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THE STORY OF
THE STORY OF PAPER-MAKING AN ACCOUNT OF PAPER-MAKING FROM ITS EARLIEST KNOWN RECORD DOWN TO TH PRESENT TIME O. BUTLER PAPER COMPANY CHICAGO MDCCCC1 .'bu-Her ILLUSTRATED ]. W.
BUTLER PAPER JANUARY. 1901 COMPANY . W.COPYRIGHTED BY J.
THE ABSENCE OF NON-TECHNICAL WORKS UPON THIS INTERESTING SUBJECT PROMPTS THE AUTHORS TO PRESENT A TREATISE FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE LAYMAN. AND FOR HIS USE .
V. III. PACE ARTICLES SUPPLANTED BY PAPER i II. MODERN PAPER-MAKING WATER-MARKS AND EXTENT OF THE . VI. . . 49 . 55 VARIETIES OF PAPER . EARLY METHODS OP PAPER-MAKING .CONTENTS CHAPTER I. 95 123 BUSINESS IN THE UNITED STATES . 20 IV. . . . . VII. PAPYRUS AND PARCHMENT . 12 . ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF PAPER .
and the development since has kept The pace with the flying years. while simultaneously we cry "All hail!" to the new. and day by nineteenth century. bidding a reluctant farewell to the old. have been associated with Til . with their in the The meager machinery. then straining eager eyes for a glimpse of the mysteries that the future holds hidden. and which are to be revealed only moment by moment. began yielding to the pressure of advanced thought. has witnessed a marvelous growth It was in the early years paper industry. BUTLER PAPER COMPANY. hundred years that have written the modern hisfull tory of paper-making mark also the period during which the J. hour. first looking back over the open book of the past. of the century that crude old methods. hour by day. or its immediate predecessors. W.PREFACE IT is a rare privilege to stand as we do at the meeting-point of the centuries. so preeminently one of progress in almost every line of mental and material activity.
and auxiliary trades. W. and they consider it their privilege.viii Preface industry in this country. as well as the fulfillment of a pleasant obligation. J. It the has therefore seemed to the present representatives of the com- pany that the closing year of the century was an put into story form the history of the wonderful and valuable product evolved almost wholly from seemingly useless especially fitting time to materials." but we will feel confident that the incoming century bring changes and improvements as wonderful as any the past has wrought. BUTLER PAPER COMPANY. and we hope that it may be our good instrumental in fortune to in some measure be promoting whatever tends to a of the industry with which greater development our name has been so long associated. We " Know not Of marvel what the future hath and surprise. to present this account to their friends and associates in the paper. printing. .
ARTICLES EARLY USED FOR PURPOSES SUPPLIED BY PAPER
Full of dignity, significance, and truth
noble conception which finds expression in Tennyson's verse, that we are the heirs of the ages, the
countless cycles of time
been struggling and aspiring; now " mounting up with wings, as eagles," now thrown back to earth
by the crushing weight of defeat, but always rising " The fathers again, undaunted and determined.
have wrought, and we have entered into the reward of their labors." We have profited by their All the wisdom of the striving and aspiration.
wealth of experience gained by generations of
belongs to us
defeat and triumph, of inheritance. It has by right " are what the has made
of the past are ourselves."
what agency do we owe the preservaour inheritance? What conservator has
Story of Paper-Making
kept our rich estate from being scattered to the
four winds of heaven
For the wealth
are indebted in large
desire, manifested in all ages, to perpetuate his knowledge and achievements. Before the thought of a permanent record had
to take shape in men's minds, oral tradipassing from father to son, and from
generation to generation, sought to keep alive the memory of great achievements and valorous
tradition proved itself untrustworthy. were often imperfect, misleading, exagReports Through dull ears, the spoken words gerated.
were received into minds beclouded by ignorance, and passed on into the keeping of treacherous
the races advanced in learning and civilization, they realized that something more
permanent and accurate was necessary; that without written records of some sort there could be
any, progress, since each generation must practically where the preceding one had
begun, and pass through the same stages of ignorance and inexperience.
help from Nature, and found in the huge rocks and bowlders shaped by her mighty forces a means of perpetuating
Articles Supplanted by Paper
notable events in the histories of nations and the
great deeds and solemn
was but a step to the hewing of obecovenants, lisks, upon which the early races carved their hieroglyphs, rude pictures of birds and men, of As early as four thousand beasts and plants.
years before Christ, these slender shafts of stone were reared against the deep blue of the Egyptian sky,
for ages their
the sun over the restless,
shadows passed with shifting sands of the
to dust beneath
Time's unsparing hand, gtypku
existence, while the British
nate as to be in possession of one shaft of black basalt that is in perfect condition. part of it a part with bas-reliefs. In is covered with writing,
these hieroglyphs were
a purpose sug-
exclusively for religious writings
gested by the derivation of the word itself, which comes from the Greek, ieros, a priest, and glypha,
the obelisk had taken the place of the rude
unwieldy bowlders which marked to solve an ever-recurring prob-
bearing letters and figures as clear as any of the inscriptions on marble. and especially fitted to become the repositories of the records that were to preserve for coming generations the deeds of kings Accordingly. Inscriptions The monarchs. Then came a forward step to soft the easier and cheaper method of writing on not being obliged to take clay.4 The Story of Paper-Making The temples lem. individuals usually employed clay. so it in turn was superseded. or metal that have come to us of Greece or Rome. in character. from the splendid days The people of Assyria transaction. but writings. and Chaldea recorded almost every whether public or private lets upon tab- of clay. into consideration questions of ease or economy. continued to private make use of and the stone tablets. the pictured stories of events were graven on stone panels in the great temple walls. were sacred places. so that ancient ruins are many which have been dug from now in a remarkable state of preservation. or on slabs or tablets of the same priests. forming thus a faithful transcript of . not scientific only for literary business transactions as well. but in their careful baking. either artificial A heat or in the burning rays of by a tropic sun. rendered the clay tablets very enduring. and enduring material. stone.
another recording the story of creation. Assyrian. series and was which was Assyria. The which they committed their records is left. the once proud and mighty cities lie prostrate. all inscribed on indestructible terra-cotta. deeds of propof private nego- erty.Articles Supplanted by Paper 5 their daily lives and occupations. statements tiations. and . the ruins of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. There are bank-notes and notes of hand. dean records Several of narratives are comprehended in the col>n one referring to the language. Babylonia. and Assyria. tions. records of almost every sort have been unearthed..Babylonian writings & r is now in the British . One of the largest collections of these clay. mythology of the Assyrians. and upon their ruins other cities have that risen. which may be read to-day by those who hold the key. public records. .- taken from a great edifice in probably the residence of Sennacherib. and the tablets that were fash- ioned and inscribed so long ago give to us the best histories of Chaldea. in which "Water-deep" is said to be the creator of all forms of life then in ex- . Museum a ^ hal~ . terra-cotta to is all only to fall as they fell. The and memoranda of astronomical observalife in which they played a part has passed into history. legends. thus it is we From bridge the gulf of centuries.
among the This was a prism. since we are dealing not so much with the writing itself as with the material on which writing was done. and the ancient Assyrian tablets no doubt served the same purpose as the records. while a third relates to the deluge and the But however instory of the Assyrian Moses. Another form of variation it tablet. Apparinterspersed with numerous invocations. newspapers. and documents that are now deposited in the corner-stones of public or other important buildings. in themselves. after having been inscribed ^fa accO unts of the notable events in their lives. a somewhat singular may seem. very Assyrians having either six or eight sides. and made of exSuch prisms were freceedingly fine terra-cotta. was in use early date.6 The Story of Paper-Making istence. lets The prisms used as tab- varied in length from a foot and a half to three feet. make the most of the space at their disposal is suggested by the fact that upon a prism found in . the custom was similar to that followed at ently the present day. we teresting these facts may be refer to them only by way of illustration. at a Inscriptions on prisms quently deposited by the Assyrian kings at the corners of temples. and were covered very closely with That the writers* endeavor was to small writing.
" in an account of the writings that have come down to us from the earliest days of the world's recorded history. while at others they exhibit on a portion of their surface impressions of seals. ranging from nine inches long by six and a half wide to an inch and a half long by an inch wide. c. wonder that it was necessary to crowd the inscrip.Economy of tions upon the prism! Rawlinson's "Ancient *P ac* Monarchies. who reigned from 1 120 to 1 100 B. Sometimes they are entirely covered by writings. or even less." Their use in writing and drawing was almost universal. and we read still ... and logical more are mythological.Articles Supplanted by Paper 7 the ruins of the ancient city of Ashur the inscriptions are so crowded that there are thirty lines in the space of six inches. has this to "The clay tablets are both numerous and say : curious. mytho- emblems. or five lines to the inch. Many are historical. He was a monarch whose very name inspired terror among the surrounding peoples. and his reign was filled with Small stirring events and brilliant achievements. Some thousands have been recovered. They are of various sizes. and the like. and undertook campaigns against forty-two other nations and their kings. The prism recites the valiant deeds of TiglathPileser I.
their intestines. that dwelt by that the river of thee a it tile Chebar. tanned to a sort of leather. when dwelling with "them of the captivity at Telabib. It is a proposal of B." (Ezekiel iv. The The works works of Homer. i.. c.. while their bones. by a Pharaoh asking the hand of a daughter of the Babylonian Forty years later. c. "Take and lay it before thee. even the precious gold and Skins of silver being employed for the purpose. and portray upon the city. found favor among many peoples.8 The Story of Paper-Making the prophet Ezekiel. were written in letters of gold on the skins of ser- ." was commanded. the ten commandments were graven on tablets of stone. in 1491 B. king. preserved in the Britwhich is one of the earliest specimens in existence. metal were used.) get a glimpse of another side 'of that ancient We life in a tablet ish of writing Museum. even Jerusalem. now of Nile clay. marriage. some queer Plates of materials were pressed into service. animals. and even were by no means disdained. In the early efforts of men to find a means of preserving in lasting and convenient form the records of their lives and achievements. preserved in one of the great of Homer Egyptian libraries in the days of the Ptolemies. and was written about 1530 more than thirty-four hundred years ago.
real But the first advance toward modern writing materials came in the use of the leaves of olive. which were then exposed to view in public places. . accordcustom. later on. and classes. 9 of trees. which were prepared by being cut ria ^ nfffs~ in strips. poplar. ing rapidly. The greatest defect in this method was remedied when. and then rubbed over wood to make them soft and pliable. the reports of notable events were engraved on wooden tablets. that these crude materials and primitive methods could It will not long keep pace with the steady march of The peoples of the earth were increasprogress. thus admitting of corrections and erasures. they were advancing in the arts and sciences. simply by scraping off the coating after it had served its purpose. however. Old mattand other trees. wax was used to form a surface upon the wood. and in the experiences that inspire thought. Ivory was used. and making it possible to use the same table indefinitely.Articles Supplanted by Paper pents. be readily understood. and supplying other coatings as they were needed. mingling freely. also wood and the bark In the early days of Rome. in the great Forum that was the center of the city's life. were easily and quickly all citizens of ing to informed of the important happenings of the day. soaked in boiling water. palm.
together with other deeds worthy of record. The biography of one man. while a library of modern dimensions.Making poetry. but terra-cotta was A not suited either for the record of numerous and rapid business transactions or for the writing of books. What was bersome to take the place of the old and cummaterials? Even at a very early date men were asking this question. It was but natural that the materials which had once been entirely adequate should now be discarded as cumbersome and unfitted to the new conditions. would have required a whole building. clay tablet might serve in a marriage proposal by a king who had the power to meet and vanquish all rivals. had greatly multiplied. they had a heritage of knowledge to which they were constantly adding. or a single philosophy. time was taking on a value unknown The and put bake might answer the purpose when realaway estate transfers were infrequent and attended with before. A deed of land written in clay to much ceremony. while business transactions. as to the number of books. and philosophy. and it was the good . sands in the hour-glass were beginning to run golden.io The Story of Paper. would probably have left little room in a city for the dwellings of its treatise in inhabitants.
power. and to maintain a position of wealth. and influence that otherwise would have been impossible. now almost extinct. which was peculiarly fitted to meet the new demands. dignity. . still even in those many centuries remote days when printing was beyond the thoughts or dreams of men. as we shall see in the succeeding chapter.Articles Supplanted by Paper fortune of the 1 1 Egypt to be marshy banks of able to give answer. The discovery of its value led to an extensive industry. Along Discovery the Nile grew a graceful water-plant. through which the land of the Pharaohs was enabled to take high rank in letters and learning.
graceful water-plant whose plumy, drooping heads were swayed by the breezes that ruffled the waters of the Nile was one of the most useful
long held a leading place. As early as 2000 B. c., or five hundred years before Moses led the chil-
dren of Israel out of bondage, there was made from its smooth green stems a material called by the
same name, papyrus, a kind of crude paper, which came into universal use, and was so valuable and in such great demand that one of the kings proposed to maintain his army from the sale of this product alone. The plant was the familiar bulrush of the Nile, which grew in forest-like profusion along the banks of that mighty stream; and from its strong stems was woven the ark in which the infant Moses was hidden away "among the flags by the river's brink/' and so saved from the death that menaced him under Pharaoh's cruel decree. The Egyptian papyrus was thus the means of preserving to the world the
of the greatest law-
Papyrus and Parchment
giver of history.
been equally instrumental in perpetuating the code of laws whose principles still serve as foundation for the jurisprudence of
the leading nations of the earth, nearly four thou-
own people, the wandering tribes in the desert. The papyrus, a tall, smooth-stemmed reed of
grew to a height of ten or fifteen and terminated in a tufted plume of leaves and flowers. Like so many plants that grow
beneath the ardent skies of the tropics, it had numerous uses. It was noted especially for the Many soft, cellular substance found in the interior of f
stems, which was a
also for the
both cooked and in
of food, It was
sail-cloth, employed and wearing apparel; while in Abyssinia, cordage, in whose marshes it is still to be found, boats
making of mats,
were fashioned by weaving the stems closely together and covering them with a sort of resinous At a very early day, judging from sculpmatter.
tures of the fourth dynasty,
use of the papyrus, employing it in the construction of light skiffs suited to the navigation of the
It is believed pools and shallows of the Nile. that Isaiah referred to boats of this sort when he
Story of Paper-Making
spoke of the "vessels of bulrushes upon the But valuable as the papyrus was through waters."
its enduring fame was due an entirely different source. to It held closely within its green stems the scrolls upon wrapped
these manifold uses,
which, through hundreds of years, the history and literature of the world were to be written ; and that
alone was sufficient to engrave its name deeply on the thoughts and memories of men.
In the manufacture of
papyrus, the outer rind of the stem
Egyptian paper, was first
The prep- removed, exposing an interior made up of numerQUS success i ve fiber layers, some twenty in number.
These were separated with or needle, arranged side by
a pointed instrument, side on a hard, smooth
table, crossed at right-angles
with another set of
After above, and then dampened. had been applied for a number of hours, pressure the sheets were taken out and rubbed with a piece
of ivory, or with a smooth stone or
desired surface was obtained,
shell, until the
complete, except for
in the sun.
the process was The inner
layers of the plant furnished the best product, the outer ones being coarse and suitable only for the
making of cordage.
fastened together, as
called gained a number of words. and the process of manufacture it passed. in the Latin tongue. is claimed further that the process of furrowing off the different layers of the pith gave us. the Magna Charta. far Earfy beating the surface smooth. and. the "charta" of that famous document. made a great improvement in the sheets by sizing them with flour. of which hundreds have been discovered in recent years. through the Greek word charasso /a/>ar<ro. and Greek and Latin charta. to furrow. _ It is believed that 11 i discoveries in early times they used silk as their basis. also learned some of the secrets away of paper-making. It is said that the Romans. and then The Chinese. to which a few drops of vinegar were added. our several words chart. carte blanche. c . deftly cutting a continuous pith of the papyrifera. "** to the East. the great sheet-anchor of English .Papyrus and Parchment 15 be required. from the From through which the reed. byblos in the Greek. the English language has The plant itself. card. . but later on they made the so-called rice-paper by a method similar to that employed in the manufacture of slice papyrus. papyrus It has given us the two words paper and bible. to form the papyrus rolls. when they undertook the manufacture of papyrus. of course. a piece of paper.
as a staple manufacture of Alexandria in A. are said to have become known in Europe through the French expedition and specimens were reproduced in print by one Cadet in 1805. well preserved. scapus by the glutinatorie. a papyrus manuscript. from which we get our word volume. the first known bookbinders. which is thirty feet in length. 244. and U5e it continued to be used in Italy until Extensive the twelfth century. The rolls. about the year 1753. whether a similar statement can It is doubtful four be made thousand or even two thousand years hence in regard to many of the books printed on nineteenth- . or papyri.1 6 The Story of Paper-Making In the course of manufacture. The of papyrus is mentioned by Philostratus making into Egypt in 1798. 800 rolls were unearthed in the ruins of Herculaneum. The city of Paris boasts a volumer of this sort. D. The extent to which it was f employed may be judged by the fact that nearly i. and it is claimed that the ancient papyrus manuscripts that have been properly preserved are almost as serviceable to-day as when first made. twenty sheets of papyrus were glued together into a liberties. this The its durability of substance added greatly to value. and then into a roll known as a volumer.
