag. crimson. green. religious or not. in brown. had destroyed what would otherwise have produced great pleasure. A lady eminent for her benevolence and devotion to the . that he might brighten up the dead effect of his library. control you favor bright colors rather than dark. Here an ardent and persevering collector. The most satisfacis tory determination in the selection of color not Favor one color for certain but do not let it litera. ture if you like. As another instance of arbitrary taste in color of binding I will mention that it is who was much usual to put In Memoriam volumes in black or dark brown. from indulging a severe. but instead was overcome with the most depressing sensation of disappointment.PBACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. to be arbitrary. quiet taste. he said he hoped they were. or any other bright color. cases he 45 went to his library expecting the most pleasing effect. When I argued in favor of the latter color to a gentleman by asserting that the volumes in the Bibliotheque Eoyale were mostly red. but in red. From that time he ordered me never to bind any book of his.
the taste here for . In New York our houses are mostly brown. but on my stating the fact that the clergy had always favored crimson for their church books and pulpits she decided at once. and one of the handsomest memorial books I ever bound is covered in crimson levant richly decorated. We are often very set in our notions of taste and think are right. In bound mostly in white parchment. taste the very To my handsomest memorial books I ever bound were inlaid for a lady in Boston.46 MODEBN BOOKBINDING. in white vellum with black kid in Etruscan design. Of one hundred dozen morocco that I use ninety is dozen are brown. at Church was astounded for the cover of a my suggestion of crimson volume she had collected as a memorial of her father. in Philadelphia Italy books are red. so prevailing that color. in England royal purple was the favorite tint. and in America of it is brown. but experience often proves we we are wrong. Notice is how almost geographically our taste in color limited. in Boston grey. in Paris in red morocco.
purpose. A great deal of time it spent in covering a volume in levant as should be.II |HE perfect covering of the volume is a very important and difficult branch of the is work. much time can be saved in covering care- excellence of workmanship is an item of cost that must be estimated by the patron. it Preparatory to the covering of the volume the back of has to be lined. but the Maz- arin Bible that we saw here the other evening. was the first I ever I saw on a fif- have always looked on the hollow back as useful for only one teenth or sixteenth century binding. first and It is recorded that hollow backs were used in the eighteenth century. There is much diversity of opinion regarding hollow. backs tight backs. that was said to be in its original binding. Though by a . or spring. and it hence lessly . It certainly had a hollow back. and that ling of is the prevention of the wrink- the leather on the back.
that condition is only . is sufficient to insure both strength is and flexiis This is what called a tight back. and by far the best and most durable.r strength can be given. though Bedford often made his calf bindings with Were tight backs used for our public tight backs. especially where morocco is the leather used. yet I have always looked upon a tight back as more durable. Therefore a muslin lining must be used to give the back strength. For calf binding a hollow back is customary. On the proper lining of the back the durability and depend. Usually a single lining and the leather pieces .48 MODEKN BOOKBINDING properly constructed muslin hollow prope. you will find If little very flexible. but a very use in this state would develop its weakness. Morocco does not show wrinkling. and two though recollect that every additional lining renders the back less flexible. law library I have mentioned possible with hollow backs. libraries none would be seen in the condition of the . its flexibility largely out any lining on it you take a book withback and open it. if the paper of the volume is heavy cover bility.
the top of it? flat Run your thumb and if . is in a very satisfactory condition without any finishing or decoration. Here I will detain you a moment to instruct you how to open it. leather joints. Do the boards open freely close flatly and solidly? Is the joint square. open it. the front board down. In all 49 large volumes. To obtain this. as is is now made. alternately opening back and front. a narrow joint of morocco it should be used inside. then a few at the front. Open the volume violently or care- . and square. Hold the book with let its back on a smooth or covered table . then the other. gently pressing open the sections Do this you reach the center of the volume. Handle and it . of binding will where price permit. when neatly and cleanly covered. and so go on. without any ridges. order narrow A book. even in octavos. holding the leaves in one hand while you open a few leaves at the back. paper. the board evenly on along it. two or three times and you will obtain the till best results.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEKED. so far well and now open the book. not strong enough for the constant working of the board in the joint.
who thought he knew perfectly how to handle books." How it fainted. the back of the volume.DO lessly in MODEEN BOOKBINDING any one place and you will likely break the back and cause a start in the leaves. came into my office when I had an connoisseur expensive binding just brought from the bindery ready to be sent home . Never force the back . I now declare the book in this condition skillfully is bound. an excellent customer of mine. A many years ago. and Having now described the preparing. he who is called upon is to decorate : it. At present the custom the reverse the finisher . He had broken had to be rebound. the forwarding. and he who has of mastered these various processes through which the volume has passed deserves the name binder . and the covering of the volume. and tightly holding the leaves in each hand. instead of allowing free play. he. if it does not yield to gentle opening rely is upon it the back too tightly or strongly lined. before my them eyes. finisher. violently opened it in the center and exclaimed. took hold of the volume. " I almost beautifully your bindings open.
