justify present conditions by urging that they are better than those of the past, or that, if we will only be patient, the "survival of the



has gone by when any large of intelligent persons attempts to

and the "elimination of the

unfit," that

are believed to be in progress, will make those of the future still better. However great our faith

we have

the beneficence of the evolutionary process, learned that it can be both hastened in

operation and

made more

certain in

its results

by deliberate and purposeful human action. Through public sanitation and labor legislation
carried on

the plane on which the struggle for existence is may be raised to the advantage of all




the other hand, isolation of the feeble-minded, and other defectives

eliminate in one generation "unfit" lines of heredity which might otherwise be perpetuated



But to accomplish the task of improving social and industrial conditions by deliberate and purposeful action, we must first have knowledge of the conditions to be improved. This was the thought which caused editors of Charities and the




to organize and carry out and the Russell Foundation to supply the funds for the epochSage

making Pittsburgh Survey.
tablish the

was the same

thought which led the Foundation later to esCommittee on Women's Work, with Miss Mary Van Kleeck as secretary. The first

of the patient and careful investigations which are being made by that Committee is the present volume. There are several reasons why it is advantageous

to study


in industry as

stituted a distinct class
distinct problem.



though they conproblem was a


In the first place, the proportion enter gainful employments is constantly growing. This gives rise to special questions as to the effect of the increasing employment

women who

of girls and women on marriage and birth rates, the reaction of the employment of married women

on the conditions of home life and particularly on the rearing of children, and the influence of the competition of women workers on the wages of men. We do not have similar problems for

men because

their gainful employment has long been an established fact to which our whole social life has become adjusted. In the second place, there can be no doubt

women wage-earners is in even less satisfactory than that many respects of men. The range of skilled occupations open
that the condition of





as girls

Those who enter gainful of from fourteen to eighteen,

for average only about This means and women who have to be selfand health-destroying struggle. The consequence of these two facts.INTRODUCTION may marry five. if proposed for men. is that they are able to command wages which most girls one-half those that are paid to men." the legislative treatment of women workers is likely for many years to come to be differentiated from that applied to men. Now that the Supreme Court of the United States has placed the stamp its approval on this procedure by declaring that woman's "physical nature and the evil effects of overwork upon her and her future children justify legislation to protect her from the greed of as well as the passion of men. Underpay and its correlative overwork are the common lot. Finally. or at best premature. By so doing it has prepared itself to attack one of the worst phases of vii . re-enforced by the inferior strength of women. The easy escape from these hard conditions which prostitution appears to offer supporting a heart-breaking in a large city further differentiates her problem from' that of her working brothers. we have the putting forward of a protective pro- gram for women wage-earners which would seem to most people unnecessary. The Russell Sage Foundation thus acted wisely when it decided to create a special department on Women's Work. and as a consequence of these reasons. With before they reach the age of twentythis possibility before them they have less incentive than boys to learn trades.

at the same time. does artistic The competition in it between outgirl. the wrapper. and also in a typical one. As Miss Van Kleeck many respects explains. overtime and free days occurring in the same week. in others it is belong. errand highly irregular. present report is the first of a series of studies which will serve to place before the people of the United States authoritative information in The regard to the conditions under which women wageearners carry on their work and the wages which they receive. while most of the women are unorganized and little impressed by the advantages of organization. there is a union in the trade to which some of the regular. Bookbinding in New women employes York City thus presents in miniature most of the important problems which confront women wageearners.INTRODUCTION the labor problem the phase. going hand processes and incoming machine procIn some branches work is esses is incessant. it affords employment to every grade women of woman worker from the skilled craftsman who binding by hand to the machine the hand folder. Finally. The bookbinding study because trades for it is trade was chosen first for one of the most important in New York City. in connection with which efforts toward a solution are most certain to command public. Volumes treating viii of the Makers of . and the operator. and judicial support. legislative.

but it is the reform and not the knowledge that must ever be the chief concern of an organization like the Russell Sage Foundation. ix . and certain of nothing except that their wages will never be sufficient to enable them to be adequately self-supporting. in different trades. As these are published readers will be able to get a comparative view of conditions which inevitably weakens the force of the conclusions that may be drawn from the study of any single trade. the lack of Knowledge of existing conditions is the necessary preliminary to a reform of those conditions. so the facts presented in this volume about women employed in book- binderies should afford a basis for effective agitation for the reforms most urgently called for. As the information contained in the Pittsburgh Survey gave a tremendous impetus to movements for civic and industrial betterment not only in that city but in the whole state of Pennsylvania. none seem to stand out more clearly than an effective prohibition on the employment of women ployment at night of girls and the regulation of the emfrom fourteen to eighteen so that they will be enabled to learn the trade in which they are engaged and not be mere drifters. regular in nothing except in frequent changes from employer to employer and prolonged periods of unemployment.INTRODUCTION Artificial Flowers and of Women and Girls in the Public Evening Schools of New York City are nearly ready. Of these.


. 1 1 . Held to be Constitutional 256 Investigation INDEX 261 Xlll . . . 239 Supplementary Statistics 249 Sixty-Hour Restriction. . 13 38 72 101 . Collective Bargaining in the Bindery Trade VIII..133 169 VII. Irregularity of Employment VI. .. Overtime and the Factory Laws IV. Introductory III. . Wages and Home Conditions V.TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION.. The Bookbinding Trade Women's Work in the Binderies . Seager LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF TABLES . v xv xvii i I. .. By Henry R. B. Summary and Outlook 219 APPENDICES A. Outline of C.. . Teaching Girls the Trade 194 IX.

-5 I7 ^ .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS i PAGE Gold Leaf Layers A Stamper Drop-roll Folding Machine Automatic Folding Machine .84 . ] Hand Folders The Point Folding Machine . .84 . 9g . . .8 XVI . . .

bookbinding in the United States.. bookbinding in Man1910. Family status of binding women employed xvii book- 87 . Comparative weekly earnings of men and women employed in bookbinding and of women in all manufacturing industries. by decades. by ages 79 85 . in 1 1 . employed in bookbinding. and the minimum age at which they are employed 76 . 1900 4. 26 in 1910 2. 29 31 States.. 1905 Approximate yearly income of women employed in bookbinding. by nature of products. bookbinding during first week of employment in bookbinding Binderies employing women as learners by weekly wages of learners. 10..LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 . Women employed hattan in binderies 5. by principal product of in and number of Nativity and nativity of parents of women employed women 33 6. PAGE Binderies in Manhattan.. 1850-1900 Distribution of women bookbinders. New York City Weekly wages of women employed in bookbinding by years of employment in the trade 35 75 7. 78 9. New York state. Weekly earnings of women employed in 8. United of persons engaged . Number 3.


.160 160 . . .140 .. 50 Accumulated Stock Gathering Dust Midnight in a Magazine Bindery The Midnight Lunch Hour xv . .108 122 122 Gathering Machine Wire-stitchers. Hine FACING PAGE Wire-stitching Frontispiece 14 14 Pasting Machine Edge Gilders Sewing Books by Hand Sewing Books by Machine Case Makers Gathering and Wire-stitching Machine Gathering by . .140 1 A Crowded Workroom . .. Artificial Light all One End of a Crowded Bindery Day . 82 92 92 108 Box Girls Girls Labeling Men Case-making and Collating .150 . ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Photographs by Lewis W.. 24 24 42 42 54 54 Hand Machine Gathering Machine Press and Plow Trimming Magazines Folding by Hand Folding and Gathering Covering Magazines by Machine Gathering Machine 68 68 82 .. . . . .

98 XVI .^5 I7 6 Hand Folders The Point Folding Machine . .....LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FACING Gold Leaf Layers A Stamper Drop-roll Folding Machine Automatic Folding Machine . .84 ^4 108 ...

10. 1900 the United States. United 29 31 4. by principal product of in and number of Nativity and nativity of parents of women employed women 33 6. by nature of products. Weekly earnings of women employed in 8. Women employed hattan in binderies 5.. by ages Family status of women employed binding xvii 79 85 .. 1850-1900 women bookbinders... PAGE Binderies in Manhattan. book- 87 . 78 9. 3. bookbinding in Man1910. Number of persons engaged bookbinding in . Distribution of States. employed in bookbinding. 26 in 1910 2. New York state. bookbinding during first week of employment in bookbinding Binderies employing women as learners by weekly wages of learners. and the minimum age at which they are employed 76 . 1905 Approximate yearly income of women employed in bookbinding. New York City Weekly wages of women employed in bookbinding by years of employment in the trade 35 75 7. by decades. Comparative weekly earnings of men and women employed in bookbinding and of women in all manufacturing industries. in 1 1 .LIST OF TABLES FABLE 1 .

Processes in Manhattan in 107 mentioned advertisements for bindery in New York World. to June month and branch of trade Reasons for leaving positions as 30. Sundays 108 1908. 1 6. TABLES PAGE Persons per room in families of women em97 ployed in bookbinding 13. Advertisements for bindery women in the New York World.117 xviii . by the season . 1909. . from July i. 113 Number of positions held in past women employed in bookbinding of investigation Periods for which year by at time 114 in 22.105 . 15. of greatest activity of the establishments in which they are employed . Maximum number bookbinding in of women employed Manhattan. Length of time for women were em.104 . by season of greatest activity . . from July i. . women employed book. . on and Wednesdays. on Sundays and Wednesdays 19. . .LIST OF TABLE 12. . 23. 1908. . 1909 women 1 8.110 in binderies in stated by women employed which book112 binding 20. Bookbinding establishments in Manhattan. ployed in latest position in bookbinding 21. Proportion of women employed in book- binding "laid off" in dull season in establish- ments 17. Time 115 binding were idle after leaving positions lost in the past year from all causes by women employed in bookbinding . to June 30. Length of employment of 201 ployed in bookbinding women em98 in 14. by .

118 in Means by which women positions . Schools previously attended by 144 women in employed all in bookbinding and by women 1910-191 1 trades attending public evening schools. in .. B.. City.LIST OF TABLE TABLES PAGE 24.. 1910-1911 250 C. Time lost in past year because of slack season. New York City. 250 day school attended by women employed in bookbinding and by women in all trades attending public evening schools. bookbinding establishments 26. . in by women employed 25. New York City. 1910-191 xix New York 251 . New York City. Weekly 139 bookbinding 28.125 employed 138 bookbinding hours of work of women employed in 27. D.. Last . bookbinding find . . Age at leaving day school of bookbinding and of 1 women employed women in all trades attending public evening schools. Violations in bookbinding establishments of law restricting hours of work for women and girls 141 APPENDIX B SUPPLEMENTARY STATISTICS A. Years of attendance at day school of employed all in bookbinding and of 1910-191 1 women women in 251 trades attending public evening schools. .. Daily hours of work of women in ..

but she had worked in 21 24^ twice weeks/' Two old. the overtime work required of women in bookbinding had not been lessened. 22>^. that in the twenty years intervening between these two official reports. prevail. and by its concentration and importance in New York. Chapter 2 . a week for a period of 16 to 26 weeks. and 24^ hours. the phrase to refer to the long periods of work. and a thorough investigation of a trade in which such flagrant instances of overwork are officially recorded should help to arouse the community to a fuller responsibility for the welfare of wageearning girls. was 20^4 hours.000 women were engaged in the bindery trade and its allied occupa* In binderies is where such schedules of hours I. the Russell Committee on Sage Foundais The significance of the investigation increased by the varied aspects of the bookbinding industry. therefore. These 'long days' occurred once. except in the case of the Her usual long day girl who worked 24^ hours. of these girls were not yet twenty-one years It would appear.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE week reported their 'longest day's* laborVas 2oX. This volume is the result of such sense of its an investigation made by of the Women's Work tion.f The United States census reports show that in 1900 more than 15. But now the public is beginning to display a keener interest in the conditions of employment of women. and sometimes twice. 32. "long day" f See commonly used p.

p. Occupa- . seamstress work. Except for the large groups of women in the garment industries including dressmaking. Its con- ditions are important not because they are unique common but because they illustrate concretely problems to many other industries. Bookbinding. It is not in binderies alone that conditions change rapidly. is by no means the most undesirable of occupations for women. that machines cause a reorganization of work and then give place to new inventions involving further reorganization. process. however. tailoring.* per cent of these were employed in More than 26 New York City. of no other trade in New men and women so better the surside None illustrates by side with the None can show more strikingly the contrast between the artist craftsman and the worker who automatically repeats a single vival of century old newest inventions. that speed is an essential require- ment. and millinery bookbinding ranks second only to cigar making as a trade for women in this city. In none can more marked instances be found of unequal distribution of work through the hours of the day or the months of the year.INTRODUCTORY tions throughout the country. weakening Special Reports. Few occupations reveal more clearly the effect of changing processes and changing machines. 1900. that specialization * tions. is the custom. Twelfth United States Census. methods both of whom are called bookbinders. Hi. In York are the numbers nearly equal.

WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE by continual repetition of one process that power of adjustment so vital to success in a changing industrial environment that women work exhaust. which describes itself as "a journal devoted to the interests of the book- binders of the United States and Canada/' is a chronicle of events in the workers' trade union. regularity of employment. and nationality . and to make this knowledge common property should point the way toward changing the lot of women in many industries in tunities for further which similar conditions exist. The International Bookbinder. and the community. their importance is greatly increased. Many books have been written on bookbinding as a craft. When it is known that they affect the welfare of young girls and women in many different wage-earning pursuits. but not one has been found which con- tains facts regarding conditions of employment. to disclose oppor- improvements by employers. ingly long hours in the busy season. States census gives the numerical outand contains some data about wages. attention even if they occurred in but one occupation. workers. that irregularity of employment during the dull season compels the when even worker to forego all or part of her wages. To analyze the facts about the bindery trade. The United lines of the industry. in the busy season the income of the of women employes is insufficient for majority Conditions like these would compel self-support. to discover the constructive forces potent in the industry.

the uncertainty of the seasons or the reasons for irregular employment. * p. The reports of the New York State Department of Labor give the number of establishments in the state and city and their size. line ruling. 693. we learn nothing about the organization of the workroom force nor the processes carried on by women. and children employed. 1900. or about the previous schooling of the girls who enter the industry. They do not show the home responsibilities of bindery girls nor their attitude toward their work. Manufactures. the number of men. about the methods of training workers. sample cards. map publishing. whose conditions do not resemble the real bindery trade. Twelfth United States Census. the normal hours of labor of the workers as a whole. but the figures are confused by counting as bookbinding and blankbook making* several minor occupations. They do not give the facts about overtime. women. They give no information about wages in relation to length of experience.INTRODUCTORY and age of the workers. and the making of paper tablets.! and the number and results of inspections and prosecutions. VII. t Hours are not reported separately for women however. or from one occupation to another. Vol. and show cards. chromo and show-card mounting. . the necessity for frequent change from one shop to another. Important as are these sources of information. such as book stamping. the facts which they present are incomplete as a From them basis for a study of women workers. They contain no facts about a girl's trade career.

its location. The main subjects on which information was sought in the interviews with employers and workers were the processes of work done by women in the various branches of the trade. The field work was begun in co- See Appendix A. nevertheless. all com- bined with data secured from the binderies in Manhattan. to understand how women workers fare in this occupation.* 5x8 inches in size. the enforcement of factory laws. and certain of They do not show differences external characteristics. one for the record of a worker. wages. sary to for * and the methods of interviewing. . pp. hours of work. and facsimiles of cards. is necesshow how the detailed information asked was secured. the activity of the trade union and the attitude of women workers and employers toward it. although the official figures throw light on the extent of the industry. and to know a number of bindery women personally women in their own homes.were used in the field work. industrial The foundation of history of 201 this report was the workers in the trade.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE as between establishments or between diverse branches of the trade. its it was necessary to observe shop conditions at first hand. Thus. A brief outline of the sources of names and addresses. and one for the worker's report of conditions in the shop in which she was employed. to interview employers. and the methods of teaching girls the trade. home responsibilities. one for the record of a workshop. for outline of investigation. irreg- ularity of employment. 239-248. Three record cards.

when employers representing some of the largest binderies in New York were again inter7 Women's Work was a Alliance Employment Bureau. and This preliminary. Thus. and August i. a philanthropic agency. managed by representatives of social settlements and working girls' clubs. co-operative investigation was made between August i. This latter object afforded Employment a reason for seeking interviews and enabled the use in the daily placement investigators. .INTRODUCTORY operation with the Alliance Employment Bureau. while the larger purpose of the investigation was to gather evidence regarding conditions in the industry as they affect women workers. agency to investigate work-places before sending applicants to them. to act as agents of the Bureau. On the other hand. it had frequently been asked by employers to supply them It is the policy of this with bindery workers. which undertakes to find employment for girls in The Bureau had from time to trades and offices. and the managers believed that a thorough study of binderies would yield the information needed to enable them to place girls in establishments where good conditions prevail. 1908. the early part of the inquiry was designed to be of immediate work of the Alliance Bureau. time received applications for work from women who had had experience in the bindery trade or who wished to learn it. in visiting both establishments workers. 1909. while the Committee on department of the The study was completed in the winter and spring of 1910-11.

The field work lasted until July. The first task was to secure the names and adall dresses of binderies in Manhattan. including the City. 191 1. and even in so unexpected a place as a wholesale store. where the trade catalogue of the firm was bound on the premises. while 33 of the places visited were printing offices. and all advertisements for bindery appearing in The World during a period It may be that a few binderies of six months. or lithograph8 . A street directory in the form of a card index was compiled from as many sources as business directories of New York possible. but shops which did not appear in any of these sources could not have been important. the statements of bindery workers regarding their places of employment. were omitted. Bindery departments were discovered in difficulty of securing a The lithographing establishments.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE viewed by agents of the Committee. Not all bookbinderies are independent. and more than 100 visits were made at the homes of bindery girls attending public evening schools in Manhattan and the Bronx. with the result that 247 binderies or bindery departments employing a regular force of women were found. In this part of the investigation alone 478 visits were made at 417 addresses. in sample card manufactories. is an evidence of the interlocking of occupations. in printing offices. women complete list of establishments in one trade even in a single borough of New York. the files of the Alliance Employment Bureau.

in which bindery hands were employed only for temporary work. Information about the others was incomplete. or to a desire to conceal his "own business/' but often to indefmiteness of conditions. In many cases. but in the same establish- to day. Not all workshops are as carefully organized as the industrial ideal of the present century demands.INTRODUCTORY ing establishments. How can I tell what kind of work's coming in?" said one employer impatiently when asked what branch of the trade was his specialty. seasons. Their statements were verified and . "It depends on the orders/' and "It all depends on the run of work/' are replies recorded in answer to questions regarding wages. with other firms. or other allied branches of the printing industry. found not only in different establishments. Of the 247 permanent binderies visited. Great differences in organization. present many obstacles to the gathering of exact statistics. Some estab- lishments had failed or had moved out of the had consolidated Manhattan. employers gave very full information ment from day about the conditions of work of the women in their binderies. however. and in several no women were employed in binding processes. 210 were investigated. To secure complete The information from every employer interviewed was impossible. The obstacles were due not always to lack of interest on the part of the employer. and other " conditions. borough of a few investigation of bindery establishments presented peculiar difficulties.

and another 14. from public evening schools. To cover these cases it was necessary to make 732 visits. job. fThe sources of these 201 names were varied enough to inspire 1 confidence in the representative character of the results. bindery 21 present or former employes were interviewed. House. The number of complete records secured was 2Oi. employing 50 or more girls.| The reasons for not securing full information from the others are various. At the close of the investigation it was found that members of the group of girls interviewed had been employed at some time during their trade careers in over 50 per cent of the binderies investigated. This fact made it possible to determine the accuracy and value of statements made both by employers were secured from Employment Bureau. girls' clubs. and other orThe ganizations. Educational Alliance. and in 17 of the 54 blankbook binderies investigated. Of the whole group. 61 girls had not * Girls were interviewed who had worked in 36 of the 37 edition and pamphlet binderies in New York. Greenpoint Settlement) Visits to binderies 86 53 36 20 4 i i Manhattan Trade School Advertisement Total 201 10 . another 18.* The names of bindery the files of the Alliance list numbered 362.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE supplemented by the case study of bindery girls. pamphlet. in 56 of the 19 edition. and art binderies employing less than Of one 50. Richmond (Includes Jacob A. Girls' Friendly Society. of another None were interviewed in the 19. workroom. and from women in the trade. etc Hill Riis House. girls and by workers. Alliance Employment Bureau Fellow workers in binderies Evening schools Settlements or girls' clubs.

had never worked in the trade. It is seldom possible for one person to talk fully with more than two in an evening. Odencrantz. or were like litho- records were not complete or recent enough to be tabulated. Interviews with those girls whose or printing. Udell. 13 gave incomplete or inaccurate information. although several girls were met in the office of the Alliance Employment Bureau. and often the whole time is given to one. Miss Zaida E. in employed only graphing. lest their appearance should have a chilling effect. The record cards were not used during the conversation. and therefore their records were not tabulated. The visits must be made at night to find the girls at home from work. threw light on conditions of work and thus contributed data to the investi- gation. however. 87 were not found. often. had definitely left some allied process it. Plenty of time was allowed for full and frank discussion. and a few at a social settlement. or who were employed in some allied process. The majority of the interviews were in the homes of the workers. The investigators who took part in the field work for long or short periods in the course of the study were Miss Louise C. Such a case study of workers is more time-consuming than is the investigation of work places. and . pattern folding. Meigs. Miss Elizabeth L.INTRODUCTORY been in the trade within the year preceding the date of the interview. sample card mounting.

IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Miss Odencrantz also tabulated the records and compiled the statistics used in these chapters. clear-cut method of reform. these pages may be a disappointment. as teachers. or as buyers. of the problem of approach.WOMEN the writer. 12 . in the hope of enlisting the interest of those who as em- ployers. as legislators. as workers. and the necessity of varied methods It is designed to afford full and de- tailed information presented without bias. share responsibility for the welfare of wage-earning women. as voters. To those expect investigators to outline a single. The material is not who arranged as an argument in favor of any special It proves rather the complexity social program.

and rebinds vol- umes for the public library. He takes an order from a printer to bind copies of a pamphlet. not so often now-a-days for family photographs as for postal cards and kodak pictures. and makes albums. and mails magazines for publishers. business. He stitches programs for a theater or an opera house. and rebinding heavy ledgers. books. lawyers. steel corporations. in department stores. gas companies. He works for stock brokers. '3 Sometimes he takes . stitches. He binds school books. numbering checks. products are used so widely that he serves prac- THE every trade. He makes manifold books for the use of sales- women puts together the leaves of a telephone directory and pastes on the cover. less classic He writings for individual cuscovers several thousand volumes of a new novel for a publisher. or profession in the community. tically and many tomers. Shakespeare. He and banks.CHAPTER II THE BOOKBINDING TRADE bookbinder of today has a more complex business to manage than did his predecessor His of two or three hundred years ago. binding briefs. paging cash He folds. He binds the Bible. or fastens together the sheets of a church calendar.

WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE over work from another bookbinder. in spite of the variety of products and processes involved in the modern industry. But the treasures the craftsman's skilful touch. the methods which have been adopted bear slight resemblance to the ancient art of bookbinding. who has secured an order too large for him to handle who is specializing in some other line. this magnified. also handles trade catalogues. Nevertheless." reads: 14 . thus being alone. the artist's design. and in the large binderies. equipped with machinery. His bill for binding a Flaxcopy of "Aeschylus Glasguae MDCCXCV man illustravit. where more bookbinders congregate than in any other is city of the United States. of the bibliophile are produced in only a very few small shops in New York today. or He called upon to adjust his business to the seasons and market conditions of every occupation which uses printed advertisements. The careful hand work of the eighteenth century is eclipsed by machinery. In New York. extension of the trade have And with all this in come changes methods and conditions which have exerted a farreaching influence on the welfare of the workers. to many the word "bookbinding" still suggests complexity only morocco and gold leaf. and all sorts and conditions of advertising material. and the detailed ac- counts rendered by Roger Payne to his cus- tomers would make the bookkeeper of a modern bindery smile in wonder.



IV. and makIt ing out new Patterns. not false bands: the Back lined with Russia Leather. And this Gold Work requires double Gold being on Rough Grained Morocco. bookbinding has a history beginning long before the time of Roger Payne. as further justification for the size "All the Tools except studded points are obliged to be worked off plain first. takes a great deal of Time making out the different measurements. and afterwards the Gold laid on and Worked off again. Preceding him were Grolier in France in the reign of Francis I. 1876. The other Parts Finished in the most Elegant Taste with small Tool Gold Borders Studded with Gold. sew'd with strong Silk. gth edition."* of his bill: methods. the his Italian binders of the fifteenth * and sixteenth cenVol.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE very best manner. Finished in the most magniEmbordered with ERMINE exficent manner. Cut Exceeding large. preparing the Tools. every Sheet round every Band. The impressions of the Tools must be fitted and cover'd at the bottom with Gold to prevent flaws and cracks/' But archaic as this description sounds. The Back Finished in Compartments with parts of Gold studded work and open Work to relieve the Rich close studded He continues with a description of work. 42. and small Tool Panes of the most exact Work. of The High Rank of the Noble Patroness pressive in the " Bound of The Designs. 15 p. . Quoted in Encyclopedia Britannica. Measured with the Compasses.

1895. were the palm leaves "bound" Older than these by silken strings. 1903. and earlier still the slaves who bound manuscripts when was the Roman Empire at the height of its power. seems to have done a number of odd commissions in bringing . bound books for Charles of Orleans. * Zaehnsdorf. Men and Robert Louis: Works. : Bookbinding. p. the widow of a bookbinder. The widow of one Jean Fougere. George and Sons. W. a bookbinder. . New York. London. Vol. 233. who executed elaborate bindings for the preservation of their hand-written volumes. and still more ancient the tiles of baked clay encased one within another.* Nor was days confined to men. Not only were books collected. Introduction. Familiar Studies of Books. f "He (Charles of Orleans) was a bit of a book- fancier. 16 Charles Scribner's Sons. which formed the sacred books of Ceylon. a woman. Bell J. XIV. t Stevenson. and had vied with his brother Angouleme back the library of their grandfather Charles V when Bedford put it up for sale in London. the IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE in the monks dark ages. but new books were written at the court of Blois. The duchess had a library of her own and we hear of her borrowing romances from ladies in attendance on the blue-stocking Margaret of Scotland. the delicate art of bookbinding in early On the contrary there are scattered references in history and in fiction which indicate that for several centuries women have helped to bind books. Essay on Charles of Orleans. Stevenson tells us that in 1450 in the court of Blois.WOMEN turies.

THE BOOKBINDING TRADE for the bibliophilous count. 128-129.. where she was a folder office. Book Co. however. she had to be there at 6 in the mornlittle and her Paris. She it was who re- ceived three vellum skins to bind the duchess's Book of Hours. for we learn from Victor Hugo that about the year 1800." Long before * 1800. Boston. But as she went to work at 6 and the school did not open till 7 o'clock. Little. was not allowed to enter the printing office. and who was employed to prepare parchment she it was who bound for the use of the duke's scribes. in vermillion leather And the great manuscript of Charles's own poems. the boy was compelled to wait in the yard for an hour. In the same house with the printing office there was a day school. Victor: Les Miserables. Anthony Astesan. in an hour of night in the open air. as time in And was one Jean Valjean herself the fourth year of his captivity had news that his sister was trying to support in son by binding pamphlets in "Every morning she went to a printing No. the industry Fantine." went on it is evident that the art which the plodding industry as well as the taste of women found employment. Brown and 17 .* ing. pp. 3 Rue de Sabot.with the text in one column. The winter. 1887. who was seven years of age. and Astesan's Latin version in the other. which was presented to him by his secretary. boy because it was said that he would be in the way. had Hugo. long before daylight in winter. and stitcher. II. to which she took her little boy. 2 Chapter VI.

Vol.* who in 1752 had a printing and binding establishment in Hanover Square. New 18 . t Martineau. 1837. II." she ment and rewards of vided. Now there are the mills. It is probable that as soon as men began to practice the art in the United States. the lot of poor women is sad. Philadelphia had become the largest publishing * 642. America. New York. needle. Saunders and Otley. It is a boast that women " the encouragewrote. that the evil will give way before the force of circumstances. ML: One Hundred Years of American Commerce. D.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE crossed to America. Haynes and Co. visited this country she women engaged as folders is and stitchers. is labour In are not pro- are now so some parts there women dependent on their own many so in America. p. as well as folders and stitchers. for we have the account of one Hugh Gaine. O. in p. exertions for a maintenance. there were but three resources. and keeping boarding-houses or hotels. Harriet: Society York. In the meantime. teaching. and women are employed in printing offices as compositors. Depew. Before the opening of the factories. of the women were employed for some when found Harriet Martineau In 1834 processes. In a country "where it do not labour. The reference in her bookf as interesting for her emphatic denunciation of the social conditions that prevailed at the time as for her disclosure that the trade of bookbinding in was one which women were supporting themselves. New York. 1895. C." Before the date of Harriet Martineau's visit.

U. 39-40. X. D. This meeting was called for the purpose of organizing the Female Improvement Society. 645. with committees representing different trades. M.. New York. Carey himself took an active interest in the conditions of women's work. Indeed. C. * 19 . and prospects of those whose sole dependence for subsistence is on the labour of document issued in 1833. and presiding at a large meeting of working women." a newspaper agitation for better wages for them. O. situation. necessarily the careful binding heretofore accorded a single laboriously written manuscript gave place to more of rapid methods of preparing volumes for the hands readers. there Depew." in an effort to secure p. carrying on a pamphlet and their hands. f When the printing press came into general use and multiplied the number of books. 1895. 314. Vol.* Thus some very early products of the bindery trade in this country were such pamphlets as "An open letter to the ladies who have undertaken to establish a house of industry. which included bookbinders. History of Women in Trade Unions. t Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage-earners in the United States. Separated in beauty of form and finish as is a Grolier edition of De Bury's Philobiblon from a quarterly telephone directory.: One Hundred Years of American Commerce. and "An appeal to the wealth of the land on the character. conduct. Haynes and Co." published in 1831 by Carey. and boasted "the greatest publisher in the United States/' Mathew Carey. Senate document No. strike in 1835 by the Female Book Union Association in New York " a small advance in their list of prices. Pages 40-41 refer to a pp.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE center. S.

the printed folded to the desired is sheets are first size. They are then beaten with a hammer or rolled in a machine to make in them a compact volume. and so treat them that their preservation in book it proper sequence will be assured. it is necessary to fold the sheets uniform size. whether is to be covered with levant or thin paper. Whether a is to be bound by hand or machine. At the differ other basket. a quarto sheet folded into two folds section of four leaves or eight pages. For example. extreme is is the paper-covered whose destination likely to be the nearest pamphlet waste If a book THE PROCESS OF BINDING is to be bound by hand. The making of the handbound book. as indicated by a number called "the signature" printed on the first page of the section. take the sheets as they have come from the printing press. to fasten the folded sections to- gether in proper sequence.WOMEN is IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE a fundamental resemblance in the processes of In both it is the task of the binder to binding. designed to last several generations. It is in the covering that the branches of the trade most widely. gathered The sections are then proper sequence. demands the most numerous processes. 20 They are next "col- . it whether in is to be sewed with linen thread or stitched with wire. and to put on a cover. and an octavo into four folds making a section of making a eight leaves or 16 pages.

after which the head-bands are attached to the back at top and bottom. the method is to re- and each volume may receive peat one process thousands of times. volume is pressed. or gilded. Books and their covers are 21 . and if they are to be embedded in the back. When the end papers have been put in. colored. Finally. In machine binding. The edges of the pages are cut with the "plough" in the cutting machine. In hand binding. the book is ready for its cover. The ends of the cords are drawn through holes in the in its mill-boards (the stiff foundation of a cover). pasted. to is make sure that each page At various stages the proper place. and hammered smooth. and the The machine method of binding books omits many processes of hand binding. the book is covered with leather or silk or some other material. the back must be marked to show the position of the cords. and combines others into one simple operation. to give each page uniform margins. one book is the center of attention until it is finished. The edges may then be sprinkled. These last processes vary with the kind of material used plan of ornamentation. If the book is to be sewed "flexible" on raised cords." or examined. and the cover is ornamented. slightly different treatment according to the design chosen for it.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE lated. and the back rounded. the rough edges trimmed. adopting the factory system with its division of labor and its mechanical devices. grooves are sawed for them.

but as the pamphlet is to be covered only with heavy paper it does not require pressing. sew. is laid on by hand. backs are lined up and glued in quick succession. and turns down the edges of the cloth. and the titles or designs stamped into the cloth by means of a powerful press. gold leaf. The gather. gluing. lining-up. drawing-off.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE fed by the hundred through machines in different departments. and retrimming. the cover or case pared. The boards and is being prethe cloth are cut to fit the volume. and back. round. rounding and backing. and in gilding the edges. and they are not brought together Machines fold. which smears the sides of each volume with paste and automatically attaches the covers." In the meantime. smash. which covers the cloth with glue. The "forwarded books" and the covers are then fed into the casingin machine. the covers are to be ornamented or lettered. until the last stage is reached. A pamphlet must be folded and its sections placed in as accurate order as a book bound in cloth or morocco. delivering If the finished cases at the side of the machine. several are placed in a lying" and gilded simultaneously. trimming. all in one complex operation. pastes a strip of paper on the back. instead of handling the " volumes one by one. trim. or some substitute. lays the boards in their proper places. These procpress esses involved in getting the sheets ready for the cover are called "forwarding. and all the 22 . and both are fed into the case-making machine.

itself admirably the gauges have once been set to fit the sheets they need not be changed.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE other diverse manipulations by which the hand worker on a single volume insures the preservation of the sheets in a solid and substantial binding. taking the place of the linen thread used in books. though this report concerns craft. copybooks. to the back of these stitched sheets. A pamphlet may be so printed that its sheets folded when must be inserted one within the other. diaries. address In his books. albums. and stitched flat along the back a short distance in from the edges. alafter week. In that case the paper cover may be put on before the pamphlet is stitched. The blankbook maker does not receive the sheets from a printer ready for binding. or month after mainly the binding of printed books. A word must be said of blankbook making. by hand or by machine. ledgers. Then the cover is pasted. laid Or the sections may be one on top of the other. and a wire staple. but it is characterized by uniformity of size week month. may be inserted from the back of the cover through the center of the inner sheet. of . and portfolios. A magazine or periodical is in reality a pamphlet. 23 A heavy ledger. His trade includes the ruling and numbering of the pages of account books. as in that of the "printer's binder/' the processes of work vary with the degree of preservation required for the sheets. and it is possible to combine several machines in one. Thus it lends When to machine production.

or he may omit all ornament and devote his attention merely to executing a strong and durable piece of work. different machines." of work has divided the bookbinding trade into branches. may be bound and rebound by hand in the most substantial way. a great change has come over a portion of the blankbook maker's trade. and distinct BRANCHES OF THE TRADE Variety in products and in methods In the "job" bindery. bound and mailed. name all implies. The customers are usually publishers. pamphlets are folded. In the stitched. and in some cases the "binder" has become the "manufacturer of loose leaf devices. unless the printer. from whom the binder receives the printed sheets of the book. but no books are bound In the "magazine" bindery. The owner may be an art binder.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE inestimable value to some business establishment. alike. A school child's copybook may be sewed by machine without any elaborate preparation for a covering. are turned out by machines. stance. With the introduction of card systems and loose leaf note books. "pamphlet" bindery. with diverse processes. each In the "edition" bindery. editions of thousands of volumes. periodicals are . acts as middleman between publisher and binder. and covered. as its labor conditions. The customers 24 in cloth or leather. for inbook is bound by hand for a "private" as distinguished from a "business" customer. who ornaments the covers of books with beautiful designs.



and a block or more away may be found another de- voting its entire force to the work of that one department. magazine. Not only may pamphlets be covered. It may be equipped not only with wire-stitching machines. lack one department necessary for the complete binding of a book. sitting before an old-fashioned frame. or to lay the gold and stamp the covers. A woman. Marbling papers for the use of binders is now regarded as a separate industry. or to number checks. at the same time.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE are publishers. or printers who make the contract with the publishers and then give out the binding In the "blankbook" and blankbooks manufacbindery paper tured or rebound. a hundred thousand copies of a monthly magazine may be passing through An establishment may the gathering machine. and blankbook binding are the distinct branches of the trade. the trade includes firms whose only work is to gild the edges of books. edition. pamphlet. This specialization has made possible the work of a middleman or agent. while. or a wholesale stationer ordering books in large to other establishments. These five job. may sew a single book for a private customer. to transfer a single branch of the 25 work from the . is ruled quantities. but books may be bound. For example. but with sewing machines. bonds. may include One bookbinding establishment them all. and insurance policies. The customer may be an individual or a firm giving an order for a single job.

