The Art of Making Whiskey










If the principles hereafter developed are followed. that will spread their influence on agriculture. such as peach and apple brandy. and to the prosperity of the distiller. To turn our enquiries towards the means of bringing the art of making whiskey to greater perfection. according to the process of the Holland Distillers. as I will prove in the sequel. perhaps from the want of the means of information. As to wine. and even to the health of the Americans. to contribute to the welfare of the United States. The arts and sciences have made great progress. I shall then proceed to indicate the methods of converting whiskey into gin. and from their high price and their scarcity. in spite of all the efforts and repeated trials made to propagate the grapevine. the trade of distiller will acquire great advantages. Most arts and trades are practised without principles. the greatest possible quantity of spirit. there is as yet no hopes. purer and cheaper than by the usual methods. For the advantage of the distillers of whiskey. is therefore. without heightening its price. is whiskey. The most usual drink in the United States. other spirituous liquors. . are only secondary. they are not sufficient for the wants of an already immense and increasing population. I will collect and offer them the means of obtaining from a given quantity of grain. and consequently on commerce in general.CONTENTS                  PREFACE CHAPTER I CHAPTER II CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V CHAPTER VI CHAPTER VII CHAPTER VIII CHAPTER IX CHAPTER X CHAPTER XI CHAPTER XII CHAPTER XIII CHAPTER XIV CHAPTER XV THE ART OF MAKING GIN PREFACE. that it may in time become the principal drink of the Americans. my aim is to diffuse new light on every thing that relates to the formation of spirituous liquors that may be obtained from grains.

not being the object of this book. called in English. Arnand de Villeneuve was the inventor of it. be called Aqua-Mortis. either of grapes. that I am going to speak. it is therefore necessary to have either wine. This liquor. and when this is developed. or any vinous liquor. time improved the art of making it still stronger by concentration. Sugar itself does not exist in gramineous substances. and has ever since continued under that denomination in France. and the produce of his Still appeared so marvellous. I shall confine myself to what is necessary and useful to the distillers of whiskey. &c. Fourcroy. or grains. The art of making wine is of the remotest antiquity. dates only from the year 1300. or at least into a saccharine matter. that it was named Aqua-Vitæ. IN ORDER TO MAKE SPIRITS.THE ART OF MAKING WHISKEY. or Water of Life. and in that state it is called Alcohol. received from the learned the name of Spirit of Wine. which produce it. but that of distilling it. obtained by the distillation of these last. in order to obtain spirits. other fruits. Voltaire and reason say that it might. Brandy. The saccharine fermentation converts those elements into sugar. it is therefore of the vinous liquor extracted from grains. The formation of that kind of liquor is founded upon a faculty peculiar to grains. they only contain its elements. so as to extract its most spirituous part. or first principles. OF SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. it yields the eminent principle of fermentation. Spirituous liquors are the produce of vinous ones. All spirit is the distilled result of a wine. OF THE FORMATION OF VINOUS LIQUORS WITH GRAINS. and consequently no spirit. The art of extracting wine from the juice of the grape. with far more propriety. since it is attributed to Noah. CHAPTER I. which the learned chymist. CHAPTER II. or Water of Death. . OR SPIRITS. without which there exists no wine. has called saccharine fermentation.

I will give a succinct exposition of their two processes in order that they may be compared. the rest is filled up at three different times with hot water—the first at 100°. while that of the distiller is scarcely vinous. 40 gallons of wort contain the saccharine principles of 200 wt. is put into a vat. or all those kinds of grains is used. which are kept in a temperature of 80° or 85°. and the brewer a sort of wine. . 4thly. but Indian corn is here in general the basis of whiskey. The wort thus prepared. which is boiling water. thus concentrated. but that of the brewer is. the water lays hold of the sweet principles contained in the grain. the proceedings of the brewer. One. For that operation. By this infusion. in a concise view. In the sprouting of a proportion of grain. and more often employed alone. 3dly. of grain. in order to concentrate it to the degree of strength desired. is drawn off in barrels. The mixture is strongly stirred each time that it is immersed. more or less strong. in the different distilleries which I have visited in the United States— 1stly. and then boiled until reduced to one half. the elements of that same substance already existing in grains. I have ascertained. of malt into a hogshead of fermentation containing 100 gallons. however. which is half filled up with water. in order to separate it from the grain. Whiskey is made either with rye. the liquor is filtrated. in reality. of which the distiller makes spirit. called beer. Let us proceed to those of the distiller of whiskey. OF THE DISTILLER OF WHISKEY. or Indian corn. The wort. according to the greater or lesser proportion of hops put into it. I do not know how far they are mixed in Kentucky. different degrees of strength. and cannot be made richer. seen some distillers who put 10lbs. which reduces it to almost nothing. The yeast is thrown into it to establish the fermentation. OF THE ART OF BREWING. I have. They both have for their object to obtain a vinous liquor. and the third at 212°. and in a short time beer is made. barley. The art of brewing consists: 1st. having been previously ground. That. at pleasure. and more or less bitter. in general. Such are. In preparing the wort. as they are more or less abundant in the country. a sort of wine to which he gives. 2dly. From a comparison of the processes employed to obtain these two results. This operation converts into a saccharine matter. In that state.Grains yield two kinds of vinous liquors. the second at 150°. it will be found that the brewer's art has attained a higher degree of perfection than that of the distiller. the grain. the grain is not sprouted. chiefly barley. according to the degree of concentration.