Papyrus and Parchment
century paper. Chicago has the largest collection of ancient papyri west of the Atlantic, consisting
of three hundred complete pieces and hundreds of fragments, which were discovered by an Arab
sheik while digging along the banks of the Nile. Following the making of papyrus came the Parchment manufacture of parchment, the use of which in a su ^ tltutf
public documents continues to the present time. As the story runs, the invention of the new writing material was due
to the spirit of rivalry
Attalus, king of Pergamus, was anxious to establish in his capital a library that
excel the splendid collection at Alexandria, but Egypt, having a monopoly of papyrus, refused to sell to him. But no monopoly of that
could ever control
Nature is resourceful, supplying man's needs. and man, when driven by necessity, soon learns
that her treasures are practically limitless.
the supply of one article is for any reason curtailed, she furnishes something as good or better to take the paper in the world to-day were owned by a monopoly that refused to sell, something would speedily be found to take its
So the inhabitants of Pergamus, being
Story of Paper-Making
refused papyrus, set about manufacturing a substitute, which came to be known among the
Romans as "pergamena," from which comes our word parchment. The skins of sheep and goats were employed Manufacture of n t le ma kj n gr O f parchment. These were steeped .. parchment c in pits impregnated with lime, and afterward
upon frames, where their thickness was reduced by paring and scraping them with sharp
obtain the fine, uniform, velvety surface characteristic of the best parchment, it was necessary to sprinkle the skin with chalk, and
rub and polish it with fine pumice-stones, which not only smoothed and softened the leather, but
improved its color. duced to about half its
dried for use.
acme of luxury
manner, from the skins of young
Hebrews wrote on
the skins of animals, and
believed that the
about the same period, used a sub-
stance resembling parchment, and prepared in a similar manner, the cost of land carriage being too
great to admit of any extensive introduction of papyrus into western Asia. "For public docu-
Papyrus and Parchment
ments, the rock, and for private, the pen and the prepared skin, seem to have been preferred by
any rate, they employed no other materials." For many years parchment was used in England for all deeds of real estate, and so lengthy were these documents that it was said it took a
flock of sheep to
them, and in the
convey an acre of land or make
As the age of stone, the a marriage settlement. carved obelisk, the clay tablet, and other crude materials was outgrown, so was that of papyrus and parchment.
step forin its
ward came paper, and the improvements
The advent fP aP'r
manufacture with regard to quality, variety, and increase of production, have kept pace with the varying and growing demands. It is not given us
likely to hold
end of time.
in its developed and improved form. by a process Paper from family. covered that the mulberry might be put to still Kingdom had been demonstrating its some another use. "Time and patience will change the mulberry leaf into satin.. and to which they were indirectly indebted for their softly belonged to the same From its bark they made.CHAPTER To the Chinese is III THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF PAPER now generally conceded the discovery of the art of making paper." The ingenious. painstaking sons of the Flowery truth through about 1 50 A. they discenturies. mulberry tnat: mus t have seemed to them something akin to shimmering silks. far exceeding that of the rich and costly stuffs woven from the cocoons of the silkworm. a material which. According to the old saying. but it magic. The tree that they chose for their new manufacture was not identical with the one upon which they fed their silkworms. Compared with modern methods of paper20 . has been of priceless value to the world. of the sort familiar to us. when. D. from fibrous matter reduced to a pulp.
then worked by hand Chintte mf *bads into a pulp. after which the outer part was scraped off and the inner part boiled in lye. the sheets were laid one above another.Natures It self teaches the method of making paper from }***** vegetable fibers beaten to a pulp. similar to what frog-spittle. The sheets were formed by dipping a "mold" fine with a mallet. weights were applied. confined in a frame. molding. Nature her. has been suggested that in regions where the water-plant called the conferna grows. made of out of bulrushes. Then followed maceration in water for several days. was fairly simple. These were washed in a pan or sieve. The branches of the tree were first boiled in lye to remove the bark. which was taken strips in a thin layer. and thoroughly stirred to mix the materials. The fibers are disintegrated . which is said to be in vogue in China. after the method followed After in making paper by hand. into the vat containing the pulp. and the sheets were afterward dried in the sun.Origin and Early History of Paper making. The pulp was placed in a tub an infusion of rice and a root called containing went. called The plant conis of slender green filaments. with strips of reeds placed between. which was spread on a table and beaten until it was separated into fibers. still 21 this primitive process.
Bleached by the sun. water. in it has been. material booty. cast it is some overflow of the upon the shore to dry. man was slow to discover the teacher. and found to their surprise many arts and refinements of which they had been ignorant. tossed by the waves. and to wrest from the infidels the tomb of the Savior. At It . or to learn the lesson. Palestine. D.. winds. who visited Byzantium. many of whom were grossly Uarn paper- ignorant and superstitious. But if Nature taught the process. The Crusaders followers of the Cross. through the Crusaders. that the art of making paper from pulp was introduced into France. and they carried the secret back with them to their own towns and learned it cities. and carried on resistas a by the currents. When the Arabs captured the splendid city of Samarcand from the Chinese. D. for the art of paper-making flourished there. was in 1189 A.22 The Story of Paper-Making by the action of the water. this scum is at last beaten into pulp and matted together by the forces whose lessly plaything finally. as veritable sheets of paper. Western Europe in turn from the Arabs. and rise to the surface Driven hither and thither by the scum. went east to christian-^ j^ conque^ the inhabitants of these ancient lands. and Syria. about 704 they gained something more than A.
and indeed almost the only papers proin duced Europe. they prosecuted this art with such zeal and industry that they were soon in a position to supply not French and Dutch im** n only the wants of France. but those of surroundThe people of the Nething countries as well. Profiting new knowledge. This would indicate that some kind of 8d. which stated that no such industry had ." paper. which gave the name of "paper mylne" to the establishment where it was handled or manipulated. in 1498. i6s. and erlands were stimulated by the example of France.Origin and Early History of Paper that time the 23 French people were far in advance of the English in cultivation and in regard to the refinements of life. It is stated that the personal expense account of Henry VII. existed in England nearly two hundred years before any patent was issued for its manuIt was almost two centuries later that the facture. and took by their great delight in construction. manufacturing. patent referred to farther on in this chapter was granted. for a long period the French and Dutch were the best. there appears the following " For a rewarde at the entry: paper mylne. They were energetic. of paper-making England. be established as to the in No first reliable record can in England. and building.
"A Description and Playne Discourse of Paper and the whole Benefits that Paper Brings." A book mentions the paper-mill of Spillman. the Younger. with Rehearsal and Setting forth in verse a Paper-myll Built near Darthforth. I." This mill used ties. page 20. " of Queen in a work entitled Progress poem Elizabeth. has the title." is is said to have been located at Hart- paper-mills ford. by a High Germaine. De Proprietatibus the Properties of Things)." in 1565. England. Jeweler to the Queen's Majestic. called Master Spillman. and who bore the This of "Nestor of the Elizabethan era. In the year 1558 appeared "Sparks of Friendship. appear these significant lines: book. Wynken de Worde's " Rerum" (About " And John Tate. rounded by a John Tate died in 1498. joye mote he brok ! " Whiche late hathe in England. English book printed Inne. doo this make is this paper Thynne u That now in our Englysh. who was born title in 1520 and died in 1604." a book by Thomas Churchyard. and the print of the watermark given in Herbert's "Typographic AntiquiVol.24 The Story of Paper-Making In an old previously existed in the kingdom. issued in 1498." This . as an eight-pointed star surcircle.
taking the entry of King Henry VII." which would to indicate a third or fourth mill in 1592. a fool with cap and bells was substituted for the king's arms. its if not the third.Origin and Early History of Paper is 25 often said to have been the first mill in land. tight little island" were almost . lease of water.. "Penlifton Co. in contempt of Charles I. of kind. in 1591. July. Cambridge. the industry of paper-making languished in England. was knighted by Queen Spielman. as proof of an by him English mill. It is said that or Spillman. but if the quotation with regard to Tate is intended to imply that the paper was EngJohn made in England. 34th.. and this. late of Bishopric of Ely to John George. then certainly there must have a paper-mill in operation in that country been nearly a hundred years before. dated 4th. For some reason. reads. Elizabeth. 1 seem In 1649 tne watermark of the finest English paper (whether made in England or not) bore the royal arms. in 1588. England. and in 1670 the people of the "right little. called paper-mills. but later on. Elizabeth as Recognition a fitting honor and reward for the noble work of having built a paper-mill at Dartford. A lease recorded in the Land Revenue Records of England. must have been the second.
while in 1689.000 annually. but. settled in White paper England and established paper-mills. published in 1690." that hardly any but brown paper was manufactured. as sometimes happens. and the opportunity was soon improved by French Protestant refugees. and that previous to England had bought paper of her neighbor across the Channel to the amount of 100. . the temporary deprivation course of time transmuted into a permaThe way was opened for the home nent benefit. in it writing. in manufacturer. fleeing from persecution in their own land. by Anderson.26 The Story of Paper-Making entirely dependent upon France for their supply of the indispensable fabric. meeting with In the " History of Commebut slight success." facture of paper in this time England. in an article in "British Merchant. its manufacture.tne following year was stated. it is claimed that this was the date of the first manuret. paper became so scarce and It is evident that high that all printing ceased. the according to report. The war with France occaj sioned such high duties on foreign products as to make was the cost of importation too great . if carried on at all in their own country. In 1687 appeared a proclamation for the establishment of a mill for the making of white writing-paper . who.
"the way and art of making blue paper used decade later. printing. the latter bearing the date of July 4." seeming contradiction of the statement of A the second patent is found in Henry VII. existing only in brief and isolated attempts at manufacture. and being "for the true art and way of making English paper for writing.. makes the hast Lord Say : "Thou most in traitorously corrupted the youth of the realm . and com- up to the prehended merely the crudest products. which was for the making of "white paper for the use of writing and printing. 1685. The for first British patent for granted to Charles Hildegard." Another decade intervened between the second and the third patents.Origin and Early History of Paper 27 time when the patents of 1675 were granted. 1665. both as good and serviceable in all respects and as white as any French or Dutch paper. and for other uses. February. was granted the second patent. the industry was in anything 1685 but a prosperous condition." January. 1675. in by sugar bakers and others. paper-making was Early En*l" h ^ A already referred to in this chapter. in accusation against Shakespeare's 1450. where Jack Cade. being a new manufacture and never before practiced in any way in any of our kingdoms or dominions.
a paper whose watermark represented a hog with a This was to show his contempt for the miter.28 The Story of Paper-Making erecting a grammar school. that parchment being scribbled o'er should undo a man?" thus making it evident that parchment and not paper was in Since. The all mouth his are intended to exhibit his ignorance. of England used for his private correspondence. It him by special may have been manufactured for order in Germany or the Nether- . Watermark of There is always some dispute as to exact dates. at Rome. with whom he had so bitterly pope jt js l i quarreled. Henry VIII. before. however. thou hast caused printing to be used and contrary to the king. "Is not this a lamentable thing. of the skin of an innocent lamb should . his crown and his In the dignity. decency learning or refinement. thou hast built a paper-mill. we are not compelled to believe that he was necessarily truthful or historically correct in charges put into his all his accusations. that. c a me(i that about 1540. and whereas. and prejudice against to extending even of dress and comportment. ignorant rebel. our forefathers had no other books but the score and the tally. eated Cade as a low." same act Cade observes. be made parchment . Shakespeare delingeneral use.
its Eng- manufacture was not known to the authorities that granted the patents. had ended by making conWhen. The beginning of the industry in America was as a America's fint * almost coincident with the granting of patents for the manufacture of paper in Kngland. in the year 1690. coming over from Africa on a plundering expedition. so that the trade was afterward lost for a time in land. the industry declined in Spain. Long before this. to be revived at Fabriano. or tlers it 29 set- who and returned to their may have been made by foreign own country. who. which soon rose into prominence in Later on. the long struggle between Christian and Moor ended in the downfall of the latter.Origin and Early History of Paper lands. Pennsylvania.Spanish and troduced into Spain by the hordes of Saracenic &*&** invaders. 1340. and his ex- pulsion from the land that had seemed to him the paradise of the prophet. in Central Italy. paper-making center. a Philawas established of native delphia printer. in the province of Ancona. one of the builders and owners being William Bradford. who was afterward the owner of . paper-mill a man ~ A by William Kittenhouse. a paper-mill was established in Padua. at Germantown. quest of the whole peninsula. however. Holland. paper-making had been in.
rented his quarter interest in this paper-mill near Germantown for a to William and Nicholas Rittenhouse. where . was through him that Benjamin Franklin. this being also on the banks of a small stream that emptied into the Wissahickon. William Bradinto the Wissahickon. in Philadelphia.30 the first The Story of Paper-Making It printing office in New York City. The paper at this first American mill was made from linen rags." tity William De Wees. in 1710 erected another mill in that part of Germantown called Crefeld. and was so pleased with the process of paper-making as he witnessed it there that he secured workmen and sent them to Moscow. ford. and employment. which empties In 1697. received his first introduction to a temporary home. The mill was on a stream subsequently called Paper-mill Run. in 1723. and the product was about two hundred and fifty pounds per day. the annual rental being "ye full quan- of seven reams of printing paper. term of ten years. Russian mills It is I stated by several authorities that in the y ear y I2 Peter the Great of Russia visited Dresden. a brother-in-law of Nicholas Rittenhouse. two reams good writing paper and two reams of blue paper. probably in preparation for his intended removal to New York City.
Wilcox. 1713. into Massachusetts in 1717. and where Thomas Watkin. brought is into great repute in a short time. so that in 1770 there were forty paper. New Jersey. royal grants and privileges. who. where it had again gone to decay. Delaware 1729. The advance among the leading of Europe during the same period was The manufacture was introduced equally rapid. it stated. as in the states where it . where paper was still made by hand as late as 1870. erected a The date of the erecpaper-mill in Delaware. and into Norwich. in which case there would be no conflict of authorities. Connecticut. fur- paper to Benjamin Franklin. it a stationer of London. saw a revival of the industry in England. County. tion of this mill is given by another authority as and the place Chester Creek. Pennsylvania.Origin and Early History of Paper they erected a paper-mill with 31 many valuable The following year. but the progress in New nations England was not so rapid had been first established. advance and Delaware.Rapid mills in the states of Pennsylvania. It may possibly have nished been a second mill that was built by Thomas Wilcox at that time. In 1714 a Mr. in 1768. The manufacture made rapid strides in this young and growing country.
. but failed of passage. stone Pulp from that stone. The beneficiary of the bill was William Bradford. and by its provisions he and his assigns were to be encouraged to make paper. doubtless the same man who owned the quarter interest in the first Pennsylvania mill. while all other persons were be prohibited from manufacturing it in the province during a period of fifteen years. had in a figurative sense sucIt remained ceeded in turning stone into paper. introduced the policy of protection for infant industries. to advance the claim that this could be done literally.32 The Story of Paper-Making A bill which came before the New York Leg- islature in 1724. his constant effort through the centuries to find something better suited to his needs. to Man's untiring endeavor. but safe to it is assume that both material and methods were similar to those employed at the present time in the manufacture of asbestos papers. for two apprentices of Rittenhouse. the primitive material on which had been carved the first written characters of the race could be converted into a paper resembling asses' skins. who erected a third paper-mill in Pennsylvania in 1728. nor what process was followed. have no means of knowing what the so-called We stone was. in an exceedingly narrow and discriminating sense.