Is it workmen who have bound the book and made it serviceable to our use. only a second-class binder. and credit in his true merit if the workman " you wish if to have pleasure in reading your books. whereas he has done none of the binding. just to ignore the not book binders. the truest forwarder of modern times. and the finishers were goldsmiths. and credit only the decorator? Is it proper to say that Francis is Bedford. who have prepared it accurately. then procure Parisian bind- ing so rigid in the back that you cannot open though decorated exquisitely.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. who have shaped it in perfect trueness and dressed it neatly with a cover of taste and appropriateness. or 51 decorator is credited with being the binder. I do not wish here . strength. because a Parisian can surpass I say no. This is where the critics and connoisseurs err.. are really book decorators. and flexibility. enamellers. The decorators of ancient binding etc. given it solidity. merely like many it wooden blocks to show. him in delicacy of tooling or decoration ? Value true and good forwarding. but you wish to so have them Potiphar " like.
. but simply to demand credit for that branch on which depends the important principles that congood binding solidity. high appreciation which book finishing has and deserves. and the skillful manipulation of leather. flexibility. I do not desire to lessen the to be misunderstood. and that forwarding a long experi- simply a handicraft it is . strength. There is little satisfaction it is stitute in having a book elaboI rately finished if not well forwarded. know full well that finishing is is an art. trueness. but I know by ence that its just a very difficult one and deserving of honors.52 MODEKN BOOKBINDING.
Mr. been the object that has kept alive and advanced art in its decorative forms. Libri asserts that "Ancient figured monu- ments often show personages holding in their hands books of which the covers are ornamented in various In the Christian monuments of the primitive church not only are Jesus Christ and the Evangelstyles. but also other saints are portrayed bearing books bound very similarly to those of the present day. It has also at times.HI |E now come to the finishing of the volume. 63 and much . Finishing is the decoration of the cover." ities of It is an art that has engaged the all abil- the most distinguished artists in ages. when other forms of decora- tion have failed. dif- the sides of which are generally ornamented in ferent ways. ists generally represented with books in their hands. of books has for ages con- The decoration stituted one of the principal branches of ornamental art.
that you may be made acquainted with the practical principles ." Were it required of me to treat the subject of art sense I should feel book decoration in a purely a knowledge of art in myself quite unequal to the task. but I will endeavor to present the subject from a practical standpoint as I have forwarding.54 MODEEN BOOKBINDING work can be found on of the goldsmith's best early the covers of valuable books. coining and making of gold and silver plate. connecting them on one side with the vast continent of merely mechanical arts and on the other side with the far smaller continent of fine arts. and in another the finished side of some richly tooled book is as much a work of art as any picture or drawing. erence to its De Quincey. in refarts. says in regard to this "this is And Mr. printing of books. its I lay no claim to higher sense. Wheatley remark of De Quincey's that true in a double sense: for in one point of view every good binder who tries to work out an idea is an artist. whether the result is plain or ornamental. places connection with the fine bookbinding. on an isthmus.
and later these are found duplicated and multiplied. and hogskin bindings. Many specimens of this style of decoration are seen in old vellum. produced by the slightly warmed. Blind tooling is very suitable for the decoration of old books and is now appropriately called antique.PBACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. Blind tooling the impression of the tools upon the It is leather without gold or color. and by on being often repeated to brighten oldest style of decoration It is the leather. work. The three usual ing. or inlaid. . leather when damped. Libri says that it would not be difficult to prove that these stamps on leather for book covers preceded every other impression on paper of figures engraved on wood or metal. being impressed upon the the same impression its effect. parch- ment. In the earliest the impressions have undoubtedly been made by a single stamp. tools. which constitute the art 55 and be enabled to better appreciate its difficulties. gilt styles of decoration are blind tool- tooling. Mr. is and illuminated. and at first was of the simplest description. though later tiful designs many beau- were used.
though in character as delicate as the finest lace. it Wherever gilt tooling took its rise. and when the tools are delicate. A broad border of Gascon tooling in gold. is beautiful a decoration and now so extensively used that its origin and early history should certainly be investigated Gold tooling produces a rich effect more especially on certain colors. and how durahle can be done. how it decorative to the cover. is marvelously rich . especially established.56 MODERN BOOKBINDING The more usual style of tooling is in gold. All delicate tooling its must be done in gold to obtain proper effect. It exemplifies the design more effectively than blind tooling. such as crimson. first seems in It is so Europe to have been practiced in Italy. purple. This style of decoration is said to origin. have had an Eastern is -credited A great deal in bookbinding it to the East. it and we it is all know how rich looks. and green. like the fine dotted tools of the style of Le Gascon. and would be interesting to have it traced to some foundation whether the dyeing of leather and the introduction of morocco as well as really originated in gilt tooling Arabia and Persia.
