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Marshall's Practical Manuals,
intended for those who take up the Art and designed to give sufficient
enable handy persons
ILLUSTRATED WITH -DRICIXJL PHOTOGRAPHS
WD DRAW IX OS
PERCIVAL MARSHALL &
CO. POPPINS COURT, FLEET STREET, E.C.
— — — — — — — — — II Collating— Signatures Guards and guarding Cutting and pasting the guards Single and double guards Throwing out maps. — : — — — — — — — — Chapter XI (Miscellaneous) Paste— Glue— Repairing —Grease marks— Sizing. Sewing Ordinary. — of book edges — — — — Plain edges—Scraping.CONTENTS. etc. French joint. — — — — — — — Chapter III. LIBRARY SCHOOL — Chapter Sizes of printing paper Folding printed sheets Sections Books or periodicals in parts Technical names of the various parts of a book Wire staples Forwarding tools Separating the sections Knocking up The standing press Pressing. glasspapering. Cutting the edges Cutting in-boards The plough Fixing book in the lying press for cutting Cutting boards Cutting out-of-boards — — — — — corners. u \ \\. linen and vellumCovering bound books Hollow backs Flexible tight backs Covering for wholebinding-i^aring leather Setting the bands Formation of the head cap Mitreing tfcie carriers Fitting «ii>at pa$ielj — — — — — — — — — Chapter IX (^inishiKg^In^rocItction) Chapter X* XFtin&xJfyZ) * f • . — — — — Chapter VI Rounded . on tapes or vellum The sewing press Marking up The kettle stitch Sawing in Setting up the lay cords — — — — Remedy for swollen back. and precautions to be taken. two methods of preparing the same Uncut books Trimming. Chapter VII Treatment edges Sprinkled edges Plain colouring Colours marbling Burnishing Headbanding Capping. torn leaves — Washing and cleaning — Stains . — — Marbling—Transfer — gilt Chapter VIII Whole-binding Half-binding Cloth. — the book Chapter V — — — — Attaching the boards to the book Sizes of millboards Squaring and testing the boards Lining and piercing the boards Unravelling and scraping the lay cords Lacing in Pressing tins and boards Fixing book in the standing press Tape and vellum-sewn books Joints. — — — — Finishing a Morocco bound book Paste water Vinegar Washing the cover Method of impressing designs in blind Heating finishing Lettering Decorating the back Lettering pieces Gold tooling tools Glaire Blind tooling Pasting down open Pasting down shut. Various styles of binding End papers. m . the lying press — Rounding—Backing— Backing boards — Fixing —Good and bad workmanship hi backing. — — — Chapter IV Glueing up . flexible on raised bands. cloth. linen or leather. Chapter I.
PRE FAC E. but I has been arranged in such a form as to be easily understood by those who favour me with a perusal of the following pages. I feel confident that beginners will only carefully read through these follow pages the methods given. handling a well-bound book. As a lover of good binding. good reader. ties whose many and failures I have gone through. the practice of the Art of Bookbinding will no doubt be a fascinating study for you. Originality is not claimed for the matter herein trust that it contained. Probably a thrill you. combining 265262 . With this knowledge and with the practical experience derived from if many and years of teaching. I venture to hope that this small volume may be serviceable and of practical assistance to you. to present The aim throughout the book has been the instructions in such a way as to make them difficul- of special service to beginners. have often experienced of pleasant satisfaction If on taking up and so.
practical as instruction can be obtained. I also To more advanced workers the hints trust that many may prove of use. they will be able to steer through the shoals of difficulties which in the Art of Bookbinding. privileges those who debarred from and assistance of such practical classes. by a of skilled worker.VI PREFACE. more the particularly. With the advancement of technical education. with the idea are helping. life that the various photographs from intricate of the many the of manipulations have been taken. although in craft it is work much can be taught through books. many art and craft classes will have been started. are to be skilful met with. when the pupil has an opportunity of seeing the different processes executed It is. advisable always perfect that those who join are anxious to themselves should a class I where this. therefore. urge many cleared apparently insurmountable difficulties are away. and which must be cleared before workmanship can be attained. of The City and Guilds London Institute has given . the same with continual practice. and probably others until every be opened throughout the country. of obtaining practical instruction in the different for all must admit that. village is town and provided with the means crafts . as in other crafts.
and should find a place on the shelves of every lover of books. VII much help towards advancing of the Art public of Book- binding.PREFACE." by Douglas Cockerel are recommended both works being of the most practical value to any one studying this craft. Bookbinding and the Books. classes is Under the been Institute's patronage many have given arranged. wherein an opportunity to the students of becoming not only . and from a If. then. They are without doubt the best books on this subject at present on the market. for those by the institution examinations who desire to follow this branch of work. become possessed of well-bound books. In conclusion. but also to those who intend following bookbinding with the object of obtaining pleasure desire to from their work. of Zaehnsdorf." information " The Art and " by Joseph Care W. by means of this small book more workers may . I would remind the reader that these pages have been written with the intention of appealing not only to those who are intending to pursue this craft for financial gain. but artists in their profession the and in this respect work done by the County Councils must also not be forgotten. To those who wish : for more extended and detailed of Bookbinding. skilful binders.
W.V011. revising J. teacher of bookbinding to the Middlesex County Council. PREFACE. beg to tender my William Bonner Pearce. Lucking. for the assistance. my I efforts will not have been in vain. . London. and without whose help been written. this book would not have To Mr. Bedford Park. for his kindness and help in sheets. she has rendered in the preparation of the subject matter. Livsey. I and correcting the proof sincere thanks. A. desire to place on record my indebtedness to Miss B. be induced to join the ranks of true craftsmanship.
. . Books leave the hands of the printer in the form of sheets. according to their measurement in English inches. . the following may be mentioned sizes. which are interspersed with blank spaces of paper for the margins. These afterwards form the pages.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Sheets of paper for printing are made in various and are known by technical terms. measuring in inches Demy . . Medium. Preliminary Operations. . Royal Super Royal Imperial 19J X 15 22J X iyi 24 x 19 25 x 20 27J X 20J 30 x 22 Double Foolscap Double Crown Sheet and Half Post Double Post Double Demy Double Royal . the text of the book and the illustrations being arranged in masses. Among the many which were. CHAPTER I. . . . x X 23J x 3*i x 35 X 40 x 27 17 30 20 19! 19I 22 254 . or are. : Post . made. .
sexto- i6mo.. we will assume that a sheet of demy paper. by 17 J ins. As will be seen from a reference to the foregoing list of printing . when in book form and cut. leaves to the section. of arranged for by the printer when spacing etc. each sheet will form one section of the book.e. Folio —the sheet —the is folded once. This will be termed demy folio. books vary in size according to the paper used but the course. Sextodecimo — the sheet is folded making sixteen leaves to the section. This. If the sheet were folded twice it would be n .e. and will thus produce a section consisting of two leaves. Quarto sheet is folded twice.. into the aforementioned masses. making two leaves making four making eight four times. first The in process which the binder is is called upon to perform folding. The three as latter expressions are usually abbreviated . i.. four pages. folding the printed sheets such a manner that when the edges are cut. i. measuring 22 \ ins. follow : decimo = —Quarto = 4to octavo = 8vo .t6: PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. are The following technical expressions used to denote the number of leaves into which the sheet has been folded. out the text. by 17 ins. leaves to the section.. and measuring approximately. In order to explain more clearly this folding. has been folded once. Octavo —the sheet is folded three times. ins. size of the book is again regulated by the numis ber of times the particular sheet is folded. to the section. papers.
binding. it is usual to arrange more sheets to form the section. a book that. The upper part of the sheet should be turned over towards the worker. in all stand over each folding is to The method usually adopted place the flat sheet upon a to fold it board or table. sheet copies for one book only. Thus. or the Folding is not a difficult operation. or eight pages and so on. and folded once. and vigilance must be exercised in order to keep each page in register. in sheets. or publisher. vice it versa.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. the first . and the joint should be creased or flattened with either a bone folder or a flat strip of wood. This placing one within the other after folding. advisable to hold up the sheet to the light in order to ascertain whether the headlines and printed matter are actually in register on each of the pages. and towards the worker. will other quite vertically. but it must be done with care. is Before creasing flattening too much. right This will then be a or folio. or with some periodical In re-binding or book which has been issued in parts. II demy quarto. the worker should fold over from to left. we suggest sheets. instead of procuring freshly-printed attempt at binding should be made with a book that requires re. If it is to be folded or again into quarto. edges of the printed matter. if the sheet be folded but if in folio twice or more it becomes a section . leaves. so that when the book has been collated the headlines (if any). and a section would consist of four . for is two or done by diffi- Probably the beginner may experience some culty in obtaining from the printer. as generally they do not care to supply Therefore.
It may be convenient here to explain the following technical expressions used to denote parts of the book. explained hereafter. After stripping off the outside cover. wide. and the total thickness should not be more than 1 in. In order to prevent disappointment and to ensure success. it is advisable for beginners to make their early attempts at binding upon a small rather than size a large book. and are merely protected by a paper cover. in binding. In any case it is almost certain that a coating of glue has been put on the back. Tail— the bottom of the sections. these sheets into to. Thought and care must be exercised in order not to damage the leaves or to cut the sections. it must either be included in the book or cut two parts. The novice publications advised to note that in is many modern there a tendency among publishers to so arrange the advertisements on the sheets that. For this purpose the should not exceed 7 J ins. long.12 it PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. will be necessary to carefully remove the back or and to cut and pull out the old sewing thread. If the latter method be resorted is necessary. to guard the divided sheets in the way described in the next chapter. and this. or where lettered in after covering. The latter are usually published unsewn. of course. name book is Head —the top of the sections. must be removed in the manner cover. Back the —the outside of of the the folded section. . remove any pages of advertisements that are printed on separate sheets from the leaves of the is book itself. 5 ins.
13 Fig. 3- .PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 1. Fig. Fig.
When both ends of the wire are opened.) Of course. it is possible that the sections may also be held together by wire staples.14 Fore-edge PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. — the front edge of the sections parallel with the back. (Fig. as. in the way depicted in Fig. Sides — the parts where the boards are placed : the front being called the obverse side. the broken pieces of wire are very apt to cause a rent in the pages. It will be found that these staples have been driven right through the pages near to the back . A small piece of flat is metal is useful to form a rest for the tool. above the level of the paper. It is therefore necessary to separate the parts very carefully. An ordinary knife of the staple in a similar will serve to separate the sections. 2. when afterwards pulling the sections apart. Occasionally through rust or other causes. in order that the pages may and be damaged as little : as possible. This operation is accomplished much in the same manner as one would raise a tack which had been driven into some hard substance. and the under In addition to a coating of glue having been given to the back of periodicals. turn to the outside and lever up the middle little After it is raised a way. . them up by using an ordinary bradawl or — small screwdriver. the staples should be carefully removed. when one levering open the ends of the wire (see Fig. i). the wire will break up. it is easily pulled out with small pliers. 3. and before attempting to pull the sections apart. Proceed in the following lift method Find the ends of the wire. one must be careful not to cut the paper. side the reverse.
Every particle of old glue must be removed. M. are now ready for hammering. shown in Fig.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Hammering sections is out the old groove : formed in the managed as follows The knocking-down iron. 5. and then allowed to drop by their own weight upon some hard and flat surface. place upon the iron a sheet of paper. 15 The glue on the back does not usually prevent the easy This old and useless glue may be picked off with the fingers or scraped away with a knife. The former method is to be preferred. Fig. as in Fig. is placed in position (usually on the top of the lying press). which is done to flatten all will out the old groove. The sections are held between the hands. as there is less possibility of damaging either the back or the sides of the sections. To keep the sections clean. and also to ensure that lie close together when placed in correct position. A few and knocked up at the head and back. The sections division of the sections. This is done alternately at — of the sections are taken . where it may rest upon a firm and solid foundation. 4. 4.
Sewing needle C. . the head and the back. Backing hammer E. . Another sheet of paper laid on the top will prevent the hammer from bruising or damaging the surfaces. German paring knife H. a pair of trindles.i(> PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. . A few more of the sections are taken level. The blows dealt by the hammer must be of such a character that the sections will not be cut or bruised. and treated similarly until all are done. . The whole are then beaten along the back edge with the backing hammer. B. . 6 makes this operation quite clear. shown in Fig. . 5. . . Spring dividers P. . D. Bodkin K. Fig. until both edges are quite These sections are then placed upon the knocking-down iron. . 5. knocking down iron N. bone folder compasses D. ' . Bookbinder's knife G. wing A. A key L. Band nippers F. French paring knife M. To obviate this. — . Fig. .
bring 17 quite flat down the hammer and allow it it to rest for a fraction of time before raising- for the next blow. 6. If The sections will then be ready for pressing. after lifting. A pounding blow. would be delivered when cracking up any hard substance. Place a —To do this flat proceed as follows : pressing board on the bench and on 2 . and the sections need pressing only this being sufficient to flatten them and cause them to lie close together. as blows of this kind made upon paper would certainly bruise and cut it through. the book should be in sheets which have been folded by the worker.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Pressing. Fig. the hammering is dispensed with. must be carefully avoided. 7. such as Fig.
) The whole place another pressing board. and more sections . then be put in the press. The size of the tins and . then another piece of paper. few sections on this. On the top of all (Fig. Lay a sheet of clean paper over this tin next put a . which is afterwards should screwed down tightly.l8 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Fig. the top of this a pressing tin to protect the sections. again a tin and another piece of paper. and so on until all are in position. 7.
and them afterwards with guards after pressing. A small amount of powdered French chalk dusted over the plates." . they must be (2) . pressing boards should be sections. (For guards. see Chapter (3) Folded maps or similar illustrations tins must placed b2 specially protected. and in place of this to keep the (4) that it is — — sections as close together as possible when sewing. or is partly transferred to. 8. Should the letterpress be of such a character likely to " set off " this meaning that the printed matter on one page marks. the next page which is facing it is advisable to omit the pressing. protected with sheets of tissue paper or it is even remove them from the book in II. in Fig. 19 somewhat larger than the and on illustrated no account smaller. or illustrations. is of considerable assistance in preventing the danger of " setting off. and with coloured plates. better to fix must be arranged exactly if the book be illustrated or engravings. by the use of on each side between them and the printed matter.) altogether.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. : A standing- press is Precautions to be taken in pressing (1) All the sections over each other.