Origin and Early History of Paper 33 The ment of year 1728. was a It is notable one in the annals of paper-making. in 1730. returned thanks bookseller. Jersey. which is to have been the first one in the state.& ture paper. Henchman. supposed New while in the same year the General Court or Legislature to a of Massachusetts granted a ten-year patent A state rant company for the exclusive right to manufac. operation at this patent went into one of the small towns near Milton. which marked the establishthe third mill in Pennsylvania. and is supposed to have been discontinued owing The mill established under to the impossibility of securing a skilled workman. and to increase a certain amount each year until the annual product of the various qualities should be not less than 500 reams a year. who was also maker and rag merchant. stated that in that year William Bradford owned a mill at Elizabethtown. though Richard Fry. pany was to By the terms of this grant the commake at least 115 reams of brown and 60 reams of writing paper in the first fifteen months. It was erected by Daniel Boston. an enterprising stationer of Boston. in 1731 Henchman produced before the General Court samples of paper made at the mill. In the following year another stationer of Boston. paperto the .
Massachusetts. and discontinued for lack of workman. in me thods and until 1750 that machinery were crude. while in 1759 cylinders provided with sharp steel blades were invented in Holland for the same purpose. and by . sufficient dura- in the city a soldier who was he obtained for him a furlough of tion to enable him to get the mill into running state order once more. taking the place of the heavy stampers. It was not wove molds came into use and did away with the roughness of laid paper. already mentioned as having been built in 1768. its The of Connecticut showed appreciation of the important industry by issuing a special charter to the mill at Norwich. citizen Finding among the British troops stationed also a paper-maker. which had required a great expenditure of power in their operation. Six later engines were introduced to facilitate the years process of reducing the rags to pulp. of which he had already received several Crude methods and response to a request in a previously published advertisement. During these early days of the industry both pounds weight.34 The Story of Paper-Making people for gathering rags. and soon came into general use. which had previously been accomplished by pounding. of Bos- was put into operation again by a ton. established in 1730. The mill at Milton.
in the and the first mills loans and rewards. but withdrew in its special en- 1770. The were encouraged by Maryland convention . Letter in 1769 published an article stating that "the bell cart will go through Boston before the end of next month mills at to collect rags for the paperMilton. and id. the industry was not established Mills as early as in New England and the Middle States. Connecticut gave state aid to the mill at Nor- wich for two years. and as a consequence. Christopher Leffingwell. In the South. paper became exceedingly scarce during the war.Origin and Early History of Paper the 35 payment of a bounty to the manufacturer.020 quires of writing-paper. when all the people that will encourage the paper manufactory may dispose of them. having paid Leffingwell a couragement bounty of 2d. per quire on 4." and followed with an appeal in "rime. a quire on 10. There were constant appeals for rags in this Scarcity of The Boston News ra& early stage of the industry. Apparently the people of New England did not "encourage the paper manufactory" to any great extent. for at the outbreak of the Revolution there were only three paper-mills in that section of the country.600 quires of printing-paper.
the same year. a paper-mill the production of three writing-paper made at the mill. either in cash or in writing money to be paid reams of good In the year 1776. the interest. South Carolina offered paper. and the inhabitants were to be careful to save even the small- of rags. With the outbreak of hostilities came a keener realization of the importance of the paper interest) and the S reatest care was exercised in provid- mg In 1776 Massachusetts provided by law for the appointment of a suitable person in each town to receive f r a ^ details of the manufacture. admonished est quantity rags for the paper-mills .36 The Story of Paper-Making in 1775 resolved that ^400 be granted and advanced to James Dorsey for starting a paper-mill. without or cartridge In the same year. Papermakers 'milifa/ service together with much of that used by the Continental Congress. exempted from military . upon at East Hart- ford. by service special enactment. In anticipation of the comin ing conflict. ^500 currency to the first one who should erect and establish a paper-mill in the colony. Connecticut. supplied the press at Hartford. and manufactured also the writing paper used in the state.000 papers a week. he to repay the same within two years. New York. which issued about 8.
to send files of soldiers to search for the indispensable article wherever there was a likelihood of finding it. these precautions soon became evident. just before the battle of Monmouth. even to the public safety. where fought representatives from every one of the thirteen ." which had been These were used for musprinted by Franklin.Origin and Early History of Paper the master paper-mill. it was A sermon <ff"tw<ly ' tv found necessary." and in the battle that raged about old Tenant church. the Council took measures to prevent them from joining the volunteers who were about to march to New Jersey. and after advertising for paper. upon War. In the garret of a house in which Benjamin Franklin had once lived and had his printing-office were found about twenty-five hundred copies of a sermon by Rev. ket cartridges and "wadding. of Public Safety of The Conti- nental Congress having resolved on the retention of paper-makers. Gilbert Ten" Defensive ant. 37 workman and two attendants at each The Council Pennsylvania went a step further. the supply ran low. Notwithstanding all the care that had been exercised. fur- These various provisions and enactments nish a striking object-lesson as to the value of The wisdom of paper. and ordering the people to produce all they had.
Mr. who has himself had some experience of similar sort. probably had no in so forceful when he penned idea that it his discourse. the scarcity of paper of causecj mucn inconvenience. will perhaps call forth a rueful smile from the modern printer. Great scarcity the war advanced. the final outcome of which was not so satisfactory as this use of these old sermons must have proved to the patriot printer Franklin. It was on this ac- As count that the journal of the second session of the New York Assembly. and held for payment. the paper-mill printed. it was so valuable that every torn or broken sheet was repaired with paste. just outside the doors of his church. mingling their patriotic blood upon the historic field. was frequently brought from the mill on horseback. Tenant. the sermon proved one of the most effective ever delivered. would ever be delivered a manner. The Rev. New York. in the state of Vermont. and although it was very coarse and unbleached compared with the paper of to-day. printer. nearest to Albany. so it is stated. This work was so neatly . was one at BenThe product nington. The fact that these sermons were stored in the garret of Benjamin Franklin. was not In 1789.38 The Story of Paper-Making colonies. in 1781.
with paper-mills of the state could meet all demands . or in edge and information than any other medium ." 39 in old copies of the "Reg- preserved in the Albany Institute. which in a political and moral view are of the highest national importance. the postmaster of 1801. and without paper the newspapers of our country. the patching can be seen only by holding the paper to the light.000 a year. and agreeable companions of the citizen and the farmer.Origin and Early History of Paper and deftly done that ister. saving to Connecticut alone $ 50. or rather to a fine art. The part of first mill to be established in the northern at Troy in 1793. the city issued a special plea under the heading." sufficient He rags. must decline. rags are the primary requisite in the manufacture of paper. and closed as follows: "The rich. will direct their chil- . then the went on to show how. "Please save your rags. those cheap. useful." in which he said: "The Appeal ftr ra&* press contributes more to the diffusion of knowl- New York was erected About that time. who regard the interest of their country. and how the thrifty New England housewife had reduced the methods of saving to a science. how the patriotic saving of rags had been inculcated and was practiced in New England.
1 As we have But the year 800 brought some relief. both for the importance and extent of the manufacture and for the excellence and fineness of its products. visited Berkshire County in 1799. which has made the name of the beautiful hill county famous. of Worcester. and finally decided upon a location on the south branch of the Housatonic. . of see ki n g a favorable site for a paper-mill." Zenas Crane. white paper were turned out weekly from such old written. was the foundation of the great paper interest of that region. invented a process by which 700 reams of clean. and matters grew worse instead of better during the last fifteen years of the century. already seen. the sales of which saving will reward the attention of the The faithful servant. That small beginning was like It the acorn from which springs the giant oak. at Dalton. Matthew Kooper. of France. Massachusetts. that none may be lost by being swept into the street or fire . who in the following year succeeded in making paper from straw and wood.40 The Story of Paper-Making dren or domestics to place a bag or box in some convenient place as a deposit for rags. and encourage the pros- estab- lisbment ' perous enterprise of prudence. the early paper-mills were greatly hampered by the scarcity of rags.
Worcefter. .Origin and Early History of Paper printed. ZENAS CRANE. shows how great was the scarcity of rags at that time. will patronize them by faving their that every And woman who rags and fending them to their Manufactory. Feb. 41 and waste paper as thrown away. for which the or to the neareft Storekeeper Subfcribers will give a generous price. issued by Zenas Crane and his associates to the people of Worcester in The 80 1. JOHN WILLARD. had previously been of a rag famine. A rag famint has the good of her country and the intcreft of her own family at heart. LADIES. SAVE YOUR it RAGS. 1801. AND THEY WILL IMPROVE. As and the subfcribers have in contemplation to ere& a paper mill in Dalton the enfuing fpring . HENRY WISWALL. and helps to complete the history leading up to the erection of the new mill at Dalton 1 : AMERICANS! ENCOURAGE YOUR OWN MANUFACTORIES. they flatter community they fhall themfelves that meet with due encouragement. In the face process was a great boon to the paper manufacturer. such a following appeal. the bufinefs being very beneficial to the at large. 8.
Jr. Butler was born. were interested in a paper-mill at Hubbell's Falls. and it was here his son. The Butler In 1841 Oliver Morris Butler moved west mills the j " * locating at St.42 The Butkr The Story of Paper-Making few years later. The paper made was of the kind now this mill known as Straw Wrapping.. Zebediah Butler. but yet early in the life of the nineteenth century. Here he immediately built a wrap- nto mi no i Sj ping-paper mill. Sr. Cutler. Later became the property of James I. later. too. Butler Paper Company. as it practically marks the is yet begin- ning of the present J. there having been erected at Lee a large and modern plant representative of the latest and best ideas then known to the art of paper-making. Vt. a town about thirty miles from Chicago and situated upon the Fox River... J. W. elder brother of J. while not profitable. and Oliver Morris Butler went south to Lee. The venture. that Oliver Morris Butler. Charles. Butler. being unable to collect certain obligations due him. Massachusetts. learned his trade here. W. In 1840 Oliver Morris Butler returned to Hubbeirs Falls. of much interest. and A Zebediah Butler. W. and upon the opposite . and. took paper in part payment this particular invoice of finished paper he brought west to Chicago. to perfect his knowledge of the paper industry.
The beginning of the century saw many improvements in the methods of paper-making. manifested itself again. Henry and Seely Fourdrinier. The desire for tions.Origin and Early History of Paper 43 bank of the same stream. in the untiring zeal with which manufacturers sought to improve a product that may be considered the final successor of the bowlder and the obelisk. used in the Senate of the United States. has marked every stage of man's advance. brought to a good degree of perfection which the great machine which bears their name. In 1804 Tbt great Messrs. also recorded in the Adas It is Biographical Dictionary members of another branch of the Butler family. The same spirit that led primitive man to seek a better and more convenient medium of expression than the cumbersome bowlder or the carved obelisk. the first of its kind west of Pittsburg. he erected a print-paper plant. centuries later. . the product of an American mill. enterprising Fwdnmit and public-spirited stationers doing business in England. made the first letterpaper. that was that Simeon and Asa Butler. for better improvement in material condiimplements and better methods. and is described at some length in a subsequent chapter dealing with the methods of modern paper manufacture. The machine had been invented.
By this change the process was so simplified that the in twelve hours. in 1805. was erected at what is now Bedford.Zenas country was stated to be 185. 1816. Mr. by a Mr.44 The Story of Paper-Making two previously. in a paper-mill at work of six vats could be done These improvements were made Two Waters. A paper-mill. and in the same year. who had though not perfected. The increase of paper-mills in the United States in the had been so rapid that in iSiothe number In i8n. but the machine that can now do day the work that formerly required three months was not immediately introduced into this country. pioneers gave a great impetus to the manufacture. erected a lower falls of the Housatonic. Crane. new These mill Many new and paper-mills sprang up as if by magic along all the swift-flowing mountain streams of New England. England in a . a year or built the machine. Penn- . who had built the first mill at Dalton. further improved it by altering the position of the cylinders so as to dispense with an upper web. the first built in the British American provinces. since known at the as the Berkshire Mills. Donkin. Roberts in France. a paper factory was put into operation at Pittsburg. the engineer of the Fourdrinier Brothers.
The allied trades Duty and publishing were so closely conof printing nected with paper-making that what affected one all .600 tons of rags. claiming that seventy papermills. were the that encouragement at that time. in a memorial to Congress. in 1822. who were celepaper-makers on the Brandywine.000 required the consumption of 10.000 pounds of rags.Origin and Early History of Paper sylvania. urging . employing 950 persons. It 45 was operated by a 16 horse-power steam-engine. who asked for a duty on paper. showing that the method must have been slow and cumbersome. and the margin of profit small. about the year 1 820. had by foreign competition of $ 500. employed forty persons. on affected it was this community of interests that led representatives of the three industries to unite. near first introduce paper machinery from France and England. 1 It is brated believed that the Gilpins. were brought out during Some interesting this year by a petition to Congress from the paperit met with little facts makers of Pennsylvania and Delaware.000 been reduced to seventeen vats. in value. but the experiment proved so expensive to Philadelphia. and with an annual output valued at only $20. with ninety vats.000 bushels of coal and the use of 20. and with an annual output using 2.
In the follow- Thomas Gilpin of Philadelphia invented The caknder what are i sne ol called "calenders. in 1829. These are described later. possibly of that stimulus. improvements were constantly being The agitator sisting of a semi-cylindrical cradle vibrating so as to prevent the fibers from being parallel made in methods and machinery.000 per Notwithstanding foreign competition. this operation requiring many weeks. that the duty amounted annum. which were issued in the country. entirely of American products and manufacture. the result of which would be to make the paper weaker in one direction than in the other.000. because in value to more than $1. and through the introduction of machinery from Europe. now used on paper machines. in Chapter V. The was gained by grinding the rollers together while a stream of water flowed over them. True cylinders were first made in this result same year by an inventor in England." for giving the polsurface to paper.46 The Story of Paper-Making on books should not be reduced. was patented by Reuben Fairchild of Trumbull. by means of which the coarsest of rags and other . Through these various inventions and improvements. ing year Connecticut. as the books. conarranged one to another.
and other material collected in the at $ 1 5. for draining water from the pulp in the washing or beating vats. and purified. a decided impetus was imparted to the manufac- advance in the industry during the following years was so marked that in 1842. at his St. f the devices for a rotating strainer. and .Origin and Early History of Paper 47 materials were cleaned. bleached. W. in With the adoption. of Lockport. Paper Several years later Butler.000. Charles Mill. rags.000. Butler Company. The in New York City in that the paper-mill property of the United States year.000. a successful plant erected for the manufacture of Straw Board.000. I n 1 844 a jobbing house was opened in Chicago Tbt fint by Oliver Morris Butler to dispose of the paper made J. 1843. Oliver Morris Butler was also a the Lockport Paper part owner and president of Company. United States to $6. came another advance in the process of paper-making.230. Illinois. and the annual output paper-makers held while the value of rags imported from Europe amounted to $468. W. the present head of the J. was valued at $ 1 6. was placed in sole charge of the Chicago branch.000. and the raw stock. 000. and increased three hundred per cent in value. according to an estimate made at a meeting of ture.
management of his younger W.48 The Story of Paper-Making up to the time he remained active in the trade of his death. . and our first positive knowledge of the Butler family's connection with the paper industry is early in the nine- teenth century. through him. . which occurred in 1888. touches closely. but the meager records of our earliest settlers seldom speak of their vocations. only a few years subsequent to the Pilgrims' landing. J. nearly the of the whole of the nineteenth century in the line of the Butlers as . the family line is clearly and directly traceable as continuous residents in America back to the earlier half of the seventeenth century. and Genealogy their earlier years as paper-makers. Butler. The store which he established in 1 844 and put under the brother. his ancestors. /-m That i i this direct makers branch of the Butler family may have had even earlier identification with paper-making is not improbable. i paper- p a p er industry in this country.
and for the practical application of new inventions and discoveries. A As past. Time's noblest offspring the last. And yet. It is fully a century and a half since Berkeley gave expression to his faith in the high destiny of the West The : "Westward the course of empire takes first its way." it the years followed each other swiftly in the became strikingly evident that the world to the Occident for industrial activity Pngrttt tf must look and progress.CHAPTER "As far as IV EARLY METHODS OF PAPER-MAKING from the West/' so great is the difference between the methods and processes of the slow-going Orient and those the East is that prevail in the Occident. by hand. through the inevitable exception that proves the rule. we occasionally find East and West working along The making of paper strikingly similar lines. four acts already past. as carried on in 49 our own country in . fifth shall close the drama with the day is .
toughness. cleansed from all mineral. it could be washed from the white elastic filaments. and. furnishes such an exception.50 The Story of Paper-Making at the pres- early days. by the Chinese whatever the material employed. . an extent that fibrine.piled together in in a cellar. and elasticity. period the perishable portion. often where they were left to decay for a twenty days or more. resinous. damp place. In many the process is not unlike that followed respects. the first step. was to remove from the fibers all glutinous. foreign. Before being submitted to the process of decomposition. the enduring portion of the plant elongated cells. During this time. in making paper from the bark of the mulberry-tree. the rags used were moistened and Decomposi. which was of prime importance. as far as possible. fermented or decayed to such some warm. or long. the rags were of course dusted. sometimes spoken of as vegetable gluten. that gives to the paper its strength. or other The fibers are the slender. which has already been described in the preceding chapter. superfluous matter. Before the science of chemistry had been called upon to furnish its potent aid in the process of paper-making. In either case. and to a limited extent ent time.