From my analysing the different sorts of grains.—Manual of a Course of Chymistry. for the purpose of examining my operations. at Paris. they must be subject to great variations. which. for I obtained a well crystallized sugar by the fermentation of a substance which produces none by any other means. and putrid. of those two ways of operating. that the saccharine substance was the principle of spirituous fermentation. CHAPTER III. and sometimes ten quarts. Fermentation has long since been divided into spirituous. thus the produce of the first distillation is only at 11° or 12° by the areometer. according to the quality of the grain. and time.2dly. supposing them to be so. It is only by several subsequent distillations. filled up with water. Such are the usual methods of the whiskey distillers. but. the maximum of which always tends to change the nature of bodies. let us examine the nature of fermentation. In that memoir I developed my theory. They had a ferment to determine the fermentation. to make saleable whiskey. 1785. the degree of heat. "Fermentation is a spontaneous and intestine motion. In September. yields two gallons of whiskey per bushel of grain. and very seldom 5. These repeated operations are attended with an increased expense of fuel. it results. and sanctioned my discovery by a report. the water being at 10°. in 1785. 3dly. when finished. that is. acid. from a 25th to a 20th. and what are the elements the most proper to form a good vinous liquor: thence we shall judge with certainty. It is only since the revival or new epoch of chymistry. must be. of the atmosphere. that 100 gallons of the vinous liquor of distillers yield only 4 gallons of whiskey. It was then held as certain. and the manner of conducting the fermentation. 25 parts of water to one of whiskey. I know that Indian corn must yield the most spirit. From the above proportions. That they put two bushels of ground grain into a hogshead of fermentation containing 100 gallons. I do not know whether those results are exact. and gives rise to the formation of new productions. A series of experiments enabled me to demonstrate the contrary. that the necessary concentration is obtained. labor. and ordered the insertion . in which it was acknowledged that I had discovered a new truth. I read a memoir to the Academy of Sciences. that the learned have been occupied in researches on fermentation. That learned body nominated four commissioners. OF FERMENTATION." Bouillon la Grange. but very seldom. Before we compare them with those of the brewer. It is easy to conceive how weak a mixture. I was the first who gave a new hint on this important part of natural philosophy. the season. which takes place amongst the principles of organic substance deprived of life.

are—      1st. the more spirit is wasted by evaporation. and the unerring march of nature to bring back all substances to their respective elements. 5thly. It is thus that. then it emits a vinous smell and taste. however. by a series of internal motions. the fermentation causes the formation of the spirit to be preceded by a slight production of acid. When these are obtained. This has been since demonstrated. 3dly. This has made me suspect that the fermentation is at first saccharine. some distillers have asserted that a greater quantity of spirit is obtained when the liquor has acquired a certain degree of acidity. CHAPTER IV. A certain quantity of water. supply it. the longer the liquor remains in a mass. Be that as it may. which produces the sweet substance that is necessary for the formation of spirit. commonly called ferment. It is incontestable that spirits are produced by the saccharine substance. destroyed in its turn by the putrid fermentation. A temperature of 70° to 75°. and the heat increases considerably. The necessary conditions for the formation of vinous fermentation. After some days. by attentively observing that it always begins with a motion of acid fermentation. As soon as it ferments no more. Besides. which is one of the principles of the acetous acid. What are the proportions of the elements necessary to form a good vinous liquor? . in a short time the liquor becomes turbid. and soluble in water. it bubbles. because the acid can only be formed at the expense of a little of the spirit. I am of this opinion. which the same fermentation changes in time into an animal substance. However. The presence of the saccharine substance. The European chymists have since reasoned upon fermentation. That of a vegeto-animal substance. 4thly. A sufficient mass. these impetuous motions subside. that it transforms the vinous liquor into vinegar. and the learned Gay Lussac has said. although they are not sensibly sweet. I attributed the principle of the spirituous fermentation to the mucilaginous substance. there are facts that are ascertained: let us endeavor to investigate them. Such are the progressive changes operated by this all-disorganizing phenomenon. which is produced by the mucilaginous substance. from the disengaging of the carbonic acid gaz. that fermentation is one of the most mysterious operations of chymistry. 2dly. that we may derive from them all the information which is necessary to us. it must be distilled. Others are of opinion that it must be distilled as soon as it is calm. Grains. OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE ELEMENTS NECESSARY TO FORM A GOOD VINOUS LIQUOR. the liquor clears up. none have been able to bring it to a regular demonstration. the fermentation ceases by degrees. each of them has produced a new system.of my memoir in the collection of those of the Foreign Associates.

100 lbs.We owe the important knowledge of those proportions to the celebrated and unfortunate Lavoisier. molasses is a true sirup. more fermentable than sugar. Let us dwell for a moment upon the proportions just pointed out. 12½ gallons of molasses. which. From this report. of sugar and 8lbs. that is. and consequently as strong as it can be. we shall have 100 lbs. which is only half the produce obtained by Lavoisier. of water. to the rum distiller. But 1 gallon of dry alcohol. gives 3 gallons of liquor at 19°. 510 parts in the whole. a produce surpassing all what has been hitherto known to the distillers. of water per gallon. (to wit:) 1-1/6* gallons. to the weight of the water. 50 " do. Holland proof. still. added to 7-1/8*. or liquid yeast. or sweet matter. at 19°. of rum. which is called Holland. weighs only 16dwts. at 8lbs. that is. extended in 2 gallons of water. it appears that the specific weight of the alcohol is. and especially upon their result. Supposing the weight of each of those parts to be one pound. 10 —— 510 pounds in the whole. of dry sweet matter yield consequently 12½ galls. it weighs 1/6* less. per gall. 400 lbs. that water weighs 1/5 more than alcohol. of dry sweet Substance. which is reduced to 8 7-10ths of dry matter. of sugar is the quantity required to make 12½ gallons of sirup. TR: Poor quality made it difficult to verify the above numbers and so noted with an asterisk A vessel containing one ounce of water. an immense difference capable of exciting the emulation of all distillers. . by the most accurate experiments. it would only represent 7-1/8* gallons. If the 57lbs. which exceeds any thing that has ever been obtained. or sugar of water of liquid ferment The produce will be 57lbs. 400 do. but being alcohol. composed of 8lbs. representing 100lbs. as it proves the imperfection of the art. and 16grs. containing no more water than is necessary to its formation. or first proof. make 12½ galls. I will prove it by an example: 1 gallon of molasses yields only 1 gallon of rum. thus obtained were only water. as 20 to 24. of dry alcohol. filled up with this alcohol. that there must be 100 parts of dry sweet substance. make 8-7/24 gallons. who has proved. which produce 57 parts of dry alcohol. of sugar. and consequently gives 7-1/8 gallons more. or sugar 400 parts of water 10 —— parts of ferment. composed of 8lbs. the sixth of this quantity.