It is usual to discard the Signatures generally commence letters J. exceed the letters of number. as A A. B.— At the bottom of certain pages in any printed book. termed the alphabet in When the sheets. and should the work be in more than one volume. and shape of or numerals. letters from the alphabet. Preparation for Sewing. the number of the volume is also added. —They are intended to and afterwards in assist the binder the when folding. when the letterpress and pages of the book were arranged. This was done.20 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and the first section of the text is marked by B. varies somestyle . C—are employed. Therefore. V. of course. the printed letters. arranging sections in correct sequence. the letters are again doubled. used. will be found. The what with different printers but as a general rule capital letters —as A. These letters or numerals are technically called Signatures. or they may be even trebled. B B. Collating. with the title-page. these distinctive marks having been printed on the sheets before folding. or sections as they are after folding. CHAPTER II. to collate a book . which is lettered A. or numerals. and W.
or thumb and fingers of the Should there be any loose leaves. plates. or single leaves. other these will require guarding. This is also necessary as an assurance that the pages of the book will be found in their respective positions when it is finally bound. illustrations. After first collating. double. 9. When guards are required for plates. single will guards these be found sufficient. they Guards may be single. a time from between the left hand. The material for . and may be made from Whatman's bank-note paper. As will be seen there.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. or full-page. engravings. 9. and then allowed to fall one at Fig. correctly the binder 21 signatures. in must examine the order to be certain that each of the sections has been placed in correct sequence and position. go through them again in the manner shown in Fig. maps. the whole of the sections to be bound are held in the right hand. to ensure that no mistakes have been made. or from fine white linen.
strips. portions. as the sheets are and to the pasted portion. should be used plates should given in Chapter XI). sheet of clean paper (marked A AA in Fig. They then removed. Commence till bottom to just and work upwards one after the are other the guards are placed in position. Wherever possible the guard should be fixed on the back of illustrated sheets.. The which are in guarded may be fanned out and arranged the distance between each edge being equal to half the width of the guard. to i in. and thus damaging on the top. . This method is adopted in order to prevent the paste from getting underneath. to tail. should be cut into which may vary in width from. say. J in. and the other half will be found firmly attached well rubbed down.22 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. io. allowing each cover the pasted portion. so as to at separate the sheet. The the now be fanned pasted out still more. according to the size of the book. 10) is placed and the whole may then be pasted at is done by drawing the brush downwards from the paper marked A A to the bottom sheet. one time. In length they should be a little longer than the book plates when measured from head to be steps. one half of the guard will project beyond the edge of the sheet. This r Fig. 3 Fairly thick paste (see recipe the other portion of the sheet.
place the whole of the plates under the pressure of a weight. to § in. varying from J in. and strips are cut and prepared.. place the pair of leaves or plates side by side. strips will The width of the cut-off or provided vary according to the size of the book. outside. In deciding upon the distance between each. we may mention that the spaces will vary in width from i-i6th in. with the cut-off or provided strips arranged between them. double guards will be required. a hinge for the work freely upon. and may be of any width. then on the After pasting and fixing. —Should or cardboard leaves. the 23 if it be the outside pair guard should be placed on the inside . and in addition. 11).PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. When is they are dry the projecting portion of to be attached. Linen must be used for these. or make use of extra strips of similar thickness. When plates. . are arranged in position (see Fig. according to the thickness of the plates or cardboard leaves. etc.. to J in. the guard similarly pasted. in such a position that there will be spaces of equal distance between the two strips strips and between the and the leaves. for the widths of the guards When all The measurements may be taken. if a pair of inside leaves of a section. It must also be borne in mind that provision for a joint for the plate or leaf to sewing must be made. To provide for this we may either cut off a portion of the plate on the inside edge. In the case of loose leaves. of leaves of a section. then folded over on to it is the leaf of the section to which again rubbed down. plates. and afterwards placed under the book consist of thick Double Guards. pressure as before.
and consequently the linen guard damp. A) rubbed up and down each are attached to of the joints. carefully placed quite perpendicularly over the first guard. While the paste is is still wet. the edge or end of the bone folder (see Fig. as the least discrepancy in this respect will cause the leaves to Cut off or provided porf/on PUte Spaces Fig. will be such as will completely cover the spaces and the cut-off or provided strips. little. open badly. first will be required for both sides of each pair of One guard should be pasted and attached and then the strips which have been cut off the plates. Note carefully that all the spaces already mentioned are still kept quite parallel. until the linen guards .~i I.24 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. This pair may before the whole is then be allowed to dry a turned over in order to paste. Guards leaves. 5. This must be and fix a guard on the reverse side. on to the leaf or plate. and extend width required for a distance of about J in.
plus the amount that be required to attach the same to the section. maps are usually sufficient of this left mounted on guards. done. a folded strips of When map is to be sewn into the book. leaves now have The damp and to may cause them to adhere to each other. The fixed not. 25 each other. unfolded. sufficient paper must be included to make the back of an equal thickness with the folded map for. Before sewing. The whole should then be placed under a weight. entirely project beyond the fore edge of the book. if this is not . be pasted on to one of the blank leaves at the end of the book. style of binding to be adopted may have folding . desired. and thus the creases for the hinges and middle joint for sewing for this will be formed. prevent this each pair of leaves should be protected with sheets of paper." . (1) Is the book to be or is is it to be merely trimmed ? The latter method usually termed " uncut. will A full-page guard should be as large as the leaves of the book. These guards are used when out " a the map or diagram — " throw out when it is desired to " throw " meaning that will whole map.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. or diagram. and in arranging it may be borne in mind that any number of prepared become paste —or sections. refer to the in order that the reader may and if same while is reading the text. projecting on one edge in order to form these full-page These may then. been if upon before commencing the it is but absolutely necessary at this stage that the following details should be decided :— " cut in " or " out of" boards. as they —may be piled upon each other. fine linen. the book when bound will not close up properly.
H. coloured. vellum. . so that when folded will be somewhat larger than Place one of the plain the sections of the book. We with explanations of only two methods by which these end papers are made. There is almost an unlimited choice of suitable papers for this purpose plain.26 (2) PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Take four sheets of paper two white. or white. Are joints ? to be put in. as to be half or ? it described in Chapter VIII When these questions have been settled. as is explained in Chapter (3) V What kind of material shall be used to cover the ? outside (4) — linen. and figured paper being used. —To the uninitiated we may explain that these are the coloured. said that the style of binding has been decided upon and we may proceed to prepare the end papers. silk. should in order be exercised in choosing the that they may all harmonise with the Proper allowances covering of the book. 4 . leaves found at the beginning and end of all books. four sheets centrally. shown in Fig. and also those pasted down inside the boards. 1. though there are other methods which may be adopted with equal success but probably the beginner will find that the following answer all purposes. may be . or cream two coloured. Method No. marbled. or figured. or leather Is Is it (5) is whole binding ? the book to have a hollow or a tight back. In elaborate books. marbled. and leather form rich shall content ourselves and suitable ends. — — . Taste latter. should be the sheets made in cutting out the paper. End Papers. vellum. as is Fold 12.
in. with its edge about 3-i6ths from and parallel with the folded edge Then work a bone folder (Fig. other side. 13. folded sheets flat 27 steel straight-edge upon the work-table.) The folded sheet is turned over on to the Fig. (Fig. . 13. 5.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. A) and down the edge of the straight-edge to form up a crease showing where the paper is to be folded. of the paper. and the process is is repeated mark for another crease and thus the formed vertically over . Lay a flat upon the sheet.
edge also being placed on the crease marks. 14. with left the folded edge to the worker's hand.) is The . the straight- Fig. thus allowing the folder to form the crease required in the paper. (See Fig.28 the other. is lineable with the lifted to a vertical and bent up squarely over the edge of the straight-edge. whole is turned over. 14. The sheet may now be turned round. and the operation repeated . left. PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. The top sheet position.
12. and thus the shape is shown in Fig. J. little difficulty will be —Crease and paste only the plain papers. in Fig. 15. . in a pile. Before pasting the two together. The plain sheets only are thus creased —not the coloured. and always attach the coloured ones to these. as shown shown and attach the papers together as The papers are then placed to dry under the pressure of a light weight. or figured papers simply as coloured.B. 16. all marbled. produced. and placed in Fig. Place the paste on with the finger. under the N. fold out the creases. 17. which will place the four sheets in the manner seen in Fig. For the convenience of the reader we ourselves hereafter shall content by describing the coloured. the straight-edge is 20 wards towards the removed. 12. the paper is folded outleft hand. same weight. t6. Fig. Many end papers may be prepared at the same time. When they are dry it will be found easy to fold them back into the original creases. shown in H.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. — If the worker will adopt the following rule it and always carry experienced : out. so that the paper will return to the original shape Fig.
and thus the papers 2.* Fig to save a great in order amount of needless repetition in the following chapters. four papers are marked numerically. 3. paper on the work-table. In practice — be kept when folding. to be 4. paper. 12. Place one coloured Fig. and as a further guide the 17. Then similarly paste the top plain paper. lay these in position flat . Waste . No. as in method No. and place another coloured one on the top of * this. paste this all over take up two plain papers together. or board paper. both plain and coloured. H. By this method all the sheets end papers. and rub them down well. for Method No. Fig.30 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. No. or white flyleaf. . Book . Book paper or coloured Paste down. 17. the folded edge should always away from the worker. others as plain. are selected and folded once. torn away flyleaf No. i. 2. 1. so that the folded edges at the back exactly coincide with the coloured. No.
i 31 8.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 19. . Fig. Fig.
may. and when removed they should be hung upon the " line " to dry." plough as described . — It will be convenient here to give directions to be observed when pasting with a brush. —Books that are to be left as the edges are not cut away with the in Chapter VI. " uncut. This line will be found useful for hanging up other materials to dry. both ends of the book are prepared." i. (Fig.) Then this. The pasted papers should receive a nip in the standing press to set them well together. under surface. while the end papers are drying. Any number end papers of similar size may be pasted and piled up on each other.32 for PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.. to place underneath when pasting. be trimmed to bring the leaves to some degree of regularity. as will ever get the above simple rule on to the a means of protecting the surface of the work-table. and work the brush outwards in directions. If Fig. Thin paste such as is recommended in Chapter XI should be used. 19 will explain is no paste always adopted. A bookbinder's line is simply a piece of string or cord stretched across from side to side of a window frame or some out-of-the-way corner in the room. and is technically called " trimming. This may be done with a sharp knife and the steel straight-edge. Always commence all in the centre of the material to be coated with paste. It is advisable to keep a stock of old news or other papers. towards the outer edges. Uncut Books. 18.e. of Pasting. cross hand over hand for convenience in pasting the other portion of the surface.
proceed in the following manner. and two drawing-pins are fixed into the board in such a position that the back of the section may butt against them. 5. or millboard. the important factor Fig. As it is only necessary to remove the extreme ragged edges. this section is placed in position on the cutting board. which — may otherwise become torn or dirty. The compass marks on the section may then be continued on to the cutting board. Knock up the sections one at a time at head and back. 20. A cutting board will be required. The requisite width having been marked with the compasses. measurements are taken which will leave the sections as wide as possible. 33 Trimming. After collating. a flat surface to cut upon. both at head 3 . C) to the width from back to fore-edge. of This may be made wood. both being at the top and the bottom of the first section. then set the wing compasses (Fig.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
it Always pull the in knife towards you. is a guide width. for instructions.. Fig. the head being cut with the plough. tail This will ensure the being at right-angles. of the edges of the section. the straight-edge. A sharp knife required. the fore-edge and by placing the first steel straight-edge inside the last leaves of the these latter book respectively. the knife is held too high. trimmed tail as follows — Rest the the a try-square against the back and trim the to along the blade of the square. the tops will be cut with the tail plough when the head is cut . never push In nearly the opposite trimmed books the foreedge and tail only are trimmed. that the tail is this : method of is adopted.) Assuming. therefore. on the board. and the knife is drawn along This will serve as the edge of the section when it is being cut. Note that the end papers will be cut after the book To trim the end papers down to the level is sewn. . the paper drags and all is torn. and the drawing-pins. tail of and line the section. for cutting the other sections to the same very 20 illustrates this method. good work that the smallest possible amount of paper has been cut away during the process of trimming. stock of section. at is and should be held against a somewhat natter angle than If shown in the photograph. (See Chapter VII direction.34 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and then cutting the knife quite level with the outer and and between away with the edges of the leaves. and the end papers. as is described in Chapter VI. and afterwards either coloured or gilt. both It is characteristic of back and fore-edge.
the cords on which the book is sewn. must be shows the shape the reader that of sewing-press usually adopted. i. Ordinary Sewing. it Before proceeding to explain in detail the above methods. Fig.. 2. 35 CHAPTER Sewing. Sewing on Tapes or Vellum.. To such a press we pieces of may mention been sewn upon a who does not possess many books have temporary press made up of four wood fixed together.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 21 etc. III. loops of cord seen hanging from the crossbar are intended for the attachment of the lay cords.e. it is better for the beginner The to set up a sewing press as soon as possible. for satisfactory work to be accomplished. ." " sawing in. For these lay cords.. two uprights and two crossbars attached to them. will be described : Flexible Sewing on Raised Bands. tapes. viz. 3." explained. good hempen string. Three methods of sewing a book 1. and also certain preliminary operations such as " marking up. is both necessary and advisable for the reader to examine and understand the parts of a sewing press. or vellum may be used. Still.
Marking up for these does not require to be very accurate. according to the style of binding adopted. as well as the — method of sewing which has been decided in the order given. 21. Marking Up. Therefore. proceed to knock up all sections together both at head and back. These vary somewhat in detail. Let us take each of the three previously mentioned methods of sewing Fig. (i) Ordinary sewing mended — —although used for it cannot be recomcloth-bound is generally and hollow-back books. as also plain tight backs without bands.36 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. This implies the dividing and marking on the back of the sections the positions for the lay cords. upon. Then number of lay cords . according to the size of the book. having decided upon the on which the book is to be sewn.
hence the The intervening space on the back. see Fig." or " catch-up " stitches. intended to show the positions of the " kettle. between the two pencil lines name " kettle " or " catch-up " stitch. . 22. and measure and back of the sections about from both head and tail. only the top turned upside down. Fig.PRACTICAL BOOKRINDINCx. 23. 50). screw up the whole in press is 37 (the lying the lying press is similar to the cutting press. The thread which is used for sewing is here caught up and tied . These marks are Fig. pencil lines on the mark h in.
marked. As shown in Fig. (2) For flexible sewing on raised bands greater dividers (Fig. dividing. and the squaring. and such in in this lay cords whole or half leather. accuracy is required in " marking up.. 24. divided into equal parts with the spring . these are shown in use in Fig. is mentioned. may be done as previously recommended. 5. Fig. i. and the leather used in covering is worked up over these books are covered method cords. 23.e.3* PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. The compassing. N) Four equal parts are required for three cords and six for five cords. should be sawn across these lines with the tenon saw (Fig. not too deep." which can be seen on the backs of books thus bound." This form of sewing is used for tight backs with bands. pencil lines are then squared across the back at each of the points . 24. The method of holding and using the tenon saw is shown in Fig. and small grooves. The of sewing form the foundation for the projecting ridges or " raised bands. 24). . 22.