The Maioli. for the sake of cheapness. and an exactness are better ob- tained. is to inlay with different colors is. which can be best detected by observing a shiny stickiness on the surface of the leather. In the earliest examples of this style the colors were painted on the leather.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. designs are especially adapted for illumination. a brightness. of morocco or This when well done. in effect. im- pressing the tools in blind prior to gilding. The illuminated likely derived style of decoration was most from the beautiful colored designs mixed with gold of Persian and Arabian MSS. without blinding in. Much inferior work is now done abroad. . and by a ragged finish to the tooling. important to bear in mind that the limit of is book-finishing as a decorative art necessarily very narrow from the arbitrary character of the brass engraved tools the finisher uses to work his designs. then a solidity. the rich- est style of It is book decoration the art has ever reached. which in time will turn gray. but the superior modern method kid. or Italian. 57 The best result of gilt tooling can only be secured by first blinding in the design that is.
In some shops they are very limited. by the aid of straight and curved lines technically called gouges. cil by its being the work of the artist It might be easy for an with his pen- to improve to his taste the designs of the binder.. copy one from the other.58 MODERN BOOKBINDING. the finisher works his various designs. tapestry recollecting work of the needle and of the steel engraving graver. the We judge of . etc. stars. It is right then to judge of the finisher's tools work by the it is limited character of the he has to execute his designs. with which. ro- settes. if it but the latter cannot work the designs with his tools would be useless. a copyright of design is unknown among us. . of upright figures. and even in the We all largest the number affords but little variety. Suffice it for our present scrolls purpose to explain that these tools consist of of various sizes and styles. circles.
CIRCLES. STRAIGHT LINES AND GOUGES.UPRIGHT FIGURES. AND DOTS. SCROLLS. 59 . # # & % * o o O O o o STARS.
There are few connois- who understand the principles of artistic binding. and more delicately than the English and our own engravers. tools It is difficult to get hand cut decently well. or as a study give them more lasting satisfaction.60 MODEKN BOOKBINDING The quality of his work depends largely also is on the fineness of these engraved tools. the engraving of plates for common work paying our engravers so much better. and this small reason lish no why the Parisians excel both the Eng- and ourselves. they certainly could not bestow their taste on anything that would do them more credit. Wheatley that it hopeless to expect the art to revive until means are taken to raise the standard of appreciation in which binding seurs is held." I myin self have been astonished that so few women to admire a America I know none are encouragers of the art. It is " has been well stated by Mr. and many men and women who would be ashamed bad picture will admire a cheaply bound book by inferior workmen. their engravers cutting deeper. That you may . smoother.
it. but the impression plied multi- on hundreds and thousands of books and the quality and value that an engraving Its value is has much has to an original drawing. to the But first-class hand-tooling has the merit of having been designed and executed for your especial book. blocking. In the decoration of modern binding there are two distinctive processes : the one called stamping or Stamping is done with an entire engraved plate and stamped upon the cover by one impression of the press. The design is seldom exactly duplicated the tooling is more delicate. The appearance practiced eye. hand-finishing. though in comparison it was traced upon the cover. workmanship blocky and coarse. because the nothing. of is numbers possess also. be better qualified to judge I will describe the ence between the decoration of class 61 differfirst- common and work. . which stamped work cannot imitate. and has a freeness and charm.PEACTICALLY CONSIDERED. the other The design may be just as beautiful as that of a is hand-tooled binding. as .
after washing. design is sizing. then the paper is removed.62 MODEBN BOOKBINDING The process of working a design in the best is man- ner on morocco very tedious. see your work in effort still progress. repeated on the other side of the volume. of the mark well the careful and patient . and the back also tooled. workman to develop his design better . then. more so than even First. to produce rare and hence valuable book Go to the finishing room often . lishers for their editions. the design is connoisseurs imagine. and the hand labor decoration. Better work till than we are now doing will never be done discriminate the book-buyers can between the cheap encouraged by pubartistic effort of work of the stamping press. made on paper. will afford some idea of the labor in executing the finest hand-tooling. and laying on the gold leaf. and the design again gone over with the tools to make the impression sharp and clear. then impressed with the tools through the paper on to the leather . the gone over for the fourth time before one This having to be side of the cover is completed.