In the difference of the strength of the vinous liquor. of sweet matter. Lavoisier found that it was 4. which would increase the loss. nearly 5 parts in 100. so strongly perceivable on the roads leading to a distillery. To these several causes. molasses contain 80 lbs. there is always one portion of vapor not condensed. 10 galls. in the inverse . whilst that of the rum distiller languishes more or less.940. And this is not all: corroded by the acetous acid. 4thly. Another source of loss arises in the distilling vessels themselves. far from being hermetically closed. It is easy to conceive with what rapidity they escape. particularly in the cap. that he made the analysis and the synthesis in the most delicate operations. This is made more sensible in the winter.[a] It is obvious how much richer this last must be. the elements of 50 gallons of spirit. to the great loss of the distiller. operated in a short time. one part of sweet matter to 9 parts of water—whilst that indicated by Lavoisier is only 4 parts of water to 1 part of sugar. In proof of the truth of this observation. Now. or the residue of the preceding distillations. that is. even as it is forming. which occasions a considerable waste of liquor. as in a reservoir. it will be seen that the running stream of liquor is surrounded with it. when the cold of the atmosphere makes every vapor visible. and that the fermentation thus produced has an energy far superior to the other. and a slow fermentation wastes part of the spirit which it produces. A fourth cause of loss arises from the worm of the still. It may possibly be the same in a weaker liquor. where all the vapors collect themselves. 1st. The rum distiller usually puts 10 gallons of molasses to 90 gallons of water. Lavoisier employed only 4 parts of water to 1 part of dry sugar. may we not add another? May not the production of spirit be in a ratio to the richness of the fermenting liquor? It is certain. as every fermentable liquor requires open vessels. the hogshead of the rum distiller loses as much spirit as that of Lavoisier: hence it is plain how far the above proportion operates to the disadvantage of the fermer.. should contain. Thence results a rapid production of spirit. One hogshead of 100 gallons. [b] The vessels of the whiskey distillers. therefore the proportion is. Nothing is more imperfect than the stills of a whiskey distillery. whilst that of the rum distiller contains only 12. Bodies evaporate in proportion to the extent of their surface. upon examination. we may refer to the smell of whiskey. Lavoisier's were so perfect. that in every spirituous fermentation there is a portion of the sweet matter which remains undecomposed and in its original state. However careful in keeping the surrounding water cool. they are full of small holes. at 19°. 3dly. 90 gallons of water weigh 720lbs. I give the means of obviating that evil. In my description of my apparatus.What are the causes of such a dissimilarity of product? We must seek for them. and preceeding from no other cause than that liquor wasting out of bad vessels. 2dly. according to Lavoisier's composition. allow the spirit to evaporate through every joint.

and opposed to his own interest. that the proportions the most advantageous to the formation of a good vinous liquor. But the brewer aims only at producing a sort of wine. CHAPTER V. of dry sweet matter gave 25 gallons of spirit 19°. as the 100 gallons of vinous liquor weigh 800lbs. the 32lbs. We shall make use of that scale in comparing the processes of the brewer with those of the whiskey distiller. We have seen that the proportion of spirit is in a ratio to the richness of the fermenting liquor. of sugar. contains the elements of 8 gallons of spirit. the distiller wants to make spirit. and only obtains it in the manner the most expensive. which comes to 4lbs. or 32lbs. of sugar form only one-tenth of it. The most hurtful of all for the interests of the distillers. of grain. by putting one-fifth of the mass of dry sugar. From the experiments of one of the most learned chymists of Europe. each of which gallons is the product of 4lbs. A COMPARISON OF THE PROCESSES OF THE BREWER WITH THOSE OF THE WHISKEY DISTILLER. is undoubtedly the weakness of the vinous liquor. 1st. moreover. and as the 40 gallons of this beer weigh 320lbs. and that it gives 2 gallons of whiskey at 19°. which are not contested. the 16lbs. seen that 100lbs. of grain to 100 gallons of water. Those of the distiller of whiskey are 100lbs. Such are the causes to which I attribute the great superiority of Lavoisier's products. of dry sweet matter: therefore. of sugar per gallon. one part of dry sweet substance to four parts of water. We have. it has been demonstrated. that is. the . while. or thereabouts: 100lbs. but drowns it in water. obtained twice as much spirit as the rum distiller. which is one half of Lavoisier's proportions. and from those observations I thought I could establish the fabrication of whiskey upon new principles. of grain contain only 16lbs. that the sugar must form one fifth of the whole. that Lavoisier. and how far they are from good theory. then the strong beer which contains in 40 gallons the sweet matter of 200lbs.ratio of the density of the liquor. of sugar form only its fiftieth part. Supposing the bushel of grain to weigh 50 pounds. From those principles. and succeeds. of dry sweet substance. CHAPTER VI DEFECTS IN THE USUAL METHOD OF MAKING WHISKEY. Thence is seen how inferior the proportions of the whiskey distiller are to those of the brewer. are. who puts in the same quantity.