Again for this method in. Public Library books are invariably sewn on tapes. in the distance of the This difference bands from head and tail is rendered necessary by the fact that. all lines are squared across in pencil. but instead of single.. take " the place of string. Having explained the preliminary operations.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and not where it is intended to sew the lay cords. we — . to i in. The method of " marking up is here again similar .e. lay cord) at the bottom of the book must be kept higher up from the tail than the distance of the top band is from the head of the book a difference in measurement being made : — according to the size of the book.. and sawn in. 30 but with greater accuracy and care in the measurement of the divisions. varying in width from J in. when the book is placed upon the bookshelf it appears to the eye that the bottom band is nearer the tail of the book than the top band is to the head. In this method of sewing. and this method should always be adopted for those books which are likely to be subjected to a good deal school and reference books. the positions of the kettle stitch only are sawn This method of sewing is both strong and durable. only at the positions for the kettle stitch. after compassing the divisions. in cloth and books so sewn are covered and leather. on strong tapes or vellum. for inof hard wear Business and account books are also sewn stance. (3) In sewing on tape or vellum. double lines are required to show the position of each edge of the strips of material used. if both are equal. One point must be carefully watched the band (i. strips of these materials.
Cut the cord into lengths. and the details of sewing. and the passed round in the hollowed recess of the key. A key is cord Still K) is taken in the right hand. Hempen medium string of various thicknesses can be purchased. as in Fig. Then. a sufficient number being arranged to give the desired thickness to make the bands show plainly after sewing. in order to measure the length of cord required. For raised bands. (Fig. The several strands size of the book is the determining factor in this respect. of thickness. Fixing the Lay Cords. but may For ordinary sewing. slip the key just underneath the press. left keeping the cord taut with the hand. which must . one or two strands be required for each lay cord.40 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. taking each lay cord separately. can proceed to the fixing of the lay cords on the sewing press. and tie them by a sailor's knot to the loops hanging from the cross-bar of the press. the beginner will only require one kind. pull it — taut with the left hand. are placed side by side. 5. 25.
which is to face the book is kept uppermost. and the other side should rest on the bed of the press. give a turn to the key so that the prongs be brought at right-angles to the slot in the bed of the press. fixed. as in Fig. 41 now be left pulled tight. and the same time turn the key over This operation will lock the it towards the right hand. set When all the cords have thus been — them the required distance from each other the marking up being used as a guide and give a turn to the wooden nuts on each side of the cross- — bar . still thumb and fingers of the . Should one or other of the cords become loose when sewing. 26 pass the upright cord through the prong. they may be tightened by pushing in a small wedge between the loop and the cross-bar. Fig. if they (the end papers) were not already marked when the book was divided up. 17). The method of fixing the cords is precisely the same cords should be tight before for ordinary as for flexible sewing. cord and thus prevent from slipping (see Fig. Then. twist once round the key. hand to keep at it from slipping . Care must be taken not to saw the end papers when sawing the grooves for the kettle stitch. It is essential that the commencing to sew. Key and which is cord are now lowered through the slot provided along the front edge of the bed of the sewing press. The prepared end papers may be " marked up " from the back of one of the sections that is.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. with — . The side of the end papers (No. 1. holding the cord with the Move the key out again. this will pull all tight. 27). pushing the key down with the right hand and pulling the will left underneath with hand.
and out again by the side of the first lay cord . them (1) tight. 28. mence In ordinary sewing comsew by pushing the needle from the outside to the inside. . in half To do this fold the skein then round the upright bar pass the ends through the loop thus made.42 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. then . for always kept in use The by looping the cut skein round the right-hand upright bar of the sewing press. Each thread as it is required. leaving only about 4 ins. and pull and place it . or 5 ins. Fig. Thread or for silk is used for sewing. of the end hanging out pass the thread along the inside. Ordinary Sewing. at one of the marks made for the kettle stitch draw the greater part of the thread through to . — the hole. now ready for sewing. are obtained The required lengths by cutting the skein lengths are the needle right through readiness once. It is the back edge pushed against the lay cords. should be pulled from the centre of the loop.
Fig. A. through the same hole. the beginner to understand this method of sewing. and in again at the on the other side The thread passes along the inside and out again at the second lay cord.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. . and the first section of the book is then placed on the top. of course. until the is other kettle-stitch hole reached. are sewn as just described. which should further help Fig. pass of lay cord — as shown Fig. The needle is brought to the outside at this hole the piece of thread left hanging out at the first hole is then held firm. The first the thread on the inside is again pulled tight with the . same hole in in again in 28. and the other end papers. end papers should now be found firmly attached to the lay cords. The needle and thread passes in at the kettle stitch hole. 29. 29. and the thread on the inside is pulled tight with thumb and fingers of thread between each lay cord. and so on. carry it 43 across the outside of this. is a plan and lay cords. which is immediately above the one from which it came out last on the end papers. When the needle and thread emerge from the kettle stitch hole at the other end of the section. it —but. This and all succeeding sections.
31. completes the kettle This is really a knot tied once. Needle and thread are pulled through sufficiently to form the thread into a loop through pulled tight it . a similar stitch must be made at the end of every section throughout The method of making this stitch may be explained as follows The needle is passed in horizontally under the previous section sewn. or extra safety — may be — for tied off again one or down. 31. this loop as in Fig. The lay cord in bedded into the back of the sections in the grooves which were cut in with the tenon saw (see again two sections lower ordinary sewing is quite em- .44 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. or 5-in. 30). piece pro- jecting. fingers thumb and then tied between each lay cord. i. The next section having been sewn up to the kettle stitch hole. and first left is off to the 4-in. between the book. and. that section and the one last sewn (see Fig. : — Fig. it is is now for the first time that the true kettle stitch formed. is After the last kettle stitch it made the thread is tied off twice. of course..e. they then are passed and when the thread is stitch. and when tied the short end may be cut off.
as each section sewn. will not lie squarely across the back. instead of the ordinary sewing. The sewing thread will occasionally show a tendency to push itself up the lay cords above the sections ." otherwise the raised bands. —For it flexible sewing the thread passes right round the lay cord. i. it is remember that must be one continuous . in the centre of the back of the it Whether impor- thread or silk tant to is used for sewing a book. upon the wood in order that it handle may be shaped may be held comfortably in the hand. method and sewing the sections described. Great care must be exercised to bring out the needle and thread at the exact spots indicated in the " marking up. will show that in case the thread must be brought out on the near side. and thus it is will mar the appearance of the back when of covered and finished. the width of which will allow it to pass between the spaces At one end a of the lay cords. will be found useful. to press this section down tightly to the others. it will be necessary. 29. instead of merely across the back of but in other respects the is as in ordinary sewing of arranging . if so. (2) Flexible Sewing. this exactly as we have already A glance at Fig.e. 45 In flexible sewing the whole oi the lay cord projects from the back. the lay cords. Fig.. as in far side of the lay cord. thus allowing the thread when passed in again to completely encircle the lay cord. For this purpose a small piece of hard wood. B. 29. is Whichever method sewing is adopted. With this the sewer should now and then tap down the sections. it should be pressed down to its correct position sections.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. A).
the next length must be joined purpose is such a way that the knot not weaker than the for this other part. It is advisable to make as. Two only of the loops on the cross-bar need be used. if all these joinings in the inside of the sections . the loop is formed at the end. —First fix the tapes or strips of vellum in the sewing press. the knots are to be broken in the processes which follow. . as each needle length in is used. It will then be found . Through these a round or strip of vellum ruler is placed. and the projecting ends on each piece of thread are cut off. that both lengths are as firmly joined together as though they were in one piece. as shown in Fig. A good strong knot : made as follows —On the new length of thread a .46 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. piece throughout the book. Sewing on Tapes or Vellum. liable (3) they are made on the outside. and is therefore. The other ends passed through the slot in the bed of the sewing-press. 32 end of the used-up length of thread is pushed through this loop both ends of the loop are then drawn tightly together. and the tape are may then be looped over this and pinned with an ordinary pin.
33. the positions are fixed and regulated from the " marking up " on the back of the sections. . Then all are tightened by turning the wooden nuts above the cross-bar. and this is then tied. and 47 pinned with drawing-pins under- neath the bed of the press. The knot should be kept quite central on the tape. tape. 33 shows the tapes fixed in position. . allow a few ing the threads. pulled tight. inches to project on each side of the book. the threads are caught outside of the tape and tied. ready for sewing. When cutting the cords or tapes from the press. Fig. for the purpose of tighten- To do this the needle is passed a loop is underneath the threads already sewn formed over them. as regards the kettle stitch and bringing out the needle and thread by the side of the Fig. is almost the same as for ordinary sewing. The method of sewing. but differs slightly in this way : —After about every four up on the sections are sewn. Of course.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
Remedy for Swollen Back. Afterwards side of the book. . the loops of thread must first be pushed aside. the loops sewing thread may prove troublesome when the above method has to be adopted in order to remedy swelling caused by loose sewing. a book has been of sewn round the bands. unless watchfulness flexibly is may If easily happen. and up in knocking-down by the the Then strike the other with the backing hammer. If such be the case. the cords or tapes may as be pulled taut with both this hands. in order to force sections more closely together. screw the lying press. exercised.48 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Care must be taken not to pull them right out from the sewing. — It down the iron side it after is cutting should be found that there of too it much swelling at the back the place book.
Rounding. 34. 49 CHAPTER Glueing Up. the book is is Backing. (see — If to be cut in boards for glueing up. IV.PRACTICAL ROOKBINDING. Fig. 34 shows the operation of 4 . and in doing this care must be taken that the back does not slip down The press is in the middle. Chapter VI). cutting boards or pieces of useless Lower the whole in the lying press. and level with the back of the book place millboard. as it is very apt to do. then screwed up just sufficiently to hold the book firm while glueing. on each old side. it now ready First knock up head and back. Glueing Up. making both square Fig.
and the thumb on the fore-edge. Fig. Work the brush outwards from the centre towards the head and tail. then be condition Rounding. the book table A flat . just glance over to see that aside for head and back are still square. 35. When the it book taken out of the press. 35 is an example of a tape-sewn book. As will be seen. and thus the is possibility of the glue getting on to the edges of the book will be avoided. 36. Fig." the book for rounding. oil.50 " glueing up. and of the right consistency — neither thick. With the backing hammer — books. thoroughly in set. and set it the glue to harden a little but it must — ¥ /> l Fig. but should run off the brush in one continuous stream. about as thick as Fill the brush and rub the glue well over the back of the sections. when the will glue has ceased to fit be " tacky. The glue" should be very hot. The fingers of the left hand should be placed on the upper side of the book." PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. nor thin. is not be allowed to rest until the glue In technical language. is lying flat upon the would answer equally well for this operation. but the method of rounding is similar for all press.
side . 41 afterwards rest. Plenty of time should be taken. over. correct shape is attained. should have the form of a true arc of a circle. and considerable patience exercised to produce a well-shaped back. from the centre. is And it is remember that nothing so unpleasant to a person in other with a well-trained eye as a book well bound respects. tapping here and there with the hammer by as required. is forcing them inwards The book should then be turned and the above process be repeated on the other then again turned over and so on until the .PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. of bending over the sections to right — — . This can be seen at the head and tail of any properly bound book. while the thumb on the fore-edge towards the back. 5 gradually draw the sections forward. and which thus acts as a form of hinge for the boards to open and shut upon. in Fig. shape the back until the may have is at this stage will remain well to book quite finished. Examine the it frequently in order to ascertain that shape it tapping and symmetry of the back are good. Backing is the term used to explain the operation and left hand. as no amount of after corrections moreover. A well-shaped back. here and there with the hammer to correct any small irregularities. but lacking the symmetry of a well-shaped back. Backing is done to form a groove such a groove as will be seen where left hand into which the boards finger is resting. when finished. whatever can remedy an ill-formed one . and it will be well for the beginner to examine such a book before commencing backing. The fingers will greatly assist pulling the sections over.
slightly opening the press as occasion may dis- require. In backing use the backing hammer for . and then to gradually squeeze the whole down into the correct position. . flush. there necessary to take is less danger any part if slipping. and is which the book For the former the depth should be greater than for the latter. it Beginners must not be all couraged they find out of the press several times for readjustment. Book and boards are then to be lowered into the lying press. justed the Having ad- book satisfactorily. screw up the press very tightly. and in consequence it will be noticed that cloth-bound books generally show a projecting ridge where the boards but in books covered with leather the board open also according to the material with to be covered —cloth or leather. Great care should be taken to see that the top edges of both boards are quite parallel with each other. the in placed on that each side of the level such a position just top edges boards will come with these dots. of this joint or groove should be varied. unscrew the press just sufficiently to allow book and boards to pass down between the cheeks. This misfortune frequently happens to skilled workers. The depths according to the thickness of the millboard used. it Before backing. and back are quite seen. to prevent any movement during the process. groove. and neither boards nor book should be allowed to slip from the original It is well to first position in which they were placed.52 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. the of and hence no projection is is a good plan to mark boards are pencil dots on the end-papers to denote the depth of the Backing book. of If this be done carefully.