But be careful and not get. sir." the workman replied. and the finisher had a quantity of them laid over with gold-leaf previous to tooling .PEACTICALLY CONSIDERED." "In what way?" asked the doctor. . the one practical. horrified at the sight of his books. Excuse me. is largely ideal. such a reproof as old Dr. also and designs of his a right judgment of appropriateness and in . "that fools and children " ! should never see their work half done The qualifications required to make a first-class finisher are of a higher order of merit than that of the forwarder. who turned upon him and said. and have some styles knowledge of the standard art. "I was about to " say. if 63 you can discern the difficulties he encounters in harshness or greasiness of leather. but I was about to be hasty. made some annoying expression of "gingerbread appearance" to the workman. the other artistic taste He must a be possessed of and be somewhat of draughtsman. Vinton received. He had ventured in to see his books in progress. the doctor. by any thoughtless remark to the workman. and you will then appreciate more highly a good piece of work.
where the art flourishes most. I workmen have superior advan- doubt if the number of finishers qualified to . and it is only by chance that the trade possesses the few it has. and in Paris. qualifications. and the tages. To excel he will need great patience and to have a perfect love of his art.64 MODEBN BOOKBINDING mind he must have addition to these gifts of the the more practical ability to work his designs on and brightness. taste. where the patronage is encouraging. and I do not believe there are more than six in New York fair is who can even work any intricate pattern with ability. When a youth has the art he usually seeks employment of a higher grade than bookbinding. an admiration for what all leathers with accuracy. he does akin to that of the painter and those who occupy the succeed if higher is field of art : he will never he a mere bread-and-butter workman. In London I question if the number greater in proportion to the population. and ability to design is very rare among finishers. solidity. These are no mean and they are very rarely to be found in the youth that offers himself to the bookbinding trade. The ability.
and quite within the ability of the trade. that you may properly appreciate first-class work when you see it.PRACTICALLY CONSIDERED. work intricate designs in first-class 65 manner exceeds worthy of consideration. we so much them admire otherwise they would have worked with greater precision. But quite likely that some of the seven- teenth century and later styles were the designs of the working finishers of the time. and understand more fully the difficulties twenty. is This fact of the art. because these designs are mostly a combination of tools. It is very certain in my mind that none of the working turies finishers of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- designed any of the examples . . satisfied in No artist would have been so inaccurately exemplifying his it is own design.
but. It will certainly if help to a solution of the question the leading features or characteristics of the several styles are better understood. Dread- have been made in this way. as he often studies convenience rather than appropriateness. the result is often a disappointment to the customer. recognize the great importance of stating briefly a few points that will help to satisfactory % conclusions. hence. and ornaments selected quite inappropriful mistakes ate to the subject or date of the publication. Literal copies of old designs have been used for modern literature. I. I hold that a study of the several styles of design hitherto used in the decoration of bindings through the centuries should be made both be a great by collector and binder. present the style of decoration usually left to the binder. How is we At them ? is an equally im- portant one. 66 . therefore.IV |OW shall we bind our books ? decorate is a common question with shall our collectors.
G7 by . The ornaments used by Aldus and other Italian printers early were of solid face. and for this reason it has retained favor with printers even to our time. without any shading whatever. The binder's Aldine ornaments are copies in shape and design from the early printers. when . They undoubtedly it preferred this solid ornament because color gave strong and richness to the page. and have the same especial feature of solid face hence. worked brightly in gold on leather. no style of ornament he uses presents a stronger or richer effect. Arabic in shape.THE ALDINE. The ornaments were generally used by the early printers independent of gouges or curved lines.
68 MODEEN BOOKBINDING. but less formal designs have been made in flowing scrolls with the same style of ornament. In the binder's pubgenerally a a repetition of the same effective lished examples of this style the composition of the design circles is diamond and square. and the binder he mixes any shaded ornament with . design is This style of most appropriate for early printed books. will err in giving its true character if it. ornament forming very borders and bands. with semiin double outline intersected and the orna- ments displayed in the corners and centers.
Thomas Maioli. OB ITALIAN. The published examples of the Maioli and Grolier designs their respective libraries often render 69 it difficult .THE MAIOLI. lived in Italy during the first half of the sixteenth century. He must have been. for on his return to France I think he took several Italian workmen with him. every art student will admit that the Maioli designs show from greater artistic merit than the Grolier. from whom this style takes its name. a most liberal patron of binders. with a similar love of made his acquaintance while French ambas- sador to Italy. from the richness of the decoration of his books. books. and quickly recognized the great superiority of his bindings. Ghrolier.