but they are better of tin. whose vinous liquor contains only one-fiftieth part of sweet matter. It contains a kind of essential oil. It is easy to conceive how hurtful must be the presence of verdigrise to those who make use of whiskey as a constant drink: even those who use it soberly. of sugar to dissolve. the mucilaginous substance is as soluble in water as the saccharine substance. not only the fluid of the liquor. but those proceeding from grain contain still more of this acid. it has been imagined to stir the flour incessantly. destructive of their stomach. 1st. and at the end of the operation. where it burns. already so expensive. and pierced with numberless little holes. There is a fourth defect. obtains the less spirit. Some distillers have been induced. converted into meal. 3dly.distiller. and gives a very bad taste to the whiskey. by means of a chain dragged at the bottom of the still. Another defect is joined to this: bodies are dissolved by reason of their affinity with the dissolving principle. The stills are generally made of naked copper. is more noxious than that of any other grain. and the hopes of the distiller are deceived. which is one of its principles: nothing remains but vinegar. is not otherwise indifferent. it produces a rapid death. and it is the presence of meal in the stills. The acetous acid has no action upon tin. however well fitted to the aperture. which distils with the spirit. when nothing more comes from the still but what is called the sweet oil of wine. the purity of the liquor will be augmented. There results from that mixture. thereby occasion a considerable loss of spirit. which causes the liquors obtained from grains to be so much inferior to that of fruits. and turned by a workman until the ebullition takes place. which escaping with rapidity. the acid invades the spirit. A mass of 100 gallons of water having only 16lbs. will be longer preserved. and which the laws ought to repress. Vinous liquors are more or less accompanied with acetone acid. . but is doubly accelerated by the poison contained in the whiskey. while to those who abuse it. The worms must likewise be tinned. by the smallness of their products. part of which passes with the whiskey. This operation must be renewed every year. 2dly. The presence of the grain in the still. leaves an empty space. and forms with it the acetate of copper. Hence result two important defects. has not observed it. in particular. and if the temperature of the atmosphere is moderate. at which humanity shudders. that as the stills of the distillers are of a green color in their interior part. if they are copper. This axis. 4thly. exerts it's dissolving powers upon the mucilaginous part which abounds in grains. and the distilling vessels. An incontestable proof of this truth is. and loses as much of it as he gets. that they are corroded with the acid. and gives an issue to the spirituous vapors. It is easy to remedy so terrible an evil. which would still be the consequence of abuse. with a little attention. In order to remedy this inconvenience. That of Indian corn. The solid matter precipitates itself to the bottom of the still. By tinning the stills. the acid works upon that metal. I have always discovered it in my numerous rectifications. to put in their stills. or vinegar. which render them unfit for use in a very short time. but the flour itself. more or less disagreeable. according to its nature. if the liquor was pure. who. or of the purest pewter. and dissolves a great quantity of it. or verdigrise. a fermentation partaking of the spirit and the acid. and put in motion by an axis passing through the cap. swallow a slow poison. There is no distiller.

That mill . An exposition of* my processes will point out the means I employ to attain* that end. moved by a horse. from my method.* it is therefore necessary to enrich that of the distillery* which is so deficient in that respect. so as scarcely to be broke into three or four pieces: consequently the stone must not be too heavy. One for Fermentation. Having exposed them. CHAPTER VII. I divide the still house into three different rooms. to wit: One for Infusion. and made rich enough to procure a good fermentation. for. For. there must be 50 to obtain a daily result of 100 gallons. To this effect. at all events. there must be a mill with a vertical stone. should be prepared. One for Distillation. I take Indian corn as the basis of the fabrication.Such are the defects of the present method of distilling whiskey. One gallon of spirit being the produce of 4 pounds* of dry saccharine matter. or three barrels* making altogether that quantity. TR: The next 2 paragraphs were cut short. we must therefore have 400 pounds of this substance for the 100 gallons we wish to obtain. THE ROOM OF INFUSION. I must present the means of bringing to perfection the fabrication of a liquor of such general use. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS THE MOST ADVANTAGEOUS TO MAKE WHISKEY. Those mills are too well known for me to describe them more amply. It is here that the liquor destined to make whiskey. the grain had better be too coarse than too fine. whatever grain is employed. CHAPTER VIII. or any other means of motion. If 1 bushel of grain gives 2 gallons of whiskey. as that of all the grains which yields the most. the spirit is equally pure. A large whiskey distillery should be* able to make 100 gallons per day. The corn must be coarsely ground. noted with [*] As it is demonstrated that the spirit is the more abundant in proportion to the richness of the vinous liquor.

the fore part upon such a wall. The kettle is mounted upon the furnace. The kettle must be made in sheets of copper. It should be covered with strong boards. half an inch is sufficient. as I said before. The sides. nor to be too much in the way. As soon as the ebullition is . until the water begins to boil. about 6 inches on each side. By that operation I make the liquor richer. extending like a fan at the top. from the action of the fire. The rest of the flue is paved with bricks. 5 feet long. to draw off the liquor. broken. 1½ inches wide. and the other against the chimney. so as not to keep it dirty.should be placed in the infusion room. more or less close. 15 inches from the bottom. according to the nature of the fuel. and 4 bushels of corn. 4 feet broad. The furnace must be built with care. in which it opens by two holes. at least: the bottom. as well as the part over the door. and rises insensibly 4 inches towards the chimney. in an iron frame. from which it must be separated by a brick wall eight or nine inches. not to hinder the service of the kettle. running through all its length. one line thick. which must leave no passage to the action of the fire. and projecting 2 feet forward. It must grind. occupying all its breadth. and to take up the ashes. This opening is necessary to keep up a free circulation of air. 1 foot deep. and boil it so as to convert it into wort. the grain is stirred with a paddle. There must be a square kettle. if for wood. and bring it to divers degrees of strength. must be supported with flat bars of iron. 8 or 9 inches high. is a hearth. through which the fuel is introduced. and 2 feet long. is a flue for the heat. The parts most exposed to the action of the fire must be built with soft bricks and potters' clay: soap stone would be preferable. and rests upon a bed of clay. 50 bushels per day. so as to bear upon the four walls about 4 inches. This kettle must be placed upon a brick furnace. occupying all its capacity. should be supported by a wall 1½ feet deep. in the middle of which is an iron door. I light a small fire. the bars must be about two inches apart. CHAPTER IX. although flat. which I increase gradually. during that time. The kettle is destined to make the infusion of the grain. if easy to procure. around which there must be a space to walk freely. so as to avoid the expansion of the metal outside. it is lined externally with bricks. Immediately under the hearth. which I intend for fermentation. Under the kettle. On the fore part of this flue. so that the flame may circulate in all the breadth of the kettle. or rather break. should have a slight swell inside. The hearth is made with an iron grate. It is 2½ feet wide at bottom. The brick separating the kettle and chimney. is a mash hole 4 feet deep. fifteen inches square. if for coals. facing the door. and must have a pipe on one of its sides. at the mill. USE OF THE KETTLE. I put into the kettle 100 gallons of water. so that the longest parts should bear forwards.