Good and bad workmanship in backing will be seen when the finished book is opened. 53 plain backs. but for those with raised bands a smaller one will be required. on the sections off. which is narrow enough to go in between the bands (such a hammer as is used for light joinery). It is important that the extreme edges of the sides of the book should be well hammered down on to the backing boards in order to produce a good groove. the glueing and backing may be deferred until after the book has been cut. hammer rest of a circle In bringing down the movement should be made in the arc the hammer-head should be allowed to for a brief space of time. the . A . Bad workmanship will result in leaves which are creased up at the back. while with good workmanship the leaves will lie out quite flat right up to the back. turning or bending over the sections to right and left from the centre. When once the sections have been turned. and then allowed to glide before it is raised for the next blow. pounding blow must be avoided. Fig. the edges. If it has been decided to cut the book out of boards. 36 the tool in backing. Commence the delivery side near the centre. as such a blow would cut and ruin the backs of the sections. be careful not to beat the same back again in the opposite direction. The method of cutting will be described in the next chapter.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. to the right or to the left. shows the method of using The blows delivered should be of these blows on either and work downwards towards similar in character to those explained on page 17.
22 1 x 18 \ Large or Medium . measurements in. etc. should never be used for good work. Attaching the Boards. other a boards are made in different thicknesses. many it is A lew are given here. made from old rope. sold in all. and Bookbinders' sizes . y 8 and io d the 8 xx. Strawboards are a very poor substitute. which should be quite sufficient for the Name Size in inches. Millboard. millboards are unnecessary to made and name them of Board. thickness ranging from i-32nd three thicknesses will to 3-i6ths The first be found quite sufficient for .54 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING CHAPTER V. If the book is to be cut in boards. these may now is be the prepared. beginner. 23$ x *8J 24 x 19 Large Royal Extra Royal Imperial x X 28J X 32 X 25i 19J 26f 20J 2l| 22J The above-named and (sixpenny). d d d each thiickness being known ed 8 x (eightpenny one cross). best. Half Imperial 23J x i6i Middle cr Small Large Middle or Small Royal Demy Large Demy . as 6 d .. in in.
" and " foreand if there are more than one pair. thicker boards can always " made by pasting' two boards together (for preference a thick and a thin one). therefore. The process of cutting the boards is much the same. selected the boards of suitable and for the latter one should be size and thickness — guided by the size of the book —mark out roughly the size of each pair of boards. as the millboards soon if wear down a good knife. and the plough is used. be It" they " are not. add edge " "pair No. so to at is allow for trimming. For extra work this is best done in the cutting press. allowing them to be as somewhat the marks larger than the book each way. when bound and placed upon the bookshelf. To cut the first edges of the boards. " back." " head. If it be desired available. helpful during the process of cutting the boards perfectly true. These distinctive marks will be found very pairs of boards should be prepared at the . it will be helpful worker will read Chapter VI. and marked in pencil on the outside. Having. . done to bind a number of books of the same size. . all the same time for a set of books. ordinary 55 work. according to the number of pairs. this easily . The whole of the boards should be fixed in the press. Before commencing. 2. The board may be divided a millboard cutting machine and is if but otherwise a straightedge and a sharp knife must be used. The boards may now be paired.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING." " tail. should all stand exactly the same height." and so on. with a knife kept for the purpose. in which plained the ex- is the method of cutting the edges of a book.
If intended for leather binding.should next be cut in the grooves. only on one side. — . The first edges that have been cut and over which the lining paper has been pasted. and when dry the remaining three Fig. They are then nipped in the press. them in the cutting press with a cutting board. which was formed in backing. The exact measurement for this is obtained by measuring from the inside of the groove. the boards should now be lined with paper for whole .56 place PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and then pricked off on to the millboard. will and these edges will be placed be the back edges The fore-edges. screw them up tightly. and stood up to dry. protected by a piece of millboard asa" cut-against " . A edges are cut. to the width of the first leaf of the book not of the endpapers. binding they should be lined on both sides and twice on the inside for half-binding. the lining should be turned over the cut edges of the boards. and . This size should be taken with the wing compass. quite parallel with these. . and cut through them with the plough knife.
B. 37. will must now be located by the aid of the try-square and measurement. the boards are shown in the position in which they have been cut. To ensure this. and will it there be any discrepancy Fig. as at be noticed that the In this example line. Probably the reader " will be asking the question that the : How are the projections of the boards ? beyond the book obtained taken just off " The answer is amount which the edges of the leaves in cutting will allow for the projections of the boards. if the error be considerable. order to ascertain whether they . It will be noticed that a space exists between the in boards to the illustration clearly . this has is been arranged show more is what it meant. a new pair should be cut and the faulty pair put aside for a smaller book. One of the if boards reversed and placed against the other. are perfectly true. select one of medium length —mark Each is with the square. and cut as before. The length is obtained by setting the wing compasses to the length of the shortest leaf —or in if there are any very short off. tail may The head or next be cut exactly at right-angles to the back and fore-edges. and if only slight it may be corrected by cutting off but edges are not in The fault . enough are termed squares. pair of boards must now be tested ing them. line is 57 then drawn through the marks. use the trysquare as a guide in drawing the lines across the boards. 37. be seen at once. A and B. and test them from both back and fore-edge to make quite sure of the truth of the angles. and the boards are cut through in the press as before. test ones. . or not and this done by revers- In Fig.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
in. A short distance from the edge draw turn the parallel lines to cross these squared lines. The worker should always adopt the above rule in piercing the boards and then no this line. H) of sufficient size for the lay cords to Each board is then turned over to the and another line parallel with the back edge is (Fig. right further in than the holes and about f in. Square these lines down the board. from the back edge of the board— the distance varying according to the size of the book. and mark the other board in the same way. 38. mark on . they will usually work out is of satisfactory depth. to the hand of the first holes. but about \ already pierced. one of the boards in position level with the top of the book cords . but if the above directions for measuring the boards are adopted. or \ in.— Of course. drawn. Fig.5$ PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. L. Squares. it in pencil the position of the lay book over. 39. A V-shaped groove . On mistakes will be likely to occur. Fig. pierce another series equal in number. pass through. the depth of these can be varied at the discretion of the worker. The next operation which are to pierce in the boards the holes First place to receive the lay cords. § in. sections of these lines pierce At the inter- holes through with a bodkin inside. 5.
is covered. to form a receptacle for the laycords to rest in .PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. should be cut in 59 between the first set of holes and the finally edge of the board. when the book Fig. and thus. 40. For whole or half binding. the possibility o'f a very unpleasant swelling on the outside at these points is avoided (see Fig. 38). the corners at the back .
—The projecting lengths of the lay cords on each side of the book are ravelled with the . 39. A. is edge of the boards should also be cut away.6o PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. as shown in Fig. Lacing In.
Pass the. 45). then thread them through the second set of holes tight. and the holes through which the cords have been threaded are hammered down. and cut off the cord close to the board. Fig. The book is now ready for pressing. and Fig. 46. 42 shows how this is done. 46. and they will then be found to be much softer and more pliable than before. 43. and also point them. as shown in Fig. Put the hand inside and pull all the cords tight. the As is shown in then turned over and the holes are hammered down on the inside. from the inside (Fig. This will bring all the threads together again. all are divided into separate strands and these should then be scraped with a knife to thin them down slightly. f)I bodkin until (see Fig. 44). Again pull them hammer them down board firmly is slightly at the second hole. When both boards are hammered. Fig. threading from the outside.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.lay cords carefully through the first set of holes made in the boards. 40). . as in Fig. see that they are put back properly into the grooves. The " laced in " placed upon the knocking-down iron. Fig. and finger. Each lay cord is then pasted between thumb 41. book is Care should be exercised so as not to cut the cord (see Fig. 47.
Insert pressing tins between the outend papers and the boards, both at the back and the front of the book. Push the tins well up to the groove in which the boards now fit. These tins are used to prevent the boards from sticking to the book, and they also help to flatten the cords. Other tins are placed on the outside of the boards, and pressing boards are put to cover the tins. Note that pressing tins and pressing boards should be a trifle larger in size than the book. It is very important that the book and the boards should be set very true. Do not
hurry, but take every precaution to ensure that
parts of the book are set square.
centrally in the
be pressed at one
placed exactly above the other.
back of the book now receives a coat of thin paste, which will moisten the glue used in backing and render
the superfluous portion of
easy to scrape
done with the end of an old
wooden ruler the purpose. The book
pasted and rubbed with a handful of paper shavings
remove the accumulated
This operation of
for the purpose back and making it firm and hard. The book should remain fixed in the press for at least
pasting and rubbing the back
twelve hours before removal.
the book has been sewn on tapes or vellum, the
boards are attached by fixing the ends of the tape between them. For this purpose the boards should
to say, a thick
one and a thin one
should be partially glued together, only a few inches from the back edge being left open in order that the
may be pushed in between them. done with a bone folder, as shown in The pasting or glueing of the two boards is Fig. 47. then completed, and they thus hold firmly between them the tapes on which the book has been sewn. The book is next arranged, put in the standing press,
ends of the tape
exactly in the same manner as would
be done with a book sewn on cords.
Joints, Cloth or Leather.
We now proceed to made and put in. They are
prepared from strips of linen, cloth, or leather, and are fixed in the grooves of the book, and attached to the
inside of the boards
and the end papers.
intended to strengthen the book.
" extra "
leather joint, but
bound book should always have a any of the materials
mentioned will be suitable for Three methods of put:
ting in a " joint " will be explained
1 \ ins.
strip of material
wide should be cut out, and
about J in. of this width is pasted in between the coloured and plain
end papers at the time when pasting together. We assume that these end papers are made according to the The description given in Chapter II, Method No. 2. J-in. strip left projecting is folded over and sewn through the fold when the book is sewn (see Fig. 48, which shows plan of end-papers and joint.) It will
be noticed that spaces are
joint in the illustration
between the papers and
has been arranged so in
show more clearly what is meant. After the book has been covered, this strip is pasted down on to the boards, and when dry, trimmed out with the
turnover of the covering material (see Chapter VIII).
For Secondly. end papers are
method we assume that the
be prepared according to the
instructions given for
strip of material ij ins. to ij ins.
to be cut
about J in. along one edge on the leather side is pasted and this is fixed into the folded groove of the
end papers (the groove shown
in Fig. 12, J).
dry, the material used for the joint should be folded
over on to No. 2 end paper (see Fig.
able to temporarily paste in a second waste paper, in
order to protect the joint during forwarding.
this waste, as also
be torn out before pasting
This latter operation
to the boards.
will, of course, be left until the whole of the forwarding
on the book has been completed.
joint of this description,
sewing in a
better to use a coloured
match the material used for the joint. method the joint may be put in after the book has been covered (Chapter VIII). If such a joint is to be put in, one must be careful at the time when making the end papers according to instructions given in Method No. 2, to leave a space
from the back edges impasted. Into used for the joint is inserted and pasted between the end papers, and also down on to the boards. The unpasted coloured
this space the material to be
The pasted coloured paper it should reach trimmed back. is then ripped in a press. cloth. The pared to equal the thickness of the turnings-in of the cover on the book. A French joint is used when it is desired that the boards should have joint . is it may this be left much and the amount For to be pared away much less in consequence. If leather is used for covering a book with such a joint. the boards should be thrown back before nipping. After removing from the press. When leather is used it must first be pared (see Chapter VIII). thicker at the back. so up to the back that of does the book.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. If The book linen. The shape after paring is shown in I I _--^^ Fig. paper should be cut out and kept to for pasting 05 down not thus the boards be quite later. form of joint it is better to sew the book on tapes or vellum. section in Fig. the book should stand open for a time to dry. when attached to the book. this portion B is to be pasted down (marked B) is to the boards. more play at the and to provide for this the boards. 49. and then be closed and placed under a weight. a line has been right drawn down the leather and the portion on the marked A is to be pared down to a feather This part will go in between the end papers. 5 . As will be seen. 49. and. portion on the left edge. are placed away from the groove about i-i6th to 3-16H1S. in. allowing a small portion of the joint to be seen on the book side. closed the bock may be nipped with the boards but if leather has been used. of course. or has been used for covering.
it is termed. and thus form proof that the book has not been cut down too much. A waste not actually cut at . The amount to be cut away should therefore not only have been decided upon when the millboards were measured for the book. It is well for the binder to remember that lovers of books deprecate the cutting away of too much from the edges. it is show proof of this by cutting away only just as much as will bring the knife level with the shortest leaves. the millboard on the right-hand side is drawn down until the amount to be cut off the edge shows above the top edge of the board. and lastly fore-edge. VI. Assuming that the back of the book is now held towards the worker. as . the —After the book pressing is taken from should be standing press. Consequently these leaves are all. or. head and tail the book is placed in the press with the back towards the worker. Cutting in Boards. but must still be adhered to at this stage. CHAPTER Cutting. " cutting the book to the quick " advisable to and in order to prove that the cutting has not been overdone.66 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. then tail. the tins removed and the edges cut in the following order In cutting both head.
The book in is then lowered into the order to keep the book and is boards from slipping.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. This is then screwed up quite tightly and the edge knife. boards of the book. slightly with the face of the press. and is used to prevent the knife from cutting into the . as the truth and squareness of the edges to be cut depend entirely upon the care and accuracy with which this process of fixing the book has been carried . the press tightly screwed up just enough to allow the whole to be pressed is down Hush until the top edge of the right-hand board Fig. strip 67 of millboard is placed between the left-hand board and the book this strip is termed a cut-against. and the left-hand board above and quite parallel with the left side of the press. It is of the right board forms a guide for the very important to ascertain that the left-hand board is perfectly parallel with the face of the press. cutting press and. 50.
and thus holds the knife perfectly is rigid. and . cutting. when the book is removed from the press the relation . 50. and there shown. should the knife tip up in front. therefore. One of a beginner's usual faults is that making ragged edges. 50. the method of grasping the plough with both hands knife should cut on the forward.68" \ : PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and if the knife quite sharp. or from screwing the book up If when fixing the press. the bolt and On the other hand. as. a very given to the it wooden screw. in order to ascertain that the resting quite flat and level. paper must be used as packing between the knife at the back. the operations have been carefully carried out. not the stroke . The: reader may be reminded that the plough is used to cut the edges cesses described in is arranged to work on the for the proIII. out. slight turn is is at each successive cut. The If it knife should not cut into the top of the press. as The backward the plough goes forward. These may be caused by (a) twisting the screw of the plough too much at a time. Before commencing knife so. packing must be inserted between the bolt and the knife in front when it has been carefully adjusted. so trying to cut too many (c) it leaves at each insufficiently in stroke (b) a dull knife . opposite side of the press to that used Chapters II and in The plough on the is shown in use Fig. should do so. the face of the plough should be placed face of press. the wing nut at the top of the bolt is screwed up as tightly as possible. if this is not the edges of the book will not be square when cut. the edges will be cut perfectly regular of and smooth. as should be. Referring again to Fig.