In the early days of paper-making. slightly cohering mass of 41 The next step in the process was the pulp." which was oblong in shape. by this slow Hand-made and tedious method. from all foreign matter. after which they were When the fermentation cut into small pieces. or " cloth. The fibers having been separated. the rags were boiled and washed. Lye. and finally beaten to a smooth pulp by the use of mallets." forming of the paper sheets. one great factor in the cost of making white paper was eliminated. For this purpose the paper-maker employed a fine wire screen.Early Methods of Paper-Making 51 or indissoluble substances. lime. called the mold. modified somewhat by the boiling and washing. before the discovery of the use of chemical agents to remove the coloring matter. the color of the paper was determined by that of the rags or other material. engendered by heat and moisture had done its important work. solutions of chlorine and of chloride of lime were employed for the purpose. When it was discovered that certain chemicals would dissolve or separate the coloring matter from the tissue. with a proper admixture of water to form a soft. they were placed in a vat. and supported by a light frame under- .
and matted together. the operator moved the mold back and forth." . was woven fore like cloth. who was known as the " coucher. as and the product was therepaper." When the pulp had been properly drained. and gentle motion to the mass within. the mold was passed on to another operator. straight and very close together. even. in others.52 neath. leaving the impress as the "watermark. The Story of Paper-Making Above this was placed a very shallow frame known as the " deckel.'* which in size and shape corresponded exactly with the mold. the paper in this case being At some point in the wire called "laid" paper. and as the pulp was shaken it became a little known thinner over the design. The manner in which the wires of the mold were arranged gave to certain papers their distinIn some molds the wire guishing characteristics. pulp drained through the wire cloth. and were crossed by stronger wires an inch or so apart. The watermark o f t h e mo ld a small figure was worked out. the known "wove" small wires ran only one way. also in wire. Dipping the mold into the mass of pulp. the operator filled it even with the top of the deckel. the thickness of the paper being determined by the depth Then as the water from the of the deckel-frame. giving a constant.
and is still. in some room or loft. At this point in the process the paper would be open and porous. or " post. After being dipped in this solution. when the sheets of felt were removed. by which as much of the water as possible was squeezed out." and is used to render the paper non-absorbent. several quires in thickness. the sheets were pressed again. layer of pulp was placed another sheet of full then of the pulp. instead of carrying it in lines or letters upon its surface. The pro" cess was. or hoofs.Early Methods of Paper-Making from the fact that his 53 work was moist sheet of pulp upon over a board termed a " couch. and . horns." while the Sizing material is known as "size. To overcome this defect. and so on until there was obtained a pile. termed sizing." another mold the turning of the a sheet of felt stretched Over this first felt. The sheets of paper on being taken out were hung over ropes or poles to dry. The layers were then subjected to heavy pressure. or in the gelatine prepared from leather and parchment clippings. the was dipped in a solution made of paper clippings of hides. also to fill up the pores and give an even surface. and pressure was applied a second time to the paper that remained. and would naturally absorb ink." as it was called.
though in actual practice a longer time processes. and hang up to dry.54 for a The Story of Paper. Working under the old method. taken in covering all the different Truly the times are changed. as will be seen paper can be made in twenty-four hours from a tree standing in the forest. or finish. if a smoother surface was desired. two notes to a sheet. four thousand small sheets of paper. it was obtained by passing the paper between metal rollers.Making second time hung up to dry . l in a a erj f- In these modern days. it took three men a day to mold. press. in the glory of its full strength and vigor . and to a still greater extent in England. Hand-made paper Bank of England is now made to a limited extent in America. and is everything is changed with them ! . so that three edges of every note are rough. while the process from beginning to end required about three From paper tree to months. All Bank of England notes are printed on hand-made paper.
While the use of wood pulp has greatly changed methods. the counsels and admo55 . Tbi modern making writing and other high-grade papers. In a complete modern mill. receive upon their spotless polished surface the thoughts of philosophers and statesmen. slow still has many of the same difficulties overcome that confronted his predecessor.CHAPTER V MODERN PAPER-MAKING Though the steady march of progress and invention has given to the modern paper-maker marvelous machines by which the output is increased a thousand-fold over that of the old. he to the conditions as regards the cheaper grades of this the ragman is to-day almost as important staple. but the material duty. was one hundred years ago. the tender messages of affection. the process begins with unsightly rags as the material from which to form the white sheets that are to to the manufacturer of the higher grades as he remains the same. when the saving of rags was inculcated as a domestic virtue and a patriotic Methods have changed.
in compact.56 The Story of Paper-Making nitions of ministers." ing. mysterious. will find their condition a most unpleasant to his surprise. steam-compressed bundles are carried by elevators well up toward the top of the build" opener. as well as from lands beyond the eastern and the western oceans." as that was duly set forth in rhyme by the " Boston News Letter" in 1769. where they await the knife of the When The they have been opened. and all the and " Wisdom of things. bell cartSj Q f to _d ay i n load. The square. "The bell cart will go it through Boston about the end of next month. The rags do not come to the tories mammoth fac- but by the carfrom all sections of huge bales. the decisions of grave learned judges. ignorant of the state in which rags come to the mill. gathered this great Republic. especially dis- agreeable olfactory nerves. and appealed to the inhabitants of that modern seat of learning and philosophy to save their rags for the occasion." novice or layman. and thus en- The methods of to-day courage the industry. the "feeder" throws the contents by armfuls into the " thrasher. divine." announced. Yet the ." " Illustriously doth on paper shine.
in front of is fastened a long scythe-blade. and the larger pieces of rags are cut into numerous small ones on the scythe-blades. the shank being firmly fixed each one there its with Here buttons. or other material that must be removed." is The The is a great cylindrical receptacle." these as well as the "sorters" being women. passing through a When cylinder. are discharged off in suction air-tubes. to the table or operating board. and the presence of buttons. Here the rags are assorted as to size. beaters which or supplied with long whipped rags " and carried to the " sorting and The room "shredding" room. re- volving wooden wooden arms. Then those that need further atten" tion are passed on to the shredders. The the women into rags thus prepared are tossed by The work in this room receptacles in the tables. and all similar intruders are disposed of. . back toward the operator and its point extending upward. and the dust is carried rapidly. " stand along a narrow counter ders The "shred. and driven by power.Modern Paper-Making unsavory revelation comes with more force a " farther in the on. the rags have been tossed in. hard seams. there ensues a great pounding and thrashing. condition. " thrasher " 57 little assorting-room. while the sorting hooks and eyes.
filth. however. a true reflection of the condition in it is the average mill. and this despite the fact that these rags. for.58 is The the Story of Paper-Making in most disagreeable and unwholesome of any the entire process of manufacture." to which further In these excepreference will be made later. and is well ventilated. there are others pleasant to know. and freed from an amount of dust and dirt beyond ordinary belief. and corset The . of the higher class that are exceptions. offering a factories. or from factories producing all cloth goods. impossible to repress the wish that rags might be bought otherwise than by the pound. While watching the operations it is carried on here. as far as dust and dirt are concerned. and to wash is While this rags only reduces the weight. dust. Such are the mills making high- decided The higher grade ledger and bond papers. with windows ding on all sides. the stock used being new and fresh from the cotton or linen mills. unfortunately. as well as the mill grades manufacturing the paper that is used for the printing of our "greenbacks. and dirt weigh. have been thrashed. and and shredsorting room is always large and light. too. tional mills everything is neat and perfectly clean. like shirt others of the same sort.
dashing Human lives the rags about at great speed. of the glutinous matter. the "sorting" and "shredding" room " the rags are conveyed to the cutter." where The are cut and chopped by revolving knives. magnetic " cutter " has purpose in some mills. are often freed of their baser elements and restored to purity and beauty through the chastening influences of tribulation or adversity . where the women cleanly must wear bonnets or hoods for the protection of In either case the process is certainly an improvement over the old plan of leaving the rags to decay in a cellar to expedite the removal the hair. the still devil against which work the spikes of a drum. its work." The a hollow cone with spikes projecting within. they leaving them in small pieces and much freer from From cutter dust and ingenious devices are employed for removing metal and other hard and brushes serving this injurious matter." or whipper. in " " carries the rags forlike manner the whipper ward a step in the process of purification that is necessary before they can be brought to their .Modern Paper-Making decided 59 contrast in many respects to the less mills first referred to. Various finished very dirty rags go for a " " further cleansing to the devil. When the grit.
The duster is performed by " duster " the proper." as they are suggestively and appropriately termed. The final operaa great deal of dust and dirt." the latter not end with having served merely to loosen. of the rags over this endless belt or conveyor terminates in a receiving-room. tion in the preliminary cleaning shaken about the loosened dust by the suction of the air. which does is only a preparation for the But the cleansing process. usually upright. are huge revolving boilers. but- The journey tons. In most modern mills the rags are carried forward from the "duster" on an endless careful watch is belt. is carried away which draws the dust particles into tubes furnished with suction fans. which is a conical revolvAs the mass of rags is tossed and ing sieve. what is to follow. . and whose digestive capacity is upward of five tons of rags each. and a kept upon them as they emerge to detect the presence of unchopped pieces. or other foreign substances. in the floor of The digester which there are several openings. not to dislodge. with a height of twenty-two feet.60 The Story of Paper-Making highest usefulness. "whipper. and immediately below these the mouths of the "digesters. which often have as great a diameter as eight feet. The "digesters." which are in a room beneath.
in either case being operated in the . howThe rags are ever. Having been sufficiently boiled and digested. boiled under steam pressure of about forty pounds to the square inch.Modern Paper-Making The 61 " cooked " are fed into rags that are to be " " the digesters through the openings in the and the great movable manhole plates are floor. Cooking of and with live hot steam in lieu of gastric juice raZs as a digesting fluid and force. while in others they are in the form of a large ball or globe. in here that the process of cleaning begins earnest . In some mills the boilers are placed in a horizontal position. still look- . and as the mass of rags is tumbled It is about in its scalding bath of steam-heated limeor " milk of lime. these having first been charged with a mixed solution of lime and soda. the mushy material. nous matters. are loosened from the fibers. which are in the end so cleansed and purified as to come forth unstained and of virgin purity. then put in place and closed. and the cooking is continued from twelve to fourteen hours." the coloring and glutiwater. as well as all other impurities. hermetically sealing the openings or mouths through which the boilers have been fed. manner described those of upright form. are most commonly in use.
varying tions.62 The Story of Paper-Making ing dark and forbidding. D. But not When emptyings from the boiler have been thrown into " the " washer a continuous stream of water is turned in at one end. nine feet wide. in the bottom of the tub." length by an upright partition." from the fact that these engines were invented in Holland. and which are was Hollanders. about the Hollanders year 1 750 A. and directly under the revolving roll. is emptied onto the floor below or into receptacles placed directly beneath the boilers. They are oval-shaped tubs. roll can the be lowered. and covered with knives . and against which the to anticipate. where the color and dirt are allowed to drain off. On raised in one side of the partition a half-circle. " mid-feather. which are shown among the illustrations. " is another set of knives called a bed-plate." which is stationary. or as it is called. about as ers or known " and three feet somewhat according to the condihigh. which makes a narrow course around the the tub is vat. the knife-roll having been adjusted so as to open the rags as they are set up ." great tub-like receptacles. close to which revolves an iron roll about three or four feet in diameter. Each tub is divided for two-thirds of its twenty feet long. The mass is then conveyed to the " washers.
" so-called from .Modern Paper-Making in 63 chase motion. When the several agencies of the " washer " have accomplished their purpose. first seen in the . holds back the now rapidly whitening fibers. while the dirty water escapes into buckets inside the wirecloth drum. wash out all given then on up is the elevation in the tub. through the racecourse formed by the " mid-feather. and gathered from the four quarters the globe. which in the course of from two hours becomes as white as all Bleaching milk. in order to open up the fibers more thoroughly for the free circulation of the water among them. of ragdom. As the water clears. A cylinder of wire- partly immersed in the moving mass. and the water runs clear into the to six and unsullied. the roll to lowered closer and closer the bottom of the bed-plate. settle into is The heavy discharged into and through particles of dirt at the termed a "sand-trap" is bottom of the tub. a bleaching material is put mass. have endured many bufferings." and under the rag-opening knives. These then begin a lively around the edge of the vat. where the water a chance to impurities " back the incline over the fall. and what is an escape-spout. The dirty offscourings of original bales. cloth.
and having been washed come forth pure. The drainers rags should stand in the drainers for at } east one weefc^ though better results are obtained if The they are long. as described. is now called half stock.64 The Story of Paper. construction to the washer just described. are subjected to a different treatwill which further reference the drainer the mass be made in The beaters is carted to the or " beater. The From m knives on the roll in the beater are grouped three . From many the washers the rags are precipitated through a trap into drainers. applies rags." which is very similar beating engine. is allowed to drain. kept in re- ceptacle until the water drained off. papers made from particularly to To-day a very large more proportion of the cheaper papers are made from wood. either entirely or in part. which are chambers stone and brick. to this chapter. made of through This rag this which the water pulp. with a false bottom. it The been process of paper-making. as left for a period fibers two or three times has already as the become more subdued. and these wood- made papers ment.Making bruisings and tribulations. and clean. sweet. when it and liquor are thoroughly becomes a white and com- pact mass of fibers.
About the year 1746. This familiar agency of the laundry is introduced into the solution of fibers with the same end in view that is sought in the is washtub to give the clear white color that so desirable.Modern Paper-Making 65 together instead of two. " the watching operations beater. Buttonshaw. floating bluing." one notices on the surface of the slowly revolving mass of fibers. but It is produce different varieties of paper. the wife of an story English paper-maker. accidentally dropped into a tub of pulp the bag of bluing. the use of bluing was brought about bluing in the same way. designed also to not only to secure a more perfect product. and are placed nearer the bottom or bed-plate in order to separate more In the beater are perthoroughly the fibers. and according to a pretty story upon which paper-makers have set the seal some of their belief for more than one hundred and fifty years. Many of the inventions and discoveries by which the world has profited largely have been due primarily to fortunate accident. such as In the thrifty housewife uses to whiten fine fabrics. the theory of the beating process that the fibers are not cut. . but are drawn out the to their utmost of extent. or its contents. so runs The the story. formed many and varying manipulations. a Mrs.
and had sold it an advance of several shillings over the price made from in London of his other paper. Her account of the happy accident led her grateful husband to purchase a costly scarlet cloak for her on his next visit to brought about another result which was to prove of inestimable accident London town.66 The Story of Paper-Making in a washing of fine what she had done. how- only one of the numerous operations or manipulations that take place in the beater. and which she was about to use linen. require skill and constant watchfulness.of these. adulteration takes place. This value to the future paper-maker especial the use of is bluing desired. such as engine-sizing and body-coloring. she realized that the time for silence had passed. it is as the bluing or coloring is. It is too. But when her husband had expressed great won- der and admiration over the paper at that particular pulp. and it is profitable to add to . Frightened it at the part of wisdom to keep silence. if anywhere. in paper when whiteness Important ever. considering she discreetly held her peace and awaited results. sometimes necessary to secure a fine-appearing paper at small cost. Many Engine. which had not met with any such accident. sizing Here.
is any other order of col- . and clay or cheap. weaken the paper. and difference between a paper that that has a repellent surface which The prevents the ink from settling into it when it is written upon. colors made from aniline are BodyOnly in the highest grade of generally used. takes place here. it is omitted. Clay is of value not only to increase the weight.Modern Paper-Making its 67 " In such cases. while at the same time it makes possible a smoother surface by filling the pores adds to the weight. is due entirely to the fact that the former is most carefully treated with sizing. heavy fibers are added. it But while size is thoroughly incorporated with the fibers as This these revolve or flow around the engine. in the paper. but also to render the paper more opaque. In clay must. which is done in the beater. and in some few papers that demand colors fast to the light. sizing renders the paper more nearly impervious to moisture. a process of " loading weight. is sized. so as to prevent type or illustrations from showing through. engine and in the size tub or vat referred to later. writing-paper. of necessity. the engine-sizing. and an ordinary blotting-paper with its absorbent surface. whereas in the latter both in the beating paper If the paper is to be tinted or body-colored.