280 binderies. were found in the course of this investigation. THE TRADE IN NEW YORK The most important center of the bookbinding trade in the United States is New York City. BY NATURE OF PRODUCTS. the middleman does not seem yet to be conspicuous in the industry. including temporary departments. BINDERIES IN MANHATTAN.WOMEN binder IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE it who does not wish to handle to the firm which makes it a specialty. 1910 Binderies . TABLE 1.* The value of the products of New York binderies is in the 36 per cent of the total value of these products whole country. Nevertheless. In the borough of Man- hattan alone.

in value of products.7 per cent.6 per cent.* The classification of establishments according to value of * United States Census. 10.146. 6 per cent job or art work. 52 to 7. 126 binderies. 1 1 1 $3. but much of it has crowded into a single district of the city. graphing establishments. or a pamphlet or magazine bindery. 45 cent of the total in the borough of Manhattan. The section of Manhattan Island about the City Hall may be regarded as the heart of the industry. etc. 4 .640. 35 per cent printing and 9 per cent are allied with engraving.049. Within a radius of a mile of the City Hall. semi-circle east of Between 1900 and 1905 the importance of the New York state increased from $5.648. an increase of . per are located.004 to $7. The bookbinding concentrate in New trade has tended not only to York. 739 to trade in 1 . pp. New York State. Bulletin 59. 27 . and from $9. or in number of wage-earners. Manu- factures. 152. as the different products may be found in the same workroom. or 15. 6. In that case the shop has been counted in each of these branches of the trade. in total amount paid in wages. These divisions are not stationery work. mutually exclusive.4 per cent.198 to $11.165.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE work. 354.333.2 per cent from 7.984. in a Broadway. or 23. from $3. 26 per cent blankbook work.557. in capital invested. It is often difficult to classify an establishment as an edition bindery. 1905. 5 per cent are departments of litho1 offices.

7 per cent. or 1. whose establishments. Indeed.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE products brings to light the fact that in New York state in 1905.000.7 per cent of the total capital.7 per cent.408. 1905. and 53. outrank the commore than nine-tenths of the employers in the trade.* the greater part of the industry is in the Thus hands of a few. of the total number of bookbinderies reported the value of their yearly output as less than $20. about $5. while only 26. and even then these questions did not apply to women and slaves. 41. Bulletin New York State.9 per cent. while the much larger group of 212 binderies jointly claimed onlyio per cent. 212. At that time 3. valued their products as high as "$ 28 . it was not until 1850 that any detailed in- quiry regarding wage-earning pursuits was made by census enumerators.6 per cent. of the total number of wage-earners in the bookbinding in- dustry in New York state.000 but less than $1. and 17. of the number of employes. or 69. p. when for the first time wage-earning women were separately classified according to their occupations.000 for each establishment. or 4. of the capital." This small group of 26 binderies reported 72. about $750. Official figures in the United States census indi- cate a steady growth in the number of women employed in the bookbinding trade since 1870.306. or 8. United States Census. in value of prod- ucts and number bined forces of of employes.000. Manu- factures.414 * men over fifteen years of age were 59.

* in the A decade later. in 1860. BY DECADES. 1850-1900a Census Year .THE BOOKBINDING TRADE recorded as bookbinders. shown in Table 2. tabulation men and women were grouped is together. known. so that for that year only the total number of bookbinders. In later years years of age The facts are men and women ten and over were counted separately. 6.360. but man or woman. TABLE 2 NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN BOOKBINDING IN THE UNITED STATES. was ascertained. the trade of every free person.

000 5.632 15.4 per cent were men.000 10.6 per cent were women and shown in 48. 39. 30 per cent of the employes in binderies were women and 70 per cent were men.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE women) increase. 5 1. in 1880. AND 1900 1890. BOOKBINDERS IN THE UNITED STATES.000 Men Women 1870 Men Women 1880 Men Women 1890 Men Women 1900 CHART I. MEN AND WOMEN 1870. in 1900. . In 1870.7 per cent were women and 60. facts are Chart I.3 per cent were men.5 per cent were women and The 30 5 1. 1890. in 15.5 per cent were men. 1880. 48. but the proportion of women in the trade grew rapidly larger.

1900* UNITED STATES.000 men and over as 15.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE In 1900. . more than 14. TABLE 3.000 women were counted bookbinders throughout the country. DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN BOOKBINDERS.

O o m UJ U Z III.^ I = . . . hllm N <N T* 13 u ^ is 11 a s 3 .

4.* Table 4 shows roughly their distribution different branches of the trade. Thus Philadelphia has surrendered to New York the census reports that Carey.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE New York employed and Boston. 1. in the TABLE MANHATTAN WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING IN IN 1910. about 6. not representative of conditions today. BY PRINCIPAL PRODUCT OF BINDERIES AND NUMBEROF WOMEN EMPLOYED* 4 Product of Binderies . employing 1. Chicago. had outThese data are shown stripped Philadelphia. II. verified by comparison with the records of the State Depart- The numbers given ment of Labor.168. 897.086.000 women are now at work in binderies in the borough of Manhattan alone. According to our investigation. Philadelphia. also. her supremacy of the time of Mathew for New York in that year however. graphically in Chart are.612 women.

while the majority and magaAll the zine binders are in small establishments. Binders of pamphlets and magazines employ and blankbook makers 15 per cent. only 15. p.706 worked in binderies employing 20 to 199.948 the total number found at work in this investiga- Establishments tion. job or art binderies and the blankbook factories investigated manuthan 50 have forces of less women. 1905. p. Report of the New York State Department of Labor. 1900. the table shows 35 per cent. Twelfth United States Census. Factory Inspection. Only 96 women trade that the largest group in the edition branch of the work in binderies employing 50 or more of pamphlet women.254 were in establishments employing 200 or more.4 per cent of the * women employed of immigrants. 35.8 per cent of the total number U. The typical form of ownership has been the individual rather than the firm or corporation.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE whose chief work is edition women. but they employ 49. while only 2. but both individual and firm ownership lost ground in New York between 1900 and 1905 while corporation owner1910. or 48 per cent of binding employ 2. Manufactures.''! are the daughters Without knowing the names According to the report of the State Department of Labor for men and women in the bookbinding trade in New York City were employed in shops whose force numbered less than 20. Statistics of Women at Work. York t State. (2 per cent) work in hand binderies. New of wage-earners in the industry.1 per cent are incorporated. Of all the binderies in the state. 316. Census. 4. p. 34 . S.155 ship increased. 1. the census characterizes it as "an occupation in which 57. 1910. Bulletin 59. As to the size of establishments.* NATIVITY OF BINDERY WOMEN Commenting on the fact that bookbinding is centered in the large cities of the country. 33.

TABLE 5. NATIVITY AND NATIVITY OF PARENTS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE of the countries from which these immigrants come. bookbinding actually has the largest proportion of workers of native parentage. with a column added giving the cor- New responding census figures. NEW YORK CITY Country of Birth . such a statement would give a wrong impression of the nativity and extraction of bindery girls in New York. The birthplaces of the girls interviewed in this investigation and the nativity of their fathers are shown in Table 5. however. Of 16 trades listed in the census as employing 1.000 or more women in York.

a nationality " not regarded as "foreign in New York. tistics of manufactures in 1900 and in 1905. the census stahattan. The census figures show 22 per cent native parentage. 1905. according to the census of manufactures. (Undoubtedly many bindery women who work in Manhattan live in Brooklyn.974 were living in Manhattan and the Bronx. ment of native born. even though the proportions are not Judging by these figures. but frequent changes in organization made it very difficult to secure exact information. 1900. tion we have tried to ascertain the minimum and maximum number of women employed during the year. according to the census of population.086 women bookbinders were counted in households in New York City.WOMEN Of the in the IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE girls interviewed. of whom 1. and 44 per cent Irish. and 2. 4. impossible. and the records of the investigation on which this report is based. 90 per cent were born United States and 29 per cent were of native- born parentage. the report of the New York State Department of Labor for the years ending September 30.957 were working in Manhattan and the Bronx and 162 were working in Brooklyn.051 were living in Brooklyn. in the population statistics. but in the rank of nations represented the census in a general way confirms our results. NOTE TO CHAPTER number II Four sources of information are considered in ascertaining the of women employed in binderies in the borough of Man- the census statistics of population in 1900. of whom 2. The interlocking of the various branches of the trade with each other and with allied occupations also made accurate classification almost The combined data show some contradictions. 3.) In were counted in binderies in New York City. while the largest group (36 per cent) were children of Irish fathers. the bookbinding trade in New York is an excellent occupation in which to study the conditions of employidentical. and 1910. were enumerated in Brooklyn.119 women 36 . Both the census figures and the factory inspectors' reports include other minor occupations in the same group and do not disIn our own investigatinguish the different branches of the trade. In 1900. and. wage-earning women.

The discrepancy between it and the published report of the State Department of Labor is due to the fact that bindery departments of establishments engaged in allied occupations are sometimes numbered under the heading of the allied industry rather than counted separately. In 1910.003 women were counted in binderies in New York City. In 1905. For the purpose of verifying our figures. according to this investigation.365 of women were counted 1 whom 2. 6. and 492 in Brooklyn.THE BOOKBINDING TRADE In 1905. according to the report of the New York State Department of Labor. According to this list there were 5.382 women were counted in binderies of New York City. of whom 3. were working in Manhattan and the Bronx.153 women were counted in binderies in Manhattan alone.83 the report of the State Department of in binderies in New York City. according to Labor. according to the census of manufactures. 3. 4. 37 .653 women employed in binderies in Manhattan.024 were working in Manhattan and the Bronx. and 462 were working in Brooklyn. a complete list of binderies investigated in Manhattan was sent to the office of the Department of Labor. and 964 were working in Brooklyn. In 1908-10.920 were working in Manhattan and the Bronx. Such a figure may be reconciled with our own data by bearing in mind the numerous seasonal changes in the trade. 3. and through the courtesy of the commissioner the facts regarding the number of employes were transcribed from the department's records of inspections. of whom 2.

"cases" made by covering these boards with and ornaments stamped. and to examine and wrap the completed volumes. but in edition binderies after the books have been sewed. such as the trimming. the finished covers attached to the forwarded books. paste in pictures or maps. or stitch them with wire. where the boards for the covers are department. women have no further share in the binding except to lay gold on the covers for lettering and ornamentation. and the volumes placed in a powerful press. Thus they take no part in the important work of the forwarding department. rounding and backing. titles 38 .CHAPTER WOMEN'S WORK IN III THE BINDERIES WOM EN stand only on the threshold of the what is chiefly concalled the preparing defold the sheets by hand or by is bindery trade. and sew the sections together with thread. cloth. which includes all the processes between sewing and covering. In pamphlet binding they also paste on the paper covers. Their work fined to partment. and gilding the edges. lining up and In the finishing gluing. the only tasks for women are to lay the gold leaf on the cover becut. insert one within another or gather them in sequence. They machine.

The firm takes orders from publishers or printers who have no bindery plants. and the Bible. "the machines have changed it all. But now. used is found in the work of an edition bindery." Neverthethe wire staple has not taken the place of linen thread. These processes differ in different branches of the trade." she added. Description of a few typical binderies will best women are doing. naught but a piece of wire. an independent establishment which has neither publishing nor printing departments. the Dublin. "We thirty years earlier did only the best of work/' she "Moore's Melodies. Among us about their trade were a few binderies in New York in the them had been an apprentice in women who told who had worked in One of jo's or 8o's. show the kinds of work machine methods. Shakespeare. We bound them in morocco or vellum. ye'll stitch with a sharp needle and a linen thread said.WOMEN'S WORK fore it is IN THE BINDERIES stamped. and piled on shelves in the center of the loft. and they have changed with the developthe books ment of machinery. 39 . We women did the folding and the sewing and a little pasting. and does no pamphlet or magazine work. but rather the industry has widened to include both types of work. When needed good illustration of A not for pamphlets but for books. If ye '11 look at a see that where we girls used to pamphlet. there's less. and then to examine and wrap when they are ready for shipping. The sheets are received already printed.

feeds each separate sheet into the machine. sitting on a high stool. is the boxes of into which they are delivered work young Between the point machine and the automatic girls who another invention. a girl. the hand tool for creasing the paper being a bone "folder. folded by hand. or placed in the "automatic" or. for women in connection with this machine is to see that it folds the sheets properly a task which is part of the forewoman's general work of supervision." not unlike a dull paper cutter. The machine does the rest. one by The only work one. very rarely. toward the folding rollers. They may be fed into one of the six "point" machines. and finally to lift the folded sections from the are learners in the trade. placing printed dots on needle-like points which serve as guides. the drop-roll folding machine. men employed in the bindery stack them under two rubber knuckles which push the sheets. If the sheets are to be folded by the automatic machine. 40 . They are then ready for the "knockers up" to lift out and "jog" straight on a nearby table.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE for binding they are placed in a machine which cuts them to the size required for folding. driving the sheets in a zigzag course downward and toward the side. and finally dropping the folded sections neatly into a box standing ready to receive them. They are then carried to the women's department. The different methods of folding the sheets illustrate changes going on in the trade. If the point machine is used. making a fold at each turn.

time Obviously the next step was to subhands of women workers. but it is better adapted to magazines than to books. with an automatic machine as the result. hand workers are in the ascendancy in this bindery because the pasting machine is still on trial and only one is used. and places her mark upon it in pencil. For this process. also hand-fold any sheets which do not fit the folding machines. Then she compares it with a model volume. and the firm whose shop we are describing has not purchased one. plates or maps must be pasted in. All the sewing in this establishment 41 is done by . is saved. taking a section from each pile in order until the book is complete.WOMEN S WORK IN THE BINDERIES extensively used in the trade. Six girls. thus making herself responsible for any mistakes. but not found in this In it the points have given place to bindery. A gathering machine is on the market. These are placed on a table in separate piles. arranged in the order in which the pages of the book must follow each other. The next sections to task is to gather the folded and pasted make the volume. By dispensing with the points on which each sheet must be fitted. employed to paste. This examination is called collating. Sometimes collating the gathering is done by one set of girls and the by another. stitute rubber knuckles for the After the sections are folded. and the women who feed it need only flick each sheet from the pile so that the machine can grip it. The gatherer walks along the row. automatic gauges.

and one is more than twice as may large. size of a monthly periodical. three girls are employed to lay the gold on the cover before it is placed in the stamping press. The three small magazines are folded in the printing department. and books of a certain shape cannot be In handled by the machines now on the market. and attached to the books. Young girls do this work of 42 . In all. four magazines Three are the familiar are printed and bound. where the covers are made. however. a learner who cuts the thread between attached volumes. ornamented. and each has a helper. the finishing department. These tasks In complete the work of the women's department. about 10 inches long by 7 inches wide. The methods of work.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE machines. depend upon the size and shape of the magazine and the number of copies printed. the magazine branch of the trade that the development of machines has been most It is in marked. and to clear off the superfluous gold after the title and ornament have been stamped. When brought from the printing presses the folded sheets are stacked in piles reaching almost to the ceiling. For small issues it not pay to have complicated and expensive machinery. about 30 women and an equal number of men are employed in this establishment. thus taking out of the bindery one of the processes usually allotted to women. Three others examine and wrap the completed volumes for shipping. Four girls are employed to feed them. one establishment in New York.

and girls wrapping and mailing. provision for ventilation.) . Note cleanliness. space.CASE MAKERS GATHERING AND WIRE-STITCHING MACHINE (Next in order are the covering machine. and light. the trimmer or cutter.


also by machine." these piles that the sections are taken to the com- bined gathering and wire-stitching machine. and the machine set in motion by In this bindery the operator is a the operator. the magazine is completed. After being covered. and the wire inserted. is neither folded on the printing press nor collected by the gathering machine.WOMEN'S WORK IN THE BINDERIES It is from stacking. The gathering machine has a succession of boxes. although has been assigned to women. with the cover as the outer sheet. Thus the sections are stitched together and the cover put on If in one operation. the sections are inserted one within another. order by girls. slipped over "the saddle" of the wire-stitching machine. Instead of being gathered one on top of another. the publishers of one of the three smaller 43 . Some of its sheets are fed into a drop-roll folding machine operated by a One sheet. When gathered they are opened at the center. requires a different method of binding. The machine takes a section from each box and when the gathering is completed passes the magazine along to the wirestitching machine which puts in the wire staple to hold the pages together. a two-fold. This obviates the necessity of having an operator place each book under the needle and press the pedal. is folded by hand. which is called "beating up. one for each These are filled in proper signature. girl. in some very large shops the task man. The fourth magazine. whose pages are much It larger.

The development of complex machinery.000. These are still needed in the rebinding of single volumes for individuals. conditions this workroom would be changed. zine.* or for magazine publishers who want the year's issue preserved in one book. the maximum force of 10 women and about twice as many men was employed. however. the In the number rebound in a year is 100. according to the season and the orders received. additional folding machines and wirestitchers would be needed. may cause a complete change in organization in a bindery. In one of these hand binderies in New York the force of girls varies from three to 10. actually happened Thus the apparently simple decision of an editor. so that they are ready to be New York public libraries alone. They are not of uniform course. and the force of hand This has another magazine bindery. * one by one. of volumes size. nor with any other of the centuries-old processes of hand binding.WOMEN the IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE size of in magazines should decide to enlarge the pages. for public libraries. and so cannot be handled by machine. The gathering machine would then be in operation two weeks instead of three as at present. To "take apart a book is to remove the covering and to separate the sections. who may never have seen the binders of his magafolders inserters in and would be doubled. has not done away with the old-fashioned sewing machine. One girl was "taking " " apart books to be rebound. of 44 . When visited in the course of this investigation.

craftsman. the gold is applied when the tooling is done. and in addition she must work hard. are forwarded and finished Eight frames which are used for hand the books have been sewed.WOMEN'S WORK sewed again. cleaned in if IN THE BINDERIES are The pages the then mended or necessary. where the hand methods already described are used. Although in the art branch of the trade. The most successful of them are emphatic in their warnings that artistic bindings a a rare combination of the possess skill of artist. as in edition binderies. and business woman. if When sewing. and they do the general work are tooled of taking apart. As the covers and not stamped. they have not yet been successful enough from the commercial point of view to create new opportunities for any large number of women in the trade. they women were necessary. a few women have proved that they can successfully and artistically bind a book from the first process of folding to the final tooling. and sewing. refolding. Usually not more than two or three sewers are needed. This establishment is typical of hand binderies in every respect except in the number of women employed. concentrate her to earn a living by executing woman must 45 . pasting. and is never laid on in leaf form by another worker. Another woman was pasting given to the full- guards for plates name page illustrations in a book. Thus in hand binderies also the girls' work is limited to a few preparatory processes. sitting before the by men.

or wire-stitching. Nor does it girls appear that the art binder is is blazing a trail which likely to lead these other workers toward larger The typical woman bookbinder is opportunities. Unless women do In their part well the book folding. Although in one sense these tasks of women are merely preliminary processes. In machine folding. and have so much more in common with the arts and professions than with the industry of bookbinding. To deftA ness and to accuracy must be added speed. then. IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE and have enough capital to live on during the apprenticeship period and the first years of her career as a bookbinder. the one who is at work in the commercial binderies performing certain tasks known in the trade as women's work. the fold must be neat and true and well creased. Women art binders. college graduate who once went to work in a bindery practiced hand folding for four weeks without being able to pass beyond the stage of the beginner. an understanding of hand 46 . and require speed and deftness of touch. so that when the book is may be ruined. hand trimmed the margins may be uniform. the printing on each page must exactly coincide in position with that on the other pages. Furthermore. nevertheless they are important. that they cannot be regarded as representative of the large group of who are trying to earn a living by folding. Thus. not the edge of the sheet but the printing on the page must serve as a guide. or knocking up. are so few in number.WOMEN efforts.

Very much the same requirements ability to detect errors." said one girl. and in addition the operator must have some knowledge of the working of the machine and be able to feed the sheets at the right speed to keep pace with its movement. but they found it was too expensive. "We do our own collating. When two girls work together we don't have so big a worry. If you come to the end of your book and find two or three sheets over.WOMEN'S WORK folding is IN THE BINDERIES necessary to detect errors in the machine work. to handle the sheets deftly and quickly. requires the sort of co- operation of head and hand which cannot be ac- quired without long practice. you wonder what has become 47 . The hand work too must be carefully done. "and we're so afraid of making a mistake. They used to have collators besides the gatherers. watching the threads. however. who was employed as a gatherer in an edition bindery. while picking up the next section. partly because the books which are sewed are more zine. and throwing aside badly folded or To touch mutilated sheets. and to manmachine are necessary in the work of the boxes of the gathering machine and in filling operating the wire-stitching machine or the sewing age a machine. the back of a section with paste and then to place it over the revolving arm of the machine. is To run the sewing machine. considered the most skilled work in the bindery. valuable than the wire-stitched pamphlet or magaand partly because the process is complex.

If bindery girl.' copy of 'As You Like She Nobody knew it until she looked at another girl's of Shakespeare. in describing " A book is easily spoiled. 1 know a girl that put a picture of Longfellow in a It." Some knowledge of the contents of books is an asset for a mistakes like that. the irregularity of work and the frequent change in conditions are the characteristics of the industry which seem to be uppermost in the minds of bindery girls when they talk about their trade. It's bad to make but not as funny as that. the customer happens to be cranky. said. a hundred years might make the same gathering mistake as one that had been at it three months.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE You know you must have left one out or maybe gathered the same sheets twice. Nobody wants to buy a book that's got two sigBut a girl who had been natures alike in it. the work of the pasters. Description of the demands made upon bindery girls or of the conditions under which they work would be misleading if it gave the impression of uniformity and permanence in methods. On the contrary. Again and again a conversation 48 ." said another girl. When you do one thing all the time you lose the of the other sheets." a strain in bindery work to be sure not to make mistakes.' man. book that had a picture 'That doesn't look like He was a funny looking the picture I pasted. the book comes back. feeling in your fingers. you're likely to pick up two sheets " It's at a time.

The * pasting machine. p. The new inventions have been so fully described in the preceding pages that it is In place necessary only to summarize them here. B." International Bookbinder. cutting and folding machines are instruments of the bindery and as such should be conceded to be under the jurisdiction of International Brotherhood of Bookbinders. therefore be it "Resolved By the delegates of this nth annual convention that the President stand instructed or a special committee be appointed to attend the pressmen's convention immediately after I. of B. 6. 1908. a self-feeding machine. adjournment to present a suitable set of resolutions before the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants' union for ratification. 4 49 . but to them it often means that someone in the and the calamity of unemimmediate and real to the ployment is more workers than the advantage of better methods bindery will be laid off. or else of the hand folder is an attachment on the printing press by which the process of folding is taken away from the bindery department. in convention in June. No. uncertain trade. which read: "Whereas." The machine is the great fact which looms large before the eyes of bindery women when they describe changes in their trade. IX. don't adIt's a very You never know when you'll be The machines are driving the girls out.WOMEN S WORK IN THE BINDERIES " I would begin with such a remark as.* Inserting may be done by machine. Vol. a resolution was passed by the InternaBrotherhood of Bookbinders. survey of the catalogues of machine companies brings a vivid realization of the development of A machine binding. of production to some unknown customer. 172 (June. vise any girl to go into bindery work. 1908). laid off. They accept its introduction as they would accept a rainy day. a comparatively recent in- tional Recognizing this fact.

if less Their cheering. gathering. From Germany comes a rumor of an attempt to construct an attachment for the stamping press. The gathering machine. The chief argument for the introduction of a new macatalogues that they will gladly construct any chine To save is usually that it is labor-saving. in these illustrations to 50 . In many bind- pamphlets are covered by machine. labor often means to dismiss a laborer. which perform several operations. to do the work now done by gold layers. inserting. but are well established throughout the trade. takes the place of the girls who put in the "waste" papers. in cheap work. and wire-stitching. collators of their tasks. the blank sheets at the front and back of a volume. Manufacturers of machinery usually state in their new attachments which customers may desire. Finally. stories of the displaced workers. are significant in so far as they illusexperiences trate the social problem of industrial readjustIn ments. such as folding. and behind the stories of the triumphs of the inventors one may expect to find the equally human. Wiremachines and sewing machines are no stitching longer regarded as innovations. reference must be made anticipation of facts about wages. may rob hand gatherers and also. too recent an invention to have made its way into all establishments. there is the further development of combination machines.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE vention. eries The first introduction of a new invention is but the beginning of a long series of improvements.

WOMEN'S WORK IN THE BINDERIES in changes in earning power resulting from changes machines. This girl was transferred to hand folding. like those in a dictionary the work of folding is (it was on Good Friday. Even this laborious in a day. operate the machine.00 must fold nearly 3. nor could it be done in a day or a week. a cent or a cent and a half is paid for folding 100 sheets if one fold is If the sheets are large and heavy necessary. but "advanced rapidly" until she was earning $9.000 sheets Moreover. . but in spite of her efforts to work rapidly she could not earn more than $7." It is hard to earn a living wage by hand folding. is "terrible work. which. One day remembering the time vividly). When a vacancy occurred she was given a chance to It was not easy to learn. This girl received 4 cents a hundred for folding the pages of an encyclopedia. she says.500 in a 51 week. she said. 1908. and each fold creased smoothly by drawing the bone folding knife across the heavy paper. although the pay may be higher. very exhausting. At first she received a weekly wage of $4.00 a week. an automatic machine appeared in the workroom and proved so successful that it was used in preference to the point folders. At 4 cents for folding 100 sheets a worker to earn $7.00 as an operator of the machine. One girl had been employed in bindery work three years.50 as a learner. or 17. As a learner she had knocked up sections folded by the point machines. each sheet must be folded three times.

and therefore she was not employed. but not now.00 a week. She said in. "She walked the streets for three weeks/' said her mother. however.00 to $9.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE work.* After a fruitless search for work in her trade. A general hand worker in another bindery was laid off after a year's employment because of the introduction of a folding machine which could be fed by a boy. I When told an old bindery I they used to earn that much years ago. plus tips. she earned from $7. "trying to find work/' Then she became a waitress in a restaurant at "There is much better $5. money in waitress work than in binderies. "They can't earn good wages in the bindery trade any more since all the machines have I come hand that earned $6." * The the office of style of this last machine was so out-of-date that inquiry at its maker resulted first in a denial that the firm had ever it manufactured any folding machines. as an experienced operator in this trade. she wouldn't believe me." she said. was taken away from her when the encyclopedia was finished. was 52 . she found employment in a neckwear factory as a learner without wages. Later. but the machine was not the same make as the one which she had been operating. The forewoman that there would be no more work for thought "point folders/' and advised her to learn some other process elsewhere. Finally a picture of found in an old catalogue issued by this company. She went to a bindery where she heard a point folder was needed.00 piece work the first week ever did hand folding.00 a week.

instead of having a fixed weekly wage. No filling gathering machine was used in this bindery. piece. piece work. I'd like to know how many miles There are no boys to carry our work. hand folding and the boxes of the gathering machine.00 or $10. "I was so tired at night could hardly keep my eyes open wish I had one of those things you I put on your feet to measure the distance you walk. at supper. and we carry the work the distance from one street to another. made possible for her of six new process easily. 53 . I "At I first." Her experience it in handling sheets. walk in a day. That's a block. and her earnings were depressed steadily as the machine which she was operating fell into disuse. and the prices for hand folding were not high enough to yield a living wage. Gathering is not easy work. operator of a point folding machine worked New inventions were introduced. so that by the end months she was earning approximately J5i i from $10 to a week." the girl said. whereas the machine had yielded her a maximum point folding wage of only $9. and gradually more and more work was This girl was paid by the transferred to them. A girl who had been employed in the bindery trade for four years was an expert operator of a wire-stitching machine in a magazine bindery. The forewoman offered to teach her to gather by hand.WOMEN An S WORK IN THE BINDERIES in a large edition bindery. to learn the however. She had learned only two other processes. The folding machines are at the other end of the bindery.

She was offered the work of filling the boxes of the new machine at a weekly wage of $8. where the new invention had not yet been introduced. because of its labor-saving character and its greater productive power. 54 . The machine was purchased in September.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Her wages. she said.00 a week. and in the two busy weeks of the month she had earned $3. She refused.00 in a day. and do general office work in * Four years later the foreman stated that the machine had saved the firm nearly $30 a day in wages. "because there was a boy to carry sheets for us at $6.00 and sometimes $4. at piece rates. Then a combination gathering and wire-stitching machine was purchased. 1904. Another displaced worker was one of 12 gatherers who were laid off when a gathering machine was introduced. When she lost her position it occurred to her that she might address envelopes. 10 (15 cents an hour). She had been employed in the same bindery nine years. her earnings here ranged from $10 to $12. This girl and two others were retained for a remnant of hand gathering until the "We cost the firm money. and we were making good girl wages. instead of from $10 to $15."* In the slack weeks of the month this had been transferred occasionally to the office of the bindery." following January. and where operators of wireBut stitching machines were still in demand. ranged from $10 to $15. fold circulars for mailing. and secured work in another bindery in the same building.



the men for this work. a fuss" who had had long experience. at piece rates. machine did not prove satisfactory. other processes in this establishment or seek work elsewhere. and her average " earnings were about as much" as in her previous occupation. One "made gatherer. and she finally applied at another bindery where her special work was to insert one folded sheet within another. that inventors were busily striving to improve their mechanical devices. she was given an opportunity to operate it at a wage of $18. however. Young girls were employed to fill the regular rate paid to The other gatherers were obliged to learn boxes. manently. earning a maximum wage of $14 a week. Another worker had inserted the sheets of a weekly periodical. and the girls went back to their hand work. machine was and three or four collators were The transferred to the work of filling the boxes. pectation of another reorganization of their work. and backed by her trade union (an organization to be described later). collators and gatherers alike were numbering their days. Two employment bu- reaus discouraged her in this ambition for a commercial career. when the gathering machine was introduced. Employment was steady throughout the month. in exIn another bindery a gathering installed on trial. She was and the position was assigned her persuccessful. when working over55 .WOMEN'S WORK IN THE BINDERIES some other establishment. Knowing.

After working only one week in a pamphlet bindery where both "night and day gangs" of women were employed. It unguided attempt to learn new processes much wasted does not appear that this loss of time was a necessary evil. A The important is fact common to all these stories that no systematic effort was made to prevent the maladjustment.00 a week. But in the or find other positions there was effort and loss of time. and that the suffering of the [workers was due 56 to the fact that ." she said. it seems very evident that solutions were possible. IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE machine was introduced which folded. with a drop in wages from $14 to $5. with a dozen others was laid off. inserted. Yet the changes were not violent. she left because she was to be transferred to the " night shift. gathered. which was due not to the in- efficiency of the workers. On the contrary. and wire-stitched the magaIt was operated by a man. but to change in industrial organization.WOMEN time. and this girl zine. but merely a gradual development of mechanical devices. Sometimes weeks passed before the worker finally left the bindery. The girls who worked at night looked Two weeks later she found so worn out. work as examiner and wrapper in an edition bindery. after having been transferred to other processes. the appearance of the machine in the workroom was usually their first warning that they must seek other occupations. The displaced employes were given no chance to prepare for these changes.