Fig. when. The operations of fixing and cutting are precisely the same as those which have been described for right-hand. the Fig. the spring dividers already set —from line the pencil line is already drawn. 52. The is fore-edge. The head of the book should be kept towards the worker and on the right-hand side the depth of the square should be marked by using . by first pushing both boards back into their exact positions. Fig. the head. always the most difficult now prepared. of course. so that the depth of the " squares " at the equal. si. This in turn is pulled downwards until amount to be cut off the tail projects above the board. as shown in Fig. to adjust.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 52 shows a similar book which has been badly To cut the tail the book is turned upside down. The size (or head and the tail are just depth) of these " squares " is then taken off with the spring dividers. A second pencil then to be . 51. of the 69 cut edges of the book to the edges of the boards will be quite parallel. and a pencil line is drawn down both end papers level with the fore-edges of the boards. the left-hand board becomes the cut.
Both boards are now turned right back and allowed to hang down. is drawn. which will show the amount of projection that to be cut off. and a pair of trindles (Fig. and the is then taken in both hands rounded back is knocked quite flat.7o PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. flat upon the insides of the boards. P) are inserted. causing or the back of the book birch to become Beech wood cutting boards. are placed on each side of the book. thus flat. The boards of the a horizontal position. 5. previously damped The whole with a sponge. book are then brought to and the trindles will rest Fig. This is done by . 53. one each between the back edges of the boards and the top and bottom lay cord.
tie a piece of tape round the sections below the cutting boards this . Fig. and the board on the left is allowed to project exactly as far above the face of the press as is indicated by the amount to be cut off.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. until the right-hand board is quite level with the face of the press. as any inaccuracies is made in fixing will be apparent when the edge cut. which then accomplished in the for manner previously advised head and tail. striking it 71 upon the face of the press. Should the book be large. The beginner must will help to hold the book well together. Both cutting boards are next arranged so that their top edges are quite level with the pencil lines on the end papers— the board on the right-hand side. of course. as shown in Fig. therefore not be discouraged to take out the if it is found necessary book several times for readjustment. As we have said previously. the fore-edge is the most difficult edge to deal with in cutting. we must again remind our readers how necessary it is to screw up the press quite tightly before proceeding is with the cutting. 54 shows the method of holding the boards and book when pressing the same between the cheeks of the press. Book and boards are lowered between the cheeks of the press. When all is accurately fixed. Even professional workers have such difficulties to contend against. until the Do is not hurry. It may be noted that the left-hand cutting board here . being kept level with the lower boards and book. but proceed patiently whole fixed accurately. 53. or bulky. trindles are line. and the removed. owing to cither boards or book having slipped down. The left hand grips both The whole is raised up.
e.. or for books which are sewn on — tapes. If a guillotine is available. . This method is adopted for case work. 55. for books which are to be put into publishers! cases. the Should book has the press. and the whole must therefore be re-fixed in the press again and the irregularities be cut away. in place of the forms the " cut against " strip. not been accurately in Fig. Cutting Out-of-Boards. 54. to of course. backing. i. is When the book removed from the press. the boards their respective positions. and. and the leaves are opened out. be cut fixed unparallel. the edge an edge which has been by the plough. the millboard right-hand board being called the runner. its may be replaced into will The back if then assume previous shape. all has been done correctly. The following method boards is recommended cut for cutting a : book out-of- —The rounding. and in consequence the fore-edge will become concave . the book being cut in the sewing and before rounding and backing.72 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. this flat after may be used. Fig. the edges of the leaves will be quite parallel with the front edges they appear evidently to of the millboards. produced will be inferior But.
These are sometimes desired. and the left-hand one below as is much necessary for the edges to be cut . pressing. much below the top edge as necessary for the edges to tail as be cut. . The angles of the A waste piece of millboard left side.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. y Rounded Corners. board and book on the — edges are then neatly cut away with a knife or carpenter's chisel. the right-hand board being is glued as the off. and finished with glass-paper. The corners may be marked out with any object that will describe an arc of a circle. The boards are then temporarily attached to the waste sheet of the end- papers by a little glue. 73 in and cleaning of the back arc carried out the way previously described. Books sewn on tapes or vellum are generally cut in this way. is inserted between and the book is placed in the press and cut in the same way as for cutting in boards.
This part of the binder's work offers plenty of choice for the display of taste in decorative work. the book is fixed firmly in the lying two boards which are quite or gilding press between flush with the edges of the leaves. Gilt Edges are produced by attaching gold leaf book leaves. Treatment of the Edges. Scraping. be seen. 55 shows the manner of scraping. Many bookbinders finish the edges of their books very elaborately . We advise the beginner to avoid this misfortune by either gilding or colouring.74 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. CHAPTER VII. or to leave them But the great disadvantage of the edges very soon become soiled and dirty. the extreme edge of which has been — . but a beginner is advised to limit the decoration to coloured or gilded edges. and consequently much of the charm of a well-bound book is soon lost. Before this can be done the cut edges must be prepared to receive the gold leaf first by scraping and afterwards by to the edges of the — polishing. The former method (if well done) gives the best finish quite plain. will there As Fig. The scraper (which is a piece of tempered steel. is latter that the to a well-bound book.
covered with a paste. Some binders prefer to use red chalk only in preparing the edges. a series of fine shavings. and will produce.g. mixed with a The This paste should be spread equally over the surface with a sponge. and then polished with a fairly hard brush is recipe for glaire given on page 127. . or bole. very may be used over the surface of the best done edges. which should be little glaire. It is then pushed forward so that the burr will just catch the paper. 56). This process gives a body to the surface which will readily receive the gold leaf..PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 56 e. By very smooth surface rubbing the glass-paper up and down the edge a will be produced. 75 burred by rubbing with a bodkin or other steel tool answering the same purpose) is held in a slightly oblique position between the thumb and fingers of both hands. as careless work ruin the squareness of the edges on which so much labour was bestowed in cutting. wood. composed of equal parts of blacklead and red chalk. a piece of cork. (see Fig. or a flat piece of indiarubber. when will This operation requires both care and attention. so pushed. Glass-papering. fine glass-paper After scraping. —This is by wrapping Fig. the glass-paper around some solid substance.
57. 57). . for the Gold Leaf purpose can be purchased in small books. This operation.<' Fig. according to the quality from and thickness leaf are first of the beaten gold. The price of a booklet varies 3d. square. each -. The squares of gold cut to suitable sizes on the gold cushion with the gold knife (both are illustrated in Fig.76 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 3 is...:. each containing about 25 leaves. the chalk and only being sufficient to form a good surface. is In this case the blacklead glaire omitted. to 3s.. ins.
Open the book of gold leaf slip the long blade of the knife carefully under the centre of one of the squares lift it of gold up. as shown in Fig. 77 which requires some practice. 58 is not infrequently happens the cushion. leaf a position in the In handling gold room it free from draught should off be selected. When enough strips of gold have thus been cut and prepared. somewhat wider and longer than the edges of the book. and turn the gold right over on to the cushion.PRACTICAL BOOKBlN DING. should have been previously cut. 59. as otherwise that the gold Fig. 60. of cutting the gold leaf. which should be delivered . blown completely shows the operation Fig. Strips of white paper. done in order that the gold leaf sufficiently to enable it may adhere to the paper just to be picked up off the cushion. a coat of glaire should be applied with a broad camel-hair brush to the already polished surface . Fig. is carried out as follows. Flatten out the gold by just a breath from the mouth. . The knife should be moved across with a sawing motion. 59. right over the centre of the square. and prepared with either a little bee's-wax or a by rubbing their surfaces modicum of grease This is obtained by rubbing the surface of the paper across the hair of the head or the skin.
60). It frequently happens being that cracks occur in the leaf when it is put on. It is done by first rubbing a little bee's-wax over the surface of a piece of clean placed with the waxed side is paper. The moment the gold leaf and the glaire come in contact the glaire will pull the leaf from the paper. Should such be the case. quickly Fig. and allow the edge of the book to dry for an hour. The gold is then set with the flat burnisher. and while this is still wet the gold and gradually lowered until it touches the glairc (see Fig. in the manner shown in Fig. and when the glaire dries . 61. The paper is down on to the gold. the gold will hold firmly to the surface.78 of the PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and the burnisher firmly rubbed over . ordinary glazed writing paper for preference. 64 place another piece of gold over the defective part. book edges held leaf is over.
Judson's dyes. mixed with clear water.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. of the leaves It is must be held compactly together by being screwed up in the press. An excellent effect is obtained when the edges of the needless to say that the whole leaves have been slightly fanned out before apply- ing the colour. having been plain coloured. head and the tail.— Water colours. is to be placed centrally on this edge. the gold burnished in a similar way without Plain aniline or the paper. will all generally be found to answer requirements for such edges . not lengthwise. direction until the desired depth of colour is attained. and worked outwards in each with a small sponge. The sponge should first be applied at the ends nearest the back and then worked towards the follows an application to the Then fore-edge —never it vice versa —or the result will be a In thick mass of colour at the ends of the fore-edge. Care must here be observed in order that the depth of colour may be made exactly the same as on the fore-edge. The colour should be mixed in a saucer and applied to the edges The fore-edge is first coloured. and as a greater variety of different shades in all colours can be obtained by dilution. charged with colour. this 79 After being set from side to side. is through the paper. The sponge. Colouring for Edges. or is gilded except when it desired to leave a dull gold . some cases may be desirable to give one or two coats of colour to attain a good body on the surface. in order to prevent After the colour from getting on to the inside of the edges. the worker has a good opportunity of selecting a colour which will harmonise with the outer covering.
rub wax on to a small piece of soft leather. This is to be rubbed gently over the edges to wax the surfaces slightly. with a firm and even pressure. but for concave edges the tooth burnisher seen in Fig. the great variety of colours offers plenty of scope for arranging a combination of two or three different colours. which may be kept for future use. if the finished edges and the covering to be used.80 edge PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. which will form a good contrast both with or. Burnishing. is For edges the burnisher seen in Fig. a piece of plain In the selection of silk for the purpose. — the fiat surface of the edges flat must be burnished. . which are covered worked on all books whether they be whole or only half-bound. preferable. in order that the burnisher may work more freely. the method Whichwrapping is the same. We may therefore assume. and the result of successfully doing this will be the production of a surface quite smooth and free from dull and uneven patches. have been selected. 62 the usual method It of handling this tooth burnisher is shown. should be moved carefully backwards and forwards. or a length are Head-bands generally in leather. 61 used. or a piece of ordinary twine which has it been covered by pasting around paper. yellow and blue. one colour only may be adopted. — of catgut. The band is made by wrapping and twisting strands of silk around a solid support such as a strip of vellum pasted on to thick paper. a little bee's- —Before proceeding to burnish. for convenience. of ever choice is made. that two colours. In Fig. 62 is better.
but requires a fair amount of practice before efficiency is attained. which is really very simple.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. we trust the reader will be able to understand the method of procedure. 63 and 64. has been decided to use as the foundation cut off somewhat longer than the thickness of the book. it A strip of the material which 63 and 64. 63. 8l and that these are to be worked into the head-band. blue is One end of the tied to the yellow and the needle is then 6 threaded with the former. and with a brief explanation. The book should be Fig. . at about the inclination shown is in Figs. and the silk should be cut into suitable needle lengths. fixed in the press quite firmly. With the aid of Figs.
of course. first commenced on the left-hand by pushing the needle down- wards through the middle of the leaves of the second section on no account through the end papers. then under the support and over. The loop should now be pulled down tightly on to the support. and the needle. so that a loop above the book edge will be formed. is being worked. Through this loop the strip of prepared material is placed. The needle again passed back through the same hole. . and this colour over the support. movement is repeated a this latter second time. the yellow silk is prevented from passing through owing to the knot previously and is then brought up over is the top edge of the book. seen standing up in the aforementioned figures. and so The junction where one silk passes over the is other in the front termed the beading. This loop at present should be allowed to project above the head or tail of the book—whichever. The needle should be held at such an angle that it The blue will come out just below the kettle stitch. The yellow again goes over the blue. is fixed between the sections to hold it in its place. on. and this beading should be kept quite close down to the edges . and passed over the blue towards the worker's right hand. pulled tight. thus forming two more strands of blue. and under and over the support twice.82 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. The head-band is side of the book. — silk passes through after the needle tied. is now taken in hand. and the silk again brought over from the back will form another strand The yellow silk across the two sides of the support. thus forming two strands of The blue silk is now passed over the yellow in like manner.
This is done by pushing the needle through the middle of the leaves of the tie particular section in where it is intended to down. The ends of the projecting support side are to be cut off quite close to the A little glue applied to each part where assist in it is holding it firmly to the book. and are glued down to the Both ends are back of the on either silk. book. and the carried round. In worked head. the needle again passed through the middle of the leaves in the last section but one. and the is of silk. just when the silk has passed understrands neath the support.bands the quality of the work is judged by the regularity or irregularity of this As the work progresses it is necessary beading. down To line up tied will the back a strip of brown or other fairly thick paper should be cut off the same width as the back of the book and deep enough to come down to the first band from each . show the position of the fingers. 63 may be used first to start the head-band. This tying down will be found a great help to the worker in assisting to It is also necessary that keep the head-band steady. 64 the position is shown when one strand of silk is being passed over the other intended to to form the beading. needful to mention that either of the silks two coloured Fig. exactly at the same way as was recommended the commencement.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. silk is then cut off. In Fig. When the worker reaches the is opposite side of the book. it should be done in order to It is scarcely hold the head-band firmly to the book. of the 83 book by the pressure of the ringer nail. " tie down " the head-band to the book at to about every fourth section from the commencement.
is cut. and thus make a smoother surface for covering.. This consists of a covering of paper — placed over the finished edges in order to protect them Fig. and when dry over with a piece of glass-paper. holds the paper in position spare. A sheet of paper i. a strip of paper should be glued the whole length.84 end. A piece may also be glued between each band . and have two to three inches to This paper is placed between one of the boards and the end paper. during the succeeding operations through which the book has to pass. if the book is large and heavy and if it has a plain back without bands. 65. to ensure its This paper is firmly fixed to book and head-bands. firm adhesion. Capping. and the board. to it is rubbed remove any paper from the silk strands where they are tied down to the book. in size fore- twice the width of the book. measuring from edge to back and plus the thickness. — being at the moved and head and regulated until the projections tail are about equal. The length should equal the distance from head to tail. when closed the latter to the book.e. The amount . plus twice the thickness. by being rubbed well with a bone folder. PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
projecting at the fore-edge
will, of course, be much The paper should then be cut away to the shape shown in Fig. 65. The upper board is now
thrown back, and the covering paper is folded at the dotted lines over the fore-edge and down on to the end paper. Next the tongue pieces marked A A are
bent over at the dotted lines so as to
along the head and
folded over the tongues and
attached with glue to the large piece which was
previously folded down.
and the capping allowed to remain as a the edges until the book is finished.