Also. on his return to France imitated the Italian style. because many of the examples published from the Grolier library are of the same type of design as the Maioli. and. He must remember that bindings with the Maioli motto are clearly and only Italian. as Maioh pre- ceded Grolier. these facts in mind. I think these facts are neces- sary to remember. The example is I have and a design of flowing scroll-work graceful in every curve. will bear in mind that Grolier during his twenty years' residence in Italy was dependent on Italian workmanship. he will be the bet- ter able to distinguish the French-Grolier from the Maioli-Italian. selected is clearly Maioli's. to determine the respective styles. doubtless. there is not a defective curve in the design. we will be able to notice more precisely a distinction in style. whereas those with the Grolier motto are both Italian and French. style we must credit the former with the Bearing of design his bindings exemplify. The framework is less the character of the . interlacing freely with the framework as though traced with a master hand : in fact. however.70 MODEEN BOOKBINDING If the student.
whereas in the Grolier examples of positive French type the geometrical interlaced framework is more the design than the where scroll-work. a framework of flowing curved lines more than of figures of geometrical shape. is Wherever it this latter feature seen in book design I think should be credited to the Italian. mostly in outline. I claim. . and an enrichment of part of the field with a of studding of gold dots. 71 design than the scroll-work. The principal features of a Maioli de- sign. sometimes azured. are a perfect curve in scroll-work it is used.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEBED. ornaments Moresque character.
after his return from twenty years' residence in Italy. and he so generously encouraged it that Paris and Lyons soon became the rivals of Venice in the return As we have stated that on his he took Italian workmen with him. and in the placing of the orna7-2 . The difference is in the geometrical composition of the interlaced frame- work by straight lines and semicircles.THE GEOLIEK. Jean Grolier. instead of flowing curved lines. the style he promoted bear some of the features of his contemporary consists in a and friend Maioli. so does art. The similarity framework and the use of the same Moresque-shaped ornaments. became the founder of fine book- binding in France.
of execution A Grolier design is simpler and i easier by the binder than a Maioli. and a skeleton form of scroll-work with Moresque-shaped ornaments. 10 . Modern examples of the Grolier style are rendered more beautiful by the introduction of perfect scroll-work and Renaissance instead of Moresque ornaments. Therefore.MODEEN BOOKBINDING. merits in spaces 73 and carrying the gouge lines to meet them without due regard to perfect curve. are the features of a Grolier design of the French type. a geometrical framework.
74 . Under the patronage Clovis five so of De Thou. the surrounding of the compartments with original. the Grolier type of design that they are justly entitled to the credit of originating a The geometrical layout and branches of laurel of their designs is perfect. scrolls and the covering of the entire field of the is cover with delicate tooling ness in book decoration. Nicholas and much improved on new style. scrolls the perfection of richgraceful They adopted and small floral figures in place of the Mo- resque characters of Grolier's time which were so entirely superseded that they are seldom used in book ornamentation but to exemplify the Grolier The quantity of compartments in the comstyle.THE EYE STYLE.
and no richer can be chosen. ticed at the The style was prac- end of the sixteenth and beginning of It is quite appropriate the seventeenth centuries. with their beautiful variety of shape. and the laurel-branch decoration which sur- rounds them. are the distinguishing features of this style. I know of no feature of book decoration that has received more favor than the laurel-branch as introduced by Nicholas Eve. . 75 position of the design.MODERN BOOKBINDING. to modern books.
Le Gascon made a novel change in scroll ornaments used for filling in the compartments by making the face of them fine dots instead of solid line. until now they had reached the extreme point of delicateness. This is a style which can never be mistaken. 76 . it In addition to gave great delicacy to the treatment of book decoration. ments had gradually been getting finer. Using a similar framework to the Eves. From the time of Aldus the ornanovelty.LE GASCON.
but. richer on crushed levant. In the latter part 77 of Ms career.MODEBN BOOKBINDING. the " Le Grascon. to which this Grascon style of doubt that the workman who introduced this style. this style of delicate ornament is worked in borders doned even the solid-line it gives the effect of lace and is called a lace or den- telle border in my opinion constituting the best use ornament can be put. nevertheless. Some in a delicate sense. and who was attached to Clovis Eve's house. Le Grascon aban- framework and made up When his designs by the dotted ornaments alone. was named Le Grascon." the style will ever remain name of . When worked by an accurate finisher no tooling is.
Yan- dyke in design. solid face. with a more graver. 78 . The style is simple but rich in effect.DEBOME. though lightly shaded by the which I think is prop- erly designated the Renaissance style of ornament. and cones in the terminations. It is best exemplified by Derome in borders. and is within the talent of any good finisher. and the solid character of the tools suited for grained morocco. It is useful and appropriate for large illustrated works. style is is well The English Harleian somewhat the latter though the ornaments of are more formal and are varied with acorns similar. About a century style of later than Le Gascon's time the decoration had changed into scrolls of a leafy character.