* 36 firms owned no machines. and he preferred to give the work to etc. discussed the use of machinery and gave their reasons for not introducing it. wire-stitching. Includes folding. Then can give out other processes to another binder and make one or two cents on the thousand without any risk. I'd rather stick to one line. The girls in the bindery all could fold * by hand. who specialized in one process only. of those employing 50 or more women reported that they had no machinery. numbering checks. The machines so fast. Many employers." Another employer said that he had paid $1. but small establish- ally all the larger establishments use ments frequently lack it. machinery is the failure to introduce Natur- machinery. numbering machines. None although not always the newest models.WOMEN'S WORK IN THE BINDERIES readjustments were matters of chance rather than of forethought. Only 17 had gathering machines." said one. That's why so many binderies give out their work. Almost as important as the introduction of it. gathering. insurance poli" can't risk the capital for a machine I I which might change soon again. bonds. 90 had folding machines. Of 210 binderies in which this question was asked 174 used some machine. most of my orders from other change get I binders. etc. 57 . cies. "The machine changes all the time. especially in small binderies.600 for a folding machine but that it was very seldom used. sewing.

had an order recently which required the sewing machine but I could give that part of the work to another bindery. Nor would there be enough work to keep the machine in operation all day." Another employer had not bought a pasting machine because it was "not yet practicable for anything but small work/' The reason given in one bindery for having no gathering machine was that it was "adapted only for long runs. this The foreman said that "it paid better to give work to a bindery which had the machines. the numerous plates in the periodical divide it into more sections 58 . another. Still another." One bookbinder said that he would prefer to use a gathering machine since it would be cheaper than hand work. or covering. because there would not be I for it." such as large issues of magazines. who specialized orders for blankbooks.000 or 2. it was said. Another bindery had no machinery for gathering. said that his work in small was chiefly in lots of 1. but that it would fill half the workroom and he could not afford the space for it. inserting. and that the enough work gauge of the machine would have to be changed too often to make its use practicable.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE " I them when they had nothing else to do. Finally. in one of the largest establishments a magazine is still gathered by hand because. Another said that it would not pay to have a gathering machine. have a girl coming on Monday to do hand sewing/' said "We have no sewing machine.000.

the others would be laid off. of course. and sometimes a decrease in the force of results : women employed. ployed 60 or 70 girls. This defect. the newest ma- chines are purchased as soon as they are placed on the market." "Last year we had 70 or 80 We bought some machines and now we have girls. "The machines have one employer. would soon be remedied and the machine installed. specialization both in the line of work done by the bindery. This sounds like a contradiction of the census figures cut our force in half. both as the the workers' impression of result of introducing unemployment new machines. Now we have 30 with just as large an output. Of the 28 gatherers.WOMEN S WORK IN THE BINDERIES than there are boxes in the ordinary gathering machine. These changing processes might often pave the way for a possible improve- ment in conditions of employment 59 if more atten- . are true. 30 or 40. In some binderies. and changing processes result in a change in personnel in the workroom. and the census about growth in numbers following after any improvement in mechanical methods. facts Unemployment comes first and growth later. Their owners have pointed out the more systematic organization of the work. As a matter of fact. and in the processes assigned to each employe. obviously." said a forewoman." said "Seven or eight years ago we em- showing in- crease in the size of establishments measured by number of employes. "five or six of the best would be re- tained".

ready for gathering. and do their binding at a lower rate than Memit had cost with the system of hand work. Two years ago a great deal of the work was done by hand. One of the most definitely organized workrooms is owned by a man whose policy is " If you to use the newest inventions. to which a wire-stitcher is attached. and put it in. buy machinery. ing. where magazines and cheap paper-covered novels are bound. The superintendent made an offer to the firm to lease the bindery from them on a fifteen years' contract.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE tion were given to the workers' problems during the transitional period. one fills the boxes of the gathering machine. and a definite wage is paid for girls each process. always were to tell him there was a new machine on the in New York market/' said his foreman. and decided to bers of the firm were interested buy several machines. the use of machines is largely due to the enterprise of the superIn another bindery. and five are employed to wrap the copies for mail." are employed. one takes the completed books from the covering machine. Following the introduction of machines. intendent. "he'd get rid of one he Twelve bought a month ago. One girl is employed to feed the four girls take the drop-roll folding machines sheets from the automatic folder and jog them straight. a 60 defi- . which is operated by a man. which the superintendent said had paid for themselves within six months.

The same demand of the machine. "all round" workers are in demand. while general pracall tice in branches of the trade brings to the worker a very desirable power of adjustment to changing conditions. and the piece workers' eagerness not to lose the speed which comes from constant practice. Thus. But. . the employer's wish to keep his machines in motion. however great may be the demand for employes experienced in more than one line of work. has been noted.WOMEN nite S WORK IN THE BINDERIES minimum rate per process except wire-stitching and nant of hand gathering. the preceding paragraph. the machine not yield its maximum profit unless it is kept in constant operation. hour was attached to each a small rem- which machinery breaks up a trade which make a specialty of one branch of work. will On the other hand. both tend to organize the bindery force into separate departments. and those who can turn from one process to another are not laid of? so often as those who know only one process. nevertheless. it is the tendency of machinery to force a worker to practice only one. whose workers are not interchangeable. that it be fed with enough work to keep 61 it in constant motion. This sort workof specialization does not seem In the bindery described in to be unavoidable. If a girl is a "piece worker/' to lose practice means to lose wages. The other form in The way into establishments of specialization is illustrated in the case of in the em- ployes who practice only one process room.

. the larger the establishment. Of the of 7. It is obvious that the larger the establishment. and this may cause more pronounced specialization. more than half. 27. or n. 28." day. an increase of 2 per cent. But the workers are not always able to ers take advantage of such possible transfers. the census figures* are significant: New York state had only six more binderies in 1905 than 1900 (304 in 1905. were employed in 26 large estab- number Thus the tendency seems to be to enlarge the establishment.6 per total cent. or to secure more orders and to enlarge his establishment." said one superin" tendent. the greater the choice of processes for those work- On who have had opportunity to learn more than one branch of the trade. she becomes a sewer and In the light of this fact. lishments. 4. 62 See pp. the other hand. It is easier to be transferred from one department to another under the same roof than to seek work elsewhere. specialization affects also for from one kind of * their ability to turn In a product to another. 298 in 1900).984 wage-earners in 1905. does nothing but that. while the number of wage-earners in was increased by 832.306. more successful will be the attempt to keep every machine in motion throughout the working the woman "Establishments are now so large that a learns only one process.WOMEN forces the IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE employer either to specialize in one department. For example.

Overtime is usual on that day. hard/' she said. gathering by machine. On Friday evening and Saturday there is no work for a hand folder or an operator of the sewing machine. It is folded by machine and wire-stitched. This girl could fold by hand. fill the gathering machine. and $3. to the bindery on Tuesday and must be mailed on Thursday.00 a day. Another publication is brought from the printer on Friday and issued on Monday. is cesses lasted six days in the week If so that her earnings during the previous 63 three weeks had been $3. and operate the sewing machine.19. and sewing by machine. Wednesday the busiest day in the bindery.75. She worked from Tuesday to Friday. she had been . instead of wire-stitching. $7.21.53 a day. Two magazines must be completed for the mailers on Thursday.WOMEN S WORK IN THE BINDERIES several periodicals there complained of employed "It seems pretty the irregularity of her work. or $1. She reported that at hand folding she could earn 75 cents or $i . Hand folders and wire-stitchers are needed to bind them. An engineers' magazine must be bound Tuesday and Friday. For filling the gathering machine the rate was 18 cents an But neither of these prohour." Her irregular employment was due to the different methods of binding the different Two weekly magazines are brought periodicals. girl New York A in the week and then have to work so hard the other days. The work on this is hand folding. "to have to stay home two days large bindery in are bound.

but change in the size or character of her employer's orders. This transfer from work on one product to another requiring different processes was due to the fact that much of the book work formerly done by this firm depended upon orders from a large publishing house which had recently organized its own bindery. Recently a magazine which had been gathered by machine was enlarged by doubling the size of its pages. the specialist must be prepared to face not only change in machinery. another bindery a girl who had been employed to operate the sewing machine in the book department was transferred to the magazine department where her work was to look over sheets folded by machine and to fill the boxes of Her pay was reduced the gathering machine. or $9.00 to $7. Had she un- derstood machine folding or wire-stitching she might have worked every day. If we trace the history of the folding or the 64 . Not lack of work to be done.09 for filling the gathering machine. when different kinds of orders dedifferent processes. of the specialized workers in this mand Moreover. Thereafter a force of inserters was employed and there was no work In for gatherers.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE steadily employed she could have earned from $5. according to the kind of work assigned to her. but inability to turn from one process to another was responsible for the irregular employment bindery.00 to $8.00 a week as a hand folder. from $10 to a wage varying from $5.00.

merely hypothetical. while in 1900. and the conditions observed in binderies. the cause of the present in different men and women employed change in the proportion of men and women would appear to be two-fold. in part. Evidently more facts are needed to jthrow light on figures the census figures. Behind the one seems to read the story of a struggle in which men have been losers. Yet the comments of workers and employers. for This workers by women workers. the answer must be. Judging by the tendencies in the trade. 30 per cent of the bookbinders were women and 70 per cent were men.4 per cent were men? This 1 women would in this rapid shifting of the relative proportion of men and lead the statistician to suppose that trade was to be found a perfect example of the displacement of men by women. but a reorganization of the force due to the substitution of rubber fingers. contradict this conclusion. or other automatic feeders.6 per cent were women and 48. It has been pointed out that the share of 5 women 65 in hand binding is rela- .WOMEN'S WORK gathering machine IN THE BINDERIES we find that with the develop- ment ploy of automatic feeding devices the tendency is to dispense with the work of women and to em- men merely to care for the machines. which tell us that in 1870. What then is the meaning of the census figures cited in the last chapter. In the absence of any data as to the number of branches of the trade in 1870 and in 1900. 5 . change is not a displacement of women men.

while others were combined in one simple operation. who had learned the trade in a small bindery. increased production of pamphlets which need only be folded. and covered. that they With the introduction of machinery many processes of forwarding and finishing were omitted. with a it transfer of processes to women. and confined herself to that branch of the trade. men were in the majority. We found instances of this kind of transfer so scattered as to seem to be the exceptions to prove the rule. two important changes took place. Another girl. she learned gold laying.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE do only the folding. "sets up" several folding 66 . If during the three decades between 1870 and 1900 there was a struggle between men and women. employed in an edition bindery. in the early days of the trade when hand binderies predominated. however. One girl. seems to have left no trace on present trade conditions. stitched. the proportion of women steadily increased between 1870 and 1900. thus lessening the relative number of men needed At the same time. of forwarding and finishing have been usually in the hands of men. had had practice in almost every process of men's work. gatherand sewing. enlarged the demand for the processes always done women. tively small. Hence. and that the numerous processes ing. gathered. Thus it would appear that without by any shifting of the line between men's work and women's work. Finally. the greatly in edition binderies. In the development of the industry.

but the establishment was small when she began. 'That's men's work. The possibility of carrying on more processes than at present fall to be a burning question to their share in the trade does not appear among the majority of women. in IN THE BINDERIES is other binderies the same work done by men. and girls did some of the men's work.WOMEN'S WORK machines. she said. Another girl described with some amusement the way in which she had pasted canvas on boards at 30 cents per hundred. a task requiring no who skill. "but now the union is strong enough to keep the women out. a process ''They made good money/' usually done by men. taking the work from a man who had been earning a rate of 40 one large edition bindery a woman cares for some of the machines with the skill of a cents. These things are usually done by men. find One girl cut leather corners for blankbooks. In trained machinist." One girl /had been employed to "pinch" books and to use the round cornering machine. But these are exceptional cases. was asked if she had ever wished to learn to operate 67 . "The women would just say.'" replied one employer. One girl. when she was laid off she could not work because in other establishments boys are process. when asked the attitude of his women employes regarding an extension of their opportunities. had fed a ruling machine. employed for this A forewoman in a bindery told of a man and his daughter who had worked together "casing-in" books.

the machine. men's work. tlemen have and no lady



"Oh, no," she said, "ruling is gentleThere are no lady rulers. The gentheir hands in the ink pot all day, wants to get her hands inked like
can learn to feed the ruling


"A woman

a day," another explained. doesn't need to bother with managing it."




smell of the glue is awful," said another, speaking "It's a man's work." Still of covering books.

another, describing a machine which could fold, gather, and insert, said, "It's a man's work,"

although each of these processes formerly had
belonged to women.

Nor do employers appear

to have given


thought to the question. One, an art binder, said that the work of women was restricted only

by the men's trade union, and that women were He added, howcapable of doing men's work. that a woman would find it difficult to work ever,
enough to make her employment profitable in commonly done by men. Another, the superintendent of an edition bindery, said that the tasks of women were restricted by their lack


of capacity, not

by the rule of any organization; they would not have strength to handle the machines which the men operate. Another, a job binder, asserted that he employed women for temporary work only, because they were not strong enough to lift books and "be generally useful." " If you employ a woman, you can't give her anything but sewing," said another job binder, "while

PRESS AND PLOW MACHINE (The primitive way of plowing or cutting)





man can turn his hand to other things." On the contrary, the superintendent of a magazine bindery declared that there was no process in his " I workroom which could not be done by women.
could put a girl to work operating the cutting machine/' he said, "if I paid her $18 a week. I
are operating the gathering machines and earning $18 a week. 1 could have a woman tend the large folding maif paid her the same as the union scale for men. I don't know why I don't, except that see no good reason why should."

know two

big binderies where






In the course of the inquiry, instances of the transfer of women's work to men or boys were

found to be more numerous than the reverse. Men were at work operating folding machines and sewing machines, feeding the ruling machine, and folding and sewing by hand. Boys were found

emptying the boxes of the folding machine, sewing by hand, cleaning off the books after they had been stamped, and operating the wire-stitching
machines. The development of automatic feeding devices for the folding machine and the invention of gathering machines and covering machines have

caused these processes also to be transferred to men in many binderies. Indeed, the census of 1905


that, in

New York

City, in the five years

since 1900,* the number of bindery women had not increased so rapidly as the number of men, and
*Compare Twelfth United
Part Part
II, p.

States Census, 1900. 621, and United States Census, 1905, p. 770.

Manufactures, Manufactures,





that although women still outnumbered men they were losing ground. A woman who had fed a point folding machine, and lost her position be" cause of the introduction of the" automatic tended

by a man, remarked, "A man is paid according to what he knows, and not according to what he
certainly true that the tender of a large complex machine, fitted with all the devices for feeding itself, must be one who knows rather


It is

who does. Women without mechanical have small chance of securing the work training
than one

managing the new machines.
In view of the

changes that have been de-

scribed, the future of

women's work

in binderies


problematical. that women

the opinion of some bindcould be trained to carry on
It is

hand binding in all its departments, but seems unlikely that the best opportunities in art binding would be open at first to any but In machine women of the professional type. binderies, it would seem to be largely the lack of opportunity to acquire mechanical skill which prevents women from adjusting themselves to new inventions and retaining their former place in

the trade.

Nevertheless, the changes are much or revolutionary than some of the rerapid marks of workers and employers would indicate,

and the hardships of the workers could be avoided if more attention were paid to their problems. Machines have appropriated more processes in magazine binderies than in any other branch of the





where the neware

trade, but even in establishments
est inventions are


women workers


although often they are not the


women who

The proformerly worked there. cesses have changed, and the personnel of the force usually changes also with the reorganization
of the work.


in spite of the tendencies re-

vealed by such occurrences a view of the trade as a whole indicates that the number of women em-


in the

industry will probably continue to


as a phase of trade problems. no fixed it all 72 . and changes from day to day in the same workroom. subjects. are obstacles in the way of "We have on the girl/' wage scale. Many difficulties are encountered in investigatThe private investigator. Variations in methods in differ- ent establishments.CHAPTER IV WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS OF For the complex factors to be considered in describing a trade. cess to payrolls. two important discussion in this chapter. is handicapped in securing facts from employers. the most vital is the all relation of the wage scale to the main- tenance of wholesome living conditions among To discuss women's wages merely the workers. unrelated to the life of the worker outside the workroom. are brought together for this reason. wages and home conditions. definite information." getting clear-cut. "Some girls can make 50 cents and others $2. is to miss the real significance of the conditions of their work. without acing wages. There is no uniformity. depends is a remark heard frequently when employers are asked what wages are actually received by women employes.50 a day.

records of these workers show the length of their employment in bookbinding. the number produced determines the earnings. esti- For these reasons general statements about the range of pay in a given establishment have not proved so dependable a source of information as The the case study of the workers interviewed. or no work at all. processes of The work and the 73 size of the estab- . and week work. the last. and the maximum. which does not vary with variations in the amount produced. they were piece workers the range of their earnings is recorded. produces great confusion in mating the bindery girl's income. by The crowding of work at one season. A girl may be a piece worker during part of the day and then become a time worker. at The method another season. however. The three methods of payment found in bind- eries are called. at a different rate for different processes. no week worker could retain her place without producing a satisfactory mini- mum output. Obviously. time work. including If the first wage. in the trade vocabulary. and employment only for part time. Piece workers are given jobs on which a certain price per 100 sheets has been set. Week workers re- ceive a regular wage by the week. piece work. and the weekly wage received in each place of employment.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS of paying by the piece rather than a fixed weekly rate also obscures the real facts. Time workers are paid by the hour.

handling books of all sorts and varieties. numberers by the week." "My girls are all week workers. 1 74 . the piece work system affords an accurate test of each worker's earning power. so also do employers of small forces of But for binders of large editions general workers. then the piece method not convenient. Table 6 according to length of experience. many bindery women prefer the piece-work system. The firm thus avoids payment for work not done. show the bindery girl's chances for increase in earnings. When a worker turns frequently from one process to another." "piece work would keep a bookkeeper busy calculating the rate and pay for each job. and 60 were piece workers. As time and week workers' wages are usually lower than the maximum possible earning of piece workers. therefore. have to pay said one employer. "We "They can't make any- thing on piece work unless there's plenty of one kind.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE lishment seem to be the most important factors in determining the method of payment. Of the workers considered. usually adopt the time or week methods of payment. all identical. The workers interviewed were asked what wage they had last received in the and their answers." said the owner of a small establishment. or when the same is process is applied to many work different kinds of products. classified in bookbinding trade. 33 were paid by the week or time. of books handled by the thousands." Job binderies. singly or in small numbers.







binderies ten years or more, the average is $ 0.30, with $15 as an upper limit. As to the wage received within the first year, adis secured by tabulating all these workers' reports of the first wages received when they entered the bookbinding trade, as shown in

ditional evidence







Earnings During





We know


no bindery where


custom now

of 18, or 9 per cent, who earned $6.00 or over the first week, ought to be more fully described. Only one was as young as fourteen

The group


she began


in the

bookbinding trade.

Six were fifteen years old, six were seventeen, two were nineteen, and three were over twenty-one.

These older girls had had experience in other occupations.


entering the bookbinding trade seven

worked in magazine binderies, doing unskilled work, in which strength is the chief requirement; three
were employed for temporary work, folding a holiday pamphlet; two were exceptions who secured work in hand binderies through influential

two did heavy work

in edition binderies;

one was a gold layer's apprentice; and three folded pamphlets. A comparatively high wage paid to
inexperienced girls usually means that the process

demands no


and no





given to learn or to advance. Of 2 10 employers interviewed regarding learners, 65 refused to engage them, and three made no

statement on this point.

Table 8 shows the wages

paid to learners, as stated by 133 of the 142 firms willing to employ them, classified according to the


age requirement in the bindery.

34 of the 60 binderies in which fourteenyear-old girls were employed as learners, the be-

ginning wage was

less than $4.00. Of the 52 in which learners must be at least sixteen, only 14





pay a minimum wage of less than $4.00, and 38 pay $4.00 or more. This indicates the superior
earning capacity of the sixteen-year-old girl in this trade, even though she be a learner, and gives


"It's the

support to the remark of an experienced young girls who spoil a trade.

They come
the older

and work for very low wages, and
in preference to

sometimes the boss takes them




for so little."


analysis of wages paid to learners in different branches of the trade shows that edition and

pamphlet binderies pay higher wages to learners than they receive in blankbook binderies.




Minimum Age



Learners are Employed

the census statistics of 1905 based on payroll transcriptions of the earnings of 2,010 bindery women The census figures also afford in New York state.
a basis for comparison of the wages of

men and wo-

men in this industry.

Furthermore, they show the

comparative wages received by bindery women and by the large group of women in all manufacturing industries.



Weekly Earnings of


week when the



largest number were employed, the time for which census enumerators were instructed to copy the payrolls. Only 7.6 per cent, or about


$10 or more. Compared with this information, the facts about the women whom we interviewed show that they have a higher earning capacity than the larger group recorded in the This may be explained as due in part to census. the fact that the census figures include bookbinders
in 14, received


New York

City in other parts of the state

where both wages and cost of living are lower. Furthermore, the census shows actual earnings in the week under consideration, not wage rates, and some workers may have been counted who had not worked six days. Nevertheless, as it was a week

when the largest

was at work, the probability is that the great majority were employed full time, and it is fair to compare their earnings with the wages received by our group in a normal week. The difference may be due in part also to the fact that the group of girls who gave us most complete


may have

been above the average


intelligence, length of experience, and earning caIt is obvious, at least, that our data conpacity.

are certainly not below the level of their fellow- workers, and their experiences can-


women who

not be challenged as giving an unfair view of women's work in the trade.

According to the census

figures, the


women women in


binderies are lower than those of

manufacturing industries, grouped

while only 16 per cent . Of the women.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS The average for all together. and the chances of for bindery earning $10 or more are fewer in all trades women than for 1.00 Men Women Earning $6. industries is $6.200 taken together. BY IN BOOKBINDING IN NEW YORK WEEKLY EARNINGS The difference between the earnings of men and the women earn in binderies is pictured graphically in accompanying less 6 chart. 54 per cent 81 than $6. 1. in New York state. MEN AND WOMEN EMPLOYED STATE.00 a week. 1 3 for women women bookbinders.54 compared with an average of $6.211 1.200 800 800 400 400 Men Women Earning under $6.00 and under $10 CHART III.

and 82 . men The women are not doing the same work. the size same. and 3 cents per 100 in another.44. only 8 of every 100 women reach a wage of $ioormore. possible differences in grade of work must be carefully noted.WOMEN of the IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE On the other receive such low pay. or of losses through In making comparisons of irregular employment. rates of pay in different establishments. hand. of changes in rates. and some 18 cents. of deductions by fines. These group figures do not take account of differences in different establishments. For folding a she received 5^ and grade of paper being the circular. It is fair. to compare the rate per hour for such comparatively uniform work as filling the boxes of the gathering machine. one employer cent per 100 sheets. not a Inforlow-paid worker. A difference of 3 cents an hour 1 1 in a forty-eight-hour week amounts to $1. however. but it is significant that the standard of remuneration in their departments is about half the standard for men's work. "four-fold and cut." cents per 100 in one bindery. mation given both by workers and employers indicates also a difference of 50 per cent in the rate for small sum in the eyes of a hand folding i in different binderies. One worker who was employed in several binderies in quick succes- sion said that for a large "two-fold" she received 2 cents per 100 in one bindery. and paying another paying a cent and a half. as compared with 5 7 of every loomen. Some binderies pay 5 cents an hour for this work. folded once. some 7^ cents.

FOLDING BY HAND (Inner room. All light artificial) FOLDING AND GATHERING (Hand folders on platform. machine folders and hand gatherers below) .


"is that when they see you're making more than a certain amount. 83 Time-clocks in many . "The mean thing about that shop/' the work. although bindery trade these are not usually very serious. Various punitive methods are adopted to compel the workers to be prompt in the morning. employed in different type of bindery." " I worked very hard. girls about it and they said they couldn't do the work for less than 22 cents. Once our boss gave the girls a job at 8 cents a thousand that the bindery I'd told the just left had been paying 22 cents for. and in another cents in another. then any reduction he's able to get from the girls adds to his profit. because if one girl turns out It's a mean thing 1 I too much in a day. they cut the rate." said one girl." said another. this difference. they're apt to cut the rates. try to get the girls to to do. "and sometimes the girls don't know what the regular rate is. "but I tried to a very keep to a schedule. A girl employed five years in the trade explained one cause of "Employers often do a piece of work at less than the regular rate." she said." Wages may also be diminished through fines in the and charges. because when an employer on an order he doesn't figure on a reduced figures He figures on the regular rate and rate of pay.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS For gathering and collating she said that the rate in one bindery magazines was i cent per 100 signatures. three-quarters of a cent. The boss gave right He knew he was putting too low a price on in.

In some cases the charges exacted indicate a petty meanness which is exasperating to the workers." Very few firms seem to charge for "spoiled The penalty is more likely to be loss of position. On what grounds. IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE binderies act as automatic witnesses. for example. or if she is more than fifteen minutes late she is docked for a half hour. Most serious of all losses is the cut in yearly income due to lack of work in dull season. made after very careful consideration of all the facts 84 .WOMEN ishment deries. can an employer be justified in charging his employes 2 cents a In some pay 5 cents every two girls " It's very little. but the following estimate. on another occasion she was fined 5 cents. Another case in the same bindery was that of a little girl who had to pay 75 cents for a book she had spoiled. Others have been fined for an hour's absence if late five minutes." work. or they have been locked out until noon. said one girl. too. however. One learner. In some binif a girl is one minute late she is "docked" for fifteen minutes. or loss of time for other reasons.50. earning $4. We have to bring our own towels and for having the toilets cleaned? month establishments the soap. 1 had been fined 25 cents for spoiling some sheets. "but it's mean of the firm not to supply it. tion of yearly earnings An is accurate determina- impossible unless the workers keep accounts." weeks for ice water in summer. and the punmay be a scolding or a fine.

TABLE 10. APPROXIMATE YEARLY INCOME OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING. will be more fully discussed in the next chapter. throws light on the workers' The whole subject of irregular employment losses. BY AGESa Yearly Income .WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS on our record cards.

WOMEN is IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE recorded for the girls interviewed. in a year. her scanty earnings need cause no concern. and that if she can live at home. Such easy-going thinking ignores the fact that the low standard of remuneration of the large proportion of the community's workers which women now represent must inevitably lower the industrial standards of the whole community. The girl who lives at home is typical of an over- whelming majority of bindery girls. 86 . Nor does it occur to them that the low wages of women are a prime cause of poverty. Even a cursory description of these family groups shows how important is the gainful employment of women in its relation to the maintenance of the household. would amount to a yearly income of about $375. merely supplementing the family income. But the estimate of yearly earnings shows that even though bindery is girls find other work in dull season the all their occupations about $308. They believe that the problem concerns only the welfare of the individual girl. indicating a loss of more than $50 in twelve months. preventing wholesome and decent living in thousands of families which depend wholly or in part upon women's earnings. This is not a small loss when the fact is realized that very few bindery girls earn median yearly income from $500 or more Surprising. indeed. is the complacency with which many persons regard the low wages of working women.


longshoremen. bookbinders. baker. electrician. and two were peddlers. drivers this man. ship builder. The occupations of the fathers who were at work Four represented a great variety of employment. responsible and unimportant. switchman. because of illness or because he had deserted the household. had their own business. janitors. presser. motorman. last maker. tailors. one a shoemaker. candy maker. in seven he was not living at home. hardware worker. silk weaver. IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE In 48 families the father was dead. and a bookkeeper. while five he was at home and was regarded as the head of the family. although illness or age prevented his working. stableincluded pursuits. In addition to these workers in factories and mechanical also and wage-earning group coachmen. It includes skilled and unskilled. one of these was a barber. a waiter.WOMEN support. copper worker. including printers. The largest group. In only half the households of the bindery women interviewed was the father in a contributor. butcher. builders. pipe layer. watchmen. and a packer of meats. piano worker. workers in a spring factory. day laborers. lumber yard workers. 53. were not "independent" workers but wage-earners. public bath attendant. bronze worker. brass worker. glass setter. a painter. machinists. permanent and casual. The variety of occupations represented is the most noteworthy feature of the list. The increasing importance of the work of women in wage-earners' families is .

These are but illustrations. and an electrician. 246. but they corroborate the statements made in many other families as to the necessity for the contributions of the to the support of the households. in Information about wages of fathers was secured comparatively few cases. a hardware worker. Two other drivers and a bindery worker were in the $12 group. A machinist earned $16. wife.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS not confined to any one group of occupations of the traditional heads of households. New York. Charities Publication Committee. Russell Sage Foundation Publication. 89 . a switchman on a street railway. p. but such facts as were learned are interesting as illustrations. Robert Coit: The Standard of Living among Workingmen's Families in New York City. The best paid worked in connection with the public baths at $21 a week. A weekly wage of $15 was reported by two drivers. and three or i four young children in New York. 1909. In only one family was the woman bookbinder the only In 84 households the family inwage-earner.* then only one of these men was earning a living sufficient to support such a household. A longshoreman received $i and a worker in a bronze factory If $900 be the minimum living income for a $10. women Nearly all the 120 households depended upon the earnings of more than one worker. come was secured by the combined contributions * Chapin. "normal" family of husband. But in his case the was larger than this normal standard and family his daughter's wages in a bindery were needed.

The women wage-earners numbered one in each of 32 families. three in 25. "Very few week workers get more than As a in bindery work/' the latter said. and in eight households groups of as many workers were contributing. The men contributors numbered three in three households.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE of at least three workers. are slack season. while one man was at work in each that 33 households of 51 families. she has earned as much as $13. ier pay and steadier work. two bindery girls support themselves and their mother. 10 had five.00 gatherer. The record cards reveal the fact had no men wage-earners. believing that if they were working in different binderies they would not both be unemployed in the same weeks of the year. paid by the piece. $9. two in 55. as four In one of the families women Formerly they worked in the same establishment. and they changed their positions. Piece workmore liable to be laid off in The same preference for "smaller pay and steadwork" was expressed by the mother of a girl 90 . they think. but depended entirely on women. but both she and her sister say that they prefer smaller ers. The other is an assistant forewoman receiving a wage of l9. and both were frequently laid off at the same time. One is a general worker earning $8.oo. and two in 33.00 a week. It was too serious to risk having all the family income cut off in that way. 29 families had four wage-earners. who is an invalid. and one had many as six. as and of these.

Two younger boys are in school. The father earns very little. The father is a polisher in the hardware trade. was the revelation that it was not only the young daughters who had gone out to work pending the founding of their own homes. is father. aged sixteen. who were contributing to the family support.00 a week. You order and then I'd no work and you can't pay rather she should have small pay there's significant facts learned in these steady. in a Bohemian family of living. the mother a cigar maker." said his wife.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS in an edition bindery. and four children. things. mother." She earns $14 a week working in a factory so near home that she can 91 . "The work is pretty steady. aged fifteen. are bookbinders. six.00 "She supports the family. earning $i 5 a week. included also the mothers. In more than a third of the families it was necessary for the mother not only to do her duty as household manager but also to earn money by working at home or in factories. I who knocks up don't want her to be a piece worker. only the food. and the oldest daughter.50 and the other $4. $5. earning "She pays the rent and more/' a week. one earning $3. but that these groups of women wage-earners. Nor is this necessity present only in families in which the father is not For example. "but you know yourself a man can't support a family of six on $15 a week." One of the most visits to the households of bindery women. and her sister. for them. said the mother.

and the trade union dues. whose husband has been too ill to work for two years. but more often the wife cooks on a gas stove in their room. while in 66 households the mothers' 92 . does most of the family sewing. and for the preceding four months the bindery had given the gold layers only five or five and a half days' " I haven't made a full week's work in the week. and the lodge money. has in pay The many other cases compelled money to help support the the wife to earn household. is a married woman. Occasionally they go out for their meals. having been forced to give up their flat and sell their furniture when the husband could no longer work. spends $i . 1911. there are still so many things that the family needs that she feels bound but after the $16 tional to continue. The family The mother says that every month she thinks that in a few weeks she will not have to work in the factory any longer. The wage-earning mothers in the 120 families studied numbered 45. earning $10 a week.80 a week on carfare. laid off since January. She was interviewed in April. She had been two weeks the preceding summer. or the illness or death of the head of the family. and the two girls iron the clothes in the evenings. She hires a woman to do the washing. is paid for the rent." she said. and addisums for the insurance.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE She also get lunch for the youngest children. They live in one furnished room. pressure of the high cost of living. A gold layer.



00 a week. lies In eight fami- the mother was dead. one as cook in a private family. seven by janitor service to pay the rent. and the making of paper boxes. and two by factory work at home. Her husband is in prison. 18 at day's work. several of them combined more than one of these means of livelihood. one sewing and the other preparing hair goods. and three daughters are all wage-earners. who is a widow. 14 did so by keeping boarders or lodgers. The mother and one daughter work in paper box factories. the mother. She and her seven weeks' old baby live with her mother and young sister in one room on the top floor of a sister The dreary tenement in Cherry Street. washing. There were 31 who worked for wages outside the home. cigar making. dressmaking. One of these working mothers is only seventeen years old.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS contribution was through housework at home rather than through paid employment. In one family. or cleaning. and 1 1 including bookbinding. the family income. rubber manufacture. one in the laundry of a hospital. and in one she was not Of the 45 who contributed to living at home.00 a week. has just gotten work as a learner in book- The young mother's binding at $4. The mother says 93 . earnings are $6. After her hard and dusty day's work in the bindery she returns home to nurse her baby. and the other two in binderies. the packing of groceries. or as housein factory work keepers or office cleaners.

clean the three rooms of their flat.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE that she has always worked in the paper box trade. who has two daughters poorly paid of women. The hours. and so she endures the hardships of her work.25 a day. in the left bookbinding trade. One woman. they return home to cook dinner. so her employment away from home all day does not 94 . "It's hard to work all day for a week and then wash your clothes at night. day long she stands at her work until now she off wonders whether the section of the floor upon which she has stood so long will not wear through to the ceiling below. "It used to be a good trade. but machinery has spoiled it. fifteen years ago was During those fifteen years she has worked as an ironer in the laundry of a New York hospital. but make $10 a week easily. Often it seems as though the work open to ried mar- women or widows was the hardest and most all the tasks done by wage-earning Because of their household duties they are less free than their daughters to choose their occupation. widow with day All with pay since she has been employed there. and has never had a a four children. but we make $1. are shorter than in many factories. however." Every in different factories family faces the uncertainty of employment lessens the risk of simultaneous reductions in in- come. Her children are now grown. I used to if now we're lucky member of the slack season. and do their washing. wash the dishes. When the working day in the factories is over.50 said a bindery girl in another household." $4.

however. but that they have little brothers and The fact that the in they are helping to support. in rent and the number of rooms compared spent with the number of persons in the household are tangible indications of the economic status of the families of bindery girls. recreation. The only time for the housework done. education. it is difficult to younger. get it is before seven in the morning or after six at night. is shown about the number of children under fourby teen. and other important items of But data about the amount the family budget. That in many of these households in which the children are not yet past school age not only young girls but their mothers must share in earning the necessary income. of adults.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS endanger their welfare as it did when they were Even now. In more than three-fifths of the families there are children under fourteen. and in more than a fourth these young children number three or more. These data show a rather wide range of expendi95 . mothers must be wage-earners which take them away from home occupations is more serious when there are children in the famThat bookbinders' households are not groups ily. No attempt was made in this investigation to study the standard of living as it would be revealed in the expenditures for food. clothing. is an indication of a sisters whom facts problem of increasing importance in the community.