is to exhale the carbonic acid gaz in great quantity. either in the open air. still warm. CHAPTER X. THE ROOM FOR FERMENTATION. When dry. A liquor as rich as the above described ferments with force. the corn is taken off. The room destined to the fermentation must be close. and to all the living creation. the fire is increased so as to bring the water to boil again. 100 gallons more of water are put into the kettle. and the distiller may augment it as his experience shall direct. and highly preferable to the acid and fermented mash. of which it . or oxigen. the three united liquors are slightly stirred. as before. the liquor is drawn off through the pipe. the yeast. which it nearly fills up. and spread thin. the fire conducted slowly. It is fit to distil as soon as that tumultuous state has subsided and the liquor is calm. then drawn off as above. and when the grain has been totally taken up. Thirty hogsheads of fermenting liquor producing a great deal of this gaz. the work at the kettle must be kept going on. which degree of concentration is not rigorous. As there must be four of these hogsheads filled up daily. In the middle of the room must be a stove. and received into a tub or vat containing 130 or 140 galls. which may be done in about twelve hours. and the liquor concentrated in the same proportions. or in a granary. even in winter. and put to drain into a large basket hanging over the kettle. The essential character of the spirituous fermentation. until the degree of ebullition. the room should be purified of it by opening two opposite windows several times a day. It may be determined by the number of days necessary for the fermentation. The grain which has been drained is carried to dry.established. contributes to the formation of the spirit. until reduced to two-fifths. transported into one of the hogsheads of fermentation. the grain is taken up with a large skimmer. This gaz is mortal to mankind. until that quantity is obtained. as the pure air. in the same tub. stirred for some moments. serves to regulate the heat. each of 120 or 130 gallons. When thus concentrated. with 4 bushels of corn. without interruption. This is the more essential. usually used by distillers to feed cattle and hogs: they eat the corn dried in the above manner as if it had lost nothing of its primitive qualities and flavor. As soon as the liquor is in the hogshead. 30 or 40 hogsheads may suffice. and large enough to contain a number of hogsheads sufficient for the distillery. and. or fermenting principle. A thermometer placed at one end of the room. is put into it. large enough to keep up a heat of 75° to 80°. lighted by two or three windows. it is excellent food for cattle. and then left to itself. The same operation is repeated for the third time. and runs with rapidity through all the periods of fermentation.

but not volatilize them. The spirit already created in the fermented liquor. and its lid. as it would cause the evaporation of some of the spirit. A good distilling apparatus is undoubtedly the most important part of a distillery. suffices to renew the air of the room. and evaporate easily. The liquor is now changed by the fermentation. that is to say. the direction of which is almost horizontal. and come to support a circle 16 inches diameter. and is elevated about 4 feet from the bottom. the diameter of which decreases progressively to a little less than 3 inches: this pipe. is what has been found to answer that purpose. the action of the external air must be carefully avoided. rapidity of distillation. and serves to fill up the still: it is almost at the height of the fastening of the lid. It must unite solidity. OF THE ROOM FOR DISTILLATION. A pump to empty the hogsheads. to which is joined a pipe of the same metal. and composed of two pieces. the kettle. and. when the liquor is calm. They must therefore be managed carefully. in fact. perfection in its joints. It is useless to remark. is like the kettle of infusion. and only differs from it in being one foot deeper. My still is made upon different principles. they are too deep. I observe that the side walls are only raised to the half of the height of the kettle. forming a long square. but a little above. The collar receives a pewter cap. The lid is in shape like an ancient bed tester. all those principles contained in the liquor are fixed. and from which it can only extract some watery vapors. is established upon a furnace like that of the infusion room. economy of fuel. This collar comes to the middle of the kettle. CHAPTER XI. My still. in order not to lose the fruits of an already tedious labor. already described. They must remain uncovered during the fermentation. thus constructed. must be collected by the distillation. The lid is fastened to the kettle. We have hitherto considered the liquor as containing only principles upon which the air has no action. The action of the fire may concentrate. A vertical pipe is placed on the side opposite to the pewter one. to the faculty of concentrating the spirit. but in transporting it to the still. The usual shape of stills is defective. and do not present enough of surface for their contents. and covered pipes to conduct the liquor into the still. They require a violent fire to bring them to ebullition. bearing a vertical collar of about two inches. is 5 feet long. On the same . A short time. The kettle. but has acquired those which it had not. however. that the hogsheads must be open at one end. which are one of the constituting principles. it contains no longer the same principles. its four corners rise into a sharp angle. Such are the ends I have proposed to myself in the following apparatus. viz. and afterwards be covered with a flying lid. and rest upon pieces of wood elevating them some inches from the ground. the liquor at bottom burns before it is warm at the top.