agined. considerable skill As may be easily im- is required to secure the desired tint. where. who obtained a French patent. France. with the aid of a skilled mechanic. and shaking the frame with a quick motion to mat the earlier fibers together. Didot. The first patient striving all toward the cen- something turies since which has marked man learned to carve his rude Machinefor records. finds its consummation in the process of making con. This he later sold to M. thus insuring that the paper when finished shall be of uniform color and not present a mottled appearance. which marks a vast advance over the method of forming the sheets of paper with mold and deckel. and to get the coloring exactly matter so evenly mixed that each small fiber shall receive its proper tint. a workman in a mill at Enonnes. the proprietor of the mill.ma ki n g paper in a continuous web. a most interesting process begins. better. straining off the water. When the operations of the beating engine have been completed. with a bounty of eight thousand francs for its development. and then sold . This result is accomplished by a machine first invented by Louis Robert. and the latter crossed the Channel into England.68 The Story of Paper-Making oring matter employed. the machine was in a measure perfected.
at Frogwhich was the more. year of the great Louisiana Purchase by the first The " machine " mill was started First United States. and sunk thousand pounds the enterprise some sixty sterling. though is great material ever ready to exit pend to its treasure for engines of destruction. and in great poverty. who was eighty years of age. made many in additional improve- ments. England. with their tens and its touch with the best thought of the . for which their only reward was blighted hopes and embittered lives. They. their employe and expert engineer. and magnify and reward those who have been most successful in destroying human in life. Through this invention and newspaper and hundreds of thousands of copies daily. Hertz.Modern Paper-Making 69 to Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier. and it is not difficult to say which event has been productive of the greater and more beneficial results to this nation. have been made possible. In 1847 *he London "Times" made a fruitless appeal on behalf of the surviving brother. and men of all classes have been brought in improvements the modern magazine. with the further aid of Bryan Donkin. 1803. It is seldom that the world voluntarily makes return to those who have bestowed upon it or moral benefits.
bring the pen. thereby multiplying the product many to fold. the century that has elapsed since the Fourdrinier brothers sacrificed themselves and the perfecting of their machine." is If to-day the greater than power of the pen over the sword it has ever been before. such as increasing the speed and widening the web. and gives new emphasis to Bulwer's words : " Take away the sword States can be saved without it . and But . its increased The power an d increasing influence must be credited in large of the pen measure to the inventive genius and the publicspirited enterprise that has made possible the great output of our modern paper-mills.jo day. The Story of Paper-Making Whatever makes for greater intelligence and enlightenment throughout a nation makes for the greater stability of the national life. Those that have been made have been in the nature of further development and improvement. resume the interesting journey of the a state of purification and rags. did these forces do their that in So thoroughly work in the beginning. which had reached which we left in the perfection as pulp. there have been really no changes in the fundatheir means in mental principle.
slots. The flow is then forced " The through the screen. bottom with long-haired dirt that any sand or may still ad- here after the numerous operations to which the pulp has been subjected. used only in the manufacture of The pulp is next grades of paper. to what is called a "stuff-chest. and prepared pulp is taken from the beaters and passed through what is known as a "refining" or "Jordan" engine. w "Jordan certain however. " in a continuous flow. From into the stuff-chest the mixture is is pumped what the stream first passes over lating" box." keeps the in sus- pension. taken from the beater or refining engine. These the " sand-tables are known Here as the "mixing" or "regu- composed of to catch little and are covered felt. as the case may be." stuff c ^ fst an inclosed vat partly called filled with water. purpose of more The "f thoroughly separating the fibers and reducing them to extreme fineness. at the troughs with cross-pieces.Modern Paper-Making 71 In some grades of paper the perfected beaters." which is a horizontal piece screen of metal pierced with For very fine paper. these slots are so small as to be only one one- . properly fibers a contrivance for shaking and an "agitator. The refining engines. in which The shifting. this for the are.
and is of diverse color.Making in width. dirt. which is about that of milk. when gathered on the wire cloth and passed to a felt blanket and then pressed between rollers. as the case may be. hundredth of an inch about a quarter of an inch apart. leaving behind in their difficult passage all lumps. vibrating motion is given to the screen as the flow passes over it. They are usually Through these tiny apertures the fibers must find their way. to imagine that it floats separate particles of fiber in such quantities as. the solution flows in an its filmy appearance. or knotted fibers which would mar the perfection of the product toward which they are tending.72 The Story of Paper. depending upon the shade of paper to be produced. From its consistency. A When the screen has finished water carrying the pulp in even stream. This stream has a work. whose volume varies according to The flow the width of the web of paper to be produced. to form it is difficult in a second of time a broad web of embryo paper sufficiently strong and firm to take definite form. each of which will be duly described. onto through a discharge-cock onto the Fourdrinier or cylinder machine. this Man's mastery of the process by which . or revolving strainers may be used.
being full aided by a fan-shaped rubber or oil cloth. the Upon this width of the paper machine. " the width of the paper. and fix or regulate it. as and wonderful change is effected has one of the rewards of his long and patient Fourdrinier machine. the fibers spread out evenly. which preserves at name of the enterprising developers of The least the up the work that was fordone by the molder. Being charged with very fine . which delivers the smooth stream under a gate regulated to insure perfect evenness and to fix uniformly the fibers of the web now commencing its final forma- Deckel5traP* Deckel-straps of india-rubber are fastened on both sides of the wire screen. which corresponds to the deckel used by paper-makers in the days when the manufacture was carried on by hand. The deckel-straps are adjustable. fibers filters into the J * '** VJIff C trough fibers. The wire cloth upon merly which the fibers are discharged as described is an the invention. These and the gate. thus holding the watery pulp in place. As the stream flows onto the endless belt of wire cloth." are attached to what is termed the deckel- frame. or slicer. takes endless belt. the water which has borne the beneath.Modern Paper-Making startling 73 come study. and move with tion.
patterns. and designs papers. which it is desired to have appear in the paper are put upon soft sheet. tween these suction-boxes above the wire covered The dandy roll is a wire- roll. this impression cylinder which impresses the newly formed " is called a dandy and it is from this that the web receives the markings or impressions that characterize different All watermarks. the trough into which it falls from the revolving The save-all "wire" mot on i upon "save-all. provided with an air-pump to take up the surplus water that has Benot yet found its way through the meshes. and other similar ingredients. this roll. sheet ro ll.74 size. so that the impression is it can be ." shaking " wire " from the frame to the Js imparted which rest the rolls that keep it in its neveris called the A ending round. suction-boxes are placed. Thus permanently fixed in the fiber." . This aids in draining away the water. it is carried back into the pulp-chest. to save these materials. and mats or interlaces the fibers together. The Story of Paper-Making coloring matter. which is and here impressed upon the clarified and left transparent at the points of contact. where the fibers are At the end of the " save-all/' " wire " for the next to leave the stage of their journey. as well as to contribute again to the For this reason extra supply of water needed.
felt the under surface comes to the top. the length of the press- A rolls. which deliver the web of damp paper upon an endless belt of moist felt. and is in its turn subjected to the smoothing process. The matted pulp. while the " wire " passes under and back to continue a fresh supThe paper is as yet too fragile to travel ply. delicate scraper or blade. give a greater degree of smooth compactness face. Judged by such a criterion. of suggestiveness it is is a quality which is highly esteemed wherever furnishes a found. as in our present web or all probability its perfecting presses. for in operation suggested the idea of printing from cylinders. is so placed on each roll that should the . and which standard of judgment. and finally deliver the web to the fibers. passes on between two rolls covered with felt. the upper surof paper to a second apron. These The prtss-ro!/s squeeze out more water. alone.Modern Paper-Making The power frequently 75 seen at any time by holding the sheet to the light. and the web rolls felt carries first it between two metal called the press-rolls. or dandy roll. the impression cylin" der." has an added value. now having sufficient body. which carries it under and to In this way the back of the second press-rolls.
upon drying uniformly. possesses great aggregate strength. Strange. length according to There are from twelve to fifty of these cylinders. conditions come about in the transformation from filmy pulp to finished paper. may operate with sufficient force to prevent the wet paper from clinging to the rolls and winding From this point the paper travels about them. passing above the second press-rolls. are usually from three to four feet in diameter.y6 endless The Story of Paper-Making the blade web from any cause be broken. having become firm and strong enough to sustain its own weight . A . becomes possessed of a final strength and power that is almost incredible. These driers. alone. their temperature being regu- onward journey around passing over and under and its The dryers Jated according to requirements. over and under. sheet which. almost phenomenal. though formed. and vary in the width of the machine. A is at the first press-roll too fragile to carry its own weight. it resumes the drying cylinders. The drying cylinders are hollow and heated by steam. The myriad of minute fibers composing the sheet. very heavy sheets requiring many more upon drying cylinders than sheets of lighter weight. their number depending the character and weight of the paper to be produced. made from iron or steel.
stance that seems almost beyond belief. but the driers lifted themselves were actually ing power in out of place. The . which are known as . which had been thoroughly suddenly superheated and then still on the driers. when a perfectly even tension is applied. Through resisting strfng*b some curious mishap in fact. " calenders. showing a resistthe paper of at least several tons. and heated from the calenders are interior by steam." The word is derived from calendra The calenders a corruption of cylindrus. a roller or cylinder. formed. cooled while was board. they are simply rollers revolving in contact. will demonstrate that it is possessed of wonderful Tensile In evidence may be cited an inpower. This was caused by a difference in temperature of the driers and resulted in the sudden contraction of the web of on the machine was so great that not only were the driving-cogs broken on two of the driers around which the paper was at bristol . These used for giving to the paper a smooth and even surface. passes to the upright stack of rolls The paper now shown in the illustrations. but the same sheet. bristol a web of heavy paper.Modern Paper-Making 77 sheet of paper yields readily to tearing. the strain the moment passing. and are also employed in the smoothing and finishing of cloth.
the demand has kept pace steadily.78 The Story of Paper-Making speed with which the paper passes through these cylinders is remarkable. which are revolving. the process ends with the calenders. The wonderful product of the rag-bag holds an invincible position in the world's economy. after which the paper is slit into required widths by disk-knives. For machine-finished book and print papers. These . as well as for other cheaper grades. according to the size of the paper to be printed. great as has been the increase in the production of paper. vary- ing from seventeen to seventy-six inches. from one hundred to five hundred feet running through and over the machine in a minute . at this writing as (1900) there are machines in operation which run But high as five hundred feet per minute. and so cut continuously. only a very few years ago the Speed of maximum speed was from two hundred and fifty machines to three hundred feet per minute . while the speed has increased in proportionate ratio . and is in some of the most recent mills the web as wide as one hundred and fifty-six inches (thirteen feet) . Paper intended for web newspaper presses is taken off in continuous rolls of the widths required. this is very nearly double the average machine width of a few years ago.
about four times the amount of its regu- lar daily consumption. this being the weight of the . is about one hundred and twenty-five feet. The machines.Modern Paper-Making reels contain lineal feet 79 thousand of paper. where the sheets as they fall are carefully examined by experts. is carried by a trav- eling apron onto a receiving table at the end of the machine. The paper. The entire length of a paper machine. from miles for two mills are required to manufacture the supply a single metropolitan daily. while the height varies. the The immen5lt average being about ten feet. ordinary flat and book papers are cut into sheets by a straight knife revolving at proper intervals on a horizontal drum. Five The amount of paper used in disseminating the m a news of the day is enormous sometimes one or fifteen to twenty-five . from the screens to the calenders. slit After having been into the proper widths by the revolving knives. who remove any that may be imperfect. or from three to five miles. are ponderous and heavy. in sheets. weighing in some cases as much as four ] hundred tons. while necessarily of the finest adjustment. usually women. while one New claims to have used four hundred York newspaper and fifty is which tons of paper in one Christmas edition.
In the case of writing-papers. as has already been stated in the description of the beating engines. Story of Paper-Making exclusive of is its foundations. in such cases calendering is is omitted. a vegetable sizing made from resinous matter is introduced into the paper pulp while it . as called Deckel edg . as cleanliness is an essential factor in making of good paper. Another is mg special process made is result by which the paper " deckel with a ragged or edge ". and thus giving it a jagged At the present time this " deckelappearance. The machine-room of necessity well lighted and thoroughly ventilated. some papers " with a rough or " antique wanted finish. crushing and thinning it. " edge paper is being quite extensively used in high-class bookwork. and should be kept clean throughout. this obtained in some mills by playing a that stream of water upon the edge of the pulp. the particular character of the any paper that is to be produced determines ex- actly the details of the process through which it shall pass. and regulates the deviations to be made from the general operations special results. While the same general process applies to all classes of paper made. in order to secure are it is For example.8o machine The itself.
and which is filled with a liquid sizing made of gelatine from clippings of the horns. or pole-dried Loft process. permitted to dry very in a loft slowly specially constructed for the pur- Such paper it pose. this gelatine Papers which are treated in this way are known as "animal. These papers while on the machine in web form are of passed through a vat which is called the size-tub. thus filling more or completely the pores of the pulp fibers. and where a curtailment of expense is necessary.Modern Paper-Making is still 81 in solution. and for the cheapest grades of writing-paper." or "tub-sized. This found sufficient for all ordinary book-papers. hoofs of cattle. 1 temper- . For the higher grades writing-paper. for papers that are to be printed upon in the usual way. where is hung on poles several at a days. where the require ments are not very exacting. and mixes with less is it thoroughly. however. but these higher grades of writing-papers are We dried by what is known is as loft. a distinctly separate and additional process is required." have duly described machine-dried papers. and Tub stz * ng or glue being mixed with dissolved alum and made fluid in the vat. during which time the loft is kept ature of about 00 Fahrenheit. hides.
the cutting machines. cutting regular sheets of the required . or eleven.82 The Another Story of Paper-Making of considerable importance is " finish " or surface of the paper. tne stack of rolls shown which are similar to the machine calenders These rolls are composed already described. which are automatic in action. Supercalendering known as " Supercalendering " is effected by passing the in the illus- web tnroug h tration. The paper passes and repasses through these calenders until the requisite degree of smoothness and polish has been acquired. When the fine pol- has been imparted. it detail that of the When surface paper with a particularly high or glossy is desired is subjected to a separate process after leaving the paper machine. the top and bottom rolls being of metal and heavier than the others . alternating with rolls made of solidified paper or cotton. The Electricity in paper friction in this electricity that machine produces so much ground wires are often used to paper carry it off. the rolls of paper go to. a stack of supercalenders is necessarily composed of an odd number of rolls. nine. in order that the may not be- come ish so highly charged as to attract dust or cause the sheets to cling together. turned exactly true. of metal cylinders. as seven. supercalendering.
and thus form true and continuous lines. affording spaces for the sheets before and after sorting. plates of zinc are inserted alternately between them. If the paper it to be ruled writing disks purposes.Modern Paper-Making 83 length as the paper is fed to them in a conIn the manufacture of some high tinuous web. From the cutters. who are seated in a table. of course. who detect almost instantly any blemish or imperfection in Sorting the finished product as is it passes to through for their hands. before row along an ex- tended board two divisions with partitions ten or twelve inches high. grades of paper. smooth surface is required. If the paper is to . and they are subjected to powerful hydraulic pressure. The work of inspection is performed by women. to the paper as it passes on through the machine. the sheets are carried to the inspectors. where it is passed under revolvat ing pens. such as linens and bonds. This Plating process is termed " plating." and is. the sheets after being cut are arranged in piles of from twelve to fifteen sheets. very much more expensive than the process of supercalendering described above. or is then taken the ruling machines. set These convey the ruling ink regular intervals. where an especially fine.
and the action of small rubber rollers. first fed in and push it forward until ing apparatus. transformation wrought by the magic wand of . but in either case it goes from the cutters to the wrappers and packers. as in after the case of fine note-papers. which are The paper is entirely automatic in their action. save to furnish supply of sheets. to cut and trim the sheets to the size of folded note or letter paper. cut- ting machines are again brought into requisition. The finished paper may not have passed through the ruling and folding process. all of whom perform the The wonderful duties indicated by their names. and in the case of the folding machine. a constant The folding completed. by which loosen each sheet from the one beneath. the sheets pass on from the ruland Rulmg ing machine to the folding machines. stacked at the back of the is folding guide. and then or may to the shipping-clerks. the action is so regular and perfect that there seems to be no need of an attendant.84 be The folded Story of Paper-Making ruling. which is the final operation before they are sent out into the world on their mission of usefulness. given to the machines of his invention something that seems almost like it is caught by the foldMan's mechanical ingenuity has human intelligence.
new beauties to discover.Modern Paper-Making science 85 and human invention is what came into the factory as offensive rags. and great bales of come from Beauty of perfected and unwholesome. endeavor ! Up to this point the reference has been almost . a product that is one of the essential what was factors in the world's progress. Purity and beauty have foul complete. disgusting to sight and smell. beautiful. " Boston News Letter" of 1769 exclaim in quaint old rhyme: " Rags are as beauties which concealed lie. has been developed from a material that apparently Well might the held not the slightest promise. By the pen and press such knowledge is displayed As would not exist if paper was not made. charming to the eye ! Pray save your rags. For of paper truly every one's a lover. and that promises to serve an ever-increasing purpose." And well this may man pride himself on this achieve- marvelous transformation. the highly useful has been summoned forth from the seemingly useless . But when in paper. perfected paper. redeemed from filth. and glorified into a high and noble use. goes forth as delicate. which represents the fruitage of centuries of striving and ment.
and while the paper made from one differs slightly in certain characteristics they are nevertheless very similar. and these are of such importance that the account would not be comThese plete without some mention of them.Making entirely to paper made from rags. in fact. caused by the introWood pulp duction of wood pulp. the process. but radical im- provements have been made. leaving merely the it tissue. found. changes are mainly in the methods of manipulating the wood to obtain the pulp. whether made from rags described. is the treatment to which the raw material is subjected. does not differ in substance from the cell tissue obtained after treating In either case. through rags. becomes perfectly plastic or moldable. for when that is " washready. from the paper made from the other. or wood. which. do not differ. whether ob- tained from rags or from the tree growing in the In the latter case the raw wood is subjected forest. this cellular tissue." is very similar to that already All papers. depend upon vegetable fiber for their substance and fundamental base. from and including the " " ers and beaters. and it might be .86 The Story of Paper. and it is found that the different fibers used in paper-making. to chemical treatment which destroys all resinous cellular and foreign matters. finally when subdued.