The methods adopted
covering a book differ
accordance with the use of different
purpose, in explaining this part of the binder's work,
to treat the different
form of covering,
used to cover the whole
outside of the book.
but only the back, a portion of the
are covered with
the centre part
the boards being covered with cloth, linen, or
method the books
covered entirely with cloth or linen.
of covering a book,
Before proceeding to study in detail the various
be helpful for
the beginner to thoroughly understand the difference
between what are technically known as
67 will also
assistance in pointing out
be seen, the flexible back
because the leather with which
has been covered
attached directly on to the back of the book, and the
spread over and across
the whole back,
along the joints at the
junction where the boards are attached to the book.
desired to arrange for such a back the
usually sewn flexibly,
book around raised bands
of the disadvantages usually
associated with this kind of back
One is of the advantages claimed for the hollow back is that the strain in opening it is is transferred from the material with which of covered on to the sections which the book composed. for for these explanations. and therefore any decoration in gold with which the back may after- wards be embellished is not affected by the repeated opening and shutting. Should the paper of the book. It is also well to mention that any other material can be used for covering a book with a hollow back. men.88 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. —Assuming that the covering selected morocco. (i) Whole is Binding. however. Still. be stiff. Again. will frequent is opening to which the book in be subjected off. joint possess a very strong Books sewn on tapes and arranged with a French and flexible back. to forward the much more advisable book for a hollow back than for a tight or close one. it is claimed by some much bound with a hollow back often opens book with a tight back but a well-sewn and well. Having digressed somewhat we will proceed to explain the various methods of covering. apt to cause the gold to crack and peel is a flexible tight back every way so much stronger than a hollow back that the disadvantage mentioned is scarcely worth consideration. as. Public Library books. and that . gilt much the decoration is used to embellish the cover. at all thick and or should it is it be desired to cover the book in calf or vellum. instance. or other similar leather.forwarded book with a tight back is generally preferred by the best craftsthat a book better than a .
or a sheet of In paring large or broad surfaces. Paring the Leather. a piece of marble. the German knife plate glass. of the skin The size of the are factors book and the thickness which must be taken into the it consideration when deciding is amount will to pare off. the book may be placed flat is skin from which the cover line on one side upon the to be cut. A pencil round the board. after cutting all should be drawn the book should be raised .PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. i. placed with the flesh side upwards on a Pencil lines may lithographic stone. .— The leather must also be pared down the centre to a width sufficient to cover the back of the book and the joint. and then up on to its back and rolled over so as to bring the other side down on to the leather. Another line must now be drawn round this side and the leather is then cut out about f in. 89 the book has been sown flexibly on raised bands. it is necessary to pare them down to a suitable thickness. Unless the leather to pare it all very thick. beyond these lines. L) will be found suitable but for narrow surfaces or edges.e. 5. This pro- jecting portion will be turned in over the boards.. it not be necessary all over. as a guide to the paring. the leather is be drawn During the process of paring. . out. but must be pared round the left outer edges for the same distance as the amount beyond the boards when cutting out. Skins when purchased will be found to be too thick for covering books consequently. where the boards meet the back. and that it has already been lined up at head and tail over the head-bands (as mentioned in Chapter VII). the French paring knife (Fig.
Referring again should be noticed that the angle at held is which the knife as flat as possible. knife to is This calamity is also It possible the held at too high an angle. the leather held firmly by the hand. probable that in the and Fig. The bevelled edge of the knife must be kept uppermost. it is as the tool goes forward a leather. again When this paring has been done the book placed in position on the cover. is attached to the book. very important note whatever amount is pared off the leather should be taken away will is form weak spots. Considerable practice and great care are required before thorough success It is quite in paring leather can be first achieved. the paring knife pushed across with pressure. that. 68. is As will be seen left in Fig. As has been mentioned . which selves after the covering Thin places certainly show themequally. 68. early attempts the knife will cut its way is right through if the leather. even and at each stroke thin shaving is cut from the to Fig. 68. G) is more convenient. steady. and a pencil line drawn upon the leather.9o (Fig. 5. level all round with the outer edges of the boards. PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
the leather should receive a coat of paste. they will has been attached. or pinched up with the band nippers (Fig. 5. larities are corrected. are left upon the show through the cover so. the worker will soon be able to judge whether a sufficient amount has been pared away. of paste. little and be In left to stand for a order to time to soak. As the paring proceeds the leather is occasionally folded over and the folded After pieces are tested between thumb and finger. as this will probably have become somewhat no lumps dry. for after it if brush. ." The extreme edges must now be pared down to a feather edge in order that the " turn over "shall not form a bulky protuberance head and tail. set. 69 shows this edge-paring operation.. lying press. —The by squares of the book are then to be the boards are to be fixed exactly into their correct positions.e. and so that the leather. When the paring is satisfactorily at may finished. and gently knocked. i. The time leather should it now be again pasted. Squares. bands should be whether all are regular and square. Should it be found that any of the bands are not true.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. QI previously. ascertain the book should be fixed in the and the defective bands should be damped with a sponge. E). Care should be taken to see that no pieces of grit. the projecting material beyond these lines is termed the " turn over. be brought over the edges of the boards on to the insides as neatly as possible. some little practice in thus testing. until all irreguof the horizontal. or happen to be somewhat out the raised meantime the in examined. Fig. or bristles from the leather. when pasted.
down on the back. side of the One book must now be placed upon the its pasted cover so that pencil position coincides with the marks made is for the paring. The band nippers must be worked back- wards and forwards across the back. and allowed to stand up on a piece of clean paper upon the fore-edge of the boards. The leather cover is then pressed firmly down between the bands on to to the top board. until bands of a good shape have been formed. Before leaving the back. 69. The loose portion of the cover then gently pulled over the back.92 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. the worker should feel satisfied that the covering is actually in close contact all over. The surplus cover . 70 illustrates operation. and band nippers close will assist in nipping the leather into lay contact with the projecting Fig. A folder should be used for this purpose. Fig. and Then the book is raised. 70. cords —now this to be termed the bands. Fig.
which afterwards bent over the head-band to form the " head-cap. if too much is left of quickly judging the amount required. but a is little is left projecting beyond. Turning in Fig. at 93 head and tail is brought over the edges of the boards. it is bent over." Head-Cap. 71. so that here a double thickness of leather is formed. The examination of a few head-caps on finished books will be of great assistance in gaining the necessary experience. and turned in at the back. As a — further guide. —The method of " turn-over " The down on to the inside of turning in is shown must be well pressed the boards. on the other above the head-band when unsightly cap will result. is we may mention . that if the leather turned in too much. a very After a little practice the eye acquires the power hand. It must not be turned in quite level with the head-band. there will not be sufficient material to form the head-cap and.PRACTICAL ROOKBINDING. In. and before the fore-edges are turned in the boards should be set . Practice and experience are needed in order to judge correctly the amount which will be required for this purpose.
45 degs. wood with a square edge is pushed well up to The covered board of the book is then in brought contact with the pressing board and the leather is pressed in firmly at each end. in and the leather and afterwards cut The fore-edge is drawn well over the with the shears. 72. as shown in Fig. be seen that the book is placed flat on its side. other side when dry. the covered board is lifted up. It will squarely in the joint. of the is A piece of thread is passed .94 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and similarly set. until is it is seen that the joint set quite square. is now turned corners. off The corners. and a pressing board or a piece of the joint. are mitred to an angle The book is next turned over.
In criticising covering of a book one would notice particularly the shape of the head-caps and the care with which they have been formed. and thus the the sharp flat edge is formed. i. and then flattened on the top. Clean sheets of paper should . The book is next placed end and firmly pressed with down on to the paring stone Fig. 39). The thread should slip into the little nicks formed by cutting off the corners of the back edges of the boards before lacing in (see Fig. a folder round the back edge of the head-cap. The projecting leather is first pressed outwards at each end of the head-band.. and tied.e. it may occasionally be found necessary to damp the leather with a sponge and cold water. 74.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. The head-caps are now formed with a folder (see Fig. and to ensure its adhesion to the back and the boards. in order to make it pliable. 73). During the process of covering. at the junction of the boards with the back. 95 round the book at the joints.
right through the two pieces of leather. If there is a leather joint it must be pasted to the board at this stage.. first a pencil line drawn at an angle of 45 degs. The groove of the book is first cleared of any particles of waste glue. ness the leather does not adhere well at the back. over. they should be pasted and fixed in position.e. to rest the covered bock upon when Waterproof sheets may be placed between the boards and the book to prevent the damp cover from causing damage to the book. The whole is now placed under a light weight for some hours in order Should it be found that through harshto let it set. the waste end paper is torn out. the corners on the inside of the boards. down on to the boards. just pressed down to test whether they meet accurately. To do this. It is advisable not to cut through the leather quite up to the extreme corners. and the waste piece is The two edges of the mitre may now be removed. and if satisfactory. The leather for a little distance on each side of the cut is lifted from the board. necessary. and with a sharp knife a sloping cut is made along the line. etc." is —When dry. and as this would tend to been turned over the boards and so cause the joint corners is pasted to the board.. the " turn- may be mitred. weaken that portion which has it to wear through quickly. When dry the may be mitred in the same way as the corners . it hand should be held down by " tying-up " in the manner shown in Fig. The sloping cut mentioned is used in order to ensure a more accurate joint in the mitre. from the extreme corner.96 also be at PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Mitreing the Corners. the leather at i. 74.
is — In this style of binding the leather used only on the four corners. For this round with the dividers. flexibly. the panels have been cut. about a third. they should be evenly in. linen. or paper. of (j7 the fore-edge. and to bring it up to the same level the space must be filled in with paper of the Ordinary same thickness as the turned-in leather. or a thicker paper. Half Binding. which is called "stiffening." The length and width of the space are compassed. and the " filling-in " purpose a line is drawn the superfluous leather cut is cut to the required size. for three-quarter binding. brown or cartridge paper may be used. and thus the margins are left equidistant from the edges. used. and away with a sharp knife. and they must be rubbed firmly with a bone folder to ensure their stickall the panels are dry. joints for a short distance and extending over the to the sides. In this is when the book has been forwarded and ready 7 . of the This distance may on be about one-fourth width of the whole side. Any kind of leather It may be and the other parts of the sides are afterwards is covered with cloth. of course.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. down the back. This should be slightly filled in. The book is then stood open until The end papers are pasted down (2) after finishing. or a back sewn on tapes. The board of the book is. below the level of the leather. or. The turn-over all is of the leather is next trimmed out to the required depth. advisable in this style of binding to arrange for either a tight back sewn case. pasted and stuck ing well over. as less than the size of the space to be the damp When down paste causes the paper or stiffening to stretch.
and also the four corner pieces should be cut out. and to the avoid waste of leather. 2.98 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. The latter piece the back also must be . Fig. longer than the length of the book from head to tail. 75 must be pared until the edges will turn over easily. The pared piece of leather for on the parts that will go over the back and joints. 76 shows the operation of attaching the corner Fig. shows how the corners can be cut to The leather should be pared manner previously described and illustrated in Figs. and so must the turning at head and tail. 75. 76. and 3 in Fig. for covering. The sketch. in the sense of touch the leather should feel thin. Fig. and sufficiently wide to cover the back. and to extend down the sides the distance already decided upon . a strip of leather should be cut ij ins. 68 and 69. Fig. 75. The three long edges of the corner pieces marked 1. pieces of leather to the boards.
then the turnings should be pressed over the edges of the boards. The corner pieces one at a time should be pasted.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. steel As a guide a pair of compasses should be set. Then the book may be set aside to dry. in and fixed carefully position on the boards. wear well. and the leather cut through with a sloping cut. the back being and the head-cap is formed the method given for whole binding. and these edges should be cut straight with a sharp knife held against the edge of a straightedge. The edges of the must be firmly pressed over each other with a folder so that one edge laps over the other and thus will be formed a strong leather corner which will point leather . is 99 then pasted. put on. the operation explained here. Instead of this method the corners when dry may be mitred. special attention being paid to the extreme on the corner of the board. book has been finished but. To prevent the corners and sides from being damaged during the subsequent processes. equidistant from the extreme corner along the fore- edge and head and right-angle. for the conveis nience of the reader. cut. The edges of the corner pieces of leather and that piece which comes over the sides will be somewhat irregular. as previously advised for whole binding. exactly as in in. is so that when the edge of the corner When form a true these edges have been trimmed. In marking the corner pieces points should be measured with the compasses. tail respectively. and points marked with these from and parallel The straightedge may with the joint on each side. be then fixed to these points. it will . after the it is usual to fix the corners on . and turned set squarely in the joint.
—The material selected may plus fore- be cut exactly to the same shape as the an allowance edge. the former produces a more lasting anct satisfactory binding. AH books covered with cloth or linen should have a hollow back. stiffening. may be used When dry round. —This braces both cloth and linen covered books. may be used. This is termed Filling In. tail. (3) Cloth Binding or Covering. class of term emFor this work it is best to arrange for a hollow back. corners. It is then to be turned over the edges of the boards. and In attaching this to the book. turn-over of the covering must be trimmed out to an equal distance from the edges all and the panel fixed in similarly to the method adopted for whole binding. ordinary sewing.100 it will PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. are Although sewn by the latter . and the book should be sewn on tapes. rather than by the method known and explained previously as many cloth-bound books method. and well rubbed down and the on the paste insides. which should boards cartridge also be turned over to the inside of the is the leather at all thick. be necessary to cut the edges of the leather to the inside of the boards in a line which pass over on with the outside edges. The board must now be brought up level with the leather on the back and by if filling in the space with stout paper. and well rubbed for covering filling. and should be cut to then pasted. or fit. Glue should be used for linen or paper. Brown paper. down. for the turnings at head. paper. for cloth. care should be fit taken that the edges of the material accurately up to the edges of the leather.
strong brown paper answers very well.