New York. 55 below Fourteenth Street. the trade does not where the majority of establishments are lodraw its workers from one section. 82. That bookbindmonthly ing is an urban industry. Chicago. p. trict Although Manhattan has a bindery cated. p. 32. The homes of the 201 girls inany terviewed were scattered about the city. all women employed in binderies in the United States. while only 17.2 per cent live in the larger cities. with six families paying less than $10 a month. and 42 on the west side. therefore. and therefore these figures probably do not show the full proportion living That many bookbinders live in Brooklyn there. The greater number are included in rent bill the groups having a of $ 14 to $20.8 per cent are found in small cities and country districts. 52 north of it on the east side.9 per cent or more than twofifths of all the bindery women in the United dis- States. three in the Bronx. and 49 in Brooklyn. is proved by of the census figures already quoted* showing that. and five paying $25 or more.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE ture for rent. and that not only in New York but in other sections of the country bindery girls' homes are. subject to the congested conditions and high rents of city life. As our investigation of binderies was confined to Manhattan we did not seek out bookbinders living in Brooklyn. 96 . 31. is confirmed * tional by a comparison of the occupastatistics (house-to-house enumeration) and See Table 3. and Chart II. and Philadelphia claim 43.

cent carfare zone is a wide choice of flats in rounds Brooklyn. showing that of all bindery women in Greater New York 50 per cent live in Brooklyn. groups are so arranged as to indicate the number of families. and only 5 per cent work there. conforming to the generally accepted standard of "less than one and a half persons per room. doubtless accounts for the proportion who live there and work in Manhattan. PERSONS PER ROOM IN FAMILIES OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING* ." A larger proportion per room means overcrowding.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS the manufacturing statistics (factory enumeration) of the census of 1900. is That every effort is made to economize in rent indicated by the number of persons to the room The in these households. The fact that the bindery district surthe Manhattan end of the Brooklyn and that within a two and a half or fiveBridge. as shown in Table 12. TABLE 12.

But even gauged by the much less comfortable standard of one and a half persons per room. 46 of 109 households of bindery girls were crowded to that degree or worse. Even the combined efare forts of so many wage-earners appear to be insuffi- cient to secure wholesome living conditions. That the contribution of bindery women toward the maintenance of their homes is not casual but permanent is indicated by the number of years they have been wage-earners.WOMEN The number IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE rooms here counted includes not of only the bedrooms but the kitchen and any availIt would seem that an able sitting room space. TABLE 13. This is a significant sign of an inadequate standard of living in many of these families. apartment with only as many rooms as there members of the family would be abnormally crowded. LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT OF EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING 201 WOMEN WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING WHO HAVE BEEN EMPLOYED EACH SPECIFIED LENGTH OF TIME Length of Time Employed .

235. 28 between twenty-five and The centhirty-five. counted sus figures regarding the 4. Data about these girls' mothers have shown that a woman must often continue to work for wages after her marriage. The ages of the workers give indirect evidence of their length of service.440. or 30 per cent. 85 per cent according to our records. were between sixteen and twenty-five.WAGES AND HOME CONDITIONS That nearly half. 37 were between sixteen and eighteen. and that only 10 per cent have been at work less than a year. Occupations. points to the fact that the earnings of these women have become an indispensable part of the family income. and two were in the fifties. were under sixteen. 40 between twenty-one and twenty-five. Only 18 of the 200 who stated their ages were under sixteen. 46 per cent. 2. the proportion continuing to is sufficiently large to work beyond that age warn us against sweeping conclusions about the universally short term of service of wage-earning women. Nevertheless. or 60 per cent. were twenty-five or over. 70 per cent according to the census. 1900. 99 .086 bindery women in New York in 1900 indicate that 41 1. or 10 per cent. 640. 75 between eighteen and twenty-one. have been wageearners five years or more. Before marriage. and 1. the bookbinders' earnings are of great importance to their * Twelfth United States Census. p.* Thus both the census figures and the data about the group interviewed in this investigation show that the largest group are under twenty-five years of age.

WOMEN families. lunches.00 a week hardly suffices to support a single person in New York City and is a scanty allowance when part of it must be used to help support children and other dependents in the household. receiving back again the sums needed and incidental expenses. A weekly income of $8. cent of the bindery women are receiving a smaller wage than that amount. Yet more than 50 per for carfare. IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Practically every bindery girl interviewed gives all her earnings to the family each week. and in dull season their income is still further reduced. IOO .

as well as in other occupations. They have tried to adjust themselves to the intermittent employment which characterizes the binding of magazines. this is one of the most baffling problems of industry. alike all the occupations in the They have been forced to learn new operations or to seek other occupations when changes in machinery have resulted in a reorganization of the methods of work. affecting community. successful effort either to employment or to lessen its evils. men and women. demoralizing the man or the woman who must meet the problem year after year under conditions so varied that the worker cannot measure with cerIt concerns both 101 . It earnings checks the fullest development of efficiency. prevent irregularity In the book- binding trade.CHAPTER V IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT in binderies in New York have WOMEN meaning experienced all sorts and conditions of They know the irregular employment. of general industrial depression. They have met the changing demands for books at different seasons of the year. Nor does of there appear to have been any system- atic. It reduces and lowers the standards of living.

She may be walking the streets looking for a job. ing day may be shortened. gested. involved in preventing irregular employment. one can cite only more or less vague theories and no comprehensive or successful experiments. new hands many in forces employers times in the course of twelve months. Nevertheless. and in making the change she may lose several working days. nor how the standard wage how workers may be But in answer to the questions trained in skill.WOMEN It IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE tainty the evils "which the season disorganizes workrooms and to engage may bring forth. may be maintained. or how much it cost her to change her occupation is a feat of memory which call would be difficult for anyone to accomplish. sitting idle in the factory and losing the wages which she might be earning if work were at hand. means of prevent- A may find another position in another occupation at a lower rate of pay. To measure this irregularity is almost as cult as to suggest diffi- any practical worker may be unemployed or underemployed. Or she ing it. the gravity of the problem and the 102 . For it is not impossible to show how the workinstance. in the effort to solve other industrial problems. Or she may be a piece worker. how long she was idle twelve months ago or how much time and money she lost waiting for work in the factory. in addition to the reduction in her earning power due to the necesTo resity of adjusting herself to new processes. and some Definite plans have been sugcases successfully tried.

United States by Industries. In New York state in 1905 the census enumerators* recorded 9. The statistics have very little value. Part United States Census. are employed in December. The largest numbers of men and women April. p. nor were the facts accurately reported by the wage-earner or the member of his family who gave information 1 103 . 99. city. but these facts are not given separately for each state or They show that the month of minimum employment for men is July. showIn ing a difference of 2. * As in many occupations.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT difficulty of securing full information make it the more important to collect all the data on the subject as they appear in the census and in the records of this investigation. for women. and women employed in The federal census also publishes the figures showing the numbers of men each month in 908 book- binding establishments throughout the United States. other words. Reports. for in them no account is taken of different seasons in different branches of the trade. official data which we have found In 1890 and 1900 an regarding the time lost by bindery women.588 for the two periods. 28 per cent of the maximum force had disappeared from the payroll at the time of minimum employment. Manufactures. The least number was 6.233 as the greatest number of bookbinders and blankbook makers (both men and women) employed in 304 establishments during the year. attempt was made to record the length of unemployment of every wage-earner enumerated on the household schedules. Special I.645. the Christmas 1905.! The figures in the census can be regarded only as a general index. t These are the only reliable. because the term "unemployed" was not always clearly understood by the enumerator.

art binders preparing Christmas presents. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING IN MANHATTAN. BY THE SEASON OF GREATEST ACTIVITY OF THE ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH THEY ARE EMPLOYED* Season of Greatest Activity of Binderies . the latest novel.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE rush increases the force of employes or lengthens Binders of holiday editions of the working day. lithographers binding calendars. and TABLE 14.

followed often by days of unemployment. and telephone directories have well defined seasons. Spring fashion books. BOOKBINDING ESTABLISHMENTS IN MANHATTAN. school books. whose rush periods occurring at different times balance each other. commercial registers. BY SEASON OF GREATEST ACTIVITY* Season of Greatest Activity of Binderies . maximum employment shown in types of binderies are Tables 14 and TABLE 15. for they are made up of the combined statistics of these various branches.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT busy period occurring annually. magazine binderies have also a monthly or weekly rush preceding the date of issue. the period of The results of our inquiry regarding in different 15. seedsmen's catalogues. Thus the census figures cannot show the actual fluctuation of the force in any one branch of the trade during the year.

Winter is the is busy season for 41 per cent of the women employed in small binderies. are at work in the dull season. for 35 per cent of those employed in larger establishments. steadily employed. "According to orders.WOMEN The IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE binderies having "steady work" number and employ of 35 per cent of the total reporting. ^38 per cent work in establishments whose season is said to be steady. "According to orders" is the report for 20 per cent of the binderies. large and small. report of "steady only 23 per cent are reported to be In some cases." manifestly an evidence of an uncertain season. this employment" means that the busy season full mean always not definitely marked. Of the whole group. 1 06 . pamphlet. however. It does not the total force is employed on that time throughout the year. 33 per cent of the total number bindery Of the women employed in edition. and job binderies having a force of 50 or more women. employing 1 3 per cent of the women workers. according to the statements of employers. quar- terly for 2 per cent. winter is the busy season for 38 per cent of the bindery women. is The proportion shown in of 16. and for 47 per cent of the blankbook makers. while of those who work in binderies having a force of women. summer for 3 per cent. 76 per cent. workers laid of? in dull season Table Of the maximum force of women employed in the busy season. less than 50. and monthly for 1 1 per cent. is the report for 24 per cent of the women at work in small binderies.

and job binderies the mini- mum force is only 63 per cent of the maximum in those establishments employing less than 50 women. maximum in edition.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT In different groups of binderies this proportion In blankbook making 90 per cent of the varies. PROPORTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING "LAID OFF" IN DULL SEASON IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN MANHATTAN a Kind of Bindery . unemployment is most serious in the smaller estab1 lishments employing less than 50 women. and 8 per cent in those employing 50 or more. and job binderies. Blankbook binderies appear to have the steadiest seasons. In edition. while pamphlet. pamphlet. force are at work in slack season. TABLE 16.

brisk again employers rely largely on orders grow advertisements to increase their force.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE These figures indicate that the demand for workers so fluctuates that one of every four bindery women needed in the busy season is superWhen fluous when the book market is dull." etc 311 102 86 76 65 58 47 Numbering. paper siding Hand Learners 3 1 Forewomen Wrapping. drop-roll. etc. ON SUNDAYS AND WEDNESDAYS. TABLE 17. . stringing cards . TO JUNE 30.. examining. 1909 Process of Work for Which Workers were Wanted Times each Process was Mentioned Hand folding Wire-stitching Machine folding (point folder. looping.. 1. shipping Machine sewing (including "cutting off") Collating 26 23 .064 108 ." "experienced. Thus the advertising columns of the newspaper considered in relation to other data on this point are a source of information regarding irregular employment. They indicate also the processes in which changes are most frequent. 46 43 37 34 32 Inserting (hand) pasting Tipping. paging. FROM JULY 1. 20 14 12 i Gold leaf laying Head-trimming Total . Silk-stitching. mailing. .. covering. perforating. 1908.." "generally useful. PROCESSES MENTIONED IN ADVERTISEMENTS FOR BINDERY WOMEN IN NEW YORK WORLD." "all round. check-end printing Hand gathering Hand and bench sewing Feeding ruling machine (full and half bound work) .) and knocking up "General.

Box GIRLS (Behind them is an automatic folding machine from which they the folded sheets) lift MEN CASE-MAKING AND GIRLS LABELING .


and workers experienced in machine sewing. which appeared in the last six months of the period covered in the preceding showed that they were inserted by 14 firms. often engaged for a employed for small order of pamphlets. come second. sible whose task is a respon- one. collators. 5 to . a process job bindery. o to 5 8. 20 to 30. whose work requires care and skill in handling such precious material. probably due to the fact that general industrial conditions were better in the first six months of 1909 than in the latter part of 1908. Wire-stitchers. and 6. easy to secure. Least frequently mentioned* are gold leaf layers.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT Hand folders. i . 1 . 1 20. 37 inserted one to five advertisements 4 five to o 20. 1 1 would appear that workers skilled in these processes are not and are therefore less season. face frequent changes. and one 37. Of the remainder. including some who needed workers for temporary table. * Magazine and pamphlet in a binderies. Of the total the largest num- ber appeared in March. The months of greatest demand and the branches of the trade which most frequently advertise in the newspapers are shown in Table 18. who more often than others are temporary work. One firm advertised 45 times. liable to be discarded in dull A further tabulation of the total advertisements. i 1 . Except head-trimming. 109 . which is considered the most highly skilled process in a bindery. daily and Sunday. 1 bindery departments in establishments engaged in allied work. They exceed any other group of workers in the number of times they are mentioned in advertisements.

WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE O CT\ t*s *-> CQ aiO D u. 111 41 O .- s rr\ t^OO 00 O VO ill . 10 . 00 >.

Seasonal contraction of the force. however." or "disagreement" indicates a minor form of maladjustment which might have been avoided. is not the only cause of irregular employment in bookbinding. and magazines. of the advertisements. pamphlets. or 46 per cent. Illness If we or may not be due to trade conditions. probable that was the indirect cause in more cases than appear in the in . They are responsible for 9 per may cent of the changes. separate those reasons which obviously out of trade conditions. we find that they grow form a group of 73 per cent of the total. Girls may leave positions or be dis- charged when the largest number of orders are on hand. "Didn't like it. and thus irregular employment is greater than would appear from a study merely of the bindery season as it fluctuates with the changing demand for books. The apparent unimportance of changes in machinery as a reason for loss of work is interesting it in view of the ject many comments made on It is this sub- by workers. Other factors contributing to unemployment and to frequent changes in jobs are shown in a tabulation of the reasons for leaving 353 of the positions recorded in the trade histories of the group of workers interviewed.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT including bindery departments of printing establishments. "Worker unsatisfactory" education or an indiis either a problem of cation of the need of better methods of finding the right place for the right worker. were responsible for 344.


jobs tend to be of short duration.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT For all the reasons listed. and workers are likely to drift from bindery to bindery. WERE EMPLOYED LENGTH OF TIME FOR WHICH WOMEN IN LATEST POSITION BOOKBINDING* IN . a tabulation has been made of the duration of the last position preceding the date of the interview. TABLE 20. To measure the length of employment in one position.

* Obviously this experience in many cases has included more than one bindery. and 1 ten years or longer. shown time as twelve months in Table 21. have had less IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE 17 per cent of those interviewed in the Only than one year's experience trade. 29 per cent have worked in binderies one to three years. The number of positions (including those in other occupations as well as bookbinding) in which these girls have been employed in so short a is preceding the interview. 1 per cent 25 per cent five to ten years. or more than one occupation. 18 per cent three to five years. TABLE 21. NUMBER OF POSITIONS* HELD IN PAST YEAR BY WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING AT TIME OF INVESTIGATION b Number of Positions Held .WOMEN one year.

in the past For the worker such frequent change. industrial or personal. TABLE 22 IN PERIODS FOR WHICH WOMEN EMPLOYED BOOKBINDING WERE IDLE AFTER LEAVING POSITIONS Time Idle ." This was determined for 176 positions. or any other cause.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT half. The first phase of the question to be considered is the loss of time between "jobs. a casual attitude toward work. means inevitably a loss of income. and a few have changed from one employer to another four times or more. uneven demand for labor. have worked in two or more establishments twelve months. whether it be due to fluctuating seasons.

the effect of irregularity on the worker's income. A search through literature on the subject reveals the lack of case histories of the workers which would show. For this reason data about even a few cases will be of value. and 52 could not state the length of unemployment Of the bindery accurately enough for tabulation. as already explained. information which can be secured from no one expayrolls in an establishment would give data only during her period of employment there. or whether she was out work the rest of the year. especially as the irregular the employment the more strenuis the task required of the memory. of irregular employment is the total loss of time three weeks. to secure such facts accurately from the workers more ous exceedingly difficult. without showing whether she cept the worker. This difficulty is not peculiar to a study of women in is the bookbinding industry. or may work and wages suffered by the worker through as long This is a period as her memory can be trusted.WOMEN It is IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE loses time. girls interviewed 29 had not been wage-earners during the entire past year. 116 . The of was employed elsewhere. Table 23 contains the records of the remaining 120. not only between positions that a worker She may be "laid off" for two or only part of the time without severing her connection with the estabThe vital fact to determine in a study lishment. Yet. as no other source of information can.


15 per 9 per cent three to six months. or were laid off for temporary periods. and 5 per cent six months or more. periods. The others 18 per cent less cent one to three months.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE count up the days when they had worked part time. They were the sum of scattered days or weeks out of work through the year. TIME LOST IN PAST* YEAR BECAUSE OF SLACK SEASON. TABLE 24. BY WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDINGb Time Lost . made than one month. or when they had been out of work between jobs. These were not uninterrupted definite estimates of loss.

Sometimes I work two full weeks in the month but not often. a when asked to tell what her earnings had been in the past four weeks said. had no work and no pay the third. She said that this was the story of a learner. The statements of a few of the girls in the group whose records appear in these statistics may em- phasize further the facts about irregular work. We're not often laid off. and I got $4. and earned between $8. Nor in is this list complete.00 the fourth.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT cent had been employed in two or more other industries in the course of their careers as wage-earners. saleswomen. $5. Bindery girls have been errand girls. sample mounting.00 the first week. and pasting calendars. a little more than $5. "a little over $4. waitresses. of other occupations is so varied that it reads like a page from the census. but a week or two in the month we're on part time and go home 119 . domestic servants. Another. milliners. An inserter employed in a magazine bindery earned $12 one week. stationery work. dressmakers. and machine operators in other trades. includes Their less slip- employment closely allied processes of work more or folding with printing bookbinding offices. tele- phone operators. typical month's work. straw sewers. $12 the next.00 the second.00 and $9. nurses. Some of these had worked in as many The as list five or six other lines of employment.65 this week. sheeting in patterns. laundry workers. sorting and packing cards. cash girls. clerical workers.92 the third.

About two and a half full weeks of work in the month. lack of promptness in repairing machines when they are out of urday I I knew should not make a cent." record reads. At other times their work depended on whether a catalogue was being issued or a This girl comnovel was ready for the binder. but just the same and paid carfare.00. If the operator is a piece worker. They make strict rules like that because it's slack and they want an excuse to lay us off. in the "Work is dull in bookbinding trade the bindery now. last week I earned $9.50. last week $1. Last SatI went She said that my it was impossible to tell how much time she had lost. During two weeks in the month a magazine was being bound.00. this experience several times recently. her usual week. had only two days' work.WOMEN at IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE An- other's 2 or 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon.00 in a . "Two weeks ago made $9." said an expert feeder of the drop-roll folding machine in an edition and pamphlet bindery. not more. My brother who works in the same place told me to go every day whether there was work or I not. but she could not 120 earnings were $9. plained of another cause of loss. She has had When con- ditions were favorable and work plenty." order. but we're all behaving ourselves.40 this week. every hour of delay reduces her earnings. There are signs up saying that we must not stop work until the whistle blows. because otherwise might lose my place. She had been employed six years." "I earned $5.

inserting. and mailing. one month in a pamphlet bindery. been her principal work. As a learner she had worked six months in an edition and pamphlet bindery. necessary only for certain types of work for which machines are not adapted. or in the prosperity of the firm employing her.00.00 or $7. $6. with a piece-work wage varying from $7.00 After losing two to 121 to $9. two months in a magazine bindery. This girl was a skilled worker in the trade. once for two months.00 a week.00 to $9.00. She worked two or three months in an edition bindery. not because of variation in her personal efficiency but because of unforeseen changes in the condition of the book market.00 to $9. returned to the printing establishment twice in the year. six months in a printing establishment. earning $8. so much did it vary from year to year. less For expert bindery girls conditions are more Since hand folding has become a casual task.00 to $9. are drifters in the trade. hand folding. worked another printer's bindery. One of them had been employed several years in binderies but had never Hand folding had learned to operate a machine. slack.00.00 until the firm failed.00. folding by hand. gathering. hand folding. earning $7. Then she was "laid off gathering. inserting. the hand folders serious. straightening sheets. .00. earning $7. $7. three or four months binding pamphlets.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT even estimate her yearly income. and once for eight one year in months." Her subsequent trade history is made up of many brief jobs. $8.

except when the firm failed. "They more. she great deal of time because of the widespread industrial depression." During the preceding year she lost a Still. and carry sheets from the bindery below it. In every other case. she got a job folding pamphlets by hand but stayed only one day. already familiar to investigators by "It's awfully unsteady." Another group of been employed girls have not wandered from bindery to bindery in this way." ceiving. leaving because she was obliged to work on a raised platform less than six feet from the ceiling. For several months there loss had been no work on Saturday morning. receiving no wages during that time. She says that in other binderies collators earn a dollar more a week than she is re" But it's worth the extra dollar to me. Every summer while work was slack she has taken a vacation of two weeks.WOMEN three IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE months of work. and is now a collator there. in the One of these has same bookbinding establishment eight years. "not to be in a place where they rush you. the reason for leaving was "work slack/' "I would never advise a girl to go into bindery work/' was her comment." is sorry that she has stayed so think more of you if you change long. and frequent repetition. With the exception of a candy factory where she stuffed dates one week just after leaving school. there are too many in it already. and the even of this half-day cost her nearly 70 cents 122 . she said. anyway. it was the only place where she had ever worked.

COLLATING GATHERING MACHINE (Man operating and women filling the boxes and taking out the gathered books) .


laid off two weeks in July worked from August to Labor Day. A girl sometimes prefers to accept a lower wage than is paid elsewhere. her a week's wages in a year. worked from the middle of May to July. Legal holidays are the only time lost in the year. work for which a wage of $9.00 a week steadily instead March . i of earning $8. but she prefers lower pay and steadier work. "setting up" machines. is pictured in Chart IV.00 or $10 is paid in some binderies. She says that it is a machinist's in work and that she could earn higher wages another bindery.00 a week for operating a wire-stitching machine. She is receiving only $7. The irregular employment of an expert who helps to bind a commercial register quarterly. 30. worked from the middle of November to "It would have been better. in the bindery from February i to folder issued She worked 7.00 so irregularly. and was laid off through March to the middle of May.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT of her week's pay and reduced her weekly earnings to about $7." Loss of earnings is not the only result of irregu123 . laid off Labor Day to the middle of November. said. Another has been employed four years and has never Even they have cost lost a day except holidays. One girl has been employed eleven years in the same bindery. but she is afraid to leave lest another position might not be as steady. if she is reasonably sure of continued employment." she January 15. "to have had $6.

these are wholly Laid off middle of January Returned to work middle of November Returned to work February i Laid off March 7 Laid off Labor Day Returned to work August i Laid off Returned to work middle of May middle of July CHART PERIODS OF WORK AND IDLENESS. is there 124 . DURING ONE YEAR. demoralizing influences. Two important questions arise in a discussion of possible solutions. the reckless spirit which is often produced by the uncertainty whether one's job will end to- day or last another month. The discouraging effect on the worker. and they become more demoralizing rather than less so in proportion as the worker's wages are needed for the support of her family. the habit of drifting from one occupation to another. IV. First. OF A GIRL EMPLOYED IN BINDING A QUARTERLY PUBLICATION.WOMEN lar IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE employment.

IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT any way of meeting the present seasonal condiso that without loss of time or wages. TABLE 25. and more fundamental. which of finding positions are shown in Table is based on a tabulation of how 439 jobs held by the group investigated were secured. or from one occupation to another? Second. Her means 25. the displaced workers may be transferred systemattion. from one bindery to another. would it be possible to plan the work in such a way that the workers would suffer no loss of time and wages during the year? At present the bindery girl must rely chiefly on ically her own efforts to solve the out-of-work problem. MEANS BY WHICH WOMEN FIND POSITIONS IN BOOKBINDING ESTABLISHMENTS Means of Finding Positions .

" The third cause. and because the whole problem is so complex. unemployed because training. they and permanent surplus of supply over the demand for labor. as the lack of * Report on the Desirability of Establishing an Employment Bureau in the City of New York. Devine is "The pertinent and important is ployed are so (i) because they are unemployable.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE streets "Applying" usually means walking the To find a position with the until a job is secured. (2) because there is no work to be had. In so far. . he says. enabling workers to get readily in touch with positions which would otherwise be unknown to them. of a real again. . It is obvious that if they are unemployed because they are unemployable. of a friend means often a haphazard choice. Charities Publication Committee. Because these methods depend more on chance than on forethought. however. Russell Sage Foundation Publication. the employment bureau is no remedy. In a careful discussion of writes*: this subject. 5. Dr. Edward T. help but it is the bindery girl's chief means of relief from unemployment. or (3) question which whether the unem- because of maladjustment. The only adequate remedy would be education and are for a lack of efficiency If. "an efficient employment bureau could at least to some extent overcome. many observers whose knowledge of labor conditions is most intimate are urging the establishment of em- ployment bureaus to serve as clearing houses. p. it is plain that an employment bureau could not remedy the difficulty. New York. 126 . 1909.

the bureau will be justified." It cannot be said that irregularity of employbookbinding trade is due solely to this the inability of workers sort of maladjustment. time and This effort are is a blind search for jobs. an employment bureau could not directly apply a remedy. from one branch of the trade to another. wasted in where an employ- ment bureau would its equipment find its opportunity. a large amount of unemployment in this trade is due to the unequal distribution of work throughout the weeks of the month. work to find openings where workers are needing needed. however. ment bureau could not at those times find openings where none exist. The workers' records show.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT employment is due to maladjustment. or the months of the year. or even from bindery work to some other occupation. that transfers from one establishment to another. provided were adequate and its reach ex127 . without the foothold which skill might give them in their ment in the occupation. but whatever the cause may be. Some bindery girls are drifters. are entirely feasible. that is. Furthermore. which automatically results in a surAn employplus of workers at certain seasons. to the inability of people who want work to get quickly into contact with opportunities which exist and to which there are no other equally appropriate means of access. The difficulty is that because of the lack of any adequate clearing house for such transfers. Undoubtedly the industry itself is in part responsible for producing these drifters.

WOMEN tensive in tact with IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE different fields of many employment throughout the city. in advance. however. thermore. More fundamental. the signs of a change in machinery or methods which so frequently dis- Furplaces workers without sufficient warning. little is being done in the bookbinding trade to bring about a more even 128 . of interest Such a plan would involve no conflict between capital and labor. by planning the work so that it may be evenly distributed throughout the year. is an immediate practical task. of great ad- At present. demanding a more effective system of guidance than newspaper advertisements can supply. however. This transfer of workers from one position to another. is sity for the possibility of preventing the necessuch frequent transfers. Through continuous con- market demands. since for is both the steady use of the plant vantage. with distinct advantage both to workers and to employers. and discriminating of the fitness of applicants. This same firsthand experience would enable an employment agent to read. and a total loss of income at another. unwise choice of study positions and the loss of time involved in transferring workers from one establishment to another could be minimized. thus avoiding dangerous over-fatigue at one period. such a clearing house ought also to be a storehouse of information regarding the causes of irregular employment. without undue loss of time and earnings.

The binders who have attempted to remedy this by inducing publishers to place orders irregularity in dull sea- son. then all together will demand that the bookbinder make up for these delays by rushing through the binding in a day and a night. publisher. in creating the conditions which make the bindery If the author has been tardy girl's work irregular. Author. editor. instead of their being discharged for a continuous period. printer. In the meantime the bookbinder. critic. more or less remote. sends the book to the printer at the moment when all other publishers are delivery ical at sending their books and insists upon what he considers the psycholog- many publication hour. in dallied over revision. reader. such as dividing the work so that all would be on part time instead of a few on full time and the others out of work. a case of divided responsibility. with his eye on the critic and the reader. eager to have a hand in the issue of as many as possible of this sudden 9 129 . binder. It is. have attempted to keep the force toemployers gether by various devices. if the printer has taken so orders that he finishes this one several days late. In some binderies the girls are laid off in shifts two or three days at a time. in fact. preparing the manuscript. even offering substantial reductions in price. all have a share.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT Some distribution of orders throughout the year. if the editor has if the publisher. say that their efforts have met with no encouraging response.

after all. They can be bound and stored until the time comes to flood Furthermore. however. Uniform pressure is necessary to restrain the least humane of employers from under-bidding his competitors by overworking his employes. more or less a creation of the imagination of the makers and sellers of literature. Thus the rush period deserves consideration as a point of attack in attempting to prevent the evil of slack season.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE harvest of volumes. Unfortunately. Such 130 . when the pressure must greatest. in the physical sense. novel. has taken more contracts than he could possibly execute during the normal hours of work. publishers are surely not powerless to create in the popular imagination the desire for continuous rather than for seasonal publication. Following this rush period comes unemployment or part time. The necessity for such a stampede seems to be. to why can they not persuade the same readers buy all a book every month? publishers have begun to realize that Already magazine they need not seek the same date of publication. a stronger motive for change is needed by the men and women who are managing the book market than the desire to give steady work to an unknown bindery hand. At the is last moment then. Books are not perishable. If critics and advertisers can so manipulate the intelligence of readers as to sell one hundred thousand copies of a trashy the market with them. it is the bindery hands who make up for the time lost all along the line.

because think the publishers. Eyre and Spottiswoode. when they know they can get them done by a certain day. Bookbinders. p. Members of women's trade unions were called to testify. because in such an emergency as that there is no respect to the Act. "Not at present. London. 135. * . very often keep them back when they I might be pushed forward. they thought that the existence of the modification (permitting an extension of hours to fourteen per day. complained that the trade was most unnecessarily considered by the law a season trade. They declared that "there is months which might a great deal of work done during those as well be done during the slack season. The reply was. during certain periods of the year) made employers careless of due economy in time."* Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the working of the Factory and Workshops Acts. Interesting testimony on this point was brought together in a report of commissioners appointed to inquire into the working of the Factory and Workshops Act in England in 1876. 1876.IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT pressure may be provided by factory legislation. but they are generally kept back until the beginning of the winter season comes on. they keep them back until the last moment. questioned about the relation of legislation to their occupation." One witness was asked whether it would be possible to bind magazines without working overtime. such as school books or anything of that kind that are always required. but I think it is a thing which could be managed in time. Moreover. Minutes of Evidence.

The difficulty of getting also work done in busy season would responsive to the binders' It is evident. that in legislation limiting the hours of make them more work the state has one for the means of meeting its responsibility seasons. by allowing more time for the binding.WOMEN This IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE corroborated testimony. therefore. Publishers and all others concerned in the issue of a book would then be forced to adjust their plans to the new condition. The bookbinder who was sure that he and all his competitors must obey a state law limiting the hours of women's work would refuse orders which he could not execute in a normal working day. suggests that restrictions on overtime in busy season would be tribution a powerful means of compelling a more even disof orders. problem of steadying the 132 . by statements made by New York bookbinders. overtures for dull-season orders.

which took 1912. m. or at any time. regularly on five days in the week the sixth day shorter. and the working day to nine hours. effect make * By an amendment enacted by October ist. provided that the working day never in order to the 1912 legislature. Or she work overtime irregularly on three days in might the week.* however. or more than ten hours in a day except under She might work overtime. According to the may be employed in a bindery. The underlying principles of enforcement. however. None bethe ages of fourteen and sixteen may work tween unless provided with an employment certificate. as it is illustrated in the bookbinding trade. certain conditions. more than six days in a week. while certain exception clauses permitted ten hours under certain conditions.CHAPTER VI OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS meaning BOOKBINDERIESchild under fourteen years New York law no of age of are factories in the legal the term. At the time of this investigation. nor may a child between these ages work longer than eight hours in a day. the discussion in this chapter relates to a working week of sixty hours. and 5 p. are unchanged by the differences in the law. no woman of sixteen years or older might be employed more than sixty hours weekly. but never twelve hours as was possible under the former law. As '33 . this investigation was made before the enactment of the fiftyfour hour law. the working week for women was reduced from sixty to fifty-four hours. m. and the need for public support of such legislation. except between the hours of 8 a.

m. and the daily hours to nine. m. or after 5 p. 1912. 134 . m. or plain. provided the working week did not exceed sixty hours and that the working day was not more than ten hours.. but as soon longer as the sixteenth birthday is passed the legal day is and confusing exceptions are introduced lengthened into the law. and a monthly magazine were bound.. from 8 a. Each month from the i6th to the 25th. the statute is no work before 8 a. she worked until 9 p. m. For children under sixteen then. when the magazine was bound. permissible. in when a twelve-hour day was The law which became operative October. m. Her regular hours were eight in a day. with permission to work ten hours on the same terms which formerly made twelve hours possible. m. Practically then. Under no conditions might the weekly hours exceed sixty.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE exceeded twelve hours. reduced the sixty-hour weekly limit to fifty-four. until a week. A girl of sixteen worked in a large bindery where books. m. to 5 p. Their application to the bindery incan be made clearer by showing the actual dustry hours of work of a few women in the trade. than eight hours in any one day. Women over twenty-one might work by night or by day. the New York law permitted a twelve-hour day. No woman under twenty-one years of age might of 9 p. sometimes twice and sometimes three times Her day then was from 8 a. and 6 a. m. forty-eight in a week. except under the conditions work between the hours already described. department store catalogues.

OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS 9 p. in the week. At those seasons the fall and spring catalogues of department stores were bound. so that the working week was sixtyfive and a half hours long with five days of overtime. the fifty-eight law permitted sixty hours. the law requires only twenty minutes' The total recess when working later than 7 p. on five nights a week and sometimes added three hours on Saturday. The girl was sixteen years old and hence was not protected by the eight-hour law for children of fourteen and She did not begin work before 6 a. with an hour for lunch and a half-hour for supper. m. hours of labor were fifty-five when she worked overtime twice. however. She had thirty minutes for supper. m. employes stayed until 9 p. The exceed 135 . fifteen. Instead of working three nights. m. or a total of eleven and one-half working The total weekly hours. m. daily hours of actual labor when working overtime did not exceed eleven and one-half. and fifty-eight and a half when she stayed three evenings. Thus it was possible to work overtime without violating the law. This schedule of hours did not violate the law in any particular. and never occurred more than three times in a six-day working week. m. nor work later than 9 p. or sixty-eight and a half when the Saturday's overtime work was added. this bindery no longer kept within the law. excluding meal time. the law permitted twelve hours three days not total working week did and a half hours. In September and in February.

must be limited to three days in a week.WOMEN The IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE between this schedule and the one are the length of the working week. it This illustration suffices to show the difficulty of enforcing either the sixty-hour law or the new Two or three nights of fifty-four hour provision. A single inspection would be sufficient to give basis for prosecution if a girl under twenty-one were found working after 9 p. Proof cannot be complete without data showing the hours of actual work. exclusive of meal time. preceding and the five or six days of overtime. and their combined total. overtime does not constitute a violation. each day. instead of two or three. the passes provision of law prohibiting the work of younger This proof of age as a woman 136 . as a means differences of shortening the sixth day while completing a full week of sixty hours or less. When the overtime above ten hours occurred "irregularly" at rush seasons. These differences constituted violations of the law. as soon her twenty-first birthday. This bindery could legally have lengthened its daily eight hours regularly to eleven from Monday to Friday and then worked five hours on Saturday. and a day of longer than ten hours was permissible only when it occurred (a) regularly on five days or less. above ten hours. m. the inspector would be obliged to prove the age as well as the time at which the girl was found at work. In that case. or (b) irregularly on three days or less. is necessary because. Sixty-eight and a half hours exceeded the legal sixty.