( \I I \l>l K KM! I - .MI n\\ i 'I 1N.
from which it it is This pulp is carried passed between rollers. where the first operation is to cut them up by steam saws into blocks about two feet in length. Mechanical barked. (2) soda process wood. and shipped to the factory. into tanks. "grinds exceeding fine. and there are three classes of the wood pulp: (i) mechanical wood. roughly 844. and (3) sulphite wood for this The woods used pulp.Modern Paper-Making safe to predict that further perfecting will eventually 87 of processes make them practically alike. like the mills of the gods. and with an automatically elastic pressure holds it sidewise against the millstone. set perpendicularly instead of Here a very strong and ingenious horizontally. Any bark that may still cling to the log is removed by a rapidly revolving corrugated wheel of steel. in The first method was invented in Germany 1 The logs are hewn in the forest." and with the aid of constantly flowing water rapidly reduces these blocks to a pulpy form. while the The larger blocks are split by a steam splitter. or for storage for . purpose are principally poplar and spruce. damp which are up evenly for shipment. sheets. which leave folded in thick. which. next stage of their journey takes these blocks to a great millstone. machine receives one block at a time.
which in is burned for the purpose The sulphite a furnace adjoining the building. and which thus forms acid sulphide of lime.88 The Story of Paper-Making future use. the wood pulp is not sheets. the chips are conveyed from the chipper into hoppers in the upper part of the building. sulphite wood pulp is to be prepared. slanting The soda knives quickly cut the blocks into small chips. If a paper-mill is operated in connection with the pulp-mill. The " cooking. In the soda process. to which the wood subjected in both the soda and sulphite processes. effects a complete separation of all resinous is and foreign substances from the fine and true cell . The sulphite process was originally invented by a celebrated Philadelphia chemist. but was perfected in Europe. invented by M. whose short. but beaters. Meliner in France in 1865. Here When they are thrown into great upright iron boilers or digesters charged with lime-water and fed with the fumes of sulphur. the chips from spruce and poplar logs are boiled under pressure in a strong solution of caustic soda. the blocks are first thrown into a chipping machine with great wheels. is necessarily rolled out in directly pumped from the tanks to the In the preparation of pulp by the other processes." or boiling.
painstaking work counts. Chemical wood pulp of the best quality makes an excellent product. was patented in 1 809 . it is frequently mixed with rag pulp. is left a pure fiber. as well as some of the cheaper grades of book and wrapping paper. The made earlier in the chapter. and is largely used for both book paper. or cellulose. to which reference was print-paper sheet. Components r nt twenty-five per cent of sulphite fiber is sufficient fP filler. though best it is the flat not of the proper firmness for All ordinary or writing papers. ready In the case of all fibers. the sulphite or soda process supplying the fiber and ground wood being used as a In the average newspaper of to-day's issue. are made entirely from wood. as the ground wood employed costs than any other of the component parts of a cylinder machine. and the excellence of the'paper is largely dependent upon the time and care given to the reduction of the pulp from the original raw material. * to carry seventy-five per cent of the ground wood The value of the idea is an economical filler. one less entirely. newspapers.Modern Paper-Making tissue. whether rag or wood. making a paper that can scarcely be fine distinguished from that made entirely from print and rags. which for use as described.
a cylinder covered with wire cloth revolves with its lower portion dipping into a vat of pulp.90 The Story of Paper-Making by a prominent paper-maker of England. Mixed with rags it makes an excellent product. Mr. has entered largely but the chemicals required to free from resin and gritty silica are expensive. while the cost of its importation has rendered practical. Flax. jute and in this and of course old paper that has been once used. a Spanish into grown making of print-paper in England. John Dickinson. who supplies man's wants in such bountiful fashion. manila. which takes it up and carries it forward in a manner similar to the system already described. the process beginning with the chemical treatment and are extensively employed . This machine is employed in making strawboard and other heavy and cheap grades of paper. Generous Mother Nature. the it South Africa. In this machine. Esparto. causing the pulp to cling to the wire until it is conveyed to a covered cylinder. use in America imstraw. hemp. manufacture. while by suction a partial vacuum is maintained in the cylinder. has furnished on her plains and in her forests an abundance of material that may be transformed into this fine product of Esparto grass human in ingenuity.
l> but new. such as the government where government paper is made for bank-notes. These come ^ ^ linen from the remnants goods. Massachusetts. letter. but as facturer. or " green- . clean linen rags are used. which are mentioned in the following chapter.Modern Paper-Making 91 boiling that are found necessary in the manipulaThe successful use of these materials tion of rags. and flat papers are made from cotton rags. referred to technical works on the The best linen rags are used for the highest grades of writing and bond papers. the price has cheapened that the demand for paper has greatly increased. those wishing work is intended for the general reader. and in others where Government an the finest ledger papers are manufactured. left in the making of In the government mill where is made the paper for our national currency. and its use has been extended to many and various purposes. while ordinary note. none mill at Dalton. has met demands that would not otherwise have been so been supplied. As a result. in an enumeration of the various kinds of paper. In some mills. Many described additional items of interest might be of in connection with the methods this manufacturing paper. rather than for the manu- further information are subject.
proaches in its is government appearance any money issue of our considered a violation of the law . or impression of any character that apstamp. extends across the machine.92 backs/' The there Story of Paper-Making a special attachment on the is for introducing into the paper the silk machine threads that are always to be seen in our paper money. and sprinkled continuously onto the web of pulp as it To prevent passes beneath. as well as the production of any paper containing these silk threads. from a receptacle near the machine. The laws of the United States perto anything that borders on infringement taining of our various rency. both metal and cur- most rigid. This attachment is just above " wire " on the machine. through which the short pieces of silk thread are automatically released. and consists of a the little conducting trough. through which flows. counterfeit- The paper is thus distinguished. and a cut. and possible counterfeiting are made extremely difficult by the fact that the an(j infringement government absolutely forbids the making of paper by others under a similar process. a stream of water The trough holding the silk threads in solution. and is provided at intervals with openings. are money issues. anything approaching a similarity of impression is prohibited.
and The government takes the is 93 dealt with severely. For this reason. and spring-water. same uncompromising position in regard to the fabrics used in printing its paper-money issues. In those mills making the finest grades of paper. is an abundance of pure water. The cleanliness which are reached only at "beater" engines in the process of manufacturing the lower grades of paper from cheaper rags. One of the first requisites in making good Purt water is paper. but also because of the elaborate methods necessary in production. where available. dusting. and it will be quickly seen that the silk thread process above described is so great a variation from anything required in the mercantile world that it would be difficult to pro- duce a paper purpose being effective at all similar without an ulterior at once apparent. the silk thread interspersion is in reality a very medium in only on account of its preventing counterfeiting. much of the process of thrashing. beating. prevail at and brightness the "washer*' and every step in these higher grade mills.Modern Paper-Making against counterfeiting. and cleaning necessary in the ordinary mill is omitted. . preferred. especially the better grades. not its peculiar appearance.
to the lands beyond the . The city of Holyoke. and wrapping papers. The tiny acorn planted two centhe ago has waxed with the years. till now it has become a giant oak. and within a few miles of the city all is made about one-half of "loft-dried" writings produced in the United States." " loft-dried " The region in the vicinity writings. turning out each working-day some two hundred tons of paper. of Holyoke is dotted with paper-mills. supplying all that is used on the globe. print.94 The The effort Story of has been Paper-Making made in the description given to cover the process of the crudest making paper from In enumerating the several rags. brief reference will be made to the varying methods required in their manufacture. kinds of paper. characteristic enter- tfd* about one-third of leads the world in paper-making. is the greatest paper center in the world. The United States. no attempt principal has been made to cover more than the divisions or varieties of paper writing. with Tbe center prise. In this chapter. whose branches extend seas. gaining strength and vigor with the increasing strength of turies the nation. in another chapter. nearly one-half of which is "tub-sized. in Massachusetts.
Es.of waterpecially is this true is with which there history. The proof of the time when a water-mark was introduced has been the means of the fixing the crime of forgery. where their silent but eloquent testimony has brought confusion to seemingly clever criminals. As the early waterties marks have suggested the names of many varieof paper. connected much interesting wit- * They have even become important nesses in the courts of justice. in order to reach the end sought through the forged document. It is not known .CHAPTER Though the water-mark may at first thought seem a VI WATER-MARKS AND VARIETIES OF PAPER in a sheet of paper comparatively unim- portant detail. where forger. dated the same back. the story of water-marks and the part they have played in momentous transactions Importance would easily furnish material for a volume. of the early water-marks. the two subjects are fittingly coupled. the water-mark has exactly how long a history the first evidence of one. in 95 . and unconsciously used a paper bearing a water-mark of a later date.
ging water-marks in those days meant stirring " Pot " history. bore the water-mark of a for letters. the " j cap and bells was lowed n derision substituted for the royal arms. In recent years. as its name suggests. paper had a tankard for its water" " fool's mark. and the curious method he adopted of showing his contempt for the Pope. and when Charles cap" was driven from the throne fool's and beheaded. crown. water-marks have been used as a means of designating the manufacturer. the " United States by " folio-post. or designs jug. which has borne the name to larger " Post " was the the old size made present day. Simple of common objects." " Crown paper. rather than for the purpose of distinguishing the . found in Henry VIII. such as a pot. coat-of-arms " of the king. and the cap gave its name to a sized paper. Then Origin of "fool's followed the I.96 The Story of Paper-Making is the form of a ram's horn. were popular forms of the water-mark in Mention has already been made of early days. urn. " and bore a " post-horn as its watername being preserved to-day in the mark. by having his paper marked with a hog wearing a miter. said to have been a book of accounts in 1330. follater by the Chanfigure of Britannia.
Varieties of Paper for 97 The crane.. a family whose name has been long and prominently associated with the industry in this country. who has learned to so manipulate his raw materials as to permit of the finished product's being substituted for iron. but these divisions give only an inadequate idea of the many varieties. divers uses to which the paper Paper in mec product can be put have opened up a practically *!*' unlimited field to the originality and genius of The many and the paper manufacturer. pressboard.Water-Marks and paper itself. The various kinds of boards furnish an interesting example of one of the most compreBristol board. like. so hensive classes of paper. and in many cases it better serves the desired purpose. instance. considered in reference to its general quality and the method of manufacture. print. lumber. it was first binder's all board. wrapping papers. As has already been stated. appro- priately designates the paper made by the Cranes. etc. viz. named from the place where cardboard. falls into three main divisions. board. manufactured. cloth. paper. writing.. trunk- and the hold very prominent . The most of these are and obtained by the varying manipulations of paper already complete in one or another of the three forms.
consolidating them. this ordinary It is paper is called raw stock or body paper. three-ply. The clay is largely found near Cornwall. two-ply. Coated paper. When referred to n connection with coated paper. formed by the disintegration of feldspathic rock. made by combining sheets of paper as are necessary to give the desired thickness. is indicated by the suffix. four-ply. one of the most important of The heavier of these boards are industries. or paper having an enameled surface. take their names from varying circum- and there is a large class whose designations have been derived from the materials or processes as employed in their manufacture. as The number of sheets word " ply. England. The clay used is pure kaolin or china clay. is made by applying a mixture of clay Coated paper \ and glue to ordinary paper. but is made slack-sized and sent to the coating factory in web or roll form. . manufactured in the regular way. as well from the purposes for which they are to be used. and so on. articles of the commercial world." used as a Like other papers stances. and before it has been calendered.98 The Story of Paper-Making positions in this. and then by using paste or applying hydraulic presas many used sure.
when printed upon Large factories enameled devoted entirely to the coating process. susceptible of a paper. while the finest is called blanc fixe. this clay solution . principally used. the paper-coating process it is purpose in to cover the body Its an even surface. giving The glue used is of the high and glossy finish. and sensitive a paper of extremely smooth.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper 99 and the pure white variety. is known as leemore clay. The clay of fine wheat flour ground to the fineness and mixed into solution of is about the consistency of milk. They do not necessarily make their own body paper. At first. duction of the finest half-tone cuts rf^ ut such delicate fineness and minute in lines instances of a photogravure cut so minute as to be indistinguishable to the will its touch of the finger be perfectly reproduced surface. a large and increasing de- mand exists for firm. adhesive when applied to the body paper. suitable for the reproa paper with susceptibility that the . Extreme smoothness surface. ordinary sort so well known in the regular marIts presence renders the clay solution very ket. cost of illustrations having been greatly reduced through the perfection of photogravure The or half-tone processes. but frequently purchase it are from outside sources.
. c 1 his consists or: A vat. while seemingly its earlier Parts of coating machine complete and exceedingly rapid. and the method to-day in vogue. introduction. Fourth coated it An automatic a carrier. to regulate distribution upon the Third particles paper. web of to hold the enameling solution. A roll of body paper ready to be enameled is solution. its Second Rollers. simple. is yet readily understood. the process of surface-coating paper has undergone great improvement. and the machinery required is quite . placed before the vat which contains the coating The end of the paper-web is started through the solution by being passed under a wooden roller hung in the vat the purpose of . to . . web through drying-room convey the after which is calendered to the surface wanted and cut into sizes required.. First .ioo The Story of Paper-Making was carried to and spread upon the surface of paper by the use of a fine hair brush. the same process being repeated on the Since opposite side. if both were to be coated. Brushes. to work out small to lumpy uneven- and overcome any tendency ness of coating. This was applied to one side or surface of the paper at a time.