and its size in proportion to the opening: this goes and joins itself to the second urn. it requires but little fuel to boil. that being so shallow. The round opening at the top of the urn receives a cap with a pewter pipe. there find the cap and its pipe. thus called from their resembling those funeral vases of the ancients. and the distiller must lute exactly all the parts of the apparatus that are susceptible of it: he must be the more careful as to luting it. without touching it. that six distillations might be obtained in one day. projecting externally 2 or 3 inches. OF THE URNS. by the side pipe above described.side. made like that of the still. and must fit exactly. the different pipes of communication. and descends towards the bottom. The external part of that pipe is fitted to receive the pewter pipe of the still. they are made so as to enter into one another. have a bulge of 6 inches near the top. there must be only 200 gallons put into it: the rest remaining empty. through which they escape into the first urn. In that state. Neither the joints. and remedy it instantly. that the extent of surface gives rise to a rapid evaporation. This acceleration is such. its diameter must be such as to operate a prompt discharge of the still. At the moment of the distillation. The still and urns ought to be well tinned. where they are condensed immediately. as the still does to the first. and rise. passing across the furnace: this pipe must project enough to help to receive or to direct the fluid residue of the distillation. These are copper vessels. The pipe of this second goes to a third. The three urns bear each a small pipe of discharge towards the bottom. and bent in an elbow: it enters the internal part of the urn. . EFFECTS OF THIS APPARATUS. towards the top. there is a copper pipe 2 inches diameter. there it is only a slight curve. which conducts them to the bottom. they are two feet high. on a level with the bottom. is a pipe of discharge. The workman must pay the greatest attention to his work. On one side. and remains open. and the pipe of this last to the worm. CHAPTER XII. the vinous liquor is about one foot deep. must leave the smallest passage to the vapors. This apparatus must be made with the greatest care. and then draw in to form an overture of about 8 inches. The spirit contained in the vinous liquor rises in vapors to the lid of the still. as this operation is only performed once a week. It is likewise five feet long. Mine have a bottom of about 18 inches diameter. the master or his foreman must carefully observe whether there is any waste of vapors. the vapors develops themselves. Although the still might contain 400 gallons. the second. which accelerates the work. on a surface of 20 feet square: hence two advantages—the first. when the apparatus is cleaned. nor the nailings.

it heats the water in which it is immersed after a length of time. to avoid its splitting. or interruption between the metals. It is easily understood how the vapors coming out of the still are rectified in the urns. and to enter the worm at the other. thereby the worm is not as hot. As soon as it yields no more spirit. By these means. a great deal of heat is still communicated to the worm. that the water in which it is plunged remains cold. and arrives into the second urn. produces a solution of continuity. The effect of this second worm. and from thence into the worm. and not apt to work by the action of the fire: however. The wood of this pipe must be soft and porous. Here again. that is. Metals are conductors of the caloric. . escapes through the cap and pipe. Each time that the vinous liquor is renewed in the still. OF FERMENTS. rises to the cap. what runs from the worm is alcohol. heat it progressively: the spirituous liquor that it contains rises anew into vapors. and the still is emptied in order to fill it up again. which condenses them by the effects of the cold water in which it is immersed. This pipe is one foot long. to begin a new distillation. spirit at 35°. continuing to come into the urn. CHAPTER XIII. I obviate this accident. raise the spirit. rather smaller than the first. the same cause produces the same effect: the affluence of the heat drawn with the vapors. the water contained in the urns must be emptied. transmits less caloric than copper. Wood being a bad conductor of caloric. of which the cap and pipes are made. all the vapors are not condensed. However. and dried slowly. The urns.But the vapors. The heat accumulated in the still. by adding a second worm to the first: they communicate by means of a wooden pipe like the above. so as to receive the pewter pipe of the third urn at one end. remains at the bottom: hence. and this occasions a loss of spirit. from whence it runs into the urns: with this difference—that the pewter. receiving no other heat than that which the vapors coming out of the still can transmit to them. well pasted. and whatever care may be taken to renew it. Notwithstanding all these precautions. the fire is stopped. no portion of vapors escape condensation. because it is less dense: and that bodies are only heated in reason of their density. carries them successively into the third urn. and heats the water in which it is immersed. through the pipes of discharge at the bottom. I diminish this inconvenience by putting a wooden pipe between the worm and the pipe of the third urn. is such. I wrap it up in two or three doubles of good paper. at least the greatest part of it. since it only receives the heat of the vapors which it condenses. the water. The liquor running from the worm is received into a small barrel. and that three successive rectifications bring the spirit to a high degree of concentration: it gets lower only when the vinous liquor draws towards the end of the distillation. where it is condensed as in the first. and hollowed in its length. while that of the first must be renewed very often. care being taken that it may not lose by the contact of the air producing evaporation.

In fact. will form a ferment sufficient to establish a good fermentation. the infusion of the grain. This vegeto-animal substance is formed in the following manner:— A certain quantity of flour is made into a solid dough. which will rapidly turn sour. compact. because it carries off the starchy part of the flour. solid. and contracts the smell of spoiled meat. CHAPTER XIV. passes to the putrid state. 3dly. Might not the residue of the distillation of my vinous liquor have the same acidity? It contains only the mucilaginous substance already acidulated. tend strongly to make it ferment. The richness of my vinous liquor. takes likewise part of its mucilaginous substance. It is then taken into the hands. those disgusting substances which cannot fail to bring a discredit on the liquor in which they are known to be employed. elastic. are of the second. and metallic oxids. Animal substances are of the first kind: acids. be a very good ferment. and reduced to nearly the half of the flour employed. . I would choose the glutinous part of wheat flour. which it establishes whenever it meets with the other substance. 1st. and water slowly poured over it. Here is another means which will certainly succeed: it is to leave at the bottom of each hogshead three or four inches of the vinous liquor. OR PROOF BOTTLE.They are of two kinds. while it is kneaded again. neutral salts. This rising. OF THE AREOMETER. a little diluted with water. A small quantity of good vinegar would answer the same purpose. There remains in the hands of the operator a dough. Some gallons of that residue to every hogshead. the very putrescent bodies. would. it runs clear after it is washed sufficiently. The hogsheads themselves are soon impregnated with a fermenting principle. and kept in the temperature indicated for the room of fermentation. and must carefully avoid to employ as ferments. The water runs white. towards the end which he proposes to himself. and the degree of heat to which I keep it. to give a fermentation to his new molasses: this residue has within itself enough of acidity for that purpose. and communicate it to the liquor that is put into them. with a little water. I think. by taking from it its saccharine part. which is the principle of the spirituous fermentation. 2dly. and is a ferment of the second class. This dough. The rum distiller employs advantageously the residue of his preceding distillation. But are those means indispensable with my process? I do not think so. Four pounds of this dough per hogshead. and those supplied by the oxigen. when transported into the still for distilling. rancid oils. Were I obliged to make use of a ferment of the first class. The intelligent manager of a distillery must conduct the means I indicate. Lastly. seem to me to be sufficient to establish a good fermentation.