This was a after 9 p. with a half hour at noon. to 5 130 p.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS m. but the fact that fourteen hours instead of twelve preceded midnight. at 6:30 p. investigators encounter the further difficulty that overtime is so customary prohibit night work. She a. no longer apgirl twenty-three years old was fill the boxes of a gathering machine She worked from 8:30 in a magazine bindery. a twelve-hour day ended and another twelve-hour day might begin. The legal provisions would have had she begun work two hours later and stayed in the bindery until noon the next day. m. In the case of this girl. With the stroke of the clock at midnight. Employers are not likely to give full information about their own offenses against it. and did not prohibit employment of adult women during the night. lest to do so should result in loss of their jobs. not the long stretch of work. or before 6 a. In the bookbinding trade in particular. women m. in . a working day of twenty-four hours was legal for them. tinued her day's task until 5 130 a. m. plies to her. Workers are often afraid to give exact facts damaging to their employers. Since the law permitted a twelve-hour day. and worked until midbegan again After a recess of thirty minutes she connight. m. was a violation of the law. m. employed to A total working period of nineteen hours. its confusing exceptions and its failure to been fulfilled enforcement Exact evidence as to its one trade is difficult to any secure. These illustrations reveal the inadequacy of the law.

Nevertheless. Their testimony about the physical effects of the work will show the need for a stronger law and better enforcement. it is important to the length of the normal working day and week without overtime. a statistical measure of the extent of overtime work has been secured by tabulating the girls' state- ments about their most recent positions.WOMEN that it IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE it. does not occur to the workers to speak of are surprised at the question." they reply. as it appears on the records know TABLE 26. DAILY HOURS OF PLOYED IN WORK OF BOOKBINDING* WOMEN EM- . you have to. First. " If They Have you ever worked overtime? you're in bindery work. however.

days while the length of the week is forty-eight hours.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS of binderies. This statement applies to the hours of labor on the first five in the week. WEEKLY HOURS OF WORK OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN BOOKBINDING* . In many cases the excess over hours on these days is due to a schedule by eight which the working period on Saturday is shortened. Nearly three-fourths work between eight and a half and nine and a half hours a day. while 25 per cent have an even eight-hour day. supplemented by workers' reports and by figures given by the New York State Department of Labor.* TABLE 27.

or. without violating the state labor law designed to prevent excessive overis time. 31 reported that they lengthened the hours of work at some season of the year. and of 31 blankbook makers. 63 had overtime. girl's experience represented that of a number of her fellow-workers. 40 per cent 140 . and this lengthening of the normal day or week always called "overtime/' although it may not exceed or even equal the limit allowed by the law. 22 per cent from those sixteen to eighteen. deries Of the 36 large edition and pamphlet binfrom which information about overtime was secured.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Thus when not working overtime 56 per cent of the bindery women in these establishments have a normal working week of forty-eight hours. and overtime which is merely an excess above the usual schedule of hours prevailing in an establishment. less. a distinction must be kept in mind between overtime which is illegal because it exceeds the limits set by law. very few cases. Thus. Nine per cent of the reports of overtime were from girls under sixteen. the may not all exre- girls' statements garding 227 positions which they have held very Usually one recently indicate that many do. and less than 2 per cent work fifty-six hours or more a week. 22. Although these establishments ceed the limit of the law. however. In the busy in a season. these hours are frequently prolonged. Of 88 smaller establishments giving this information. These figures are based on the employers' statements.



MENTS OF LAW RESTRICTING HOURS OF WORK FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS Nature of Violation VIOLATIONS IN BOOKBINDING ESTABLISH- . This indicates girls among the proportion of young the workers whose hours are prolonged large is how in busy season. while more than half of these instances of overtime were violations of the law. Workers reported 52 1 distinct violations in 42 different establishments. and 29 per cent from those twenty-one and over. The of girls' different binderies which reports covered 88 36 were edition and pamphlet binderies employing 50 or more women. of the reports showed overtime. TABLE 28. including legal and illegal. 159. Seventy per cent.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS from workers between eighteen and twenty-one. Table 28 classifies these violations according to the section of the law to which they relate.

m. almost one they stayed they worked until later at night. three until i in the morning. one until 5:30. A fuller disreports of overtime. In every one of these cases the girl had work in the morning and worked throughout the day and evening until after midnight. 142 .. They are merely illustra- too prevalent a practice of lengthening the hours of work in binderies. and in 16 per cent they In 44 per cent left the bindery between 8 and 9. m.WOMEN These tions of IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE no sense a measure of statistics are in conditions in the trade. gone to For a girl to leave a bindery at such late hours as are here indicated. also makes a loop-hole for employing younger girls until late at night. one reported work until 12:30 a. both legal and illegal. and go home alone through the streets. In 21 per cent of the 159 cases the girls were not kept later than 7 o'clock. until 9 and in 19 per cent. which were not violations of law (and did not appear in Table 28). will make the situation clearer. one until 8 and one until 9 the next in every five. two until 3 o'clock. One of the girls whose record appears in these statements was employed at the age of seventeen to stitch programs for opera houses and theaters. Several flagrant cases were included in this last group. Some of their 159 reports of overtime showed girls' cussion of the comparatively early closing hours. morning. The fact that the law permits women of twenty-one or over to work after 9 p. is obviously dangerous.

m. total hours daily in all reports of overtime showed as wide a range as did the statements New York The In 9 per cent of 139 cases about closing hours. one of the worst sections of Fourteenth laid off in March and had great any other position. "Only bums are down girl there at that hour of the night/' of the she said." worked overtime Saturday ing until 2. She was difficulty in securing the danger of adding such influences to those which already surround young girls in a city like needs no proof. home was in Street. sometimes stayor 4 o'clock Sunday morning.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS During the theater season she worked overtime until ii or 12 o'clock at night. in 14 per cent it was between ten and eleven hours. were the direct cause But of her disappearance cannot be proved. night. She walked home alone. Another same age was employed a year and a half in a pamphlet and magaShe frequently zine bindery "knocking up. a day of fourteen and a half hours. and in 29 per cent it was between eleven and twelve hours in length. the maximum day when working overtime did not exceed ten hours. 143 . in which the daily working hours were fully reported. past the closed business houses downtown. A few weeks later she disappeared and no one in her family knew where she had gone. Her 3. Whether her employment at night and her walks along Fourteenth Street at 2 or 3 a.

of course. 16. in two. 12^2 hours. in two. in 23 per cent of the reports. 2i>^. employed V. The occurrence of these long days is. in one of them is shown in Chart The normal day is nine hours. In four positions the of 24^ hours. After fifteen hours of work on Thursday and fourteen on Friday. 22 hours. 15^. 19^. That would be unendurable.* found an even more alarming example of overwork of a girl in a bindery. reports of working days longer than twelve hours show appalling conditions. in one.WOMEN peared IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Twelve-hour days ap- exclusive of meal time. 13. ernment investigators. but only The one in this week was of that length. For example. The United States govand in one. it requires no argument to prove that a short day of four hours on Saturday * See page 2. in nine. in one. in two. 144 . in seven. 18. 13^. not consecutive or continuous. other days varied from four to fifteen working hours. in three. 12^. in one. a working "day" for supper. 14. These The detailed hours represent actual working time. while in 25 per cent the overtime day was longer than twelve hours. in two. whose report has been quoted. magazine binderies are notorious for the great irregularity in the length The working week of a girl of successive days. after deducting the length of noon recess and the time allowed day was 12^ hours long.

hours showed 70 hours in three cases. IN A The details of the group working 70 to 80 51. and exceeded it in Hours Monday ' Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 24 CHART V. 71 in two. 10 145 . DAILY HOURS OF LABOR IN A ONE PAMPHLET BINDERY WEEK PERIOD. sixty hours or less. indicated also excessive overwork in many positions. A tabulation Not all of the weekly hours. Thus. The weekly hours were within the legal limit. within that time an exhausting period of labor was possible. in 46 cases. however. all time gave the reports of overthe information necessary for de- termining the length of the working week. even though the working week was only two and a half hours longer than the law allows.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS even followed by rest on Sunday does not compensate for the intense physical strain endured on those two days.

X necessary to emphasize the nature of their tasks. and if you lose your finger had never the boss ain't goin' to do anything for you. said that she "They're tried to operate a machine. 75^ in one. She wire-stitched her finger one Sunday morning when she had been working steadily since Saturday at 8:30 a. sixteen years old. m. The worker usually suffers loss of time as a result. and the more comit is mon danger of fatigue to which many of the work- ers bore witness. the conditions under which they work." One girl. To realize fully how great a menace such overwork is to the health of bindery girls. A girl who worked in the trade fourteen years. 78 in two. One girl had her finger caught by the descending knife of a cutting maearly 146 . and 72 in one. the possible danger of accidents. Liability to accidents increases with overwork. too dangerous. Injuries to the hands or fingers seem to be more frequent than fatal bindery women." said the feeder of a folding machine. 72 80 in one. I've seen girls get the ends of their fingers cut off by the machine. and must be considered in relation to the legal regulation of the working day.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE in one. in accidents among some cases a change of occupation is necessary." "We work on machines at our own risk. the point folding machine the girls have to their hands under the knife and draw them put back before the knife comes down. "On was employed to operate the wire-stitching machine in a magazine bindery.

She folded sheets by hand. Girls . chine is dangerous if you don't watch "Any mait carefully." in a cellar workroom entirely below street level.00 a week) but did very little work except running errands. Over the entrance to the workroom of a magazine bindery is a sign which reads: "DANGER.00 a week. She fainted and was taken to a hospital." said another girl. acterizes conditions in the binderies. Another girl lost the forefinger of her right hand while operating an indexing machine in a blankbook At that time she was earning $5. or badly ventilated. warned to use care when around machines and promptly to All persons are report any defects. but she was so unnerved that she could not work near the machines. The company did not reimburse her loss.00 bindery. although she had to begin again as a learner and practice other processes in which the loss of the finger would not be a hindrance. a week. dusty. but her inhindered her in the work. Great variety charof workrooms New York have been found stitching a magazine "devoted to the interests of health.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS chine from which she was taking the magazines. After three weeks. the finger was better. She reported every day at the bindery for three weeks and was paid full wages ($7. and prevented jury her earning more than $4." The is fatigue caused by prolonged periods of work greatly increased when the workroom is dark.

To save carfare she had walked to and from the bindery." Overcrowding. "I'd walk girl lief tubercular. high buildings. which she had held also for five years. or foot-rests. a day of twelve and a half hours. She had worked five years in the same workroom. In some binderies' a modern passenger elevator carries one to the workroom. she had frequently worked overtime in winter three nights a week until 9 p. m.WOMEN lighted IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Others have been found at work by gas. combined with the breaking down of physical resistance by heavy tasks and long hours. proper ventilation endanger the workers' health in too many binderies.workers are exposed. illness had forced her to leave her previous position. through bad workroom conditions. in others one must choose between long flights of dark and dusty wooden stairs and the in large lofts of slow freight "hoist" with insufficient its sign.. Before that. where ventilation and light were excellent. The story of a bookbinder who is now too ill to work will illustrate the danger to which many of her fellow. The girl's home and the place where she had been employed were visited. lighting. society she 148 . In this first position. and in many processes constant standing is the custom. board of health physician found this and lack of A and through the activity of a rewas sent to a sanatorium. "All persons riding in this elevator do so at their own risk. Books piled high cut off The seats provided often lack backs light and air.

After they had been gathered they were sometimes stacked for months. If I didn't collate fast enough she'd she couldn't complain to the forewoman that make out. The workroom was not kept clean. Department sent a ventilation expert to investigate the bindery." conditions in this in the To workroom she attributed Other cases had same bindery. but that care would be necessary to keep them so. all day and wrapping year.00 to $5.00 ill became with tuberculosis she had stood first After that she learned to collate the was heavy. It I week worker "it was necessary to rush because had to keep the sewer. and the floor was swept while the girls were at work." She was ill three months. In the bindery where she was at work when she during the a week. and sat at work. The books were developed not always bound immediately. examining heavy bound volumes for a wage of $4. In response to a complaint the Labor her illness from tuberculosis. The paper "tired" her chest and back to hold the sheets while collating. who was on piece work. and the collators were the first ones to handle them while they were covered with accumulated dust. supplied." she said. Although she was a sheets of the books. that's how I got run down. A physician then said that her lungs were sound.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS home. "and mamma 'd be out nursing and I'd be too tired to get any supper. and the results of the inspection were reported in these words : 149 .

But good care at home could not prevent the undermining of health in ten years of bindery work beginning with long daily hours. Orders were given to cover the stock and wet-cleanse the found clean.000 volumes. en's The every day." a heavy cold. Yet no factor in floor up by handling sheets this bindery girl's history is unique. and her mother a careful housekeeper. The water closets were WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE "He found the air openings in the windows fourth floor workroom (womwas found blocked with accumudepartment) lated stock which was covered with dust. The workers' own statements are important as testimony on these points.too small for proper ventilation and ordered them to be enlarged. a deferred supper or none at all because she was "too tired to eat." This girl's home was immaculately clean. witness of the processes of work in bookbinderies would require no medical proof of two chief dangers to which bindery women are exposed. The air test showed 12 to 14 parts carbonic anhydride in 10. a walk home late on cold winter nights. the A danger from the accumulation of dust on paper. and then five years of exhausting work in a bindery where the dust was allowed to accumulate and was then stirred of paper or sweeping while the workers were in the bindery. "She was all worn out and she got 150 so thin there . except her unusually comfortable home. which is above the legal limit. and the danger of fatigue.



three times a order not to miss tardy advertisements it is not brought to the bindery until 7 p. and "could hardly hold her head up. She was dizzy and nauseated. in a record-breaking hot spell this girl was overcome by the heat at night in the bindery. m. "Gather- . one of them. she got so tired she would cry all morning when she came home and she couldn't sleep well. the processes in themselves are hard. But aside from the fatigue caused by working such long hours. She morning and worked until 5:30 a. She was ill for two weeks no wages for the time lost. began "Then she was supposed to the following day. twenty-three years old. to prepare it for the mail After that hour. and thus the firm did not lose the contract for binding it. rest all day and until the next morning at 8 when " But she went to work again. even under the best conditions." In a certain bindery in New York a grocers' cataIn logue is bound every Wednesday evening." said her mother. Thursday morning. m. 1911. Just before the Fourth of July. receiving but the catalogue was mailed in time." but the grocers' catalogue must be wire-stitched and she could not stop work until the order was finished. Two women work until 10 or 1 1 p. afterwards. The doctor told her she'd have to stop night work. must journey an hour from Brooklyn Bridge before reaching home uptown in Manhattan.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS wasn't anything to her/' said the mother of a girl who for three years in the had worked all night two or week in the winter months. m.

Knocking up is tiresome too. earned every cent. often heavy. "I used 152 ." " When you get your wages. "The work wears you out Both these girls stand at after awhile." bookbinding." she said. to prevent the swelling of her hands and wrists. When the girls get home " I don't like they're too tired to do anything. asserted that the rapid turning of the pages of the books tired her eyes very quickly. " work all day. less should go into bookbinding unvery strong." said another. "At first." she said. work was so heavy that she broke down and idle three The was months. you've said another. One girl wears gloves while inserting the large sheets of a magazine one within another. Another bandages her wrists. and every once in a while I'd be so tired I'd have to stay home a day. gathering. "They ought to have boys to do that work. A young learner emptied the boxes into which the large girl "No is she folding machine delivers the folded sheets." A girl seventeen years old who had charge of four folding machines said that tend- ing them made her so nervous that she frequently cried from fatigue when she reached home at night. Bindery work is very hard work." said a learner who had been employed a year in the trade." she said. I never can pick up." said a bindery girl in New York "I'm always thin.WOMEN ing is IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE very heavy. "They're getting machines for everything. I was on a machine. An examiner and wrapper who handled the completed volumes." City.

left because of illness. also.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS She stood to see the pages moving in my sleep. which is run by a foot-pedal." at work and seldom had a chance to sit down. a girl who does general work complains of severe pains in her side." fairly "We had to swipe our chairs. Usually she does a few I 153 . If ' stood always while doing this work. and that in summer it was almost unendurable. been bindery girls." said an operator of a numbering machine. It's time you stood up. "He can't be havin' us work in binderies. due to the constant pressure of the foot on the pedal of a perforating machine. obliged Air." " I would never advise a girl to take up numbering." A was girl who was employed more than in the gold laying department of an edition bindery to leave the trade because of illness. she said that it was due to standing and to Her two sisters had holding the heavy volumes. glare. and then be havin' to pay docfour years tor's bills. of eye-strain. Others com- "The gold has a plained. pressed eight or ten " thousand times a day. might blow the gold leaf." In a blankbook bindery. know a lot of girls that have had to have operations because of it. we sat down long they'd give us a look. said one of them. Lack of ventilation caused her to faint and have nausea. circulating freely. Their father objected to their working in this trade. as much as to Another girl. who say. Another gold layer said that it was impossible to ventilate the room.

King." It is obvious that even the unskilled work of lifting sheets from the boxes of machines or carrying books from one part of the workroom to another is exhausting. Ramsay: Women in the Printing Trades.00 for the hard work she is doing. in an agreement in workers were not represented or consulted." in addition to a few other processes. Katie said that she used to go to dances and weddings when she was young but she is too tired to go now. p. 8. but recently the firm had a large order which lasted nearly four weeks. one the girl taking it. especially if the working hours be long. to declare that "they will not make it a grievance if. "female or unskilled labour is placed upon the carrying of loads of work about the work shop. Her younger sister was dressing to go to a wedding.). it moment another stopped falls operating The bulk of this work to her share because she operates the machine more carefully than the others."* * heavy work Journeymen which the women MacDonald. and the machine was running constantly. London.m. J. Doubtless led which was the London it dislike of this Societies of Bookbinders. and then turns to other work. 154 .WOMEN hours' IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE this work a day on machine. The visitor's report of her interview reads: "Katie looks worn out and is discouraged because she doesn't get more than $7. She is twenty-two years old. 1904. She was busy washing the supper dishes (8 120 p.

cit." writes Dr. larly the bones in early adolescence and the period press themselves If standing all day when at an overheated factory causes tiredness of the muscles and also varicose veins. Dutton. 1908. New York. and since deep inspiration is hardly possible the lungs are badly ventilated and the aeration of the blood is imperfect.* "and the lifting and carrying of heavy weights not only im" upon the muscles and nervous but upon all parts of the body. J "is a sensation..D. fGoIdmark.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS Physical effort." esses. Oliver. It follows that specialization in proc- which compels a worker to maintain one position throughout the working day. *Oliver. 9. Josephine: Fatigue and Efficiency. should be listed among the occupational dangers. M. pp. the outcome of a particular state of the nervous system. '55 . particusystem.: Diseases of Occupation. work in movements region of the spinal column becomes bent.. Charities Publication Committee. increasing number of experiments to determine the nature of fatigue are supplying scientific " proof of the need for labor legislation.. n. prolonged sitting may be just as harmful. for the lumbar of growth. . t Oliver. the lower ribs are compressed. 6. Thomas. op. the of the abdominal viscera are interfered with." writes Dr. Russell Sage Foundation Publication. This danger exists in binderies. Oliver. the result of work carried beyond the capabilities of the organism. and is multiplied as the hours of labor are prolonged.! Fatigue An or tiredness. New York. 1912. In ordinary physiop.

but a sign of overwork The time element is the dein any occupation. and create a sense of fatigue. There is. But that time alone can cure haustion fatigue. render them less receptive of sensory stimuli. in the manner which fatigue is repaired." It is evident that fatigue is not the result of a particular process of work. After rest and sleep the sensation of fatigue wears off. The waste added to the blood act upon the nerve products endings in muscle and upon the grey matter of the and brain. and the individual power of endurance. . It is a question of length of time. . During repose. . . and in this way reduce their power of emitting volitional impulses. on the other hand they poison the large nerve cells in the grey matter of the brain. cisive factor in its cause. the length of time factor in recovery. eliminated. the warning signal. to induce fatigue varies with the nature necessary of the work. One of the important feais tures of overwork. therefore. structure is being rebuilt and waste products are . calling for notice. 156 How in- . for . . pose of labor laws to protect the health of workers against the poisonous effects of fatigue. it is also the decisive Of course.WOMEN fatigue is IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE is logical activity exhaustion never attained. and we rise invigorated and strengthened for work. and that exit may be the result of ignoring are facts which the scientists have proved applicable to It is the purevery worker in every occupation. . in fatigue an element that is mental as well as physical.

entitled "An act to regulate its first the employment of women and children in manu- facturing establishments. m. the provisions of the law were extended to all women irrespective of age. m. by a single act. m. women under twenty-one years were limited to ten." According to this law no woman under twenty-one might be employed more than sixty hours in any one week.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS adequate women the protection extended to bindery in New York is clear. Only one employer was convicted and fined in that period. In 1899. Judging by the number of prosecutions. and suggests a disis cussion of the law. the legislature of New York state passed factory law. but an "exception" clause permitted longer days for the purpose of shortening the hours of work on Saturday. In the six years preceding 1906. and to provide for the appointment of inspectors to enforce the same." child under the age of thirteen years. there were only four prosecutions in New York state either for employing women more than sixty hours in a week them after 9 p. Only any one inspector and one assistant were appointed to In 1889. "unless for the purpose of making necesIt prohibited the employment of sary repairs. and 6 a. In the same year night work of women under twenty-one years was prohibited between the hours of 9 p. In 1886. lax enforcement has characterized the history of the law. One was acquitted. the daily working hours of enforce it. Two were conor for employing . in any factory.

Factory Inspection. {The than sixty hours I 58 . 256-258. for he wrote in his report of 1902. I. t New York II. Part 210. 24. in one of which the prohibition of night work was declared unconstitutional. pp." New York State Department of Labor.* "Reference to the tables of orders. case of one Mary Seeback's employment in a laundry more in a week never passed beyond the court of special sessions. 1902. complaints. 1906. p. Bulletin No. which declared that "a law which attempts to limit the number of hours of labor of a woman employed in a factory. p. Howe. December. Court of Special Sessions. State of New York. will and prosecutions trouble is the tendency on the part of factory managers to exact longer hours than the legal maximum for women and minors. m. People v. and to employ children without filing show that the principal source of the required certificate of age. Report of the Bureau of Factory Inspection. 484. see Appendix C. school attendance fitness/' and physical The year 1906 was characterized by a sudden burst of activity with more than three times as many prosecutions begun as in the preceding five Six employers in the bookbinding trade years. p.f This activity resulted in court decisions in two cases in the same year. Seven other prosecutions were begun for employing women more than sixty hours in a week. were arrested for employing women after 9 p. Pt. 31. State Department of Labor. III.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE victed and sentence suspended. Yet violations were known to the commissioner of labor.! Second Annual Report of the Department of Labor of the Vol. 1906. while in the other the sixty-hour law was held to be a legiti- mate * exercise of the police power of the state. For court decision. may well be a health regulation and a proper legislative exercise of the state's police power.

and a citizen. entitled Factories/ of the General Laws Relating to Labor. now wellknown as the People v. Sepff. Williams. the light bad. 437 Eleventh Avenue. No. 1906. tember.OVERTIME AND THE FACTORY LAWS The case regarding the prohibition of night work. a deputy factory inspector visited the bookbinding establishment of the defendant. 1906. Court of Special Sessions. the deputy testified. was present and in charge of the work and the employes. or the general sanitary condition deficient. 'It is the best factory of the kind in New York City/ "The information upon which the defendant was tried and convicted charges a misdemeanor under ' sec- tion 77. 340 State Department of Labor. article 6. on the night of January 31. was not only a bindery hand. 30. ventilation defective. Williams. The defendant. employed in 'gathering/ to wit. and there found one Katie Mead. There is no pretext that the building was insecure. one of the proprietors of the establishment. is of direct interest in a study of the bookbinding trade. assembling printed papers in the form of a book or pamphlet for binding purposes. a female more than twentyone years of age. '59 . In these respects. The opening paragraphs of the judges' decision give the setting. 1906. in that he employed. "At twenty minutes after ten o'clock on the night of January 31. permitted and suffered the said Katie Mead to work in that factory after nine o'clock at night on the date specified/'* Katie Mead. She was a representative of all the women employed in factories in * New York p. Bulletin No. People v. in the County of New York. and among them were several other women.

. "How the woman worked on the day in question. as a result of their decision. 1 " 336 if. The reasoning of the courts somewhat in- volved. Katie Mead and all other adult women in binderies or in state any other factories of New York may be "employed. but the importance of the decision in the history of factory laws in New York. 60 . and its im- mediate bearing on their present enforcement. long how long she worked that week. permitted and suffered" is to work throughout the night.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE New York state." believed that one of women's rights justice certainly was the right to contract for her labor and to work when and where she pleased without reference to the position * Ibid. The sole fact before us is that a woman was employed in factory work for a few minutes during hours when the statute The declares it was unlawful to so employ her. declared the prohibition unconstitutional. makes full discussion of it desirable. The court declared that the issue was not the limitation of the working hours in a day or a week. and. in succession. The work that she did in the bindery that night after 9 o'clock resulted in "the first judicial construction thus far made in the United States of a statute prohibiting the em- ployment of women in factories at night/'* Three courts. or how many hours of labor she had contracted to perform on the night she was found working in the factory none of these things appear. p.



of the

hands upon the

dial of the clock.






in the prohibition of the section in question

which indicates that

its object is to promote the health Had the statute been so framed or the public welfare. as to provide that none of the employment of women

for sixty hours a

week or ten hours a day should be between 9 p. m. and 6 a. m., or had it provided that women might work only a limited time after 9 o'clock p. m. and before 6 o'clock a. m., if she was employed during
other hours of the day, its object as a health regulation might be apparent. When, however, it is so drawn as
to prevent an adult citizen from exercising her right to contract for employment, even for so limited a period as one hour during the prohibited time,
erly be considered a health regulation."

cannot prop-

appellate division of the Supreme Court affirmed this decision but their vote was divided,



Justice Scott, the majority opinion, declared that writing

of the five justices dissenting.*

for the

"the opinion delivered by the learned justice who wrote Court of Special Sessions discusses the constitutional infirmity of that clause of the statute upon which the prosecution is based so satisfactorily that we adopt

as the opinion of this Court.






under examination is aimed solely against work at night, without regard to the length of time during which work is performed, or the conditions under which it is carried on, and in order to sustain the reasonableness of
the provision, we must find that, owing to some physical or nervous difference, it is more harmful for a woman

New York


Department of

December, 1906,


Labor, Bulletin No. People v. Williams, 115 App. Div. 161





at night in binderies means too often permission to prolong the day's labor. Few binderies

more than two or three) have regular night women, who begin work in the evening without having worked during the day. In a far greater number, girls who work during the day
shifts for

Probably Katie been working since 8 a. m., although the evidence presented to the court showed only the single fact that she was found at work at 10:20 p. m. without regard to the length of employment

stay on through the night hours.

Mead had

preceding that moment. Some of the actual instances of overtime work cited in this chapter

demonstrate that the prescribing of a definite rest period during definite hours of the night is essential
to prevent the joining together of days at the stroke of midnight.

two working

" Inquiry among those females long ago as 1887.* above the statutory agef who worked twelve and fifteen hours a day in printing offices, candy fac-

That the long periods of employment resulting from such a practice have disastrous effects on the health of women was pointed out by the factory inspectors of New York in their annual report as

and other manufacturing wrote in that year, "elicited establishments/' they the information that the women who labor these long hours were more subject to fits of nervous






Second Annual Report of the Factory Inspectors of the State York, 1887, p. 28. f At that time the law applied only to women under twenty-one

years of age.


prostration and debility than those who worked the normal day of ten hours and, as a rule, at the end of a year, they would not have so much

working time to their credit as those who were not so overworked." That the factory inspectors recognized the connection between a prohibition of night work and the regulation of the length of
the working day, is shown by the fact that this statement of the bad effects of prolonged periods

employment was used in their annual report as an argument in favor of their recommendation that the employment of any woman, adult as

m. be prohibited. of a law designed to preconstitutionality vent such prolonged periods of employment by
well as minor, after 9 p.


limiting the hours of work of women to ten in a day was clearly affirmed by the Supreme Court of

the United States in 1908 in the case of Muller v. Oregon. The argument for the law rested on "the
world's experience upon which the legislation limiting the hours of labor for women is based," and counsel pointed out that no court can ignore facts



knowledge, when deciding whether a a legitimate exercise of the police power.

The danger of long hours for women/' wrote the counsel for the state of Oregon, in his summary of the
statements of authorities in

many nations,*




their special physical organization taken in connection
of the United States, October Term, 1907, No. Curt Muller, Plaintiff in Error, v. State of Oregon. Brief for Defendant in Error, Brandeis, Louis D., pp. 18, 24, 28.


Supreme Court


. .



with the strain incident to factory and similar work.

Such being their physical endowment, women are affected to a far greater degree than men by the
growing strain of modern industry. Machinery is increasingly speeded up, the number of machines tended by individual workers grows larger, processes become more and more complex as more operations are perThe fatigue which formed simultaneously. follows long hours of labor becomes chronic and results
. . .

in general deterioration of health." In affirming the constitutionality of the statute, the court said,* "The two sexes differ in structure of body, in the functions

to be performed strength, in the

by each,

particularly when ous health upon the future well-being of the race, the self-reliance which enables one to assert full rights, and

in the amount of physical capacity for long-continued labor, done standing, the influence of vigor-

capacity to maintain the struggle for subsistence. This difference justifies a difference in legislation and
in the

upholds that which


designed to compensate for some

of the burdens which rest

upon her/'

is made in strengthening legislation the daily hours, it is to be hoped that regulating the necessity for a prohibition of night work will In also be recognized by courts and legislatures.

As progress

European nations recognized this need by signing an international treaty which did not emphasize the idea of prohibition of employment but stated the situation more positively by



preme Court

United States Reports, Vol. 208. at October term, 1907.
State of Oregon, p. 422.

Cases adjudged in The SuMuller Plaintiff in Error, v.


N. Y., The Banks Law Publishing 166

Co., 1908.

providing for a rest period each night for women workers. Nothing in the New York decision of
1906 would prevent the possibility of a more favorable interpretation at some future time of a law
technically correct in drawing

and supported by

evidence showing


necessity as a health regua decision is urgently needed to

strengthen the hours of work of

New York




The constitutionality of the law regulating the weekly and daily hours has never been denied in New York state, and the way is open for a better enforcement of this law. As a means to this end


violations should be followed

of urgent importance that convictions for by the imposition of

fines in the magistrates' courts.

Such a record as

that of 1907 is discouraging to factory inspectors; in that year, 28 convictions were secured for violations of the sixty-hour weekly law, and in 27 of these cases the magistrates suspended sentence.*


result of this use of the

suspended sentence,

combined with a misunderstanding of the application of the court decision denying the constitutionality of the night-work prohibition, has been

to give a wide impression that the statute limiting the daily and weekly hours of labor is a dead letter.


the contrary, an increasing number of court decisions in other parts of the country are in agreement with that of the United States Supreme

New York
II, p.

State Department of Labor, Annual Report, 1907,






in affirming the constitutionality of


Indeed, 1906, before the Oregon decision, the Court of Special Sessions* in New York declared the sixty-hour law
a legitimate exercise of the state's police power for the protection of the public health. An aroused

more than a year

public opinion is needed now to give life to the statute, and to insure more adequate protection for


in factories.

cember, 1906,

York State Department of Labor, Bulletin No. 31, DeSee Appendix C, pp. 256-258. p. 484. People v. Howe.



CHAPTER VII COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE trade union movement is a vigorous THE women one tatives. The convic- movement is that under present conditions of industry. It is still possible . It provides machinery for collective bargaining between an employer and his workers. not as individuals but as an organized group con- trolled by the votes of its members. unless there be a definite form of organization among the workers no indition behind this vidual protest of theirs against injustice will have any influence. and to prevent unfair treatment of any worker in a mum union shop. and bindery in New York are active in it. The bookbinding trade affords a clear illustra- tion of the difference between the relation of the craftsman to his customer. They have formed an organization composed entirely of women. ministandards regarding hours and wages. and that of the obscure employe in a large establishment to the president of the corporation controlling 169 it. in the bookbinding trade. and managed by their elected represenIts purpose is to establish uniform.

from own workroom has superintendent to foreman. the have been at work relentlessly and inevitably. workroom represents a changed Her position is a reminder that since the days of Grolier. changing methods in the workroom. either man or woman. who works alone without employes and sells his labor to a purchaser without the intervention of an emBut while the craftsman ployer or a salesman. The position of the worker and the impossibility of her modifying the conditions of her employment 170 . still holds his own. and bargains approximately as an equal with the customer who pays him for his services. The employer who formerly bound books in his given place to the corporation manager whose chief duty is to study the book market. and making each worker merely a humble part of a large system. and from foreman to forewoman. splitting up their tasks into minute processes. the bindery girl in the ordinary industrial order. arranges his hours of labor. enlarging the number of employes. or forces of industrial revolution Roger Payne. Furthermore. and that a subordinate one. He pays no more attention than is necessary to the control of labor conditions. This phase of the business is handled by a delegation of authority from manager to superintendent. of the publishing business. not only does the worker occupy an obscure place in this hieritself is archy of industry. introducing mechanical contrivances. but the bookbinding trade but a branch.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE to find a bookbinder.

You have been here before?' "'No/ ' "I thought I had seen you before. m. Five or six went. Office than sixteen or eighteen years. "Reached above address brick building. While waiting. of vacant space and was next in order to the advantage I sheep. a word or two to several and then told them to go had taken upstairs. Large red on first floor. Girl looked me over. though not exactly this kind/ "Go " I upstairs/ flights of stairs to the climbed the three or four fourth floor and ceded me.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE are fairly well illustrated by the following description written by an investigator who secured work in a bindery. did. 'How many of you are experienced hands?' Nothing was said by the crowd but quickly there was a She spoke separation of the wise from the otherwise. six stories high. "'Are you experienced?' "'I have done pasting. ' Then came my turn. Several looked not more at 8:10 a. In what are you experienced?' " have not worked in a bindery before but have ' I I 171 . time. applying for railing. Several came bered in after 13. No I talking. understood that she was sent experience as a down to work. stood around outside work. Group the of girls. and finally all together we num- "A young girl from the office came forward and inquired. others older. A I came upon the group which had woman was speaking to one of them ahead of preat a The girl me had had gatherer.