Varieties of Paper
to insure an
even tension and uniform
After passing under the
immersion of the web.
paper-web leaves the vat, and is passed between two rollers that regulate the thickness of
From the the coating and remove all surplus. rollers the web passes forward through two sets
of brushes, one above and one below, both sets working back and forth transversely upon the top and bottom of the coated web. Each set of
of a coarse, then
usually of camel's hair, which as they play upon the coated surface work out all roughness or small lumpy particles, and reduce
the coating to uniform fineness. Upon leaving the brushes, the paper reaches an automatic carslats conveyed at two endless chains that pass at upon either side of the machine just outside of the
This consists of wooden
coated web, the chains supporting the slats at their ends. As the paper reaches the slats it falls
upon one, which by an ingenious device
forward and upward, permitting the coated web Carrier of damp paper to fall in long loops or folds
carrier at regular
and prevent any marring of the damp
Story of Paper-Making
from foreign contact.
the carrier convey the
through drying-room, kept of about 140 Fahrenheit,
The thus thoroughly drying the coated web. paper, dried by its passage through the dryingroom, is rerolled upon reels, and is then finished
by being passed rapidly between alternate steel and paper rollers, after the ordinary method of
The rollers are susceptible to calendering paper. or adjustment, so that almost any regulation
The gloss degree of gloss can be put upon the coated surface ; hence, for the highest finished paper the
rolls are set slightly closer together,
giving greater the web can be run necessary, through a second or third time. After calendering, the paper is cut to sizes required, this being
into sheets, except that if three or four rolls are run through the cutter at once as is frequently
the case to facilitate rapid cutting a device is used that causes the sheets from each roll to fall
in separate piles, so that all
of the sheets in each
be from one
quality and value of coated paper depend
the quality of the
body paper, the
except that wax coating to act as a lubricator. generated giving the paper a very high polish. securing the desired glassy finish. the friction greater speed chilled iron roll. known as friction and Glazing glazing. is is practi- same as that followed in the coating of other papers. more lasting. In friction-glazing. Glazed paper is one of the most interesting and useful forms of coated paper. up to cally the flint In either process the method of P rocessfs and including the drying. In the flint process. than can be secured by the friction method. this As will readily be a very slow process as well as expenis sive. fitting groove and working back and forth upon and seen. together with the perfection of its manufacture. the paper is passed through a friction calender. higher and across the sheet. . and passes over a groove in closely in the which operates a flint-stone. The glazing is done by two processes.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper 103 of the clay and other ingredients used in the coating. although it produces a finish. the paper is fed into a special burnishing machine. which consists of a cotton roll mixed with the and to permit of and a much the latter revolving at than the former. coating.
For ordinary use. in its travels across the Glazed papers are used largely in the manufacture of boxes and numerous fancy articles. but also to counteract the tendency of the paper to stretch. etc.104 The Story of Paper-Making Paper made by the two processes can be distinguished by the lines appearing on the flintpaper made by the stone sheet. Its fireproof and non-conducting for qualities make it a staple commodity many purposes. Lithographic stock Lithographic paper is a product especially prepared to take impressions from stones in lithographing. apt to destroy the register and injuriously affect the quality of the work. Tar-paper is a coarse. common book or print papers are employed. Asbestos-paper is made by combining paper pulp and the mineral amianthus. but these are usually *given extra care and attention in the course of their manufacture . such as drop-curtains for theaters. packing of steam-pipes. the stock is so manipulated as to not only secure the desired quality and finish. insulation of electric wires. The better grades of lithographingif is which not overcome paper are made by applying a clay coating especially prepared to bring about the desired results. thick paper soaked with .
which paper in a solution It is prepared by floating white of potassium ferrocyanide. and used for covering roofs lining walls. though the name is most Photora htc commonly applied to paper that has been floated S P ^ in a bath of nitrate of silver. or coated with an emulsion of silver-nitrate of chloride. included of manufacture. the print is finished by immersion in several changes of clean water.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper 105 a tar product. to secure warmth and dryness. and is employed as a vehicle for silver prints in photography. as well as After exprinting photographic negatives. under the subject to be reproduced. Paper which has been so chemically treated that the color of its surface may be altered by the action of light this is known as sensitized are Under details general numerous papers differing designation from each other in the paper. posure to the light for the proper length of time. similar to the blue-process paper is the blue or ferro-prussiate paper. and as Paper coated with the white of eggs is known albumen-paper. which is sensi- Very tized or made sensitive by being treated with a . for used for copying plans and maps. term that One of the most common of papers included under the general is known is in general trade as blue- process paper.
with sodium. plain or non-glossy. salted. coated with One of these. Another variety of what may properly be termed sensitized paper is the arrowroot-paper It is used in photography for positive prints. known as Pizzighelli paper. become white. as such. When this printing has proceeded as far as washed in clear water.io6 The Story of Paper-Making For blue-prints solution in water of red prussiate of potash and This may be applied as a peroxide of iron. a sensitized platinum- . or otherwise treated. the sheet is light and affected by it take on. chloride. or the latter may be floated upon the solution. a permanent blue. emulsion. includes a great variety of these sensitized papers. and is coated with a weak solution of arrowroot in water. those parts of the sheet to which the light has access through the transparent portions of the drawing are more or less affected. and a trace of citric acid. while those exposed to the desired. art . Photographic Other sensitized paper. employed in various processes o f tne albumenized. when dry. coat i n g to t he surface of the paper. and those parts that have been protected from the light. When ex- posed to light under a drawing. as well as to the length of the exposure. according to the greater or less trans- parency.
Manifold writing or copying papers are made from strong unsized papers adapted to receive writing or printing. clear. and to transfer this readily under pressure to another sheet which has been dampened. trans fr f paper faced with carbon or lampblack. which is prepared by coating the sheet with adhesive pigments of lampblack. and the impression of the letter on the surface of one sheet serves to print three or four sheets underneath. Other papers produce are so treated chemically as to under the application of Such pressure. gives a neat surface.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper 107 paper. or bon-paper universally used in typewriting when more than one copy of a letter or paper is desired. which are most artistic and pleasing for many subjects. gray tones. The manifold paper largely .Carbon vermilion. are put into the typewriter. is the used for transferring a design transfer-paper certain effects mechanically. It is the common rule to-day to Manifold make permanent record of correspondence and business transactions by the use of this system of impression-copying. Alternate sheets of writing and carbon paper. The car. and soft. indigo. is placed one above the other. or other chemical. instead of by the action of light.
The usual one employed is to apply a thin coating of a solution of Canada balsam in turpentine. paper Transparent papers are made by several different met hods.Making used by railroads is very thin. and the stencil cut by allowing the type to strike the wax sheet. or aj solution of castor or linseed oil in absolute alcohol. or it may be placed upon a is flat steel plate. placed in the typewriter. Stencil thus effecting a great saving of time and labor. by placing the blank sheet under the stencil and then passing an inked roller over the latter. a steel pencil made especially for the purpose. as fine and thin as gauze. the alcohol in the latter case . viz. even coating of paraffin. and from this the stencil may be may be prepared in two different ways. Copies are produced in the same manner as with other stencils. the surface of which cut into multitudinous microscopic steel points. Either it from which the ink-pad or ribbon has been removed.io8 The Story of Paper. which cuts the wax without tearing the gauzy body of the sheet. Luminous paper is prepared by compounding the pulp with gelatine and phosphorescent powder. Stencil-paper is produced by giving to a sheet of fibrous paper. a thick. and then written upon by a stylus.. making possible a large number of copies from a single impression.
the paper with glue brush. prepared by spreading an explosive substance on paper. This first from a revolving surface of melted glue below. it is used for safety in bankchecks or other commercial paper. which is then dried and rolled up in the form of a cartridge. and then sprinkling Man's Sand and sand or emery-dust upon the surface. or removed Safety without leaving indelible marks on the paper. which plays over the coats in a steam gluing-pot this result. to protect against alteration. and sand upon the surface. with the tracings left unchanged. emery skill has devised for this purpose an ingenious are Sand and emery papers machine. Gunpowder-paper is produced by coating a stout paper with glue. by removing the oil with a fresh bath of alcohol.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper 109 being permitted to evaporate. it Having accomplished soft- ens the glue with a spray of steam. original state Safety-paper is a paper so treated or coated with chemicals that any ink-writing upon its surface cannot be erased. As its name implies. Such paper is largely used for tracing purposes. all surplus sand sifts the drop- . and may be restored to its of opacity. effaced. thereby rendering the paper transparent.
no The Story of Paper-Making ping into a box below as the sanded or emeryOther loose surfaced paper passes over a roller. much used by chemists and Filter simply unsized open or porous paper. Cork Cork-paper. is With such all ing rollers. it with finely ground cork is This paper used for packing Slate Slate-paper. and sandarach. particles are blown off by a fan. paper. the process of manufacture ceases at the first drying or crushdruggists. zinc oxide. gelatine. . by the use of benzine. glassware. seed-oil. is made by coating one side of a thick. the finishing or hardening operations being omitted. especially adapted to receive impressions for fine engravings printed from steel and other plates. which takes its name from the that it can be cleansed like a slate. an American invention. and molasses. followed by a preparation made of lead. turpentine. copal. is prepared from the regular product. while the remaining ones are still more firmly fixed by a second jet of steam. soft and flexible paper with a preparation of glue. Filtering-paper. of course. of the required fact thickness and consistency. Soft plate-paper is a thick unsized paper. etc. and covering lightly rolled in. bottles.
it has been found possible to incor- porate in the coating solution certain materials which render it waterproof.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper a large 1 1 1 Waterproof papers comprise useful class. skins for wrapping butter. A great amount has been spent in the enmoney . men- Since the invention of the process of claycoating paper.. of which tion will be made later. the process has never reached the state of time and of development expected. such as soaking the stock in dissolved shellac and borax. Another process is by brushing the surface of the paper is This method with boiled and paper thus prepared was formerly used largely in lieu of bladders and gutoil. but it has been almost entirely superseded by the introduction of parchment-paper. various methods used in waterproofing. covering fruit-jars. found especially satisfactory in waterproofing heavy paper and boards. etc. The application of wax or paraffin to paper to make it waterproof Paraffin is is a common method . and although this product largely used. and most practically only within the past twenty-five years that a process has been Waterproof It is known and employed for its rendering a paper waterproof by destroying absorptive properAt the present time there are many and ties.
candies. and is used for wrapping meats. and forms a thin coating melting-point paraffin. Parchment-paper. this method consists in the paper in a bath of melted paraffin.1 1 2 The Story of Paper-Making deavor to perfect the process. butter. is prepared from unsized rag-paper by immersing it for a few seconds in a solution of two parts of parchment su nu ric acid. supporters. By this treatment it traces is rendered tough. translucent. almost like the real Vegetable parchment made from the skins of animals. dipping the paper being at a temperature lower than the In its promptly from the bath. but so far with only indif- and the experiment has usually proved very discouraging and expensive to its ferent success. etc. washing it in cold water and removing any re- of the acid by dipping it in a maining weak solution of ammonia. which fish. in one part of ip at a temperature of 60 Fahrenheit. or oil of vitriol. glossy. then water. This paper is is odorless. of the and removing it upon its surface. known parchment. whereby the adhering paraffin is prevented from entering the paper to any considerable extent. simplest form. and almost It is impervious to water. and at the same time cheapen the cost. and is extensively used as vegetable in wrapping .
. jars Silver tissue. lime. according to the chemical employed in its name preparation. Characters written on this paper with a pewter pencil are almost in- Metallic paper delible. etc. meats. wrapping silverware. or what is known to the trade is and pots as grass-bleached tissue. The best qualities of this paper made in England. is paper washed with a solution of whiting. but may be restored to its normal color by being subjected to the action of an alkali. It is of a blue or yeltint. butter. and changes color under the inThe blue fluence of different chemical agents. It is Grassextensively used for leacbed specially treated to remove are all chemicals that would tend to corrode or tarnish silver. litmus paper. and zinc. when thrust into an acid solution becomes red.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper 113 lard. for instance. The enumeration already given by no means exhausts the uses of the wonderful product evolved . It is prepared by Litmus treatment with a peculiar coloring matter that gives low its to the paper. Test or litmus papers are used in laboratories and factories for indicating the presence of acids or alkalies and various liquids. seal and also to hermetically for preserving fruit.
after which a number are pasted together. and in all the graphic arts. and Paper car-wheels tne credit of the invention belongs to Richard N. this field is in the manufacture of car-wheels. it fills an equally wide field of usefulness in the its mechanic arts. until there is obtained a solid block. and dried for a second week .ii4 The Story of Paper-Making toil. followed by a month's drying. in circular sheets measurto the car-wheel shops ing from twenty-two to forty inches in diameter. a locomotive engineer. its One of where it has become most curious uses in a staple. The sheets are then placed one above the other until a dozen are pasted together. The paper is sent Allen. temperature of 120 Fahrenheit. and perfected by centuries of study and as is use in the various departWidespread ments of chemistry. containing from one to hundred and twenty one hundred and sixty thicknesses or sheets of the original paper. or thick paper. these twelve-sheet blocks of paper are kept for a whole week in a drying-room heated to a hundred tons or more. The . when five all are subjected to a hydraulic pressure of After two hours' pressure. pressed. a third combining of layers is then made. The material is calendered rye-straw board. and over each of these is spread an even coating of flour paste.
Paper lumber is another curious form of the Paper It is produced by making the ordinary staple. and two circles of one set passing through the flange of the the other through the flange of the hub. a product of human is ingenuity. wrought-iron plates to protect the paper on either side. center-hole for the hub . and the paper center is . injured vibrations. and one-half inches. paper product.Water-Marks and thickness is Varieties of Paper 115 five only from four and one-half to in weight. then . which never safer through a vat of resin and other waterproofing heated to a temperature of 350 Fahrenheit. strawboard on a cylinder machine. the cast-iron hub pressed through by hydraulic pressure. density. than any other car-wheel made. which also reams out the bolts. a cast-iron hub. running it is a paper car-wheel. and solidity and the block resembles more the finest grained. though costing more. forced into the steel tire by like hydraulic power is and there. two coats of paint are applied to is keep out moisture. and tire. there are required a steel tire. and by and longer-lived. To complete the wheel. the other parts are forced into place. heaviest metal than it does the original It may be called car-wheel paper. both sets through the paper. The paper blocks are turned on a lathe.
n6 The Story of Paper-Making placing together the sheets so resined and subjectThe result is a ing them to hydraulic pressure. It has been used in dress-skirts and for underin vests. like chamois. and paper of a dark or blackish color. Papier-mache is another product of paper . articles are Paper flour-barrels. and has an added advantage over cloth being practically impervious to air. strong sulphite stock. is very hard and solid. water-pails. It is used for the interiors of railway-cars and for perforated chairs. Paper boats are made of especially prepared paper pulp. Chamois It is called chamois fiber or mangled fiber. It is A fbfr made from and is a long-fibered. It can be cut with a saw or chisel. molded and pressed into shape. board three-sixteenths of an inch thick. and has been width by marketed in slabs thirty-two inches in twelve feet in length at forty dollars a thousand. passed through a specially constructed machine which mangles or crushes the fiber. product of the paper-mill has been used quite extensively the last few years for clothing. and other like made by stamping out their form from paper pulp or heavy cylinder-made paper possessing folding properties. giving it a soft and flexible character.
To this are chalk. work. thin paste is formed. artists' lay-figures. For the finest class of often specially made paper are soaked together in a strong size of paste and glue. toys. The list. clay. of Birmingham. Papier-mache strong. other layers being added. articles for which it is used make a long including ornamental boxes. In delicate relief-work. trays. England. to secure the required The dried object is hardened by oil. match-safes. repulped Papiermache and mixed with a strong size of glue and paste. for necessary. and not liable to warp or is an exceedingly fracture. slightly elastic. It has also panels. and other mural ornaments. Sheets of added quantities of ground and lime. are old waste and scrap paper. dolls' heads. a pulp is prepared of scrap which is dried. anatomical and bo- models. durable substance. for the The materials of commoner classes of work. is followed. 117 its which it is made. then ground to powder and paper. tanical . tough. a method invented in 1772 by Henry Clay. molded into the desired shape and dried in an oven.Water-Marks and almost unlimited in Varieties of Paper uses. size if and shape. picture-frames. mixed with paste and a proportion of potash until a very fine. being dipped in and is then trimmed and prepared japanning and ornamentation.
but through the . and decorative art has been not strange that paper. called into service. known. under the name of carton which molded ture. earliest days when men made for themselves permanent abodes. well known to need description. first The patterns were very crude.n8 The Story of Paper. have made a who. adaptations and wonderful possiIt is with its many should. The bilities. Ordinary is roofing and carpet felts are similar in manufactoo The use of moistened papier-mache in is electrotyping. napkins. and great variety of other useful articles out of paper. practically the same substance. mural decoration of one form or Wall-paper another has been painting. with characteristic ingenuity. handkerchiefs. In the use of paper for wall-hangings. but it is claimed that they were used much earlier by the Chinese. when it reached the proper stage of development. the From the artistic and practical come together. are ornaments for walls and ceilings. and every branch of sculpture. eighteenth century was well advanced when wallpapers came into use in Europe.Making in the construction been employed of coaches and for door-panels. and the method followed. find one of its principal uses in making beautiful the walls of our homes. clothing. while pierre.