I will give the theory of this useful instrument. and regulated it. at 55° Fahrenheit. it might become valuable. and must be used with great care. and the cold being at 87°. it results from thence that the spirit going to 20°. are brittle. the spirit marking only 19° by the areometer. Distilled water is the basis of those two scales: it is at the top for the salt proof. as bodies floating in them sink the more. I invite those artists to attend to that branch of business. the heat being at 78½°. to be good. The variations in cold or heat influence liquors. but by a useless singularity. A good silversmith could easily make them. according to the scale of Reaumur. that a ship sinks 20 feet in fresh water. had the contrary effect: thus the heat being at 18° of Reaumur. is only at 20. being made of glass. that is.This instrument is indispensable to the distiller: it ascertains the value of his spirits. We shall only dwell upon the first. the other for those that are lighter: the first are called salt proof. It is from that law of nature. is only 25° above distilled water. and sinks too much in the summer. is in reality at 20°. since it shows the result of their different degrees of concentration. while it sinks only about 18 feet in sea water. They have ascertained that 1° of heat above temperate. is really only at 20°. because it is the only one interesting to the distiller. and at 0 for the salt proof. as it may be acceptable to those who do not know it. An areometer. they acquire density in the cold. and that 1° less of heat. at the temperature of 55°. because the first is ascending. or 10° Reaumur. Bodies sink in fluids. It is easily conceived. The reverse of this effect takes place in fluids lighter than water. there are in Europe inspectors. Upon those principles are made two kinds of areometers—one for fluids denser than water. The cold being at 8° below temperate. which has more density on account of the salt dissolved therein. by making them of silver. and the alcohol graduated at 35°. and lose it in the heat: hence follows that the areometer does not sink enough in the winter. which they displace. the spirit marking only 19° by the areometer. Water being graduated at 10° in the areometer. is in reality only 10° lighter than water. . when the atmosphere is temperate. sinks the areometer 1/8 of a degree more. and at the bottom for the spirit proof. For that reason. must be proved with distilled water. This inconvenience might be remedied. in a compound ratio to the volume and the density of those fluids. Naturalists have observed that variation. as the liquor has less density. The areometer can only be just. and the other descending. the second spirit proof. as the distillers will be more enlightened. the spirit thus marking 21°. is in reality at 20°. I have seen several of this metal. the spirit marking 21° by the areometer. whose duty it is to weigh spirits. particularly brandy: for that purpose they make use of the areometer and the thermometer. that extreme cold or extreme heat occasion important variations. Areometers. occasion in like manner a variation of 1/8 of a degree: thus. 2¼ of Fahrenheit corresponding to 1° of Reaumur. the distilled water has been graduated at 10° for the spirit proof bottle.

either for the retailer. either for land or sea carriage. The first is. in proportion to their degree of concentration. as they are founded upon the most approved principles of natural philosophy: by reflecting upon them. However perfect the description of a new thing may be. that is. is to suppress the heat of the stove. Now. in trade. that he who will follow my method can work all the year round without fear of losing the fruits of his labor. by two-thirds. The merchant. and more proper to raise a vigorous fermentation. I present it to the public under the sanction of experience. to the greatest purity. I distil and rectify the spirit three times. Few. Few men have the means of establishing a distillery on a new plan. and almost to the highest degree of concentration. which is of a considerable advantage. as they are totally suppressed. need no more rectifying. has only to add 2 gallons of water to 1 gallon of this alcohol. distillers will be easily convinced of it. that with a single fire. mine therefore yields a great deal more spirit than any other. As the price of spirits is. are bold enough to undertake. Such are the advantages of my processes. We have seen that a heat of 75° or 80° must be kept up in the fermenting room: this being summer heat. as it often happens—an advantage precious for him who makes it his sole business. is derived from the composition of a vinous liquor. this is not a new idea. until we have seen it put into practical use. and even the most enlightened may make notable errors. Distillers may hereafter sell spirits of all degrees of concentration. where they still continue to use it. The first of all. being arrived at the place of his destination. and the considerable expenses of that operation turn entirely to the profit of the distiller. consequently. because one gallon at 35° represents three gallons at the usual degree. proves that such a rich vinous liquor runs no risk of passing to the acid state with as much rapidity as that of the common distillers. 2dly. in order to have 3 gallons of whiskey. 3dly. As to my distilling apparatus. and bring it to the degree of alcohol. the apothecary. 2dly. besides. or the painter. when the temperature of the atmosphere is sufficient to keep up a good fermentation in the liquor. and a single workman. ADVANTAGES OF MY METHOD. those made with my apparatus being at a very high degree. at their own risks.CHAPTER XV. the trial of a new fabrication: they are afraid of losing. I had it executed in Philadelphia eight years ago. It was made for a rum distillery. our ideas of it are always defective. The only change he has to make. after having obtained a patent. richer. It lowers the cost of transportation. I offer them the more willingly to the public. as it is proved that the quantity of spirit is in proportion to the richness of the fermenting liquor. and. than that which is obtained by the usual method. and of being blamed for having too lightly yielded . It presents the greatest advantages.