In the latter half of the eighteenth century Roger life Payne lived and devoted a poverty-stricken love and practice of the art of bookbinding. which are said to have been designed and engraved by himself. stiff and formal His designs show little variety and are limited in scope. but are rendered rich in effect by studding the field 79 with gold dots. in himself both binder to a He was and finisher. are original form and easily identified. They are free and flowing in stem and flower. The ornamental in tools he used. carefully selectits ing his material with regard to appropriateness.ROGER PAYNE. His . never like the Harleian. and adopting a style of decoration strikingly his own.
however. were always original. MODEKN BOOKBINDING. It is very appropriate on straight-grained morocco. So low were his prices.80 efforts. no wonder he died in povbill erty and was buried at a namesake's cost. No artist could study his subject more faithfully than Eoger Payne did the binding intrusted to him. and no workman ever rendered his with greater conscientiousness. which in his day was the leather in vogue displaying taste . never copied it . . and I believe was this. He deserves great credit for originating a style and and pains in the execution of his work. that has begot him favorable mention wherever bookbinding is named. rather than excellence in the composition of his designs. much but to me his style seems suitable for decorating books in the English language only.
INSIDE.ROGER PAYNE. .
It permits decoration on the inside of the cover. It is. to the decoration of the altar. substantial binding. who were advocates and opposed binding it is of Jansenius. It is exceedingly suitable to a large class of literature that. though worthy of good. because dependent for its beauty on the is polished surface which this leather capable of tak- ing in the process of crushing.JANSENISTE. Though exemplifying styles of decoration. but demands absolute plainness on the outside. Bishop of of plainness in worship. it may its be proper to describe a style which depends for popularity on an absence of decoration. In book- characterized by entire absence of line or ornament. priate to decoration. however. only appropriate for levant it is morocco. 11 81 is not appro- . It takes its name from the followers Ypres.
They are far too limits of briefly and inadequately described. solidity. Appropriateness of design. I would discourage the copying by binders of the examples of the originals. while they are fully capable of originating a new decorative treatment. The first principle is a much neglected one. Second. and brightness of work- manship. The French are multiplying copies of them very rapidly. the proper leather and or uncut. The principles to be observed in finishing are : First. but rather advise variations of them. edges cut or plain . gilt its suitable color. Accuracy.82 MODEEN BOOKBINDING These are the principal styles from which finishers draw their inspiration of design. and of books a from the great variety of the subjects very difficult one to strictly carry out. But honest efforts at appropriateness in binding can generally be made by determining the style of binding best suited to the use to which the book is to be put. but the a lecture will not permit of greater amplification. but more especially will the .
Better keep the volume as comes from it tool- the coverer. Surely the aim and purall pose of decoration this. tain err dreadfully in this particular a cer- amount of gilt tooling they think necessary. can only be done by appropriate ornament. O6 mark the appro- The style of tooling should be of the period of the book's publication. I is to render the article more beautiful. Appropriate decoration. or some- what in the character of the subject treated. and repeat. it does not. and often . good binders. also finished plain or elaborate according to value or these simple efforts binder. however. and this they often put on without any regard to the character of the volume. quantity and style of the decoration priateness of the binding. of the highest it importance. nude of ornament.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. at When appropriateness are made by the is not far wrong even in an art sense. True decoration renit ders the binding be attempted if more beautiful. It is very easy for writers on the subject to lay . Our has no right to binders. than gild upon ing which is inappropriate. he is rarity of the volume.
at times to help make your design more appropriate. In this room there a very beautiful design of .$4 MODEBN BOOKBINDING the down ABC rule of "birds and insects for books on natural history. and though the it bird indicated the subject would not the author an equally important point. An ardent lover of his books will indications as easily as he identify them by other is will the features of a familiar friend. so that the book may be recognized at a glance". Then flowers are appropriate for more than books on botany. as he advances this theory in . use flowers and birds. but correct as this rule may appear it would be a very extent. flowers for those on botany and the like. I suppose to make the design more appropriate and help its identification. Zaehnsdorf 's for a copy of L'Ombrelle it has a large representation of a parasol in the center. subserviently however. No. foolish one to follow to any great many In a large library there would be a great books decorated with birds. and so on. You might take a Yarrell for a Morris. but not so prominently that at you will recognize your volumes a glance.
and whichever is is fits the space required. be more appropriate and better in character with the artist. that finisher. the Harleian. styles In too many binderies the of tools are indiscriminately mixed the Aldine. selected and used by the general justly This what is complained should have his tools strictly Every finisher sorted. his decoration the style of tools best suited to the period of his book. illustrations of the have said I think appropriateness in the decoration of books depends much on the character I of the tools selected. The second principle involved in fine finishing is It the masterly execution of the tooling. to me. 85 an objection to an otherwise beautiful design (perhaps it was so done to satbut had there been isfy an idea of his customer) it is . his treatise.PEACTICALLT CONSIDEBED. or the make the design appropriate with carelessly selected tools. flower will not The bird. the Grolier. and select for of. To me two or three small parasols picturesquely interwoven in the tooling it would. the insect. this our earlier craftsmen failed was in their tooling is . and the Renais- sance.