Beauty and taste in the decorative art find their which are pro- duced by passing the web between rollers on which the ribs or other devices have been cut or The embossing of morocco and other engraved. Leather wall-papers are treated in a similar manner. which were usually made of the skins of goats and calves. cut into rectangular shape.Water-Marks and Varieties of Paper 119 slow processes of development and improvement a wonderful degree of perfection has been attained. after there being a block for each color. having Embossed ects been first covered with silver-leaf and varnished eff with a transparent yellow lacquer that gave to the The reliefs were silver the appearance of gold. of raised design is done in the same way. figured richer grades of flat-surfaced wall-papers are printed with wooden are cut in relief. are applied These blocks in having been dipped . " " repped morocco and highest exponent in the fine colored papers. paper The morocco and leather papers are imitations of the old stamped leather hangings of earlier days. painted by hand in many bright colors. The blocks. and are capable of being brought to any desired degree of richness. Repped or corded papers are those having raised designs. These skins were stamped and embossed. upon which the designs by hand.
as well as some that are very rich. are inlaid with copper. called flock. under which the paper passes. but wall-papers and many others are surfacetinted by being run through a " rainbow " surface is color-vat.120 an The Story of Paper-Making charged with tempera pigused to place each block on elastic cloth sieve ments. on rollers or cylinders carrying the designs. Mother-of-pearl paper is produced by a some- . exactly Care the is place. and then exposing quickly to ammoniacal vapors. the pattern is to stand out in relief. In "block" and gold and silver printing printing the design is first printed in a strong size . the process is repeated until the desired results are obtained. An treat- iridescent or given by ing the paper with a wash containing sulphates of iron and of indigo. is powder imitating gold or then sprinkled on by hand all over the Where paper. the finely cut wool of the required color. especially in the thin out- right Block lines." or the metallic " silver. and adheres closely to the size. thus securing perfect In many cases the figures on the block register. are printed by machinery from the web. The cheaper sorts of wall-papers. Reference has been made to the process of Surface tintmg coloring paper by mixing the colors in the engine.
of course. when dry. after which collodion is poured over the surface. the body of the book. used largely in binding. or other metal. lead. then. and then removing it. The and practiced so lay the colors manipulate the tern. Varieties of Paper 121 Glazed paper is first floated on a solution of silver. upon which the workmen sprinkle from a flat brush the films of colors needed for the desired pattern. Paper is also colored. P P or goat's-horn. comb as to is The marbling copy any desired patdone by deftly laying the smooth white paper on the bath for a moment. one covering of coloring matter will marble a number of volumes. when the entire film of color comes with the sheet. is Marbled a er prepared from a shallow bath of gum tragacanth. Marbled paper. is so held that the edges may be quickly dipped into the bath. exposed to the vapors of sulphide of hydrogen. When the whole surface is covered with bands and splashes of color. without the covers. so that a resprinkling of the bath is In marbling the edges necessary. which he draws with a wavy motion the length of the marbler will tub. of the leaves of a book. . the workman takes a huge comb. In this case.Water-Marks and what similar process. producing rich and fascinating color effects.
In the United States. as follows Sizes of : Commercial note Letter Flat cap - writing 5x8 8 - paper Crown cap - Demy 14 15 16 17 17 18 Folio post Double cap - - Medium - - Royal Super royal - 19 20 - Double demy Double folio Double medium Imperial - 21 22 - Elephant Double royal Columbier Atlas - - 23 23 23 24 23 26 31 Antiquarian - - x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 10 17 19 21 22 28 23 24 28 32 34 36 31 28 38 34 33 53 . by passing the web through a papers briefly described in this chapter been classified largely according to the coloring-bath. The have methods of manufacture or chemical treatment. according to papers sizes.122 as has The Story of Paper-Making been noted. Another basis for classification is found in the size. the usual writing of commerce are divided. or to the purposes for which they were to be used.
In no country of the world are books and newspapers read so extensively as in the United States. first its As a seedling struggling for root-hold steadily it and then pushdifficulties way upward through and obstructions. Many causes have contributed to this wonderful development. whose people must be thoroughly cosmopolitan if. whose total yearly output did not exceed as many sta- thousands. the thirty-seven had increased to twenty six regular daily.CHAPTER VII IN THE EXTENT OF THE BUSINESS UNITED STATES The oak." f 1776. in 1900. and sending its branches in every direction. according to tabulated tistics. there were in all the colonies thirty-seven publications. being now firmly established beyond any possibility of disturbance. has assumed giant proportions. "every man who reads Publications *? In the newspaper is a citizen of the world. ing THE century just past has witnessed a marvel- ous growth in the paper industry. as has been said. the natal year of our independence. thousand eight hundred and 123 .
The following table shows the exact figures and their divisions of the four leading states : Daily. it refers rank in s j on . and their aggregate output is counted not by thousands. nor even millions. but by billions. number of publications for g reat gratification. New York .. This too has no refer- ence whatever to the myriad of publications which. as it develops that in . ranking a close second in the grand total. Weekly. Quarterly. all of her sister states except New York.. Monthly. while appearing intermittently... and monthly publications. In an analysis of including our daily papers. . T . number of her publications Illinois outstrips .The Story of Paper-Making weekly. and even taking first place in the number of her weekly issues. are not issued at stated periods Illinois' only to regular periodicals.. Total. these interesting statistics we of Illinois find occa.
055. in his annual report to the American Paper and Pulp Association in New Hugh J.842. together plicity with the multi- of commercial and industrial uses to which be put. was ^4. 1899. world. a third factor in the wonderful growth of the century. February 15. but we have reached such proportions in our ability to manufacture all kinds of paper that it seems as though there was never a more opportune time to explore and make conThe amount of quest of the foreign paper market. paper may taken into account.213." During the past two years there has been even a greater proportionate increase. explain an expansion that would Another cause to be otherwise be inexplicable. and for the eleven months ending November. 1898. shared in this increase of foreign trade. 1897. is the export trade.128.The Business in the United States 125 one branch of the industry. The increase in the publication of books. showing an increase of 1. as briefly outlined in the preceding chapter.014. Considering the . Presi- dent Chisholm.143. manufacturers in past years have naturally statistics confined their efforts practically to them. York City. Our industry has but not to the it Our own markets being the best Export ought. the eleven months ending with paper exported during extent that in the November. statement: ing made the follow- "The past year has been one of marvelous expansion in the export trade of this country. 5.
. respectively.674.000 pounds daily.000 and 2.723.854. and by thus preserving equality between supply and demand lends stability and confidence to the industry. or nearly one-quarter the total daily outNext to the Empire put of the United States. Our valve against overproduction.. with a daily capacity of 3. 2. the capacity of her mills being 7.126 The Story of Paper-Making fact that ten years ago the exportation of paper was practically unknown. their mills producing. thousand and seventy paper and pulp mills these different concerns .000 pounds.. while Wisconsin and Massachusetts take third and fourth rank.000 pounds daily. . States are distributed through thirty-five different states. Massachusetts upholds her literary reputation by ranking first in the production of . and American genius. New York shows the greatest output. Of these. There are to-day in the United States 762 Number of mills in operation in United owning and now operating one . we that products are generally at a premium in foreign markets. now fully merit. enterprise. State comes Maine. f .195. and versatility are everywhere recogThis export trade also acts as a safetynized. it will be quickly seen we are fast forging to the front and taking the position in foreign fields which. . . as the leading paper manufacturing country of the world.
100.000 Division of 2.650. her output being nearly double that of any other state. The production) of the paper and pulp mills of the United States is estimated at 28. divided according to varieties as follows Writing - : Book - - - News Wrapping Boards - - 1.230.707.000 carloads.21 5.000 3.000 pounds.000 Miscellaneous. while Maine stands second and total daily capacity (not Wisconsin third. In the production of wood-pulp paper New York easily outstrips all competitors.856. an operation necessary to The prevent the pulp from drying to or rusting the many parts through which it passes from the time of its entrance into the washer and beater until forth it comes as a finished and perfect product.The Business in the United States 127 both writing and book papers.000 10. including varieties too nu- merous to mention pulp - - Ground wood and chemical wood process of paper-making is continuous. allowing thirty thousand pounds to a car. the total annual output possible would be 4.617.000 1.000 tons. . which. owing to the great expense involved in wiping or cleaning the machinery. three hundred working-days a year to Allowing each mill.966. would make 281.000 product 4.000 3.074.
greatest activity the The mills were trade ever experienced. paper taxed to their utmost to supply demands which 1900. to months from October i. the seven hundred and twentythree plants.019 tons of paper and pulp.038 were 1899. Estimating an average price on all the different classes of paper. it is safe to assume that not for many years have the mills run so nearly to their full capacity as during the two just past. * Estimated for looo va ue or the o ut p ut for 1900 would amount to about 1150. not including pulp.000. The difference between the actual production as estimated for the year 1898 and the present estimated capacity of the mills is 750. The March 31. mark probably the were fierce and exacting.000 tons . six This would make 3.466. many of them having two or three separate mills. If an average value of .000.733. t ^ie tota ^ ^ Statistics bring out the interesting fact that over one-quarter of the paper output is roll and sheet news paper. by any means. actually produced 1. although the mills not run to their full capacity.128 The Story of Paper-Making According to statistics gathered by the United States Commissioner of Labor for the first six months of 1898. tons for the entire year. and as the increased demand has taken up a large proportion of this.
Notwithstanding the fact that this paper is sold for one-sixth of the current price of twenty-five years ago. more important part in the upbuilding of our modern advancement and busito play even a The conditions of civilization are such that intelligent reading is one of the essentials in individual progress. Affording as it does food for the mind. as the keystone of our intellectual life. the bulwark of our comstuffs. As a staple in this coun- paper has come to rank third in importance list of man's wants. and opening up the way to profitable em- ployment through which the bodily wants are supplied. it is yet greatly improved in quality. reading might almost be classed as next in importance to the food that nourishes and gives strength to the body. rr 11 raiment. in the and the second place must be m ^/ //w given to iron and steel. mercial come ness. and ledger papers. and promises in the years to life.The cents per it is Business in the United States 129 this. On account of its large production of the higher grades of writing.third among try. The products of Paper ranks mother earth hold first place. book. including food. 11 t staple com- etc. Paper follows next.. pound at the mills be allowed for evident that the users of news paper pay out some thirty-two million dollars every year for this important product. .
In considering these figures it must be taken into account that by increasing the width of the webs and the rate of speed at which the paper passes over the machine. ' establishments their value pl ace j a t 762.308. the five states thus making. or one-sixth of the entire estimated product. which in part explains the doubling of the value of the output since 1890. and Pennsylvania will show about $10. ~ . while the value of the material used reaches $78. During the decade between 1880 and 1890 the .067.070 mills. the possible output has in many plants been more than quadrupled during the past ten years.882. the output amounted in value to $74.974. and are paid wages aggregating $23. New York follows with an almost equal amount in the value of the product. and the . value of the plants is $107. if our estimates are correct.000 each. . mills Number of and j The number of paper-making s .759. in value. the value of the paper of all varieties manufactured in the state was about $25.575. Wisconsin.950.000.130 The Story of Paper-Making Massachusetts leads in the value of the output .000 for the year 1900.388.000. operating 1. during which year. 52. while Maine.391 persons find employment in the industry. according to the government census. over one-half of the paper manufactured in the country.
or eighteen per cent. the determination and perseverance. and the average yearly output from each plant to $131.564 in the value of the output. In 1880 the average number of employes to each factory number of paper was thirty-five. with an average yearly output from each plant of $79. nor to trace its in the the slow steps by which it has advanced to present commanding its position. mere numerals can never tell the whole stoiy.056.831 employes and of $19. With a decrease of 125 mills during that period. to chronicle the crude beginnings of the industry days of the dim and far-away past. the average factory rose to During the ten years that Average number of employes in a outP ut P fr * * 53. which we accept unthinkingly as one of the benefits of a marvelous century. followed. there must have been an increase of 5. While the shaled is stately array of figures already mar- an impressive reminder of the wonderful development of the paper industry.639.The Business in the United States 131 plants proper had decreased from 692 to 567. As our earlier chapters recount. the alternation of defeat and triumph which are embodied in the It is not for them perfected product of to-day.198. the patient efforts. most marvelous strides for- . 1 25 in all. They must be forever silent as to the aims and purposes.
132 The Story of Paper-Making ward have occurred during the hundred years just past. who could read even the simplest forms language were the decided exception. and confined to the of . and works to be read were rare. proclaimed. century that has marked such material progress in the production of paper has been pre- The eminently one of vast intellectual and industrial activity and advancement. Through man's inventive genius the utility of this valuable product has been increased a hundred-fold. and is It has aided in- the medium through which new discoveries. est culture is It is and conclusions have been the handmaid of literature and its music. vention. any considerable degree of learning was confined to the favored few they were the "wise men" and the "magi". but through Paper aids it it as a medium standards have been reached that must have remained unknown were not for its efficient service. those reach of the masses. and through fostering agency the highto-day placed within the possible Formerly. and its wider use has been the means of broadening and extending other manufactories. and it is a fair statement that paper has not only contributed largely to the general progression that has taken place. theories.
through the abundance and cheapness of publications. attained through modern processes.The libraries Business in the United States cities. and the melodies of the great masters are brought within the hearing of all. In art it has served as noble a Paper's to The fineness purpose and delicacy of surface. ciation fac-simile reproductions. within as they are. But do these material attainments mark. They . be- comes an race. type of highest thought. in Vast themselves. The advanced thinkers of to-day agree that the hundred years just ended have been especially remarkable from a humanitarian standpoint. and render great assistance to the correct interpretation of scientific and other pubalso elucidate lications. his nature and condition. 133 of the great To-day. all men may hold close communion with the minds of leading thinkers past and present. integral factor in the progression of the the perfectability of man. man's greatest achievements? and complete Each. of the beautiful which cultivate an appreand carry into even the humblest of homes the refining influences of great works of art reproductions used in illustration . make possible the half-tone and other as in literature and music. itself a our answer must be no.
" If we ask how these great reforms were wrought. and the alleviation of his sufferings. . often act with a degree of unison that strikingly illustrates how much of one mind we plane the force how nearly upon one thoughts of men are moving. . As a are. the productions of the press As Chapin "go abroad . This century . impossible without paper. toward the righting of wrongs. says. and crushed the last fire- Paptr aids brands at the martyr's stake in &'** reforms Europe. the press wields a power that at once unquestioned and invincible. that their accomplishment was the result of public sentiment . freed the slave in Amer- ica. becoming possessed of common convictions. the & answer must be. This were surely properly educated and directed. and upon the sudden presentation of important international problems. . est.134 The Story of Paper-Making have been made notable by movements tending toward man's elevation. By dint of the universality of its service to mankind the ruling minds of all thinking nations are frequently placed upon a common plane. in part at least. . . " This century is the Hugo declares because it is the sweetgrandest of centuries his Victor : . both in shaping and giving expression to is public opinion. elevated the pariahs in Asia. extinguished the funeral pile in India. . .
he is helpless until education and enlightenment restore to him the manhood. On is the helpless. it crowns . in the steel no longer clad of special education. and the paper sheet that makes possible the potency of the it bears abroad the inits white is spired words that " heralds of stir wings men's hearts and prove the liberty. his judge." has been set free from his fetters. independence. To quote again from the great French " This writer century proclaims the sovereignty life : own of the citizen and the inviolability of life. equality. and has changed between his conceptions his of the relations that exist and that which pulsates about him.The Business in the United States 135 through the land." but every reading man is Higher education has brought to man a quickened sense of the inherent nobility of his nature. and fraternity. silent as snowflakes. whether they be the physical ones of iron or the no less binding chains of caste and custom. and selfreliance When man which he has been denied. but potent Power without an agency of exas thunder." pression medium press. It is the chief The education glory of this century that mankind has been helped of to a higher intellectual plane and the blessings of truth and seminated is knowledge have been more widely dis" The statesman than ever before.
In all these great movements of the century. and art. this deepened sense of man's dignity and nobility. making wrong and establish justice. have in their turn contributed to the humanitarian side of life. history has always been closely linked with that of man . in the realm of mechanics and of economics as in as well music. . paper has been the means of transmitting intellectual force it has been the messenger and herald of better things than the world had known. it has been the pace-maker of his progress. They have come up together out of the past they are associated in noble and uplifting work in the present fields together they go forward to such broader of usefulness as the future may disclose.136 the The Story of Paper-Making And this people and consecrates man. Its it easier to redress . literature. ." broadened enlightenment. .