One girl described a "non-union strike" in a bindery in which she had worked.00 a week. 'tilj you've had experience/ ' ' How " It's can I get experience?' You'll have to start at the bottom and do at it folding. Even a group of girls in the workroom cannot successfully regarding conditions of employment. the lighting of the offered.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE I I had to do careful filing in an office and think could do gathering/ 'Thinking and doing are very different things/ "She spoke a word to one of the foremen. went out because was a bad time for . but work and who have worked can earn "'But ' ' I risk. It is useless for an applicant for work to ask an employer of 200 women to bargain with her individually regarding hours of labor. "'You can't do gathering/ he said. Nor is a protest against too low wages likely to have any influence unless the employer is hard pressed for a worker in some particular process. you'll have to come at your own " bone folder and be here at 8 tomorrow/ piece girls 6. unless they are part of a larger or- make demands ganization. you couldn't/ want to learn/ Well. Get a In such a case the girl is may accept or refuse what cannot modify the conditions. and A may only lead to their discharge.00 to $9. or the position of the fire-escapes. mere spontaneous uprising among them does not accomplish permanent results. she workroom. "The 172 girls It they wanted more pay.

I told the others I thought it was better to wait until there was more work. We lost. and wouldn't have gone out for anybody." The one who afterwards Meanwhile the other Later her if girls in the afternoon decided not to protest. "There was no use having three people out of work. which happened to be a Saturday. Two of the girls went about the workroom asking the others to refuse to work overtime that day.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE was very little work. six or She was a foreigner seven. and they did not want to stay through Christmas Eve. told the story agreed to the plan. They had been working late in the week preceding Christmas." she said. The firm took on other girls. she kept her agreement and refused. the forewoman asked work overtime. except one. But the forewoman appeared again. She stopped her machine and told she intended to the other girls that she was losing her job because they had not kept their word. but they wouldn't listen to me. All the girls. walked out. but as she was feeding the folding machine she "could not hear what was going on. and dismissed It all three. The forewoman dismissed her." In another non-union bindery a few girls tried there to organize a protest against overtime work. In . Two of them offered to leave. the state through its labor laws has already established a standard as a foundation for the agreement between employer and employe. but she urged them to stay. all should be remembered that in these bar- gains.

by bookbinders who had formerly belonged to the Knights of Labor. But the state has nothlighting.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE these laws. The demand for a living wage and an eight-hour day is left to be voiced by the thousands of unions in the many trades organized by the American Federation of Labor. already outlined. and others regarding ventilation. No employer may require a girl under twenty-one to work dura. to say regarding wages. ing the night hours. m. paper rulers. sanitary conNo manuditions. and workers in all other branches of the bookbinding industry. and marblers. of which the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders is a member. and sanitation. or at any time except between 8 legally m. no child under sixteen may work more than eight hours in any one day. edge gilders. and its standard of ing hours is much below the trade unionist's ideal of an eight-hour day. Even if only one person is in his employ. The International Brotherhood of Bookbinders was organized in Philadelphia in 1892. hours. paper cutters. and minimum age are defined. Its membership included binders of printed books and blankbooks. The Brotherhood is now made up of more than 200 local organizations to whom it has issued charters on application of 10 or more persons . for the labor of any No employer may contract woman for more than fifty- four hours in a week. facturer may lawfully employ a child under fourteen. a factory owner must meet these requirements. and 5 p.

by women a per- Early office in this period. In 1906 it numbered 800. 1400. $3. The initiation fee is after 25 cents. Local 43 includes the bindery women's union in New as Local 43 of the International women workers in all proIt cesses of the trade except gold leaf laying.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE working in the trade. and became a salaried organizer. 1 175 . which the International Brotherhood.00 and the monthly dues thereIn addition to paying its regular per capita tax to the International Brotherhood.* was organized in 1895. known Brotherhood of Bookbinders. and is part of of Local 22. manent New was opened at 150 Nassau Street. The largest of any of these local unions in the bookbinding trade throughout the country is York. the president gave up her work as sewer in a large bindery. and in Thus it has doubled its membership 1912. who think that trade unionism is synwith strikes and picketing and keeping onymous another out of a job. These six years have been the period of complete control of the organization officers. Local 43 meets from these dues the expenses of its office. In 191 1. in 1909. 1600. Local 22 was merged with Locals i and but in this chapter the former number is retained. in six years. 1912. 1 in a new Local 3. with less than 50 members. and one of the women members was elected secretary-treasurer to give her whole time to transacting the business of the union. After the convention of the Brotherhood in June. in 1907. a visit to the office of Local those is To * The gold leaf layers in New York are members made up also of men stampers. York.

this local. those whose dues are paid. steady work.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE 43 would bring many surprises. The number of members in good standing. determines the number of votes to be cast by its delegates. Its officers are elected by votes of the delegates from each local. It is these local unions in the various communi- ties which make trade agreements with employers. With scarcely a strike in its history. by give-and-take adjustments of difficulties arising in various shops. for the organization fund each of the 176 . throughout the country. securing its aims by good busi- ness methods. The power ened by its of the central organization is strengthcontrol of funds. for the funeral benefit fund ($75) both men and women pay 5 cents. affords means of discussion of interests It common to all handles questions relating to co-operation with workers in other branches of the printing and publishing industry. in each local. especially in its biennial conventions and its trade journal. by conference and discussion with employers. that is. For the journal fund men pay 2 cents a cents month and women month. has continued its quiet. Four separate per capita taxes are levied by the Brotherhood. made up almost entirely of American-born girls. and must be each a collected and paid at regular intervals 5 by local. The a international organization. and by inducing employers to guarantee a minimum rate of pay for each process of women's work. and reenforces local efforts by the backing of its membership the local unions.

GOLD LEAF LAYERS A STAMPER (This man takes the cover after the gold leaf has been laid on) .


and arouse public sentiment in favor of the label.77 .00 a week to a married man. used in time 20 cents a month for men and a total tax of 40 cents cents for women. the most important event in the hisProbably tory of the International Brotherhood of Book12 . These councils also have an electrotypers. The fund may only be used to sustain legal for is. that those authorized by the interna- tional executive committee. and each defense fund. the tax 5 is cents a month. photo-engravers.00 to a single man.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE men members pays 10 woman 3 cents. It is their purpose to international association. stereotypers. $5. for the of strike.00 to a woman. and it signifies that the books or pamphlets on which it is stamped were manufactured in a union shop. particularly on public documents and books used in the public schools. binders. strikes. Local Allied Printing Trades Councils are formed consisting of representatives of the unions of bookers printers. and to discuss other common interests. thus frequently inducing employers who are seeking such public contracts to accept union organization in order to have the right to use the label when customers request it. To members parti- cipating in such strikes the general office pays benefits of $7. To control its use in each community. and $4. The trade union label is one of the important tools for organizing workers in the various binIt is the same label as that used by printderies. making a month defense men and 15 cents for women.

That this Executive Council declare i.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE binders. for the eight-hour workday on October 1907.* As early as April. 1908. and 1.758 opposed." News all of this decision was immediately sent to members by means i of a circular addressed to local unions Nos. 1907. one in which Local 43 took an active part. for ratification not by each local as a whole but by referendum vote by members. with due notice to employers. was the demand for the eight-hour day. June.906 votes in favor of the demand. meeting at Columbus. the date set by the workday on October Thus the demand represented i . 1907. The result showed 4. * In some sections of the country A full account of the campaign was given in the International Bookbinder. Ohio. not an impulsive action. the trade journal published by the union. but a carefully planned move ratified by a large majority. I 78 . asking for a conference to discuss the inauguration of the shorter executive council. It was made simultaneously on October i. the executive council of the International Brotherhood. 1907. by local unions throughout the country and is an excellent illustration of the relation of these locals to the international organization. and that the referendum be asked to ratify this action. The next step was to direct each local to send individual notices to the employers of their members. the vote to be in the hands of the General Secretary on or before May 30. adopted this resolution : "Resolved. to 174.

instead of making separate contracts as there are firms. 1907. November employes might work an additional six hours in the week with not more than three extra hours in any one day. It Against these a strike was ordered.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE the fight was a long one. and an agreement was signed by the Bookbinders' League and each of the local unions of New York City. and to insure arbitration of matters which cannot be settled by mutual consultation. This organization its is is called the Bookbinders' League and tion. purpose. at the same rate of wages. as was New the outcome of these conferences with local unions. at this time that an interesting organization of employers was formed in York. as stated in its constitu" to discard the system of making individual labor contracts and instead to introduce the more equitable system of forming collective labor contracts. and aimed also to establish committees for disthey cussion and conciliation of difficulties. the hours of labor should be forty-eight per week at the scales of wages then When overtime should be necessary prevailing. The first subject for conference was the eighthour day." Membership is limited to those who own or manage union binderies within a radius of fifty miles of the City Hall of New York. providing that after as many 18. These employers planned to enter jointly into an agreement with the bookbinders' unions. but in New York only two or three firms finally refused to grant the reduction in hours. but any 179 .

asking them to comply with the provisions regarding hours. It was agreed that after a year from the following January. but that elsewhere the eight-hour day had been won. Provision was made for night work by agreeing that union binderies might run a second shift of forty-five hours a week at the same rate as that paid to day workers. greater difficulties were encounAlmost two years later the president of official letter the Brotherhood in an to the Inter- national Bookbinder wrote that a strike in progress in was still Akron. but that if the unions could not furnish workers the employer had the right to engage non-union men or women. The unions then members of the sent copies to all other firms. A clause was inserted which provided that union members should be given the preference in all cases where positions were open. half. all overtime above the forty-eighthour week should be paid at the rate of time and a half. With few exceptions. In other cities.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE more overtime must be paid for at time and a which means the day rate plus 50 per cent. The total cost of the struggle in all sections of the country was more 1 80 . not league. tered. This agreement was signed by the six local unions in New York and by the seven firms that were charter members of the Bookbinders' League. Ohio. the agreement was accepted and the possibility of a widespread strike in New York was averted.

a bindery girl in New York pays a regular tax to help the workers another state secure the eight-hour day which may have been granted in her place of employment in nearly two years before. 1909.* and this was paid by an assessment on all locals. 181 . in It shows also the way which the local unions ne- gotiate with employers in their own communities. in order to secure certain conditions agreed upon by the local unions in all other communities.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE than $200. lustrated by the additional contract signed by the locals in New York and the Bookbinders' League on the same date on which they agreed to grant the eight-hour day in their binderies.000. p. March. led by the executive officers whom they elect to control the international organization. In case a prolonged strike is necessary. Occurring at a time of widespread industrial depression. The locals are responsible also for negotiations re- garding many matters which are not made the This is ilsubject of international agreement. 97. Members of Local 43 paid extra assessments during that period for the eight-hour workday fund. it was a severe test of the loyalty of the members. the greater part of which was used outside New York. This account shows how the unions throughout the country. may unite in a simultaneous demand. even those that had secured their demands without a strike. * It is so im- International Bookbinder. When these demands have been won their en- forcement must be watched by the local unions.

119 of the Interna- tional Brotherhood of Bookbinders shall be considered members of the Bookbinders' and now are League of New York "It for the purposes for which it has been organized. " In accordance with resolution of Locals Nos. 43. 22. 1 Scale of Wages. 77. 1 1. who shall appoint a committee to arrange a schedule of prices and hours which shall be known and published as the Bookbinders' League of New York i. December 31. i. 1. 43. 22. trade court. March. 77. i."* * Dated New York. 22. 19 of the International 1 1 Brotherhood of Bookbinders. 26-27. New York of Labor. "The Bookbinders' League of New York and Local Unions Nos. is also understood that any arbitration must be settled in three months from the time of the submission to arbitration. 77. disagreements. and ing. Department 182 . 1907. 36. pp.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE it portant as a peace protocol that deserves full quotation. or otherwise. or misunderstandings. Bulletin No. 119 of the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders this agreement will be in force for one year from date. being desirous of entering into an agreement for the purpose of maintaining an era of peace for their mutual advancement and prosperity. 1. 43. and to conciliate if possible any controversies. 1908. do hereby agree in all instances to consult by committee. if impossible to arrive at an amicable understandthen and in all cases to submit to an arbitration of such matters equal the committees being composed of an number pear and be elected by mutual consent and that each body hereinbefore stated shall upon the signing of this agreement of employes and employers who shall apstate their case before the arbitrator. and also that the Locals Nos.

July 906. and the wage scale specifies both the piece rate and the week rate. 1912. "All extra work. which. through negotiation with individual had already adopted a scale of wages. For gold leaf layers the minimum rate continued to be $10 a uniform a week. is 241110. includes stampers (men) and gold leaf layers (women). 1 Local 43. i . while aiming at a rate of $10 a week for all experienced workers.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE In accordance with this plan joint committees were appointed for conference and conciliation. firms. For example. it is evident that negotiation is 183 . already prevailing in several union binderies.000 is prevails in 1912. which shall still Whether paybe by piece or by week is optional with the employer. In January. and inserted In connection with each process a clause reading. for machine folding the rate for week work must be $10. but for piece work the price per 1. as has been explained. Unfortunately this plan to adopt wage scale was never carried out by the Bookbinders' League. and these committees have succeeded in settling various questions in the shops allied with the League. For the bindery women in New York the agreement should have led also to the ratification of their scale of wages. by another agreement with the Bookbinders' League and other firms this was increased to $11. ment specified for i2mo. and sheets. i6mo. for double sheets. except in the case of Local 22. special prices upon mutual agreement/' Thus.

while the girl next to her. earned $7. pay for piece-work is then determined so that with this average output the earnings would be $10 a week. and their combined outspeed. who earned $22 a week. According to this plan. suggested by the officers of Local 43. for example. In either case the union makes no objection. put is The rate of divided by three to determine the average. one quick.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE necessary to determine the rate for books of exceptional size or quality of paper. and their sheets difficult to interpret work system rate. and one of medium They are timed. from the nature of the work. He considered this a sufficient answer to the objection that trade unionism always and invariably keeps the good worker down.00. Books are of many different sizes. three girls are put to work at the same task. paid at the same rate per piece. Under the pieceit is a difficult task to maintain a fair When the price is it in the printed wage scale. Obviously. one slow. it is more an agreement regarding rates of pay than to enforce an eight-hour day. not definitely specified must be determined by some such method. and forces up unduly the earnings of the incompetent. The superintendent of another union bindery said that he considered it a profitable plan 184 . The quick worker will earn more. The slow worker will earn less. are of various grades of paper. as that described by the superintendent of one of the union binderies. The superintendent cited the case of a who described this method gatherer employed in his bindery.



Besides hours and wages. The subject of apprenticeship has been discussed by the International Brotherhood. attempts to mitigate the hardships of slack season.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE to pay the most efficient worker higher wages than the minimum scale demanded by the union. trade an advantage. because counteracts the tendency. and to limit their number in proportion to the number of ex- perienced workers in each shop. I. a system of indenturing apprentices. The effect of * See Report of United States Industrial Commission. created by the introduction of machines. . to make specialists in one branch. usually four years. say the international officers. certain restrictions as to the transfer of workers from one process to Vol.* Such an arrangement. instead of permitting him to go to another shop before the employer who is training it him can reap For the any benefit it is from such an investment. Part p. is of value to the employer since it insures the continued service of the apprentice during his term. but the dis- cussion has concerned boys primarily rather than Local unions have been urged to introduce girls. These are the conditions of entrance to union shops. IQOI. including the regulation of apprenticeship and provisions for admitting experienced workers to the union. other important subjects are included in the scope of Local 43*5 activities. and methods of ad- justment in cases where hand workers are dis- placed by the introduction of machines. XVII. the granting of legal holidays.

when out of employment. with an increase of 50 cents at the end of six months. doubtless because she might thus reduce the rate machine operators to the level of learners' earnings.* It "overthis specialization crowds our trade with incompetent mechanics.f No girl under sixteen years of age may become an apThe term is approximately one year. that time the experienced workers are exDuring pected to teach the learner all the hand processes. of a union bindery said that this was not an arbitrary restriction but a natural one. and because in acquiring facility in that one process she might learn nothing else. but she is not permitted to operate a machine. p. In 1906 the rate for learners was $3. Local 43 has made The agreements with union firms limiting the proportion of apprentices to one in every group of 10 experienced women workers in a shop. no.00. Such a man not only drags himself down financially.00. in many cases. The minimum weekly wage for an apprentice is $5. prentice. a larger proportion of learners could not be properly taught. will accept a position at a reduced rate of wages just to obtain work. The superintendent 186 . When * t Ibid.. but others as well." description of the work of women has already shown the same danger of specialization in their tasks. To counteract it.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE on the wage scale was described the secretary of the Brotherhood in his report by to the Industrial Commission in 1901. of pay for This rate of wage represents a recent union gain." he wrote. "who.

as girls has been stated. 187 Each application is . Young girls may be employed in this department to "size and clean" the books. It is in 43 differs the matter of apprenticeship that Local markedly from Local 22. the learner becomes a of the union. The term of apprenticeship is is three years after admission. to which. but includes also experienced workers in the various processes.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING sufficiently IN THE BINDERY TRADE member of pay.00 until the end of three years when the minimum is wage $i i . $5. and receives the union scale None but competent workers are admitted to membership. but they may not touch the gold until formally admitted to membership in the union as apprentices. The gold is so precious that employ- ers are quite willing not to permit inexperienced girls to handle it until they have done enough preliminary work in the department to be eligible to apprenticeship. About 200 women gold leaf layers are members of the union. The wage at first with 50 cents increase every six months. experienced. the executive committee of Local 43 passing upon each application. girls ments of the binderies and usually have no direct These contact with the other bindery women. In Local 43 admission to membership is not con- fined to girls who have been apprentices in union shops. employed in gold leaf laying are in the finishing departbelong. pleted their apprenticeship. who have not before been For these the conditions of joining are the same as for those who have just comunion members.

Thus un- employment for an indefinite period 1 is avoided. The workers needed for a particular process are employment members is kept unemployed and when union employers need workis to maintain an list of recommended impartially according to the order of This system not only serves as their application. one of the most important duties of the secretary-treasurer registry. If these non-union girls are merely temporary hands they may not be required to join the union.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE voted upon by the executive committee. permits the employment of non-union workers when the union is unable to furnish workers who are enrolled in its membership. already quoted. serving as the elected representatives of all the members. A up-to-date. ers they are expected to notify the union office. The union welcomes additions to its ranks and often charged against such organizations. but if they are permanently employed they must become members within two weeks after beginning work in a union shop. as is ployers. it is arranged in some union shops that when the work on hand is insufficient for the normal force it shall be divided so that each may have a share. does not make any attempt. to restrict the number Its agreement with emof workers in the trade. out of the employers* To facilitate the carrying agreement to give the preference to union members. 88 . to employers but helps to relieve the a convenience hardship of irregular employment for the workers. As a further remedy for slack season.

In the printed scale of prices the following paragraph appears: "Any member may be assigned work in any position other than the position in which she was engaged. she will receive while filling that position the higher scale. Day One more requirement made by Local 43 portant. and if such emergency position carries with it a higher scale than she has been receiving. the union demands a higher rate of pay for overtime. obviously. In the same spirit. and double price for employment on Sundays or legal holidays. Or a member sent to fill an emergency position at the lower scale shall not be reduced to the lower scale/' The tect the reason for this provision. For example. the union attempts to protect the workers against loss when new machines are introduced. on the other hand. is On only one legal holiday Labor work forbidden by the union. The tendency is to employ 189 . who formerly were hand gatherers. is to proworker against a reduction in wages be- cause of transfer to another process. are successfully operating the gathering machines. the mechanism of which is said by employers to be more complicated than that of any machine operated by men in the trade. in case of emergency. to prevent the lowering of an established rate for paid girl to any process by putting a less wellwork at it. as a remedy for overwork. in three union binderies in New York five women. It is imconcerns the transfer of a worker from one process to another. and.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE On the other hand.

fact demonstrated by the rapid extension of the of 190 women . has leaf layers. 22. Out of more than 200 shops counted in this investigation. The total number about 6. $18 a week. and the expenses of such a contest are borne during the first two way weeks by the local. Local 43. may order a strike.000. and the women members of Local the gold number about in the trade is 200. and afterwards by the i inter- national defense fund. the union shops are important ones. it may finally be referred to the international executive Usually the adjustment is made in the If it cannot be adjusted in any other council. to adjust a grievance through conference with the foreman or forewoman.WOMEN men IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE operators for this work. and the union influence is a greater than their numbers would indicate. shop stewardess is appointed in each The workers complain to the stewardis ess in case there any violation of the agreement fails If she regarding hours. A workroom. those in which the women are organized number about 40. as has been stated. Nevertheless. or other conditions. . wages. the local. with the approval of the international officers.600 members. the union officers take it up. and if the difficulty prove serious. workroom. but in each of the cases cited the women's union secured the opportunity for a woman at the same wage that a man would receive. It is in making such adjustments that the con- structive business ability of Local 43 has been shown.

and there are employers who see in this fact the possi- keeping their employes out of the union maintaining union conditions. "We have union conditions and don't bother with the union. it is nice belong yet." 191 are not obliged to to be . We At the same time.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE it eight-hour day to non-union shops after been won by union efforts. one hears employers who are opposed bility of by to dealing with an organization of their workers " I won't express their opinion in such phrases as. such as the union makes possible." she wrote." As in many other trades. especially as he has known it in the methods of Local 43. had Workers are often content to reap the benefit of unionism without sharing in its burdens. "I do not belong to any of the unions." It is significant that the superintendent of an es- tablishment which has had long experience with trade unions in several branches of the printing industry expresses the conviction that only by frank conference and discussion. He pays a high tribute to trade unionism forwomen. The indifferent attitude of some women toward unionism is illustrated by a letter from a bindery worker to whom an investigator had sent a booklet of information about the union. Again and again employers say." or I wish no interference from the workers in running my own business. up-to-date and prepared for the occasion. " be dictated to. can an employer hope for real efficiency in his workroom force. "as I don't think it necessary.

Employers agree with the women unionists that the growth of Local 43 has been due far more to the efforts of the women than to any co-operation on the part of the men. Furthermore. men in the trade to the welfare Some of them are quite content of to consider a shop a good union place and to permit the use of the label on its products. betterment of conditions usually has an influence extending beyond the 192 . such as the operation of the gathering machine. bound in a purpose of the label as a means of unionizing all the workers in the shop which uses it." To judge of the results of trade unionism by comparison between union and non-union shops is never fair. even when not one of the women is a union member. in disputes over borderline processes. as one employer expressed the it. if the men are organized. "unbelievably hostile to women. fortunately. although he has had it women shop where neither men nor This defeats the are union members. the men have been. Indeed. a union printer will sometimes put a label on a book. That the agitation for the use of the union label is not more of an aid than it actually is to the organization of bindery women is due in part to the indifference of the women. since. Her implication that she might be obliged to join was due to the fact that pressure is often brought to bear to have the union label put on books which are public property.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE This girl worked in a shop where some school books are bound.

193 . in New women's union York. however. the trade unionist sometimes declares openly. and in the protection of individual women against unjust and unfair treatlimit ment. by which he means putting into operation the machinery of the colConditions in union binderies lective bargain. in the gradual enforcement of a minimum wage scale. prove that the bindery is an important factor in improving the conditions of women's work in the trade.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE BINDERY TRADE establishment in which it is first secured. Indeed. In regulations regarding the training of learners. it has accomplished results more important than any yet secured for this trade through legislation. in the shortening of the normal hours below the which the state has been able to establish by legislation. that the improve- ment of conditions is of less importance to him than recognition of the union. to the amazement of the public.

to have margins of the right width. the real difficulties in the way of meeting this responsibility become clearer. to design an appropriate 194 this change. is the lack demand for skill in the old sense of power com- pounded of manual dexterity and intelligence. hand. but it is three which the change in the relative importance of these is at the root of the present baffling problem of industrial education. for example. For more discouraging than the lack of skilled workin men. to sew with the right sized thread for the right weight of paper. in the bookbinding trade.CHAPTER VIII TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE discussions of industrial educa- CURRENT tion are emphasizing the fact that the community through its public schools is re- ers in its industries. and time. Efficiency in a manual occupation is made up of three elements. . sponsible for developing the efficiency of the workWhen these discussions are based not on general theory but on concrete knowledge of such conditions as prevail. Of an book from beginning to end. women's work in bookbinding is To plan the binding of a excellent illustration. frequently deplored of America. brain.

and very probably she will never see the cover of the completed book. She is required to fold so that the printing on one page will exactly coincide with the printing on the page which faces it. or to plan the width of the margins. on entrance to the trade are not severe. requires a high order of brain and artistic ability.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE cover expressive of the spirit of the text. and to treat it scientifically. and they do not keep out workers who may not be adapted to the demands of the occupation. knowledge of mechanical devices is desirable but not essential. But the girl who folds the sheets in a modern bindery is not asked to choose the paper. to choose the proper leather. it does of its novices that they meet the test of a thorough training designed to develop the not demand sort of intelligence in restrictions which educators are in- terested. thus insuring even margins after the cutting its work. mere rapid repetition. work premium. Bookbinding for women is a skilled industry so organized as to be carried on in many departments by unskilled workers. the brain element controlling the hand is not at a machine has done fast. For feeding a machine. regulations prescribed employment They 195 . and she is expected to As the manual element is reduced to its simplest terms. the law regulating of children. substantial. to neglect no detail which belongs to a solid. and therefore. It does not require the efficiency of the craftsman. appropriate piece of work. The the are three-fold.

142 are willing to employ them. will employ girls of fourteen or fifteen. the child's age must have been proved satisfactorily. forbids the employment of any child who has not yet reached the fourteenth birthday. Employers' methods vary teen as the widely. while 65 engage only experienced workers. 1 16 gave definite information regarding the employ no age: 54 will of age. and requires that children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen be provided with employment certificates. all To secure the certificate. three girls under sixteen years minimum preferring workers seventeen years old. and have attended at least 130 school days in the twelve months preceding her fourteenth birthday. The trade union already described names six- minimum age of apprentices. The New York eries in common state law. Only one employer expressed a preference for grammar graduates. she must have reached the required grade in school (prescribed as 58 in New York City). nite educational and 62 No defi- requirements are found. Of the firms willing to employ learners.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE by the trade union. Thus the barriers at entrance are not high enough to prevent the employment of a young girl of four196 . and limits their proportion in relation to experienced workers in a ratio of one to 10. and rules adopted by individual employers. Of 207 who stated a definite policy re- garding learners. or the date of her application. governing bookbindwith all other factories.

If they put her on cutting off." the feeder of one of the folding machines girl it." said one girl considered herself an all-round worker." she we were waiting on everybody in the place. It's own fault if she doesn't learn. because I can turn my hand to a good who many different things. She does not know then that a learner in the bookbinding trade is not necessarily an apprentice practicing tasks which will lead to work. The forewoman in 197 . and in telling how she had learned her She went to work in an edition bindery when she was sixteen years old.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE teen. " I'm never laid off. When stopped work at 5:15. Her sister was took pleasure trade. she is ignorant of the fact be merely an unskilled worker needed may for certain processes which do not prepare her for skilled more highly that she other parts of the trade. who its idea of has selected the occupation with no future opportunities for her. As the training is often so casual and differs so markedly for different girls. it can be accurately described only by relating the comments and experiences of individual workers. " said. "When we first began. but merely because she happened to notice a bookbinder's advertisement for learners the day she secured her working papers. girl's would stay until "Most girls. also a learner there." she a "won't stay after hours to practice. she ought to watch the machine and then she'll learn to sew. The two types of learners may be working side by side in the same bindery. this 5:30 to practice operating said.

who had begun work at the age of sixteen. yet she considered an experienced bindery girl." said another. Of doesn't pay to bother with first But I'll admit it's discouraging when you go into a bindery. her. And you must be strong and not nervous. Then she learned by watching and by seizing every opportunity to She has never had a chance to paste. or to is operate the sewing machine. in order to detect errors in the work of the ma- She learned to gather by hand and to size and clean the books in the gold laying department. chine. The work they give learners. cialty. At first the forewoman showed her how to do the work. to practice. The method of learning was obviously not systematic. "The girls show you. and had been employed for She had four years in the same edition bindery.WOMEN course. collate. and you're on your feet all day long. a process not usually assigned to "general bindery" She learned to examine and to wrap the girls. is heavy. Gradually she learned to feed the point folding machine and that became her speIt was necessary to learn hand folding. before graduating from the public school. if IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE girl if our bindery teaches a she isn't it she's bright. and for a while was the head wrapper. for you're liable to be hurt by the machines. You must have such a knack about everything. "cut off" books from the sewing ma198 ." Her main work was knocking up the folded sheets. or "knocked up" the sheets folded by "jogged" machine. like knocking up. finished volumes.



and thus learned the working of the machine and became an operator. Even though the training received by these women before they have has been neither systematic nor thorough." yourself many times by workers. "pulled out" sheets from the gathering machine. folded and inserted by hand. folded line of by hand. Some of the girls occupying the best positions Stories like these. who has been a understands no process except sewing. no one else will ever sit you down at one. As a beginner she cut off In contrast to her experience. repeated in the trade have been strict specialists. and finally. but not often enough to The time it takes to learn learn these processes. the books after they were sewed. Occasionally she had gathered and pasted by hand and sewed by machine. An operator of a sewing machine. And you have to be willing to do work that you don't like. her aunt who has worked six years in the trade has never operated a machine.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE chine. the impression that the learner herself was gave the only one interested in her training. and wrapped books. She and her niece work in the same bindery. bindery worker for four years. all been learners in the sense of having possibility of advance. "depends on yourself. as her main work. as they be199 them the . "If you don't sit down at the machines and try them. She has straightened sheets." she said. but neither could take the other's place without becoming a learner again. operated the wire-stitching machine.

they may be called the untrade. to another. and then was "laid offslack".WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE in the processes came more expert which they had Another type of learner is the inexperlearned. Sometimes one of them passes on to a more skilled process.00 a week. "Then we weed them out. $4 weekly.50. Apply Saturday morning. idle four to six months. girl folded patterns one year. they wander from one occupation New York. worked in a department store one week. earning $5. 50 weekly. "We take on learners trained bindery workers. examples show trade histories of this kind." "Wanted: 30 girls as learners: must be over 16: $4. quick girls. ready to start work. at $6. whose presence serves to complicate the problems of the bindery As a group. employed in busy seasons to do unskilled work which leads nowhere. ienced worker. folded by hand in a bindery three months. earning $6.00. Two One earning $3. for temporary work. In encouraging casual work." is the meaning of such advertisements as these which appear frequently in the newspapers: "Ten bright. folded by hand in another bindery two weeks. folded and inserted circulars in the mailing department of a publishing house three weeks.00. "laid off slack". a 200 ." said the owner of a large This pamphlet bindery. Call ready to work." the bindery trade must be held in some measure responsible for creating drifters girls in among working no foothold in the Securing bindery trade. Many of them are casual workers.

earning $6. She took sheets from the gathering machine in a magazine bindery. however. to answer advertisements. folded pamphlets. She returned to pack candy one month at $5. and was again "laid off slack. at $1. The opportunities ners. "laid offShe then worked one year in a magazine bindery. m. are even more restricted 20 1 for beginin maga- ." She "took money out of tissues" in a bank note house a year and a off half.00 a day only eight days in the month.00 a day.00 per week. She leaves home about 6:45 a.00 until she was "laid slack." She folded and pasted pamphlets two weeks in a printing office. She would like to stay in the bindery trade if work were steady. of work ten months. working two months slack. and earning from $3.00.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE temporary job for a wage of $7. She had worked five years altogether. She and her mother is live alone in a fur- nished room and she greatly in need of work. She left "for a better place. but "didn't like Her record reads: it" and stayed only two days.00." She packed candy two months during the Christmas Then she was out rush. earning a wage of $1. " Has worked at other places for a short time. Such casual work seems to be most frequent in pamphlet binderies.50. earning $5. 50 to $4.00." Another began work as a cash girl. edge work. and her maximum earnings in any week were $7. where the bindery work was only temporary.00. helping the operator of the wire-stitching machine." for a weekly wage of $3.

In one magazine bindery. They learned to operate the wire-stitching machines." she said. "I'd never advise any relative of mine to go into it. the gathered sections from the machine. I can't teach all 1 my girls chines. there are only 16 maShe is one of those who spoke of the changes in the bindery trade.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE zine binderies.00. The forewoman described two learners who began work there eight or nine years ago at $4. and hand folding is rare. "learners" are employed to separate the printed sections when they have been folded together. Sometimes bins. saying. The more exact and careful than in pamphlet is binding. But in this branch of the trade no definite plan seems to have been developed except in union binderies." wire-stitching. the learners stack the folded sheets in where they are kept until needed for the Sometimes they pull out process of gathering. no gathering by hand nor collating is necessary. and " are now earning $ 3 piece work. No pasting. with their periodical rush of work and their extensive use of machinery. so that folding machines are needed for only one periodical. They're among " the fortunate ones." Workers and employers generally agree that an edition bindery work is the best place for learners. no sewing. where the experienced workers feel a responsibility toward apprentices. This is called outserting. Five of the six magazines which are bound in this shop are folded on the printing presses. and are interested from the trade union point of view in 202 .

" said the superintendent. others some do only sewing. we could prevent rigid. This girls learn their carried 203 . his working." and "drew off" from the whip-stitching machine. trade. according to the union standard. counted. but acsaid the superintendent." casual employment. That methods of training vary even here is shown by the comments of several workers who learned the trade in this establishment. I know all the branches." said one girl. "we could not teach them No properly.50. "and go to another union shop. As a learner she received $2. thus enabling the employer to be reason- ably sure that they will not leave before they begin " If to make returns for the trouble of teaching. never learned to sew by hand or by machine. The girls on the sewing machines don't want to have too many She knocked up. thus preventing the encouragement of " If we took more than that. But not every girl learns the whole trade." The minimum age is sixteen." The number of apprentices is limited." The less rule for girls is less and apprenticeship formal. a boy should leave us during his apprenticeship. case in one of the edition binderies frequently described as "a good place to learn.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE This is the preventing premature specialization. "Then they are sure to teach them. "They take only a few apprentices here. cording to the policy of the trade union. written agreement is made on either side. learners are expected to stay until they have become experienced. Some do only hand folding.

this bindery.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Her wages were increased was ten years ago. and You can't afterwards taught me hand folding. Afterwas put on piece work. Then did hand pasting. When had learned I made up to $8.50 piece work." Three or four others described their training in One had been a box girl for a year. Then wanted more pay. I I I I I I I them for Later she became a the wire-stitching machine. days was on the machine for pasting covers on a Sunday school journal. until she received $5. for which she piece. Two old ladies do it. because the pasting machine broke. Her sister learned within the first year hand work. and my pay was $4. Later her principal work was operating the wirestitching machine. Then they gave me work on the gathering machine." said another. by the she Later still helped to clean and repair books. so they said they'd try me on other work." "First was straightening up the books for the "Most wire-stitching machine. insertAnother began her ing. from $10 to $15 a week. pasting. gathering. and knocked up for a folding machine.00. folding. 50 cents every six months. and knew no other process. cancelling soiled sheets and pasting. career by jogging the sheets to prepare 204 . Then for two learners knock up for the folders. make out on that. so that "no one could tell they had been repaired. was paid. inserting. wire-stitcher.00. and collating. Sometimes she did hand work. hand wards and outserting. There were two boxes to empty.