A piece should
be cut a little longer than the length of the book from head to tail, and in width equal to three times the width of the back, when measured across its convex
then folded lengthwise twice,
thus making three folds
flaps are to
inwards from the outside edge, and the two flaps are
glued together so that
thickness on the other.
the paper will form
a tube with a single thickness on one side and a double
back of the book with
quite level on each
side of the joint.
perfect adhesion, rub
well with a folder.
This will take some time,
until the glue
must be continually rubbed down
otherwise the paper
quite dry the folded head and tail, so as to allow the covering material to pass between the single thickness of paper attached to the back and the loose double thickness. This latter will form the hollow back, and will, of course, open and shut at the opening and closing of the book. The covering material may be cut out, due allowance being made for turning in, about \ in. all round will do. This should receive a
thus weaken the back.
spring in places and
edges must be
coating of paste or glue, according to the material.
the book side
to the material,
carefully pull the linen over on to the other side,
in at the
over the boards and
between the two papers previously mentioned. As there are no head-bands, no allowance for head-caps
required in this form of binding.
The boards should
be set squarely in the joint, as illustrated in Fig. 72, and the instructions which were given for whole
binding should be followed.
and flattened The surplus material at the corners may be cut away with scissors (see Fig. 77), and the material
fore-edges are then turned in
should then be carefully tucked in at the extreme
boards, and fixed
well on the
" nip "
covering, the book
the standing press (unless
and afterwards be placed under
a light weight for hours.
a hollow back
be used for leather
In this case false bands are usually put
to say, after the
strips of leather of the
required to be are glued in
outside of the lining paper.
back has been lined up, as the bands are correct position on to the
The leather cover
wards worked over these stuck-on bands,
previously described for the covering on the raised
course, this is done to imitate a book and the book, when placed upon the shelf, cannot be distinguished from the genuine style. As regards the pre(4) Vellum-Bound Books. liminary operations, this style of book may be prepared exactly as for leather, except that, owing
to the stiff
nature of vellum,
advisable to forward
hollow back, and such books should be sewn
better than a close one.
on tapes or strips of vellum, and a French joint When ready for covering,
the cut vellum should be lined with white paper on
the flesh side
the side to be attached to the
with the pasted side down on to another spare
piece of paper
up and attach
" nip " in the standing press,
ready for pasting and putting on the book.
the pasted paper on to another paper has the desired
removing the marks made by the paste brush, and clearing off any lumps, or streaky ridges of paste, which if left would show through to the other side The method of covering the book with of the vellum. vellum is much the same as for leather, but the
" turnings "
be glued, or damped with hot water.
afterwards the shrinkage will
Great care should be exercised not to stretch the
in the least, as
book open, and make
impossible to shut
inside corners should be mitred as for
leather in whole binding, or they
be pared and
corners in half-binding.
if they will join one of the many classes now held in all parts of the country and work polishing earnestly at these subjects. Finishing. The latter is easily obtained by those who wish to improve themselves or are anxious to become experts. pasting down the end papers. As a word of advice to beginners.covered books can be satisfactorily finished by simply decorating them with a few straight lines. and a good knowledge of drawing and designing must also be acquired. the lettering. Let beginners bear in mind that well. we would urge them to continually guard against the common fault of attempting elaborate work too soon. applied after —The term " finishing covered. To become an expert "finisher" requires many years of hard work. step by step. (if " is generally to all the operations which are necessary the book has been Thus finishing includes the decorative work any) upon the sides and back. during which continued practice in the manipulation of the tools is necessary.104 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. CHAPTER IX. and varnishing. Introduction. and we advise them to follow this method until they can. acquire the .
dots. both inside and outside. there is many charm in plain good leather on a book. rolls. which are used to smooth down the surface of the leather. of course. Be a simple in the treatment of all work. it is termed Blind Tooling. the first-named. people for instance. and. leaves. leave an impression of lines. and corner and these are often The decorative branch of the finisher's work consists of making impressions in the material with which the book has been covered with some of the aforementioned tools excepting. dots. When the finishing is thus left.. etc.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. — Most of those used by the finisher are made from metal. according to the tool selected. Tools. flowers. is necessary. These. made from the worker's own designs. dots or in design. gouges.. etc. as a design arranged and worked out to Moreover. IO5 power fill to accomplish the most elaborate work —such. centre tools. when heated and pressed into the soft and yielding material of the cover. an example of what can be it will be found that very satisfactory effects can be obtained by using natural . either brass or steel. to the whole of the surfaces of the cover of a book. For certain kinds of books good taste may require that no further decoration beyond the mere impression of the tool. fillets. pallets. for con- venience of handling. either in straight lines. and to these it would be distasteful to have this material covered with a mass of gold ornamentation. flowers. The names by which they are known are : polishing irons. done in —As this direction. and the artistic instinct will gradually evolve as you go forward. arc fixed into wooden handles.
and thus the is decoration of the whole surface accomplished at one impression of the blocking press. the lines or design being darkened by damping the term used the leather and using the leaf is tools only moderately warm. This reference applies more particularly to books bound in cloth.106 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.e. and the workers cannot correctly be described as finishers. then. such work as this requires little or no artistic skill. or a combination of lines and other designs. excepting. worked 'out into a harmonious whole. In cheap bookbinding. . It is.. therefore. suited to the character of the book. the decoration dies. . Hand Tooling. and in good taste. is stamped upon the cover with prepared metal which are made to fix into a press. is Silver or into thin sheets also used as aluminium beaten out an alternative to gold but a great disadvantage connected with the is use of silver leaf that it soon becomes tarnished when exposed to the atmosphere. whether they be a few simple straight lines. Of course. as the best decorative work must and always will be accomplished by the latter method. that of the artist who designs the blocks. consists of using the finisher's hand tools to work out all decorations upon the book. of course. coloured pig-skin as the covering material. cloth work but in these days of cheap editions many leather-covered books are also finished in this way.—This made by leaf . is Gold Tooling. i. well to make a distinction between such work and hand tooling. when gold placed in the blind impressions which have been the tools. and where great quantities of books of a similar character are produced.
Bedford Park. . IO7 The following illustrations of decorative finishing have been made from photographs of books which were all designed and executed by pupils who have attended the bookbinding classes held at the Acton and Chiswick Polytechnic. W. 79. London. These should be of interest in showing the progress pupils who but a few years ago were beginners.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. We trust that those among our readers who made by are just entering the ranks of would-be bookbinders will receive some stimulus from these illustrations. Fig.
and constant practice. . And them will we can promise that their efforts will be to such a source of pleasure. 79 was designed and executed by Miss D'Oyley. This book was covered with brown levant morocco. . will be able to achieve similar success. by careful and persistent application. The whole was designed and executed by Miss G. The frontispiece (Fig. 78) is taken from a book which was bound in olive green levant the flowers were inlaid with yellow levant and tooled in gold. which should induce them to go forward until they. that they will be repaid tenfold for the labour and time bestowed upon their work. and the finished books become such delightful possessions to themselves and their friends. Iceton. Fig.108 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. inlaid with red morocco.
Well finished whole-bound books are usually decorated on the inside of the boards as well as the outside. Fig. 80 is 109 levant morocco. lines. an illustration of a book bound in brown inlaid with green morocco. Iceton. 81. Fig. keeping with the outside cLcj-j/. and gold tooled. Both this and Fig. 80 are examples of work done by Miss G.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 81. and finished with gold tooling. The or inside decoration may is consist of straight in may be a design which . inlaid This book was covered with blue morocco.::. — Fig.i .
joint will be seen. and this frequently decorated with a design is tooled in gold. and termed a doublure. an is illustration from the In Fig. inside cover of a book. In elaborate work a leather panel is sometimes substituted panel is for the board papers. . or In Chapter X we propose to give details of the various processes required in finishing. and will be seen fixed between the " turnings " and the joint. double.110 Fig. and of intended to give the reader some idea 82 a leather to the treatment required. The end papers were cut form the panel. 82 is PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
as this is classed as non-porous leather. as so much is made that is is inferior and usually contains sulphuric acid. Chap. which a very undesirable constituent and one that is likely to be detrimental to the leather. is The advantage of using vinegar . is ready for finishing. The object of this washing is to prevent the "glaire " (see it. or similar leather. the first operation will be to wash over the cover with paste water. is better for porous leathers than vinegar but the latter may it be used morocco. Ill CHAPTER Finishing. X. and that it is desired to finish it by gold tooling. or with vinegar of the best quality. which can be easily saturated with the wash it be placed in a saucer or other open vessel.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and this mixture should be well beaten up. XI) sinking into the leather and staining A convenient method of applying the wash is to use if a small sponge. If the former be used. just sufficient to give the water a slight milky appearance. . it should be made by adding a little paste to clear water. Assuming that a whole-bound hook covered with morocco. that it is keeps the leather in a moist condition but essential that vinegar of good quality should be obtained. for Paste water .
book in the left hand. all over the surface of the and the book should afterwards be stood upon the edges of the boards to dry. of decoration When dry. with pressing boards to support the boards. the back is is lettered and decorated. as One of two methods of Marking Out may be adopted. . 83. 83. the book may rest on the top of the press. secondly. this usually Fig. with thumb and between the two boards and the book. the book should be placed in the finishing press. and lastly the tooling executed on the Firstly. For the inside marking out.112 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. first . shown in Fig. This action and the capping on the edges will prevent the damp from damaging the leaves." there is is to be tooling on the inside of the cover. the book being afterwards turned over and the other side The requisite measurements are treated similarly. so that the boards may be held open and away from the book. which may also be packed up level with pressing boards. The wash Hold the lingers placed should be evenly spread leather. done sides. the lines If may be " marked out. with one board open.
seen in Fig. which is guided against the edge of a This method answers very well for straight lines.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. be done by smoking their and then impressing them upon is the paper. 84. or plan out the same with the finishing The latter may surfaces over a flame. the paper may little be held in position on the book. by the aid of a paste at the corners or by metal clips. All straight lines should be ruled directly on to the cover after the removal of the Only the positions of the corner angles should be marked through the tracing paper. viz. Before pro- ceeding further with explanations as to the correct method of using the various finishing tools we will explain an important preliminary detail. mark out the size of the Inside these lines draw out the design in pencil. and on to be decorated.. — To heat these tools is shown as an example of the kind now in use. but for more elaborate designs the following method should be adopted thin : — Select a sheet of paper which this is and tough. 8 . The heat is obtained from a jet of gas conveyed by a tube which is attached to the stove. 113 marked with the spring dividers. paper. may be found necessary to go over the impressions again on the cover. the heating of finishing tools. to make them clearer. made folder. for several The same paper It will answer books if required. are joined together by lines and the marks thus made with a bone flat ruler. book tools. Heating Finishing Tools. after the paper has been removed. and the tools are afterwards heated on the stove and im- pressed through the paper on to the book. When the design complete. A practical knowledge of the finisher's stove.
abso- and such knowledge it is cannot be obtained from a book. As a further help to the following degrees of heat (1) may of be mentioned Just warm. until this difficulty of obtaining correct knowledge of the exact temperature at which to apply the tools has been Fig. spite of beginner must. continue to persevere. For calf and other porous the beginner. therefore. in many failures. mastered. 84. The heat required varies according to the kind of leather to be tooled. very largely We cannot. pro. is the correct heat at which to apply the tools lutely essential to ensure success. as a matter of experience. mise much help in this direction the but in addition to the instruction here given. apply a drop water to the shank of the . that a common fault with beginners to use the tools too hot.H4 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. First it is we may add. After the tool has been heated on the stove. as a word of caution. : leathers the tools will need to be hotter than for morocco.
" Should a hissing sound be produced after the application of the drop of water." will generally be satisfactory but that depends on whether the leather used is dry or moist. a book that has been covered a week or so will usually require tools rather hotter than a book covered the material. Tools when heated should not be kept hovering over the work while the worker is making up his or her mind where to place them. the second stage. the tool " hot. The desired heat for the if tools is obtained by regulating the jet of gas and. tool. —During this and that of decorating the back. " just warm .PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and is dries instantly.. while hot tools should be placed in position and lifted off again as quickly as possible. a saucer. " medium heat. as this dries the albumen process in the glaire. Lettering. If just warm they do not need to be worked as quickly as when hot. it 11 and may (2) if the moisture just dries off without hissing. the book should be fixed in the ." (3) may be termed medium When up the water placed on the tool hisses." In any heat past this stage there will be a danger of burning the For morocco and similar leather the heat " will answer well for porous leathers. they become too hot. mention must be made of the fact that the speed with which the tools are applied to the work should vary according to their degree of heat. . linen. be considered to be " just warm. etc. day before finishing. by cooling them on a wet sponge which is placed in As another point to help the beginner. and heat. For instance. it has passed the of " above stage.