in order prices. The first- workman who class fails in this fails in producing a specimen of work.86 MODEKN BOOKBINDING Some of the tools are burnt in very inexact. while others are faint and on the surface. careful result is dull workman. to meet lower have been lately doing the same thing tooling elaborate designs in a damp The state without blinding in. But meet modern requirements the impression of the tools. and inexact work. must be as equal as though join made by one strict impression. and no binder can long exist . recollect Customers and fact binders alike must this the best tooling cannot be done without the necessary cost of expensive labor. thus gaining a great ad- vantage over the honest. this result of the toohng is so unequal in impression and so inexact in exe- cution that the value this will not is simply in the design. the impressions deep into the leather. and every made 'with accuracy and trueness. however numerous. have no doubt the tooling on early binding was done while the leather was damp. . for easier workI ing. Some of the foreign binders to-day.
solidly. brightly. Each is put down separately. expect to pay for the best manner of doing Grold and silver is appreciated by a sterling mark. and exactly . border beauty. if and without blinding and the customer requires the best work he must it. equal in width of space. rately line Take a dentelle border : if accu- worked the point of each tool will be directly in with the corresponding one opposite. in. without being paid for that outlay. and should be in line one with the other. is not an easy matter to tool accurately. No design depends more upon accuracy than a dentelle or lace . that should be particularly borne in second-class 87 Another fact mind is that work is no great prize to possess and I speak in the interest of all: has no special value.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED. the finisher cannot work clearly his designs accurately. . I wish that first-class workmanship had to stand the same test It tool and pass the same ordeal. mitred the join of the scrolls and the gouges must be unobserved. tool it inaccurately and you destroy : its Take a Grolier design the intersected lines must be straight.
This is and perfect workjustly claimed as one of Trautz's skilled ." as the finishers term it and they justly hold ship as a proof of inferior as workmanfault. Had he got his finish- . solidity There was not an intricate of the specimens. where I handled a dozen specimens. I believe the only fault of Bedford's work was the of his books lack of a first-class finisher. Turner's library. Turner informed me that Trautz excused himself for that by pleading lack of time.MODEBN BOOKBINDING Solid tooling shows the man. but his tooled sides are not accurate and are far from being as bright and clean as they should be. nent " . it certainly is one of superior" The it is faint impression of a tool is not permait. burnt-in tooling is an unpardonable Brightness of tooling It the perfection of solid work. The work that I saw of Trautz's in Mr. or superior design on any Mr. superior qualifications merit. are all tooled The backs and lettered well. London. was chiefly remarkable for these two qualities. and brightness. half out. depends on the temperate heat of the tool and the proper dryness of the leather.
It is a common the it. however. Lewis. then the art has reason to be proud of the advance it has made in the last workmanship in the art half-century and of cellence. its present high standard of exof The workmanship Hayday and Bedford in all the principles of good binding is superior to that of Roger Payne. His misfortune was that he was not a finisher himself. but ability both in forwarding and finishing is to be the gauge. and Be Thou's time if is to be the proof. also carelessly untrue in the squares. 89 ing done as well as his forwarding he would have been the best binder of his day. and the excellent tooling of Cape and Trautz excels in perfec- tion of finish And 12 any of the work of their predecessors. practice to speak of the decadence is of art. or the origin of the beautiful designs in droller.PBACTICALLT CONSIDEBED. in modern times we are not quite so deficient . advanced to prove If the costly display in the goldsmith's art in early times is to be cited. or Mackenzie. then of it is reasonable. Maioli. The for- warding of the Paris binders is far from perfect excessively round in the back and very rigid. very little.
some writers on the sub- in originality of design as ject would have us believe.90 MODEBN BOOKBINDING. . the oval. which served enamels they for the inlaid. We may not have surpassed in beauty of conception the old designs. not. But in whatever way these fifteenth and sixteenth century designs slight the fact that they were originated we must not are the foundation of the best examples of book dec- oration and nowhere are they so well and delicately worked as in Paris. framework of the jewels and From these I believe the in- tersected designs were -conceived. Even you can the designs of Grolier and Maioli were conception . strictly speaking. original in trace their origin of the goldsmith's art from examples of the tenth and twelfth cenand the circular figures turies: the square. but a few creditable styles have been originated and practiced in my time.