AFTER THE PROCESS OF THE HOLLAND DISTILLERS. would come and satisfy themselves of its goodness. and have more or less attained their end. was established in some of the principal towns of the state. I will now offer to the public the manner of making Gin. Having indicated the most proper means of obtaining spirits. This brings the price of this false gin to three times that of the whiskey: consequently the poorer sort of people. and not the result of a spontaneous production. They have imagined different methods of proceeding. which prevents its general consumption. I have myself tried it. which is the result of a single creation. The methods used in Holland. it is made at a considerable expense: the whiskey must be purchased. which makes those imitations so widely different from their original. and consequently that of agriculture and commerce. It is the more easy in this case. that of the juniper berries being there very trifling. my method would then make rapid progress. and my method is consigned in a patent. is joined their high price. rectified and distilled over again with the berries. But no discovery of general utility ought to experience that fate in a republic. according to the methods used by the distillers in Holland. and restrained to whiskey. Hence it follows that a useful discovery falls into oblivion. and increasing but little the price of whiskey: still that small addition is almost reduced to nothing. have reduced gin to the lowest price. that of the juniper berries. and thus prove the truth of the principle which I have advanced. If a distillery according to my directions. with all the advantages for trade that may be expected: hence would naturally ensue the rapid increase of distillation. These expenses are increased by the waste of spirit occasioned by those reiterated distillations. under the name gin. as it adds only to the price of the liquor. the product of which will amply repay its cost. and the distillers. and yielding the most perfect results. are deprived of the benefits of a wholesome the persuasion of new projectors. whose number is always considerable. after having meditated upon my method in this book. instead of doing any good. Government itself ought to promote the first undertaking. they are visibly compounds. In fact. To this capital defect. . as my apparatus requires very little expense. THE ART OF MAKING GIN. which is commonly not so. or a certain number of citizens ought to join in order to give it a start. more or less well combined. Many distillers in the United States have tried to imitate the excellent liquor coming from Holland. It may be more properly joined to the art of making whiskey. But those imitations are far from the degree of perfection of the Holland gin: they want that unity of taste. by seeing it put into practice. as will be seen hereafter.

and heaped up. sold it as coming from Holland. They can therefore rival them with great advantage. that is called wine for the poor: it strengthens the stomach. almost covered with the tree called here cedar. Although an incredible number of those trees is cut down daily. by adding a certain quantity of the berries. there remains an homogenous liquor. and millions of bushels of berries are lost every year. there is still a greater number standing. per pound. their sweet mucosity enriches that of the wort. what was really that of the United States. the spirit is separated from the water. and when. who received it from Massachusetts in hogsheads of about ten hundred weight. while only skilful hands are wanted. it acquires a degree of heat. at Norfolk. while at the same time the soapy extract. There is a great deal of cedar in Kentucky. and contains an oil essential. The United States need have no recourse to Europe. and as increasing the quantity of spirit. what the Hollanders can only procure with trouble and money. and sold as the produce of his own country. He needs only to perfume the wort which he puts in fermentation. indeed. The juniper berry contains the sweet mucous extract. and all the properties of Holland gin. and shipping it to some of the eastern harbors. to whom I paid one dollar per bushel of 40 lbs. Va. being 2½ cts. when debilitated by bad food or too hard labor. They only collect the berry in those countries where it is neglected as useless. have constantly turned even their poverty to account. unites them intimately. by the distillation. They have immense fabrications of gin. but not enough to burn. . and bore the same price at Pittsburgh. but they must follow the same methods employed in the Holland distilleries. I collected myself a great quantity of those berries. as I have ascertained: it is therefore safely transported in hogsheads. which perfumes the liquor. A distiller may at pleasure convert his whiskey into gin. in some parts.[c] The fermentation being common to both substances. made into a sort of wine in some countries. Two years ago. which by the fermentation yields a vinous liquor.The United States are. it sold for 6 cents in Philadelphia. I have seen them at Blue Licks. because obtained by the same means. From that facility of fermenting. it ferments spontaneously. slightly broken: the fermentation is then common to both. The juniper berry has many medical properties: it is a delightful aromatic. and bears yearly a berry. which produce a great deal of it. and they abound near the Kentucky river. which is in reality the juniper berry. who have long had the art of trading upon every thing. and increases the spirit. When fresh. and scarcely any juniper trees. and consequently of berries. as in France and Tyrol. by means of negroes. which tree is no other than the juniper. The Hollanders. in a great proportion: it has therefore the principle necessary to the spirituous fermentation. collected considerable quantities of it in Massachusetts. I have seen some at Philadelphia ten years ago. Some Hollanders knew it at Boston. and. and a sweet extract. when joined to a fermentable liquor. and having that unity of taste. to make them useful to mankind. it must be considered as a good ferment. which is the proximate principle of vegetation. resulting from a single creation. yields the essential oil. in the United States. in order to get the juniper berries: they have in abundance at home. at the house of a Hollander. and grows almost every where.

judge whether or not this quantity is sufficient.One single and same distillation can therefore yield to the distiller either gin or whiskey. per hogshead. in the 10th chapter of this work. may be easily collected. which repays him amply. He may begin with 10 lbs. and will. or must be increased. since their price does not increase that of the whiskey. which. The intelligent distiller will himself determine the quantity of berries necessary for each hogshead to have a good aromatic perfume. that my hogsheads for the fermentation. contain about 120 gallons of wort. upon trial. being the production of the saccharine extract of 12 bushels of grain. economy should not be consulted in the use of the berries. We have seen. At any rate. either by the spirit it yields. and its conversion into gin costs only the price of the berries. as it requires no more labor. This oil bears a great price. . and henceforth it will be an important article of exportation for the United States. or by its essential oil. floating on the surface. as well as a considerable and wholesome object of home consumption. and the Hollanders sell much of it. This low price must naturally become the principle of an immense fabrication of gin.

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