It is advisable to impress . in proper order upon the stove. should be written out on a front of paper. become accustomed all find the tool required without wasting time in looking them over. and returned again to the same position. so that they may be In this to ready to hand for picking way the worker will soon up again if required. 84. after being laid out in as shown in and correct position. and any other detail it is thought necessary to slip of letter in. the worker for The lettering tools should be placed Fig. year of publication. used. The title. protection is finisher's press strip of green baize or other placed on each side to prevent damage to the leather. which can be kept in reference. they should be picked up. with the back of the book upwards. name of author.n6 A PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
and a larger view of the same operation may be seen in Fig. In spacing out for the lettering. and by the size of the book. 86. and the tools may be used The correct method of holding and using the tools is shown in Fig. 85. the lettering in blind first. The title is generally placed in the second panel from the top of the book. 84... with the surface of the cover an even downward Fig.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. whether title. etc. The face of the tool should be kept level . pressure should be given when making the impression. author. II 7 cooler than for gold tooling. or date. title. one must be guided by the length of the it and should be made as uniformly as possible. and the author's name may be also placed in . etc.
the back is a plain . or in any If of the three following panels. if the same panel the title be a short one.n8 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING.
e. no doubt. of the — this by the constant opening book. to The is decoration. with the colour of the cover. 86 four typical lettered backs shown. and the drying up of the mucilage by 1 which they were held. in the course of time they are off apt to curl at the edges and finally peel being caused.. the bands. but for a book with bands the lettering i. that although to to the thinness of paper. placing the lettering directly on to the back of books covered in times used. to the method of applying the design etc. A small camel-hair or sable brush is used for — this purpose. plain lines. across * II9 . For this the blind impressions must be pencilled in once or twice with finisher's glaire.. Glaire is used to hold the gold leaf . as These examples may be in considered their merely suggestions. are the spaces between In Fig. should be placed in the panels. with which the back Fig. to be tooled should also be blinded in. and seem add a appearance of the book. 87 gives illustrations of three backs. showing Instead of different ways of decorating the back. lettering pieces are some- These are cut from leather which will contrast. The letters can the then be impressed through this paper in a similar way sides. and they must be pared pasted on to the back. and But it is important to add finish to the many persons these lettering pieces to are very pleasing. calf or linen.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Gold Tooling. or harmonise. Beginners early attempts at lettering of paper will find it very profitable and helpful to space out such as will be required on strips and then to place this paper on the back of the book in the space to be lettered.
glaire is put the gold on as soon as the just dry . The pad should be made of a convenient size. the leather will have a soiled appearance. amount of grease so used must be the least possible. as. cotton wool is used. As the wool is placed in position a firm even pressure is given. and if it is found necessary to cool them the shank of the the . as much work it should be glaired as can be finished It is well to before becomes too dry. only to keep it . in order to hold the gold leaf to the surface in readiness for tooling. and the gold leaf will be found to leave the wool. and become attached to the book by the aid of the trace of grease placed to receive it. on which oil. should again be placed on the stove and heated. The method of picking up the gold with the wool and placing it upon the book is illustrated in Figs. in the impressions. The tools All is now ready for tooling over the gold. If the temperature of the room is high.120 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. The gold leaf should be placed on the cushion. is of either vaseline. 88 and 89. this will ensure the gold adhering well when worked in with the tool. or cocoanut This pad passed very lightly over the parts already glaired. In light or delicately coloured leather. and to obtain a small amount of grease to hold the gold leaf the wool may be passed a trace is over the surface of the hair or the face. and cut up with the knife into suitable portions in a similar way to the method recommended for edge gilding For picking up the gold a pad of in Chapter VII. Another pad of wool should be kept at hand. and great care should be exercised from spreading beyond the impressions. lard. if it should do so. the glaire will dry very quickly therefore.
will be recognised how- to use the tools at exactly the right Broken places in the gold impressions may be sometimes mended by breathing upon the defective . 89. portions of the gold leaf have not properly adhered to the leather necessary heat. Much practice is required to do this Fig. are to be re-impressed with and it is a test of the finisher's skill same impression over the gold that was made when the work was blinded in. which have been the face sponge." lines. —not —must Each tool covered with gold the heated tools .e.. the gold leaf lines probably show breaks in the is This no doubt due to the fact that the tool not being hence it hot enough. i. accurately and well. and then to press the same down with a steady and to place each tool exactly in the even pressure. and to prevent "doubling. it is . lines. The whole of the letters.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. leaf. and other decoration. causing a double impression of the letters or If the tools are used too hot. impressions will be lacking in brilliancy other hand. the gold leaf left in the . the tools are too cold. so that the exact heat may be known. will if and on the or designs. tool 121 be placed on the cooling must be tested before using.
defects in the impressions that were not seen before will be revealed. or colder. a trifle hotter. PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and will remove all the Probably after this rubbing some superfluous gold. This prepared rubbed over the surface. Tooling. The method of holding this tool will the small wheel revolves as the in Fig. and repeat the operation. tooling. as the case may be. If so. it is unnecessary to repeat it. This can be done with a pad of cotton little wool containing a The sides of the book are the last to be finished. worked the surplus may be removed with specially bottle-rubber is prepared rubber. When all the design covered in with the gold leaf has been in. should fail. and to use the tool of gold leaf. a be seen is . for the purpose of holding the position during the benzine. must be removed. The preliminary process of marking up " and working the design in blind is precisely the same as that described for gold tooling. the If this method impressions should be struck again. both on the outside and inside of the cover. Blind — " the only difference being that the impressions are )eit . they must be repaired in the manner previously leaf in described. All straight lines.122 part. on each side of the bands and panels on the back. re-glaire. 90 For the lines which run pushed forward. tool pallet is used. and immediately covering it with a new piece Then with a slightly hotter tool. taking care to profit by past experience. are put in with the fillet. and as the whole process is similar to the method adopted for the lettering and decoration of the back. All traces of the grease used on the cover.
" pasting down open " or " pasting down shut. in Fig. plain to 123 —without is is any gvdd.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 17) should first glue or paste. —The protecting end paper. and the joint be cleared of any particles of Should a leather or other joint have in. One of two methods must be adopted." worked up and down the Other tools are worked in with a slightly rocking movement until they obtain the desired colour and brilliancy." The former method is always used for leather bindings. 2. Pasting Down Open. it may be necessary to damp the leather and to work the tools in several times... " jiggered. After the design has been first impressions. and the latter may be used for cloth or linen covers. or a good plan is to tool the book while it is still damp from the covering. rub a slightly greased piece of leather. kept for the purpose. the leather should be well damped with a be driven in sponge and water. be torn out. called the waste sheet (No. and a polish only is given For lines this polish tool obtained by the friction created when the i. viz. altering the degree of heat may be required. over the face as of the tool. In order to obtain a good polish and a uniform colour. impressed.e. them by the working of the tool. The final process is to paste down the end-papers. This moisture may by the aid of a brush. and to keep it in this position pressing boards are put . is A combination of gold and blind tooling often very effective. been put the board paper should be carefully cut and trimmed to fit into the panel (see Chapter VIII). The book is then placed down flat with one board open. Should the tools show a tendency to stick to the leather.
To do this. but leave at the back tail edges of head and the a small piece of end paper.e. and with a very sharp knife. and using a steel straightedge as a guide. 4 carefully folded over the joint of the i. cut through the marks made by of the dividers. and from the fore-edge almost depth of the margins of the leather. at head and tail. If is underneath. 17) there is no joint the end paper (No. in Fig. The three edges of the end papers are then to be trimmed in order that the margins of the turnings of the leather may show equally all round. after the paper has been turned on to the board.124 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. make marks with the dividers on the end papers from the edges of the cover book. A coating of moderately thin paste given to the paper. over the junction of the board and the book. depth the joint is —not cut.. turn the paper back on to a tin. which has been Then as far in as the placed on the book. 91. after . Fig. and down on to the board.
PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. 02. especially in the joint. 125 which it is folded over into its place. and considerable patience and care are required before the pupil attains the ability to form . This latter point is very Fig. and well rubbed down. important.
The waste sheets are torn and the joint is cleared in the way previously . and then place it under a light weight until it is thoroughly dry. open it to see that all is right. closed. the boards are shut on to the end papers. and rub it across the end paper in different directions.120 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. it. After nipping. a good square joint. use the folder over a piece of clean paper. and a small clip of cardboard is must on no account be turned over without disturbing used to keep the boards quite wide open (Fig. When for they are dry the boards may be carefully closed. place a piece of clean paper over the joint. and the thumb or until finger. instead of the pasted end papers being brought over on to the boards. out. To ensure success. and the book may 92 be placed under a weight is some hours. . included to show a few of the designs made by a collection of finishers' tools. Then the book is stood on end to dry. and must not be opened until the book has been nipped in the press. Fig. — described but in this method. and by the aid of a folder rub up and down the joint thoroughly adheres. When the one side has been pasted down. Pasting Down Sheet. 91). the board The book is and the other side is pasted down in the same way. When rubbing down the end paper on to the board.
Finishers' glaire is prepared by adding a dessert-spoonful of this must pure vinegar to the white of one egg . and mix these two ingredients thoroughly together until both are incorporated. off. After standing for some time. — many materials required for bookbinding. Paste. and is ready for use. To make suitable paste take J lb. and a thick froth will be formed. of powdered alum. the glaire may be poured leaving the froth behind. Water may be used instead of vinegar. Miscellaneous. To prepare the one the proportions of the white of beat well until cup of water thoroughly mixed. of best white flour and J oz. Glaire. The mixture must be worked about well until all lumps have been . former.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. until the whole has about the same consistency as thick cream. —Two in kinds are required : glaire for edge gilding. be and st6od aside for some hours. It is afterwards poured off. This is one of the most important of the well beaten up. and finishers' glaire. stirring the matter at the same time with a wooden spoon. 12J CHAPTER XI. Put the mixture in a convenient vessel and gradually add cold water. mix egg to a .
or other spice oils. When " thin " is paste is required. broken up and have disappeared. The paste is now to be well beaten up by means of a flat stick. and then reduce the heat under the saucepan sufficiently to keep the temperature of the water . starch. books from attacks of mice or insects. substitute for ordinary flour. Now gradually it is pour it the prepared batter into the saucepan. some water.128 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. which should be removed. in order to increase the keeping qualities. and it will afterwards be ready for use. a skin will form upon the top. and be stretched a piece of string this wih be found very consurplus paste from the paste venient in scraping brush. being occasionally stirred to prevent gradually thicken and may then be and allowed to cool. Into a saucepan put a pint of water bring this almost up to boiling point. or - . Some binders add to their paste a few drops of turpentine. as the paste will corrode this. For very may be required in mending leaves. After cooling. and then allowed to simmer from 15 to 20 minutes. corn. of the " thick " paste beaten up with cold A suitable receptacle in wooden box or an enamelled bowl is a which to keep paste. which etc. away In selecting a suitable brush do not purchase one bound with iron wire. stirring quickly and briskly with the spoon as poured in. Across the top of either may or galvanised wire. still at the same degree of heat.. as burning. It will poured off " thick " paste. and the rust will be transferred to the materials on the book and oil of cloves. When it is thoroughly mixed it should be brought to boiling point. will cause undesirable stains. and also to preserve the finished white paste.
The cakes of glue should then be broken up into small pieces.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. and become it is like soft jelfy. pot of glue. useless. In this is placed the broken -up glue covered with water. rice flour. Probably few homes are without a glue pot. The may then be put on to boil until the glue quite hot. through neglecting to keep it becomes For special work. Glue. — . and allowed to stand for to be of some hours. and it is then In preparing a fresh stood in a saucepan of water. it but only should be the best Scotch glue should be used. and wash out well both inner and outer receptacles. The binder is frequently called upon to mend these as carefully and neatly as possible. covered with water. Prepared paste can be bought at most materials. dealers in bookbinders' This paste will save the time and trouble of making. and procured from a reputable dealer it who will guarantee good quality. first It should be frequently stirred during the this It heating. Torn Leaves. glue-pot is After standing. but a temporary one may be made by using an ordinary jam-jar. should be remembered that continued re-heatings of its the glue reduce adhesive properties. if the glue is good it will swell considerably. and that if the glue be allowed to burn. The torn parts should first be brought together in the outer pot replenished with water. placed in the inner pot. sheet gelatine or pale French glue may be added in the proportions of i to i. 120. and for purpose a stick is better than the brush. where a dark coloured glue would be unsuitable. —Many qualities of glue are sold. first remove all the burnt and old glue from the sides of the pot. when flat ready for use.
come —Books. stained.130 PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. Most of the dust and dirt will give way . —to rub over the surface way of The safest rubbing will be be found well in a rotary motion. fit order to ascertain that they will meet and accurately be both parts of the leaf will lie quite flat. Then any should smoothed out. A strip of Japanese tissue paper is long enough and wide enough to cover the tear placed on each side. and thus will serve to hold the torn edges together. and the torn edges should be pasted. and the crumbs may rubbed over the leaf by the aid of the open palm of the hand. often into a binder's hands. In doing this the finger is the best instrument for putting on the paste. The The leaves forming the sections flat should then be separated and placed out a level surface. dirty. so that together. —of course. it will be necessary old. and and it will be found that these can be considerably improved by judicious washing and cleaning. off. Washing and Cleaning. leaf. Next very accurately fit the pieces irregularities when mended. first efforts upon at cleaning should be made by using a piece of stale bread it without any grease upon of the dirty leaf. When dry some the tissue paper should be torn and of the fibres of this paper will be found to adhere to each side of the torn leaf. to carefully pull it to pieces by first cutting the old sewing thread. and be careful to prevent the paste from touching any other portion of the leaf except where it has been torn. and a weight the leaf is is thoroughly dry. Do put on top until not rub the tissue it paper down to the but merely place in position. Assuming that the book to be treated is a dirty one.
for stains which fail to respond to powdered alum may be added to the The leaf to be washed should be placed dish and covered with the water or solution . it the leaves have to be cleaned with liquid of well rinsed before is any kind. warm this. Many such marks give way to this remedy but if stronger treatment is . other than grease to this treatment. or the whole leaf may thus be brushed over. the stain may then be carefully brushed over with a camel's-hair brush. will be necessary to re-size the leaves in order to strengthen them and produce a good surface again. and after being thoroughly rinsed.PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. a piece of soft indiarubber should be tried. or if the book an old one. —For a little white soap Brush the soap over the grease spot. Stains. marks or stains. when the latter will be found to absorb the grease. hung upon the these line to dry. It is is then removed. —Many stains can be washed out with plain . Pieces on each side of the leaf. benzine or ether may be applied. and a fairly warm iron is rubbed over the blotting-paper. should be tried. . But it is well for the beginner or very fine glass-paper. to bear in mind the fact that there is much less possibility of damaging the leaf with bread crumbs than with indiarubber or glass-paper. 131 For any spots. and then wash it off. they should always be After washing. water a little water. in a flat or. necessary. Grease Marks. of blotting-paper are afterwards placed When drying. which will not yield to the above method. and allow it to remain upon the greasy place for half an hour.
132 Sizing: PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. then taken out. dissolved hot water. . in the proportion of to i pint of water fluid state and this ounce of either should be kept in the by continual jet of gas re-heating. —A porcelain dish. as the stains will give way to the process of re-sizing only. CURSITOR STREET. gelatine. somewhat larger than iron dishes the leaf. in The two former materials should be I . HAMPTON AND CO. 12-13. The whole is then nipped in the press. and placed in a pile. should be provided —enamelled is or those used by photographers answer the purpose placed. They are afterwards hung up to dry. and the leaves must be separated size quickly sets and causes them. PRINTERS. and when dry the book may be pressed. E. very is well. with sheets of blotting-paper on the top and underneath. LONDON.C. in order to squeeze out the size. Many superfluous without delay. by being put The leaves are dipped in separately for a few seconds. to stick together. Into such a dish the size This prepared from isinglass. or over a small during use. or boiled vellum chips. and is then ready for sewing and binding..