In regard to the advance made in extra binding within the last forty years America has no need to
If a collection of the best
her binders' work could be collected a higher
mate would be formed of
loath to speak of the part I have taken to advance its
progress, but as
has been the labor of forty years
I hope I
be pardoned for doing
desire to do so for
to do first-class
work has been
name of my adopted country; second, that I may make honorable mention of an able workman, now no more, who for
a jealous love for the good
I allude to
In 1851 1
very keenly that in the Exhibition of
that year in England there
American bookbinding, and in 1852, when
announced that an Exhibition would be held in
in 1853, I resolved to
and limited means would permit for of American Bookbinding.
In that exhibit were specimens of library binding in calf, morocco, and russia; dictionaries with flexible
backs; iUuminated printed books in white vellum
and as a
chief attraction of effort this
Alhambra by Jules Groury and Owen Jones,
which by the kindness of Theodore Irwin, Esq.,
present owner, I
permitted to show you.
in yellowish-brown russia, inlaid with blue
and red morocco, constituting the three primitive colors, yellow, blue, and red, the colors so generally
used by the Moors in the decoration of that wonderful palace.
for its decoration is in beau-
keeping with the illustrations in the book, but without being a copy of any one of them. It was
designed and worked by
took him six
not an engraved ornament used in the decoration
simply curved and straight
being to exhibit what the binder alone could
do without the aid of engraver, goldsmith, or the like. Though a large folio, measuring 23^4x16^ and
nearly three inches thick, no thread was used to
cemented and bound together with india rubber, enabling the book to he open with perfect freedom
Contrary to the usual result of rub-
ber binding, though this heavy volume has been
used for thirty-four years, every leaf
as firmly of
exhibited in 1853.
the outside and inside border should silence the
remark that " no binder has done
and when we, together with the
examine the exactness of the workmanship, we should be proud that such was done in America.
This exhibit, in competition with Niedree of Paris
and English and Scotch binders, was awarded the silver medal, the highest award given. Another and
binding I exhibit for the ex-
cellence of the design
and the perfect accuracy of
another example of Frederick
this nineteenth century strides. Esq. The is center of this figure inlaid with crimson. H. and yet it is very The frame of the design is inlaid with blue ornate. Appleton. Testament published Co. is freely and gracefully twined The four compartments each contain a symbolic figure more suggestive than obtrusive. and presented by New The finisher gives another example in this design of how he can . a copy of that richly illustrated edition of the by Longmans & them to Win. and the scroll-work through it. traced a cross with glory rays radiating from affords another proof of priate The design appro- how unobtrusively an symbol can be introduced. on the crimson center is delicately it.94 MODERN BOOKBINDING The volume is Gilson's work. dec- orate without the aid of the engraver there is not an engraved tool in the design. During bookbinding has made rapid is not only as a manufacture. which evident in a marvelous degree. while the it four crown-shaped figures surrounding are inlaid with blue . but in the beau- tifying of thousands of private libraries with choice specimens of beautiful bindings. of London. giving to their possessors every time they handle them finer feelings .
. EDITION. LONGMANS' OUTSIDE DESIGN.NEW TESTAMENT.
In England. call themselves cultured and with fine art taste who cannot take from their shelves some few specimens of first-class modern extra binding. But travel and wealth have quickened a desire for rare books and costly bindings. a Trautz. and par- because of the number of small each one priding himself on the posses- sion of a Cape. they are awakening to a sense of the secondary position they hold in the practice of the art and by lectures and publications are endeavoring to encourage their binders to exercise their well-known lence. and given birth to a body of collectors through- out the States that I venture to predict will make . Petit. Paris leads in the cultivation of this ticularly so. or of the living artists Lortic and also. it is said. a Niedree. art. and sweeter ecstasy of pleasure than 95 many more I pity those who costly objects of art they possess. except what by chance had been procured abroad. Fine binding was an unknown art. collectors. to be found in any collection in America. abilities to a higher standard of excel- And now what are we ^Wnericans doing? Fifty years ago there was not a finely bound book.PEACTICALLY CONSIDEEED.
to encourage us with fair liberality while try to reach yes. or he would not write so disparagingly of us. America possess in another twenty-five years as rare books and fine bindings as can be found in Europe. even excel our European brethren. Smalley has any idea of. and Bedford under that of liberal Ameri- can collectors. we need poor to do as often as possible what we have in a way attempted to-night. I therefore plead with you to bestow your patronage at home instead of abroad. And now. exemplifying among craft. ourselves the true principles of bookbinding and book decoration. As to what American binders have done I assert that there are many examples of humbly American workmanship in our collections that would do honor to the best French and English binders of the last There are better examples of first-class finishing here than Mr. on more behalf of my we I ask the collectors to have faith in our ability. . fostering and educating native workmen to an excellence they can never otherwise attain. Trautz did his best work under the patronage of a Rothschild.96 MODERN BOOKBINDING. Certainly half -century.
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