They teach you one thing and keep you at that.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE She had tried folding. inserting. charge of 150 workers. A few 205 prefer to employ the . with its as "a good place to learn. and covering. and the new ones don't any chance. watch the learners. girl takes to one process in "and when see that a more than to another. I I teach her that. the part of the trade which most bindery girls prefer. A bindery as well as a worker may be a specialist. in this large bindery. "In the big binderies each girl has her own work. Thus. to learn to use the sewing machine by occasional furtive practicing "when the other girls were making tea/' but she was far from becoming a sewer." chance reputation seems to control the training of the apprentice." said a forewoman I "We haven't any machines." said a woman employed in a small pamphlet bindery." On the other hand. and in such specialized workrooms a learner's opportunities will be even more reget stricted than in a large bindery with its subdivision of work." " choice. We do only hand folding and pasting and insertLarger places give the advantage of a wider ing. even Many experienced workers say that large establishments do not give so good an opportunity to learn as do small shops. the training received in small establishments may have disadvantages. "Our workroom is not a good place for learners." Employers ing in ally rather indifferent the bookbinding trade are genertoward the problem of train- women workers.

and they spoil a great many sheets. as they As soon "As anything. and who can get my orders out in the shortest possible time." soon as boys and girls get a little smattering of know experience." " It is a poor proposition to take learners. Only in this way. however. We couldn't get anybody to teach learners. will employ "We bind only one weekly periodical. 'kids' we call 'em. they leave. for extra orders and keep them about two months." " We can't bother with learners." "We do not like to take learners. they Others. Sometimes we take inexperienced girls. declare." "We haven't time to teach." It would take haven't the "We have no time to teach and the girls patience to learn.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE inexperienced in order that they may train them to do the work according to the special methods of their own workrooms. Every worker must count in so small an establishment. have to take girls who know how to work. cite many reasons why they none but experienced hands. Rents are too high. We'd prefer to have them learn in a small establishment where they have more time to teach. too much time. I haven't the capital. they want to go somewhere else where they can get more money. We have no miscellaneous work to give to learners/' "Our season lasts six to eight weeks at a time." I " 206 ." I'm too small to take them." said the owner of a bindery where three girls were employed. They don't care about learning the trade. can they secure efficient service. " We can't take learners.

We use machinery and have no time for learners/' Thus. It And then most of it is done by machinery. unskilled casual worker. ienced worker. the piece-work system. 56 per cent the public schools. special- work. As a result of these two important problems of training are characteristic of the bindery trade. Only 2 per cent stated that the last day school attended was in a foreign 207 . chang- ing methods. They spoil the work. all and the increasing complexity of tend to discourage the inexpermachinery." "It's not practicable to take learners with so much competition as there is in this business. when the future worker is a child in school. rush I in the trade complicate the rregular employment. and 33 per cent parochial schools. we can't curtail production by teaching learners/' "All our work is rush work. the problem of the specialist in a task which makes small deinfluences. For the community to discharge its responsibility toward these workers. and the prob- lem of the untrained. This responsibility for the education of workers begins. and to make the expert less inclined to take time to teach. as the advocates of industrial education demand. takes time to learn how to manage a machine/' "In these days of short hours. ization. of course. A large majority. 89 per cent of the bindery girls interviewed. conditions learner's problem.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE " We have not the floor space. have attended school in New York. mands on the worker's intelligence. will be no easy task.

re- Among ported that the last day school attended was in New York. and 3 per cent had been to school in some section of the United States outside New York. The group of course in- who went to work several years ago. Among these cards were the records of 144 bindery girls. of it. who answered the same questions. and none had gone to high school. In the course Bronx. while 67 per cent left at the age of fourteen or younger. 208 . and Brooklyn in 1910-11. 62 per cent naming public schools and 34 per * For tables see Appendix B. Only 10 per cent had stayed in school until they were sixteen. Of those who attended public schools in New York only 9 per cent graduated cludes those from grammar school. Six percent did not report. before the present provisions of the child labor law were operative. and 20 per cent left when they were fifteen. the girls who named bookbinding as their occupation a very large proportion. Fuller information about the previous schooling of bindery girls was secured from another investigation. made by the Committee on Women's Work. pp. 250-253. in the public girls in these schools filled out record cards giving detailed information about their previous training in day school. 96 per cent.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE country. while 65 per cent had left while in the seventh grade or earlier. evening schools in Manhattan. Three per cent did not report. The results* shown are the more interesting as they can be compared with the facts for other working girls.

cent parochial or private. Nearly half, 45 per cent, had attended school eight years, and 25 per cent had remained longer, a better showing than for girls

manufacturing pursuits grouped together.
left at

the age of fourteen or younger, and only 10 per cent stayed in school after the sixteenth birthday. Although eight
Sixty-four per cent

years is considered a sufficient time for the "normal child" to graduate from the elementary grades, 70 per cent of these bindery girls had failed to graduate.

Measuring their progress in school by the average time taken to complete one grade, allowing one year for a grade, only 21 per cent of those who received all their school training in New York public schools were normal, 9 per cent were rapid, and
70 per cent were slow, compared with 59 per cent slow among girls in all trades. Not only has their schooling been brief, but for some reason they have
not kept pace with the curriculum.
of interest


their preference for

Another fact manual work

evening school; 53 per cent had chosen such




show that the schools are handi-

capped by too brief a contact with these girls, that they become workers at an age when they cannot be expected to develop the skill of an adult


early a start in an occupation


be equivalent to a false start.



a worker to inefficiency who might later have been more capable of directing her own prog-





step in industrial educa209






to keep the children out of industry until equal physically, at least, to its de-

mands. Other questions, however, are being asked concerning the

processes schools or in continuation classes.
of the
dustrial education

desirability of definite training in work either in preliminary trade

As an example

problem involved in this last phase of init is worth while to outline the information gathered by the Committee on Women's Work at the request of a member of the Board of Education of New York. The inquiry was made
for the purpose of answering a specific question as to the desirability of forming a class in hand bind-

ing in a public evening school. The results, considered in relation to the other data of the investigation, show concretely how baffling is the probblem of industrial education of girls in a trade like


The immediate cause of the inquiry was a request for supplies for a class in bookbinding to be carried on in connection with art work in leather
an evening high school. Behind this request, however, was the fundamental question of whether or not an evening class would be of practical service in equipping women for any branch of the

bookbinding trade, or
of those already

in increasing

the efficiency

employed in it. This question was discussed with art binders, including a woman, who manages her own bindery and teaches the craft, with owners and superintendents of edition

pamphlet and magazine binderies, and with officers of the bookbinders' union. Not one believed that the plan was feasible or desirable.

Their comments

will show their reasons. The superintendent of a large edition bindery

thought that, at a comparatively small expense, it might be possible to equip a room in a school
building with cutting machine and wire-stitching machine, and girls could then be taught to handle
sheets for pamphlets

and to paste on the covers.


printer might give this practice shop the contract for binding a magazine, but "the trade"

would probably object. A large plant might be developed if the department of education would have its books bound in this classroom. It would
employers to co-operate as they countries, because business men here are too much interested in "the dollar mark" and in immediate profit. But even if all these difficulties were removed, he believed that a more
difficult to get





serious objection

would remain; that after the were trained there would not be enough open-

In his opinion, the ings for them in the trade. demand for women's labor in this industry is less now than the supply. Another summed up his objections tersely by

saying that in edition binding the hand work done by women is so simple that there is nothing to

machine work would not be practicable in a school. In "extra" or art binding the union will not permit women to do anything
learn, while the




but fold or sew.


and even more

was the statement

of a superintendent of a

magazine bindery, that in a magazine bindery


work done by women

unskilled labor.


nothing to teach/' "The only way you can teach a person a trade," said another, "is to put
her in a workroom."

A member

of a firm

which has departments


edition binding and for pamphlet and magazine work, considers that school training in bookbinding is not practicable for girls because their work in

the trade requires mere manual dexterity and because the demand for them is decreasing as ma-

chinery develops. "



you had the machines,"
really be the trade."

said another,

"it wouldn't


did not
to teach

think that


was necessary or practicable

the trade in a school, but he believed that the schools could fill a need by giving a more thor-

ough general training



and writing.

Bindery girls need this knowledge to enable them to put together the pages of books properly. It was not machine binding, however, but hand binding which was to be introduced into the proposed class in evening school, and although only 2 per cent of the bindery women of New York are employed in this branch of the trade, it had seemed,
at first glance, more feasible to train women for hand work of this sort than for machine binding.

But inquiry among men and women familiar with conditions in hand binderies brought replies quite

as discouraging as those in regard to the large binderies.

One woman, who manages an

pressed the opinion that women learn more about the processes which they are now permitted to carry on in binderies, such as
sewing, pasting, and mending.

art bindery, exwould do well to

She believed that

mending books might in time offer a field for women's work, especially if this training were part of the equipment of librarians. She pointed out that accurate judgment is required in sewing, pasting, and other processes in commercial hand binderies. Women must know what kind of sewing is needed
for each book, taking into consideration the thickness of the paper, the size of the book, and the

character of the binding.

For this they must be


favor, however, an evening school class for bookbinders. To teach the artistic features of

up the She did not

They cannot merely pick knowledge through casual work in a shop.
to think.


the trade would be useless, because women are not permitted to do this work. To teach the processes


recognized as women's because of the very limited

work is not desirable, demand for women in



A member

of a firm

whose craftsmanlike work

a well-deserved and wide

pointed out that certain conditions affecting the trade as a whole must be considered in relation to


Actually fewer books are being

bound by

art or job binders in

New York




Binders are taxed for

years ago.

imported raw materials, such as leather and paper, while many bound books come in free. Publishers in the United States are sending some books abroad to be bound. As the finest class of work has been taken away from the commercial binders here, they have lost efficiency through lack of practice, and are turning out a grade of work lower

might justify. For men's department, workmanship New York binderies depend more and more upon foreign-born workers, who have learned their trade before they came to the United States. Practically no apprentices are now being trained here. One cause of this is that our apprenticeship law

than their potential

in the

too loose to hold a boy for a sufficiently long period to make his training profitable to the



in spite of the

need for

skilled workers, this

man did not believe that an evening class for women would be desirable. It might be well to teach women to sew better, or paste better, but,
on the whole, he thought that this trade was not one which offered good opportunities for women at present. They would not be allowed to touch any processes in commercial hand binderies, except those they are now doing, and these are too limited








are to succeed at

all in

bookbinding, they

must look forward to owning their own shops. Otherwise those who make any effort to appro214

" "In the bookbinding trade. what effect will a trade school have upon wages? If a trade class results in turning out workers whose position in the labor market makes more difficult the trade union effort to maintain a standard wage. then organized labor opposes it. and said that it was "in part an effort to save that trade from the blight that has settled on bookbinding in some localities. The fundamental question which the trade unionist asks is. first and their attitude on the question of women's work would demand careful consideration. make a cannot know too much about the means by which they And it is well that they should learn all there is to know." said ex-President Prescott of the International Typographical Union in an address before the Brotherhood of Bookbinders at their annual convention in 1908. This is the ground of their opposition to preliminary training which tends to make a class in school the substitute for apprenticeship. the men's trade union. correspondence courses for printers. the union strongly favors plans for classes which give supplementary technical education* to workers already employed * in the trade. the workmen's handicap through lack of knowing opportunity to practice the whole trade. They would have the power to put obstacles in the way. But. He had described the typographical union's educational scheme. The president of the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders and the president and the secretary of the women's Local 43 defined for us the trade union attitude toward industrial education." he said.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE priate men's tasks will come into conflict with He pointed out that the question to be considered was the attitude of the trade union regarding such classes. "Men 215 . "we see the deplorable effects of specializaliving.

were not the doers of one simple process. would be advancing their best interests if they had a better grasp on the trade. but you should do what you can. they do not object to the employment of women in any processes cities tion." Reported in the International Bookbinder.WOMEN These IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE of the officers bookbinders' union said that they would oppose a class in bookbinding for girls in public evening schools for two reasons: because they would fear that the organization of such classes would tend to turn workers into first. and that the great majority of men were unable to do anything but their reCollectively and individually the bookbinders spective specialty. As to the relation* of men's work to women's work. The monotony What you can do incident to such work brings on mental decay. because they considered that specific conditions in the trade made it undesirable to train women. so long as this principle is followed. the trade union officers declared that the Brother- hood demands equal pay for equal work. commonly carried on by men. There is an immense field in the decorative leather work which might be done in the bindery. and second. There . 216 . Rapid changes women's work. And craftsmanship can be taught. me . 191 (June. The foreman of one of the best binderies there (Chicago) told that there were at least eleven sub-divisions of the trade. p. 1908). In southern finishers. in The women's The machinery are a menace to department is minutely subdivided so that they are specialists in particular processes. few in number job binderies are so and their work so limited that they are not worth considering as a field for women. and that. IX. general among bookbinders the field for their work would expand. is certainly an opportunity to advance the branches of stamping and This is where craftsmanship of a high order can be brought finishing. women are employed as forwarders. is problematical. the shops in too large numbers. If designing were more to play. Vol. .

complex and the different points of view which ought to be trade. younger children To exclude these children from binderies by legislative enactment would be an important step in industrial education. are a practical sumof the problem of industrial education for in this women Their opinions show the which the schools must consider. however. These statements. The trade efforts to union would be a powerful ally in keep children in school until they are sixteen. will Real success depend upon the possibility of effective co-operation on the part of workers and employers. although they agreed that the public evening schools might well be utilized to give supplementary technical education to girls. The immediate steps to be taken are more obvious than any ultimate solution. Further than that the problem can 217 . for already it excludes from work in union binderies. and danger/' Finally. they were convinced that trade conditions in bookbinding therein lies the made such a class as had been proposed undesirable. made by men and women who know trade conditions so well. Without trade union organization. factors represented in any effort to solve the problem.TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE or rulers. all careful systems of training in the workroom would be an asset for employers as well as a benefit More to the workers. "female labor means cheap labor. and in New York some women are doing work commonly done by men and receiving the same wages. and yet view them from mary different angles.

and low wages produce inefficiency more rapidly than the schools would be able to train skilled workers. prolonged hours of work. it is well frankly to recognize that extreme specialization. irregular employment. 218 . Meanwhile. constant standing.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Such experimental include opportunities to be offered in plans might evening classes not to practice the trade but to be solved only by experiment. Co-operation of this sort be- tween the schools and the industry might do much to test the best methods of developing efficient workers. gain instruction in fundamental principles. whether it be the construction of a machine or the treat- ment of leather.

About o per cent of the women workers are under sixteen. stooping frequently to lift the folded sections of books. and 44 per 219 . Pro- cesses are so subdivided as to deaden mental facul- than to encourage growth in intelligence. carrying loads of heavy paper from one part of the shop to another.CHAPTER IX SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK conditions of women's work in the book- measure up to the standard which public opinion has begun to demand. these are tasks which would in- evitably fatigue girls even though the day never lasted longer than eight hours. standing at work all day. or handling the completed volumes to wrap them for shipping. Careful sui THE binding trade fail in many particulars to pervision of learners in the ties rather workroom is rare. pressing a foot pedal rapidly and incessantly. of industrial education is discussed only with reference to the men in the trade. Yet only a fourth of the women in the shops investigated had as short a working day as eight hours. repeating one process hour after hour. As yet the subject and little attention is given to the problem in the women's department. Operating complicated machines.

re- More than half of the statements collected garding this overtime showed an excess above the limit allowed by law. while the average reported by census enumerators in 1905 The average wage was even women Yet it has been seen that lower.WOMEN week. An income than $400 a year is distinctly below the generally accepted estimate of $9. bookbinders are members of households 1 in which it is difficult to make ends meet.22 a week. Only about a third work in establishments reporting steady employment. while nearly a third reported a loss months during the year. flagrant instances are recorded of the employment of women through- out the night. girls IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE cent worked longer than forty-eight hours in a In fully three-fourths of the binderies the worked overtime at some season of the year. Moreover. $6. and more than a fourth lost three months or more. for ers interviewed Nearly three-fourths of the workhad frequently lost time in slack one in eight reported no time lost Only of one to three any cause. Their earnings are reduced still lower by reason of irregular work.00 a week as the minimum 220 . An estimate of the approximate yearly income of bindery women shows that nearly three-fourths receive less than $400 in in in a year. in spite of their finding employment have no work other occupations when they of less bookbinding. 3. seasons. reported by the group of girls interviewed by us was $7. and in which heavy responsibilities fall upon the women wage-earners.

is the establishment in which women work in comfortable quarters and tested. large numbers of very workers whom he keeps only for a season. supplied with hot and cold water and large enough for the girls to have space and privacy in which to change their clothing after the day's work. Yet trade. but gives no further thought to the workers' comfort. or boys carry the sheets of books to their In one bindery the accumulated stock piled high shuts of? light and air from the workers. this is a woman can a support herself in picture.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK wage on which York City. one firm provides chairs of the right height for convenience and comfort. One employer provides a dressing room. It New composite shows neither the worst nor the best conditions in the The standards prevailing in the best es- tablishments show that improvement in conditions is an entirely practical possibility already folders In contrast to the bindery in which hand work in a gallery less than six feet from the ceiling and must themselves fetch the sheets from the main workroom below. Similarly. while in another care in a part of the is taken to keep the stock workroom where it will not obstruct ventilation. men tables. young while another makes sixteen the minimum age in 221 One employer engages . Another fastens a few hooks for hats and coats on the wall in a corner of the workroom. while another carelessly purchases stools without backs or foot-rests.

there are magazine binderies which have never found a twenty or twenty-two-hour day necessary. and thereafter a rate calcudefinite standard of $5. is not by any means a universal practice.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE the workroom. Another takes on new hands for every sudden order with the delib- them as soon as the work is finished. One firm habitually requires overtime work at certain seasons. if reduction in the force is inevitable. One employer makes every to steady the seasons. and employs inexperienced workers not as temporary hands for a rush order but as learners who have a future ahead. while another adopts a week for learners with an increase of 50 cents every six months until they become experienced. he arranges a part time schedule or lays the workers off in relays for definite. The impression made on the reader by this description of the employment of women in bind222 . while another has deliberately tried to avoid overtime and has succeeded in reducing to a it minimum. One firm squeezes the wages down to the lowest that workers will accept. On the other hand. 1 is found chiefly in erate intention of dismissing 1 establishments which specialize in the binding and mailing of magazines. The prolonged working day. thus mitigating to a certain extent the hardships of unemployment. and.00 a lated to permit an a "average" worker to earn $10 effort week. short periods. which gives the bindery trade so unenviable a reputation.

too low a wage to live upon.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK must depend on his outlook. a growing fund of scientific their the workers. he will be disposed to be tolerant of conhe finds them. to see these conditions own needs. and $10 a week for experienced workers and she will see in the statement of facts about her trade an added argufore. overtime exhausting. If she is a member ment his for the extension of trade unionism. and $7. General readers will differ in their conclusions as they differ in their knowledge of industry and their ability to read the facts about a trade with full appreciation of significance in relation to the welfare of In spite of differences in personal judgment. gauging the facts presented the conditions prevailing in his establishment. however. will probably draw conclusions according to her own She has doubtless found nine hours a experience. data about industrial conditions throughout the country is making possible the formulation of 223 . The diverse points of view from which industrial conditions are observed eries result in different standards of judgment. Thus the bindery worker. will The employer too probably base his judgment on by experience. there- changed to meet her of the trade union her standard will be definite an eight-hour day.00 a week long day. own Viewing wages primarily as an item of expense to himself rather than as the source of income to his ditions as employes. and the standards which he has in mind. extra compensation for overtime. if she read these chapters. She will hope.

WOMEN will IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Their application toa trade not upon the various conclusions of depend worker. After a summary of legislation bearing on the question in this country and abroad.* set a * In a marginal note to the opinion of the court appears an epitome of the material showing the general trend of this world-wide opinion. He appealed his case to the United States Supreme Court on the ground that such a legal restriction was not in accord with the freedom of contract guaranteed to citizens by the federal constitution. reports in detail. in a case argued before the highest court in the land. reference was made to "extracts from over ninety reports of committees. both in this country and in Europe. His argument was met by counsel for the state in a brief all based not on a theoretical discussion of the rights of citizens nor on an oratorical appeal on behalf of working women. an impersonal. but all agree as to the It would. take too much space to give these danger. inspectors of factories. of course. A laundry owner in Oregon was convicted of a violation of women more than ten the state law which prohibits the employment of hours a day. but upon practicable standards. employer. fact. scientifically determined basis of use of scientific A notable instance of the evidence as a basis for establishing a standard for women's work occurred in 1907. but on an impressive and scientific collection of the results of the world- wide experience which has led nations to legal limit to daily hours of work. The matter is discussed in these reports in different aspects. and the general public. to the effect that long hours of labor are dangerous for women. commissioners of hygiene. primarily because of their special physical organization. Following them are extracts from similar reports discussing the general benefits of short hours from an economic 224 . bureaus of statistics.

SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK This array of authorities the court found conThe relation to the welfare of the race vincing. Ibid.' New in the Supreme Court at October term.. . . Perhaps the general scope and character of all these reports may be summed up in what an inspector for Hanover says: 'The reasons for the reduction of the working day to ten hours (a) the physical organization of woman. by abun- dant testimony of the medical fraternity. Cases adjudged be discussed. continuance for a long time on her feet at work. pp. 1 . We take judicial cognizance of all matters restricting . of legislation enacted to protect the health of women was thus summed up by the court: "That woman's physical structure and the performance of maternal functions place her at a disadvantage This is in the struggle for subsistence is obvious. 420. are given tending to support the general conclusion.. pp. and as healthy mothers are essential of woman becomes in to vigorous offspring. . of general knowledge/'* In many of these reports individual instances aspect of the question. York. justify special legislation or qualifying the conditions under which she should be permitted to toil. . 15 225 . when the burdens of motherhood Even when they are not. . The Banks * Law 42 Publishing Co. 208. (c) the rearing and education are all so imporof the children. (b) her maternal functions. especially true are upon her. tends to injurious effects upon the body." in order to preserve the strength and The court held "that woman's physical structure. and the functions she performs consequence thereof. 1908. repeating this from day to day. Vol. 419-420. the physical well-being an object of public interest and care vigor of the race. 1907. (d) the maintenance of the home tant and so far-reaching that the need for such reduction need hardly " United States Reports.

Massachusetts Labor Bulletin. No. rest must be taken period of rest. For this purpose a permanent state commission has been appointed and its duties thus defined in the law:* " It shall into the * be the duty of the commission to inquire wages paid to the female employes in any ocp. as a sound basis upon which to enact legislation. June. Scientific men in many countries have proved beyond question that getting tired is a physiological process equivaThe poison lent to taking poison into the system. is eliminated and the tissues restored only by a Furthermore. application of these facts to the regulation of the hours of work of women in industry is obvious. and to take them into consideration in determining the hours of work in his establishment. 226 . 92. The The and public welfare rest demands that work shall cease be permitted before the worker becomes exhausted. That the determination of of a definite standard likely to be increasingly sought from indicated by such state action as the recent passage in Massachusetts of a bill providing wages is now on is for the "voluntary" establishment of minimum wage boards. No enlightened employer of women can fail to welcome the scientific conclusions already reached on this subject. 1912. 58.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE In presenting evidence to the court important use was made of the results of laboratory research into the physical effect of fatigue. before fatigue has become so great as to result in is an exhaustion from which recovery difficult.

227 ." If the inquiry into any industry should convince the commission that inadequate wages are paid to women. and of workers in This board is to to be paid to women in the industry. Report of Seventeenth Annual Convention. 1912."* The American Federation of Labor works through its affiliated unions in many trades to prohibit the employment of * National Association of Manufacturers. a minimum wage board is to be appointed. if the commission has reason to believe that the wages paid to a substantial number of such employes are inadequate to supply the necessary cost of living and to maintain the worker in health. whose members shall be representatives of the general public. minimum wages not legally bound to accept.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK cupation in the commonwealth. but its determinations are to be recommendations which employers are the occupation determine the in question. and in an effort to bring "manufacturers in every department of industry to a higher realization of their social responsibility to their employes and the public. methods show their interest in the prevention and relief of work-accidents. May. of employers. in a comprehensive plan for industrial education. howmay be their differences of opinion as Reports of the meetings of the National Association of Manufacturers of reform. a demand in which all ever great to classes of the population are now joining. This law is indicative of a growing demand for the betterment of conditions.

at country. the committee on standards of living and labor presented a platform of industrial minimums. A living wage was the first plank. to care for immature members of the family. 1912). compensation for accidents. to provide for education and recreation. State legislatures are rapidly fallinto line in the enactment of laws regarding ing child labor. and the term of working life. and it was defined as an amount sufficient "to secure the elements of a normal standard of living. 1912. xxvm : 5 17 (July 6. the maintenance of sanitary conditions in facto- The attitude of a group of men and women whose work brings them into close contact with social and industrial conditions throughout the In June. and the prohibition of the employment * The Survey. and ries. to maintain the family during periods of sickness and to permit of reasonable saving for old age/'* The platform demanded eight hours as the maximum working day for women and minors in all industries. the regulation of the hours work of women. housing. to establish an eight-hour day in all trades. hours. safety and health. the National Conference of Charities and Correction.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE children under sixteen. is also significant. compensation and insurance. This declaration dealt with wages. the introduction of industrial educaof tion in public schools. an uninterrupted period of at least eight hours' night rest for all women workers. and to secure a living wage for every worker. 228 .

and citizens are signs of the times." Within a few weeks after this conference a new party adopted an industrial platform containing practically its the same planks. For this application. the public can formulate minimum occupational standards below which. Another section called for the in prohibition of the employment of women Of occupations which require constant standing. is the more difficult task of applying these principles in all the various fields of em- ployment into which the world's work is divided. a promise of better things to come in industry. All Following the general statement of principles. engineers and economists. Thus members registered their conviction that the time was ripe to make standards like these a party issue with a wide appeal to the whole people. Reform must necessarily come not in industry as a whole. irregular employment. however. demonstrably. detailed studies must be made of conditions in each occupation. the platform declared that "any industrial occupation subject to rush periods and out-of-work seasons should be considered abnormal and subject to government re- view and regulation/' These provisions were based on the principle that with knowledge of the facts of work and "the recent discoveries of physicians and neurologists. workers. 229 . work is prosecuted only at a political human deficit.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK of children under sixteen years of age in any wageearning occupation. these expressions of opinion of manufacturers.

without permitting overtime. irrespective of age. by providing chairs with backs. or by using vacuum cleaners. by doing away with the use of foot pedals. 230 . and * By allowing change of occupation and posture. each trade has its peculiar problems. by guarding machines likely to injure the hands or fingers. Provision for a definite rest period of at least eight hours during the night for all women. Co-operation with the public schools in efforts to supply additional opportunities to those who have left school at the age of sixteen. Moreover. by covering the stock to prevent accumulation of dust. and by so adjusting the height of the work-tables to the height of the chairs as to make it possible for hand workers to sit at work without loss of the speed on which their earnings depend. and to permit the operator to sit at work. with foot-rests. by so placing the books and paper as not to obstruct ventilation. To establish proper standards in the bookbind- ing trade would require certain definite changes. Limitation of the hours of work of all women to eight in a day. and. employment of of children under Careful supervision learners to insure thorough training. since that is the way economic life is organized. and by requiring that machines be constructed in such a way as to make stooping unnecessary.* Provisions for adequate light. if high. ventilation. by sprinkling the floor before sweeping every day. Planning the work so as to obviate the ill effects due to specialized tasks and to guard against the dangers peculiar to the trade. by employing porters to carry the heavy sheets from one part of the workroom to another. which may be thus summarized: Prohibition of the sixteen.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE but trade by trade.

Payment of adequate wages. To ers. raise all binderies to the level here indicated will require the and the co-operation of employers. but a few important changes which would mark a decided advance should now be made general throughout the trade by means of legislation. workThat the suggestions are public. teen or fifteen should not be employed for such 231 . Protection against fire assured. and especially in connection with machines. No revolutionary reforms are necessary to make state intervention practicable. York. would To markedly improve conditions trade.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK space in the workroom and dressing rooms. in the bookbinding Many persons now believe that the employment of children under sixteen ought to be prohibited in any occupation. No establish- ment combines them The whole trade cannot be suddenly transformed. Resolute efforts to prevent unemployment. with full recognition of the fact that the public welfare requires a living wage for every worker. or in lifting or carrying heavy It seems obvious that a child of fourweights. and for proper toilet facilities. and to enforce them strictly. practicable is proved by the fact that almost every one of them has been tried to some degree in at least one bindery in New all. strengthen the present laws regarding women's work in factories in New York. and to steady the seasons.

Night work should be prohibited in order to assure an adequate rest period in every twentyfour hours. by 232 . and not weakened.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE heavy work as that required in binding books. dusty stock. dusty floors. in order that the results of may not be nullified by an unwise inspectors use of the suspended sentence. Prosecutions should be in a reasonable ratio to the number ployers of violations. and to make possible the strict enforcement of the fifty-four-hour law. The law regarding the hours of work of women ought to be amended for the benefit not only of bindery women but of all women at work in factories. the present legal provision requiring that no employment certificate shall be issued unless the child "is in sound health and is physically able to perform the work which it intends to do" should be more actively enforced. itself should express convictions strongly enough to reach the magistrates' courts. and all other unwholesome workroom conditions should be corrected by definite laws scientifically determined. In any case. sufficient ventilation. A sufficient number of medical should be appointed to begin the collection of data on which to base extensive legislation for the Inprotection of the health of working women. The exception to the nine-hour law permitting a maximum working day of ten hours should be repealed. as at present. in order to prove to emPublic opinion that the law is alive.

is chief task to bring home the sense of re- sponsibility to those who have the power to determine conditions. must be well organized and supplied with an adequate number of carefully chosen inspectors. Legislation. and 233 . is not sufficient without provision for inspection of workrooms and strict enforcement of law. economy in running his department and satisfactory workmanship. intendent whom They appoint a superhold responsible for two they main results. The force of women inspectors should be increased especially to look after the welfare of women workers. binderies. The fact that more than half the less bindery workers in New York City are employed in than 10 per cent of the binderies indicates the their responsibility for power of a few employers and the welfare of women in the trade. hours. The state labor department. the efficiency of the labor department depends the success of the state's effort to protect the health of women The workers. Undoubtedly they could secure from women employes evidence of violation of the laws more On readily than is possible for men inspectors. that members the large of the firm who It is in have the power to make improvements have the least knowledge of the conditions of employment in their establishments. however. charged with this task of enforcement. An investigator in search of facts about wages. however.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK provisions giving inspectors discretionary power in such vital decisions.

exchange of ideas also grows As conditions grow more complex this more complicated. whose knowledge of these vital facts is likely to be very hazy. The worker's loyalty to the firm and his interest in good workmanship can be secured only if it be possible for employer and employe to meet in a democratic way for discussion of conditions which cannot be wisely determined if the point of view of either be dis- regarded. Good team work depends upon a spirit of fellowship. establishments. But a firm and its superintendent cannot meet In regulating labor the problems single-handed. If the small group of important bookbinding firms of New York would positively adopt this practice. The trade union has developed to give organized to the interests of employes. They would also set an example which would have its influence on other their employes. they would benefit at once more than half the workers in the trade. conditions they are dealing with vital human issues. 234 . It gives expression the workers who are active in it a broader view of trade conditions than their personal experience It is a means of securing alone could afford. fast which cannot be determined by hard-andmethods.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE seasons soon learns to seek out the superintendent or the foreman rather than the head of the firm. No marked change in conditions will be possible until the men at the top require superintendents to look after the health and comfort of and to pay them decent wages.

however. Furthermore. it will be reasonable to expect publishers to take is When this responsibility effective action to meet some of the problems of Through books and articles on industrial topics. worker. the contrasts cited in other binderies indicate quite as clearly the danger of leaving standard-making to the individual employer. clearly recognized. but the community must see to it that none shall fall below the minimum conditions required for the health of the workers. publishers of books and editors of bindery work. many firms of the standards at Both employers and workmen. or a publisher. magazines are trying to improve industrial conditions. the interest of the community should make possible a just balance between the 235 . Enlightened employers will keep ahead of community action. Overtime work and slack season are both traceable to the publisher. But employer.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK the adoption by accepted by a few. The unreasonable demands of these customers are too often responsible for deplorable conditions of employment. To apply the teaching of these books and articles to the binderies where they are bound would be a practical demonstration of great value. are the service of the man who gives them orders. a printer. and customer are not the only persons responsible. While conditions in the best binderies in New York show the practicability of reasonable standards. whether he be a private customer.

interest tion 236 . The task is large and complex. Without such a balance as the community alone can give. publisher. is the vital factor needed to focus attenon conditions of employment and to establish throughout the trade the standards which are essential to the health and happiness of thousands of working girls. there is too often blind conflict of interests instead of a just and Public reasonable adoption of proper standards. pointing out that production cheapened at the expense of decent living conditions for the workers in reality costs too much. The worker aims to secure higher wages to make possible a better standard of living. The employer is anxious to keep down expenses. but it is also an encouraging one. It challenges the best thought and effort of reader. The public interest would combine and balance these two views.WOMEN demands IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE of worker and employer. binder. writer. and worker. printer.



239 . one for the record of a workshop. one for the record of a worker. personal history and living conditions. Membership trade union. club. where and at what cost. The investigation of personal history and living conditions included such facts as: Nativity. 245 to 248. and the dates came to New York City. If living at home. Relationship to head of family. indicating whether the girl was boarding or living at home. church. Disposition of earnings. when they number and ages of children at home. and See facsimiles of card records. condition of apartment. their occupations and number of rooms. other wage-earners in family.APPENDIX A OUTLINE OF INVESTIGATION field Three record cards* 5 x 8 inches in size were used in the work. carfare. other persons living with family. and date of birth. and rent. boarding. * and yearly savings. weekly If weekly earnings. and work. education. pp. and one for the worker's report of conditions in the shop in which she was employed. nativity of father and mother. The card designed for the record of a worker provided information on three large subjects. in organizations. amount given to home.

and dates of attendance. with a record of each position in chrono- logical order. trade. This was interpreted broadly to include any supplementary education. date of leaving. stating dates employed. Trade or technical school attended. Trade career. besides the name and address of the firm: Name and address of the worker and the dates of her emin this bindery. card included. and the time idle after leaving. afforded a valuable basis for the investigaThe data gathered on this tion of establishments. by whom given. and the reasons for this in Comparison of regularity of employment months and in the preceding year. More detailed information was then secured regarding conditions in binderies in which the worker had been employed recently enough to insure accuracy. such as courses in public evening schools. place. This material. Training received the past twelve in a bindery. kind of work done by the girl interviewed. recorded on a card to be filed under the firm name. name and address of firm. how the position was found. weekly wages. ployment 240 . and grade reached. or in business schools. time held. girl's work history included past year. Weeks out of work in the loss of time. The investigation of the the following data: Age at beginning work. kind of work assigned. and length of time required. courses taken. reason for leaving.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE regarding the The information sought schooling included: worker's Last day school attended.

time of ending work in the evening. with full information regarding number of evenings of overtime in a week. rate of pay for extra work. The tendency here was to state the best possible wages for each class of work.* if any. hours spent on it and earnings. posture required of the worker. Posture at work in these various occupations. time al- lowed for supper. kind of dressing room provided. As a matter of fact. and whether calculated according to piece or time. Home work. speed or skill. lunch-room privileges. if it had been less than a year. * These card records were all designed for investigation of other trades as well as bookbinding. Workroom toilets. General range of weekly wages for each process. lighting. and the season of the year when the hours of labor are thus prolonged. kind. experience. and cleanliness of In interviewing an employer the same kind of in- formation was sought. or during the time of ployment here. and total hours of labor daily and weekly. with a description of the nature of the processes. including time of beginning emthe work in morning. Overtime. follows: The information asked of employers was as Kind of work done by women. conditions. 16 241 . strength. but covering the whole establishment rather than the conditions that affect a single worker. total daily and weekly hours inclusive of overtime. Weekly wages. of work in past year. Weeks out Hours of Fines imposed or any charges made for supplies. home work given out by binderies is very rare. closing hour. Saturday working hours.OUTLINE OF INVESTIGATION Kind of work done by her. length of noon recess. whether neatness. labor. and the qualities needed to make her successful.

whether lighting. south. including time of employment of the maximum force of women and the usual number employed during that season. the herself. time of employment of the number at work then. and minimum age. ventilation. Her older sister who had worked in 242 . three years before she would have graduated. Workroom conditions. if any. in detail. She went to work at the age of fourteen. The will following record of one of the girls interviewed best illustrate the sort of information which we were seeking and the method of securing it. who was also a worker in a In the evening the visitor returned and talked with bindery. back.50. normally and when working over- Home work." and once in a dressmaking class. labor. Seasons.00 and a department store. third floor. She had been girl two successive terms. the "regular course. families. We shall call her Mary Brown and give her address as 142 York. number of workers and kind. New her grandmother and her sister. minimum force and Hours of time. Employer's opinion of the desirability of trade school training for this work. The verify girl had left the fifth grade of a public school in 1905. This gave an opportunity to check and the statements made in the earlier interview. contractors.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE Total normal force of women employed. or institutions. An investigator visited her home one afternoon and talked with Greenwich Avenue. but she did not stay through the term in either class. first receiving a weekly wage later $3. working a year as enrolled in a public evening school in in once cash girl in of $3. space for workers and cleanliness. She was employed in a bindery in which conditions were unusually good.

Her grandmother was the head of the household.50. she had had only an occasional opportunity to try to operate a machine. The six members of the family lived in four in a tenement built since the New York housing law has demanded a certain minimum of light and air.50 a week. in the Western Bindery. no money Roman She walked to work and carried her lunch. nor had for carfare or lunches. She also had been working in a hotel laundry but the steam made her ill. One was a learner in a bindery. Her name had been given to the investigator by another girl employed in the Western Bindery. The third was out of work at the date of the visit.50 to $5. a similar record 243 .OUTLINE OF INVESTIGATION the same store found the "job" for her." Mary left because A friend found her work in October. ranging in age from twelve to twenty-two years. there was "no chance to advance. In the preceding year she during the past twelve months. In the same visits. who returned to her small sums needed for clothes and incidental expenses. did the housework. She belonged to no club. and managed to make ends rooms meet. she folded sheets by hand and emptied boxes. The mother was dead. As a The learner. so spent She was a member of the Catholic Church. she joined the union in the bookbinding trade. An uncle sent them $10 a month. Mary gave all her earnings to her grandmother. other girls definite time of learning. and the father had deserted his family. showed her how to do the work. Every member of the family had been born in New York. The other wage-earners were three sisters. 1906. earning $7. There were five girls at home. although nearly blind. The grandmother. had been without work or wages two weeks when the firm had moved. where large editions of books were bound. earning $3. however. and her weekly earnings had been increased Her employment had been steady only from $3. Another worked in a hotel laundry. The combined earnings of the three girls at work were $16 a week.00 a week. There was no In three and a half years.

forty-eight weekly. 244 .m. The facts which Mary gave about the Western Bindery were recorded on another card and filed under the name of the Her chief work was to empty the boxes into which bindery. These hours represented unusually good conditions. concerning the kind of work done by women. and the conditions in the workroom. methods of securing workers. to 4:30 p. for spoiling sheets. in order to stop summer Saturday at twelve noon. work on busy season she had worked There was no lunch room. she worked from 8 a.. seasons of employment.m. training of learners. weekly wages.m. to 5:20 p. and made tea on a gas stove in the dressing room.. and her statements about processes of work were found to be correct. overtime. the folded sheets were dropped by the machine. In overtime once a week only. Mary was at work in the bindery at the time of the visit. desirability of trade school training.m. home work. a ten-and-a-half-hour day. She had been fined for being late but fined.WOMEN IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE was secured of the trade history of Mary's younger sister who was a learner in the bookbinding trade. with a half hour In at noon. She had never taken any work home. A month later the investigator visited the bindery and asked questions to verify and supplement the information given by this worker." not Her work had been steady. eight hours daily. Some of the older girls stayed two evenings a week. hours of work. was "only scolded. and then not later than 7 o'clock. Frequent stooping was necessary and the work was very tiring. Her working hours were from 8 a. The girls ate their lunches in the workroom.


I to CO -H c O i b > 0-H O -H H 0) 05 05 > . 05 0) fc. TJ t. t* 4> ! : * I * i x: c h x: <D 05 ^Sg. W rH O rH o) X c5 fi Pr-T c c SSS 5? a S rH* C-H CB HO . ii : it " IP X^l bboo o o c ^ ^ -H .^g -HrH H-H wo to t. COO^rHOOO XI CO X) -4) X! S <-H O 00 a -P a oc xj a> a <M as -H dm o o3 tn B ** X! fcCn ^30 >>x: 05 OS * Xj eo -Pa) X! C O o L. & 1 ! I > C 0] c" IM OQ -> O "S ra to 0J x: -P OT3 l^' 5 BJ H *0 SSfio 05 CD tt> rH O ^ TJX1 C-H ECO X5 ti 4) *8> TJ P c t. o s <D d) >> en eoa o o a c ? s ir5 5 'g " **s tt)-H X! 00 3 S fc 3J *H O O-PXI U X! rH Tl JO^XJ-HO)^ <Pta>O o OT 05 <u ^ 4> 03 ^ to < ' -P t3 rH IU TJX! rH W) X> ^^^03^^^ i C C O 0) 3 I 0> 33 'OXI I s I r i a o II I OXJ CrH O -H O > 0-J T> -H C*&x>o V.i4 0) H T3 -H -H 03 b 3 CQ i o G .VH Li-PrH <DOOOJOO>O 0-HrHt.TJ * *O ( O jktlX} C.H CO >-^ ^H ^^ C SO 05 d 3 O 1 246 .


*!S I ! 5s f : c II w *M ii S*S ** M a c s iJ ' I i I o! s . z " o o g. a ?I a o 5 248 .

842 did not supply information for Table C.692 women.5 19 records of women were tabulated.APPENDIX B SUPPLEMENTARY STATISTICS The records following filled statistics were secured from card by working girls attending public evening schools in New York City in the winter of 1910-11. the tabulation was limited to a group of 1. on this point. last Among the 3. In considering the rate of progress in school. therefore. but the number varies in different tables. appears in Table B. for attendance was in New York Table G.917. The figures show certain facts about the schooling of women employed at in bookbinding compared with those work in all trades. Of the remaining 3. did not supply information on this point. 249 . 145 did not supply information schools only. The largest number. and 163 for Table H.692 records tabulated. considered in Table E. we omitted 827 records of girls attending two schools from which data on these points were in all trades insufficient for tabulation. and 603 did not supply information for Table D. "last day school attended/' 602 did not supply information. 66 of the 2.562 who had attended New York public Of these. A total of 4. and who were. In compiling all the other tables. 3.094 whose public day schools.







and permit. and that each of the females alleged to have been employed illegally was an adult.APPENDIX C SIXTY-HOUR RESTRICTION ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN FACTORIES IN NEW YORK STATE HELD TO BE CONSTITUTIONAL* People v. moved in arrest of judgment on the ground that section 77 of the Labor Law. Labor. he unlawfully did employ. 256 . for the period of more than sixty hours in said week. 1906. 31. Howe. Court of Special Sessions. so far as it attempted to restrict the right to employ female labor in a factory more than 60 hours in a week or the right of females to labor more than 60 hours in any one week is * New York State Department of p. 1906 PER CURIAM. De- cember. through counsel. 1906. Defendant thereupon. Oct. 31. inquiry was had in each of these cases which developed the fact that the factory referred to in the information was a steam laundry. The defendant pleaded guilty to an information charging him with violation of the provisions of section 77 of the Labor Law in that. in the County of New York. 484. Bulletin No. and suffer to work in and in connection with a certain factory a certain female. The defendant further pleaded guilty to two other informations charging him with a violation of the provisions of the same law in respect of Summary two other females. one Mary Seeback. during the week between the 24th day of September and the ist day of October.

as was decided in the Lochner case." a distinction between a law which prohibits the may seem employment of a woman for the slightest period of time during certain hours and one which limits the number of hours in a day or a week during which she may be employed at factory work. the courts upheld the constitutionality of acts which limited 17 257 . and in Washing- ton. 45. Aug. 1906). N. v. and arbitrary intereference with the right of the individual to his personal liberty or to enter into those contracts in relation to labor which for the support of himself There is to him appropriate or necessary and his family. 10. 383). and defendant seeks to in its establish the unconstitutionality of the act restriction of the further number of hours a week during which a female may be employed. (People v. A law which attempts to limit the number of woman employed in a factory. S. 120 Mass. 29 Wash. State. The courts of other states. hours of labor of a may well be a health regulation and a proper legislative exercise of the state's police power. State of New York. This court has already declared that portion of section 77 of the Labor Law which prohibits employment in a factory of any female after 9 o'clock at night and before 6 o'clock in the morning to be unconstitutional.SIXTY-HOUR LAW HELD CONSTITUTIONAL unconstitutional.. in Nebraska. and as such within the police power of the state.... There has been no adjudication of last resort in four law by the appellate courts of this state. Buchanan. and constitutional provisions quite similar to those under In Massachusetts (Commonwealth v. (State of Washington v. He cited Lochner r. Hamil- ton (Wenhan Manufacturing Co. Law Journal.. 198 U.. have passed upon this question of the hours of labor of women under statutes this consideration. decision in the Williams case rested solely upon the ground that that part of the law there invoked could not be The considered as purely a health regulation. 602). Y. and. however. 421). 91 Northwest Rep. Williams. Rep. unnecessary. that it was an "unreasonable.

but upon the nature of the employment.WOMEN the IN THE BOOKBINDING TRADE of hours during which women labor in factories In Illinois (Richie v. reported. It is an issue which has not yet been presented to the Supreme Court of the United States. seems to be favorable to the constitutionality of a law which limits the number may be employed at work of hours in a day or in a factory. 98). who it was alleged was know required to work more than sixty hours a week. which indicates the sex of the employe. did not turn upon the sex of the person employed. 155 Ills. number in those several states. week that a woman There is nothing in the Lochner case. The weight of authority. the motion in arrest of judg- ment. 258 . the weight of authority being for the constitutionality of the act in question. that the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the The Lochner case. but as has been said. We that the person in that case was an employe in a bakery Defendant's counsel urges or confectionery establishment. and does deny. The issue directly Lochner case is in point here is that of sex. the Supreme Court of that state declared a similar act to be unconstitutional.. People. ever. therefore. this court is constrained to deny. howapplicable here.



OHIO: strike. minimum. AKRON. 205207. 186. 10 per cent under sixteen BLANKBOOK BINDERIES: number of women in 1910. 104. 26. employers' BOOKBINDING ESTABLISHMENTS: conditions in the workroom. 196. 76-78. 45. steadiest employment in. 187. at which learners are 78. 222. number in York. proportion overtime hours. by nature of products. dull number of seasons. best 202. arbitration contract with local unions. 179. joining the union. methods in binderies. ART BOOKBINDERS. agreement concerning hours and wages. in different types of binderies. 202-204 ists. 146 ADVERTISEMENTS FOR BINDERY WOMEN: by month and branch of trade. no. women laid off. 210-217. 1910. place edition for of. minimum. 182 AND 78. of. 219 greatest activity. employers' statements. named by trade union. 108 workers. 7 BOOKBINDER: BOOKBINDERS' typical. ARBITRATION CONTRACT: tween local unions be- and Bookbinders' League. 107. 182 AGE OF WOMEN: as evidence of length of service. types of learners. 186. BOOKBINDING: Ancient art LEARNERS: 196. 34. 196. 140. special199. New 197-205. 46 co-operation with investiga- LEAGUE: em- ployers' organization in New AMERICAN LABOR. attitude toward. 187. by processes mentioned. 23 ALLIANCE EMPLOYMENT B URE AU tors. inexperienced 147-150. 186. 9. 202. wages. 227 or ANCIENT ART OF BOOKBINDING. number of women by season of years. magazine bindery work. culties worker employed in busy seasons. its increases relation to legal regulation of working day. York. 213 employed. 197. 185-188. in relation to experienced reorgani- 261 . of investigating. statements by girls. 14-17 FEDERATION 174.INDEX ACCIDENT LIABILITY: with overwork. 200. 14-17 "~ bindery learners. 107. 46. APPRENTICES ages. 202. supervision by local unions. 77. 180 : work of. diffi221. 196. 99.

of women and of transfer women's 189. hard processes. proper. 230-236. making maximum em- ployment. value of products. 39-42. 101-132. violations of law restricting hours of work. 124. branches of the trade. Machine Work New York. 3. in the 3. See also Hand 151-156. 26. 202. summary of con1 86. 105. capital invested. in New characteristics York. number of binderies in each branch. in periods of work and York. 185. 24-25. transfer of workers and loss of positions. number of 1910. 39.. 51-70. women in. problematical. typical binderies. 141. 27 19. 126-128. EDWARD T. INVESTED: etc. 219-236. 39-48. future of women's work DRIFTERS: among working girls. statistics. Work. 112. CHILDREN: employment 231 DEVINE. 20-24. ies. employment registry of Local 43. machine methods. relation to other occupations for best place for learners. periods of 196. ditions. 145 weekly of. seasons of greatest activity. 126 DISPLACED WORKERS. 34. changes. in the binder- BOOKBINDING PROCESSES: ad- vertisements. are irregularity of work and frequent change in conditions. of loss 107. irregularity of emoutployment. 262 women. 219-236. See Wages of the specialist and of the EDITION BINDERIES. CHARTS: history. 196. 48. 231236. 200. result of use of 195. 38. 14-17. 201 DULL SEASON women laid : proportion off. 1900-1905. 112. history of early days.INDEX zation. num- . standards. as the result of introducing new machines. Statistics. work. on employ: ment bureaus. 27. processes mentioned in. employment bureaus to assist girls in finding New idleness of girl. showing women's work. with See also Hours. 14-20. 26: of untrained worker. 118 and EARNINGS. changes required to establish. MATHEW. positions. 1 08. look for better conditions. restrictions on entrance to trade. position of worker impossibility of her modifying conditions of em- of time because of. See also Employers 57. 1 69-1 73 problems . work women. 1900-1905. statements of girls. 31 BOOKBINDING TRADE: ancient CAREY. Work of Women CAPITAL in in the Binderies development of machinery. 189. Wages. 61-70. machines. 207. women's work 38-71. 112. specialization bindery. 1 88 .. 4. 104. 189 51-56. hours of girl. 51-70. details. etc. 24. second to cigar as trade for women. 70. value of products. is responsibility of the bindery. ployment.

prenticeship. Work of Women in the Binderies details. 141 EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS to serve as clearing houses. system of payment. 183. training of apprentices. 226 liability increases with over- work. cerning Labor See Law Con- FAMILY STATUS binders. 225. violations of law restricting hours of work. 17 trade unions in 1907. occupations of fathers. chart showing weekly hours of bindery FEMALE IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY: federation of working women's organizations. 147-157.INDEX her activity. 165. 121. 164. 155 GROLIER. 231-236 204 EIGHT-HOUR DAY: demand by GAINE. 91-95. 203. 19 first 263 . 210-217 HOME CONDITIONS OF WOMEN: FACTORY LAWS. 88. by season FUTURE OF WOMEN'S WORK: in binderies. 90. 15 fa- ployment. 126-128 : HEALTH OF WOMEN IES. 134. relation to welfare of the race. JOSEPHINE: on tigue and efficiency. prosecution for violation of law and the 44-48. is problem- atical. HUGH: binding establishment in New York. necessity for of contributions bindery girls. 213. 89. 13. 205-207. remedy irregularity of em: GOLDMARK. 187 175: . rents paid. beginning and leaving hours. IN BINDERlegisla- 147-157. sentence. 87. difto efforts 221. 96. folders are drifters in See also the trade. EMPLOYMENT REGISTRY: union. of greatest 104. wages of. 158. contrade relations. sideration for workers. persons per room. 135. 97. 210complexity of his 217. 97 FATHERS. 89. 70. See Parents HOURS OF LABOR: accident FATIGUE: caused by long periods of work. evening considered not feasible by practical bookbinders. piece-work 74. ferences. wageearning. 129. mothers. 146. 233. 14-20 not feasible by practical bookbinders. 136. 144. EVENING SCHOOL CLASSES IN BOOKBINDING: considered 224-226 HISTORY OF BOOKBINDING. 255. 177181 GOLD LEAF LAYERS. EMPLOYERS attitude toward the training of women bookbinders. 187 apwages. 210217. 1752. school classes suspended 157. power and HAND WORK: demand men is limited. 167. Supreme Court opinion. for wo- responsibility for welfare of women. actual working time shown by reports. 196. fathers. 188 of trade tion for protection. 254. 87 : of women book- family status.

194. 4. 178. 139. 216 INTERNATIONAL BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBINDERS: aims and efforts. records secured. 239248. 205210-217. 195. 264 . workers. statistics. 8 made and women of training binders. opinion of United States Supreme Court. 177. 177funds and benefits. 6-n. prolonged working day not a universal practice. I47~i57. record cards. organized resolution 1892. night work. 165. 205-218 2 5 I ~ 2 55> foundation. 7. hours of dan- efficiency in manual occupa- gers to girls on street late at night. 209. 215. 224-226. 222 . apprenticeship. 147157. 232. practical bookbinders. 225. schooling as a neces- sary women's work in bookbinding. 136. 226. RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION. long hours. law governing 101-132. violations of the law. See also Irregularity 134. covered. 6. 210first step. atti- women *33> since October. 145. 215. 224. 158-164. 138. shown by reports. statistics. days longer than twelve hours. position of the worker and the impossibility of her noon recess. irregularity of employment. eight-hour day of onefourth of women in shops. 133-168. in changing conditions. 194. 169173. prohibition of declared unconstitutional by courts. 177181. I 34> length of. See also Local 43 49. 225. 1912. outline of. caused by fatigue 219. 180. 165. attitude toward. problem of. School Classes International Bookbinder. 216. wo- men. 141. 7. 239. classes in bookbinding considered not feasible by eight-hour day demand by trade unions in 1907. attitude of practical bookbinders 207. report. census data of 101-132. 143. 144. health of workers. 164. 176. agreement between local unions and Bookbinders' League. 181. 207-209. hours of labor. night work. 145. 174. 180. eight-hour day demand in 1907. week!}' limit. Oregon case. 176. nine-hour day for . concerning cutting and folding machines. fifty-four hours. 6. weekly hours of work. 254. 11-12. scope of. Overtime of Employment. 10. daily work. 216. tude toward industrial education. elements of toward IRREGULARITY or EMPLOYMENT. VICTOR. 17 atti- foundation of visits number INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION: tude of International Brotherhood of Bookbinders and Local 43. membership. children out of industry until equal to its demands. co-operation of Alliance 2. 185. 1908-1911. See Apprentices and Learners. INVESTIGATION BY COMMITTEE ON WOMEN'S WORK. 196. 142. Emfield ployment Bureau. 135. HUGO. to keep 217. 233 INSTRUCTION. 245time 248.INDEX girl. 174. 1905 and its unreliability. INSPECTORS: medical. evening school tion.

See also Hours. arbitra- UNION: apprenticeship conditions. to improve conditions. 134. 165. conditions. 119-123. time or week methods of pay- LOCAL 43. difficulty moralizing and disorganizing effect of. 233 LAW CONCERNING dren. difficulty of securing data. ment. reasons. 112. 57. dull season. a possible solution. deciCase. means of finding. responsibility for. 133. 104. proportion of women laid off employment during. 102. 175. 104. in. New York state. 101. 135. LABOR: chilemployment of. 131. and the suspended types of binderies. number details of work. 115. LABOR DEPARTMENT. 124. 118. 224-226. case. 105. 34.INDEX characteristic of the 103. Act Katie Mead sions. 131. statements of girls about wages 165. sentence. industry. in. loss in year from all causes. leaving of positions. prosecution for violation of the law. of 224-226. possilating bilities Oregon of legislation. of women. season of greatest activity. effect of. court decisions. 1 1 8. bureaus as clearing houses. court 159-164. 105. 1 86. number held in one year. by season of greatest activity. 114. 124. reasons for leaving. LOCAL ALLIED PRINTING TRADES COUNCILS: control use trade union label. 126-128. 174. 129-132. loss due to dull season. 48. in 1910. prohibition considered unconstitutional. violations of the and irregular work. solutions of the problem. between positions. 165. 115. 135-137. 117. 157. LOCAL 22: includes women 187 gold by season leaf layers. 112. time in one place. discussion of possible. 224-226. 124-132. 136. 157. 167. 104. Supreme Court decision. Overtime LEAVING OF POSITIONS: reasons. 135. 177 of JOB BINDERIES: 24. relation of legislation to the welfare of the race. 26. maximum num- ber of women employed. specialization of in bindery. of greatest activity. 196. 101-103. Learners See Apprentices and repair machines. 107. loss of time because of. Oregon case. 158. different night work. number of women employed. Fac- tory in and Workshops England. -125. BINDERY WOMEN'S 185-188. 166. 61-70. 113. overtime work without viothe law. STATE: responsibility of. 258. of enforcing the European law. time in loss of. time lost between. 74 265 . 158-164. 120. 141 one position. chart showing periods of work and idleness deof bindery girl. 132. 113. 185. positions. law. loss due to failure to LEARNERS. sixty- hour restriction in employ- ment in women New York in factories state held to work be constitutional.

results accomplished. 50. wire-stitching machine. automatic 40. 39. 189. work of women. 175. 61-70. 202. 51-56. work of. 42-44. 40. chine 176 women in. 169. heart of the industry about City Hall. See Parents NAMES OF BINDERY secured. due to loss. 112. 50. 57. changes in earning power. displaced workers and the machines. folding machine. 49. membership.39~ 42. transfer of workers. lack of promptness in NATIONAL CHARITIES OF CONFERENCE AND CORREC- TION: platform of industrial minimums. 1910. 175. specialization in the bindery. number of 26. 185. 42-44. 112. inserting machine. ditions of. 189. 182. NEW YORK CITY: early printing repairing machines causes and binding establishments. effect on binding processes. 18. 227 opment 40. 216. joining. important factor in improving woman's condition. of machine binding. 189. 17. 193. 185. and loss of positions. organized in 1895. 50. 188. 40. wage scale. 183. 51-70. magazine bindery. 215. conin 47. editionbindery. 120. 46. 27 operator loss of time. 184. drop-roll folding machine. 175. 190. change in machines. See Time MARTINEAU. 34 LONDON SOCIETIES OF JOURNEYMEN BOOKBINDERS.INDEX tion contract with Bookbinders' League. 40. 112. 10 GIRLS: how NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS: welfare work. office and officers. combination machine. devel- MOTHERS. HARRIET. changes in machinery result in reorganization. 57-62. 189. 193. of See also Work Women in the Binderies details. point machine. 266 . 228 NATIVITY: 35-37 of bindery women. 178-181. 154 Loss OF TIME. requirement of the union. mamethods. understanding of hand work necessary. employment registry. trade union's attempt to protect workers against 189. constructive business ability. scope of its activities. 175. changes in. sewing maskill. 50-56. 18 MEAD. wages. fees and dues. attitude toward industrial education. 49. transfer of workers. result of use of machines. gathering machine. 186. chine demands greatest 19 1 . MAGAZINE BINDERIES: 24. 49. machine. learners. eight-hour day demand 1907. 187. pasting machine. 49. KATIE: decision of courts concerning night work. 187. 50. 41. 158164 of MACHINE WORK: attitude employers toward purchasing of machines. purpose of organization.

no for bindery women. 14. wage-earn- SCHOOL ATTENDANCE: of bindery. 26. See since October. and Mathew 18. 1850-1900. See Wages bill ments 108. number of women in. PAYNE. 36. law of employment in New York PUBLISHERS: ity for their state. for better conditions. 180. 104 DERS: deftness. 31 PIECE-WORK METHOD OF PAYMENT. without violating the law. 158-164 means of finding. 65. accuracy. time lost be- tween. in. 220. 245-248 WOMEN BIN- PAMPHLET BINDERIES: details. i. agreement between and BookbindLeague. 133. 236 gal and not illegal overtime. 133-168. 134 NUMBER OF BOOKBINDERS. nativity. 66. 142-145. 112. 46-48 PARENTS: of bindery women. 180. and speed. 129-132. reasons for leaving. 140. 235 See also Irregularity of Em- RECORD CARDS: used REQUIREMENTS OF in investi- ployment gation. 91-95. 15 NIGHT WORK: tween local agreement be- unions and Bookbinders' League. 188. MEN AND WOin OREGON CASE: 224-226 opinion of United States Supreme Court. 179. by season of 34. declared unconstitutional PHILADELPHIA: Carey. ille- pended sentence. 167 girls' PUBLIC OPINION: and the conditions of women's work. for 219-236 local unions and the violation sus158. 115 OLIVER. 24. time in one place. 155 PROPORTION OF States. 74. and of all women in the trades. 135. 165. 19. THOMAS: on diseases PRINTING PRESS: influence on binding methods. conditions not bettered. overtime in. 2. 19 of. number held in one year. 69 31. occupations of fathers. MEN BINDERS: United 29. Statistics 125. 207-209. 157. 249-253 ing mothers. three-fourths of the binderies. of fathers. 89 wages SCHOOL CLASSES IN BOOKBINDING: not considered feasible 267 . 114. 183 by for courts. reports of 1887 and 1907. 239. reports. ROGER: his for binding. NINE-HOUR DAY: women. conditions responsibilin the bookbinding trade. of occupation. 1910. 1912. 88. 113. greatest activity. 219.INDEX New York World: advertise- PAYMENT FOR WORK. prohibition of. OUTLOOK: OVERTIME: ers' PROSECUTIONS: of labor law. POSITIONS: 73.

by dull season. 186 New of 1910. off. years of employment of women. in different branches of the trade in York. 196. 111-115. state. number of women binders. binderies in Manhattan. 1850-1900. 36. 99 268 . weekly earnings of binders. 1850-1900. 254. York. 230-236. violations in binderies of law restricting hours of work. 124. proportion of women laid time lost. 105. 79of earnings first women 76-78. changes required to establish proper. 26. of men and proportion women binders in United States. 66. increase in EVIDENCE: as a basis for establishing standard for women's work. 99. use of scientific evidence to establish. in all trades. 254. 209. 2. 210-217 SCIENTIFIC hours of work. 104. distribution of women binders in different branches of the distributrade. 87. by season of greatest activity. 33. 145. length of. mentioned. SPECIALIZATION: in the bindery. 224 binders New York 1900. 141. leaving of . different types of binderies. 1900. 113. chart showing weekly hours of bindery girl. noon recess. 85. number of women 31. number of persons engaged in bookbinding in United States SEEBACK. laid propor- nativity of 104 bindery women. school attend- ance of bindery of girls. greatest activity. off. yearly of women. tion of women binders in States. in processes 97. 31. by ages. 108. 1900-1905. 29. positions. 105. approx- imate. 224 dull number of women binders. number in of women binders United STATISTICS: advertisements for bindery women. by month and branch of trade. week. 34.INDEX by practical bookbinders. 107. value of products. 1910. time in one and men and women of women in all industries. United weekly women by ment income wages of years of employ- family status of women bookbinders. 75. 255. 61-70. 65. 2 9> SEASONS: tion of 107. no. 98. by States. and women New etc. sources. reasons for. 256 by decades.. by nature of products. chart 27. in United States. 105. binders. 29. manufacturing weekly during 1905. capital invested. in 1912. names of girls interviewed. 10. 34. 139. 30. 78. position. 65. 57. showing periods of work and idleness of girl. New York 82. cities. 66. MARY: case of. 30. positions. 112. 207249-253. number in women in STANDARDS: in the bookbinding trade. 219. changes in. 69. 138. 125. number of women employed. hours of beginning and leaving work. in the trade. by season of greatest activity. women season. 1910. age of women workers. 185. 115-118. persons per room in families of women binders. 32. 33. daily and weekly.31.

49. International Brotherhood of of legislation for protection of women to the welfare of the race. See School Classes See Apprentices and Learners. results of trade unionism. between trade unions and the B ookbinders League. ROBERT Louis. 112. loss between positions. 113. 173 non-union attempts. 216. methods in binderies. statements girls. conditions. CLASSES. 215. 193. position of worker and impossibility of her modifying conditions of emof. York. 191. 190. 189. ganization League. 187. 51-70. 174. SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS: in the bookbinding trade. 120.INDEX STEVENSON. specialization dangers. 189 269 . in New York. Federation STEWARDESS IN WORKROOM: appointed by trade union. Ohio. 169-173. 179. struggle for eight-hour day. 181. International Brotherhood of Bookbinders classes. 205attitude of 207. apprenticeship arbitration con185-188. Apprentices aitd Learners TIME: in one position. 194-218: attitude of employers toward the training of women workers. 177. i74-i93> 2I 5> 216. Bookbinders' tract ' day demand. 169. and Local 43. Local Allied Printing Councils. an employers' orin New York. workers broad view of trade influence conditions. 196. 175. control use of trade union Trades TEACHING GIRLS THE TRADE. Local 43. transfer of workers. and reasons. 216. loss due to dull season. 190 STRIKES: New firms 1 80. eight-hour day demand in gives 1907. evening school ployment. Akron. 185. 224. 184. Local 22. 226 Bookbinders. 117 TRADE TRAINING. 192. opposition of some employers. objections to. 182. School Classes TRADE UNION LABEL: 177. of Local 43 from machines. 192 use of. of the union. 177-181. averted. TRANSFER OF WORKERS. 186. requirement of wage scales union. 172. adopted through efforts of local union. 215. 180. 185. provision against. loss due to failure to repair See also International Brotherhood Bookbinders. 176-193. in New York. 219236 SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES: relation opinion on the of cost 182. by practical bookbinders. aims and work label. 169. purpose of local organization. 174-181. 183. work of local unions. 16 TRADE UNIONISM: of American Labor. 210-217. ordered against refusing eight-hour 179. 1 80. 118. 210-217. loss in year all causes. 234. 165. by See also 197-205. 115.

183. Hours of Labor. and VIOLATION OF THE LAW: restrict- of women I9 in all manufacturing state. 187. effect of. requirements are deftness. art binders. low wages of women a prime cause of poverty. 1905. yearly income. 45. girls. drifters among 83. See also Appren- and Learners. difficulty of securing definite information. 98. 61-70. 136. 70. displaced workers and the changes in binding machinery. methods of payment. 183. confined to the preparing department. 46. worker and possibility of her changing 169-173. 84. 1 88. scale arranged through efforts of Local Union 43. women stand on 39-48. typical binderies. 82. 1 80. 150. 86. 73. Overtime. 46-48. 83. WORK OF WOMEN IN THE BIN- men and women binders. threshold of bindery trade. 190 270 . . Wages WORKROOMS physical 149. Irregularity. 38. 112. comparative. 51-56. DERIES. 61-70. 184. Hand Work. 185. tices board. 231-236. 186. 85 by ages. and of women in all manufacturing industries. 183. 179. 39-42 future of work is problematical. 186. OF BINDERIES: 147.INDEX UNEMPLOYMENT. 74. 5 New York WAGES OF WOMEN: agreement between local union and Bookbinders' League. 118. specialization in the bindery and its effect on time and wages. early days of bookbinding. 38-71. of the 73. irregularity of effect of. weekly earnings. edition binderies. 135. 200. 226. working fines girls. 46. 75. ing hours of work. Massachusetts minimum wage 112. accuracy. average wage. 73. and speed. 185. New York state. 72. weekly wages by years of employ- ings 79~82. changes in earning power resulting from changes in machines. specialization in the bindery. 73. 51-56. conditions. years of employment. 202-204. 189. transfer of work and workers. during weekly earn- ment in the trade. 79-82. . 201. 187. 76-78. 1 86. differences in different estab- lishments. transfer of of requirement workers. 74. 38. employment. piece position the im- 99. time work. 183. 141 industries. 220. conditions. 76-78. 183. shop stewardess appointed by trade union. 16-19. 220. of men and women binders. Machine Work. ity of See Irregular- trade union. comparative weekly earnings of first week of employment. 189. 51-70. statements of learners' wages 119-123. and charges. week Employment work. gold leaf layers. 73. work.

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