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has now yielded up most of its treasures. and that little become absolutely safe guides. The treasures of Babylonia. lack of familiarity with the psychology of the Oriental and their inability to master the Oriental languages were little fitted to A century ago East. been hidden away by fate. it very often hides itself behind dark clouds.Introduction little was known about the ancient Near had been transmitted by unreliable hands. Some of these clouds will undoubtedly be dispelled by later researches and it will depend on the results of future excavations whether the sun will reach its zenith at least in so far as the cultureland of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers is concerned. most of it came from a time which itself was much later than the period in which the ancient Oriental nations played an all-important role. Only a few decades ago the whole of Western Asia and Egypt were like an immense field of ruins lying in impenetrable silence. Assyria. The day has dawned over the Orient. who on account of their foreign way of thinking. and the little we knew about it came from the pen of a few Greek and Roman writers. Syria and Arabia had. . but though the morning-sun has appeared. Asia Minor. thanks to untiring work of Oriental scholars in Europe and America. who have worked feverishly during the last few decades. and Egypt had already undergone a process of decay when the Greeks entered that country and wrote down their cursory notices about the land and its people. miserable fragments There were only fragments by which could behold the ancient world. moreover. to their which was similar They understood only that own culture. Egypt. it seems. posterity The darkness has been lifted.

In certain circles. Wherever suggestions are to be found which might lead to such a conclusion. To some whom the The Orient interests only as a country of religious systems or for purely linguistic or historical questions. It will. Viticulture and Brewing. which considers the matter from the beginning of historic time down to the wine-prohibition of Muhammed. In spite of all modern legislation it is still a question often uppermost in the minds of many peoples whose governments have made tabula rasa with it it. A sane they are human intelligence . for instance. Far it from me to represent the Orientals to my readers in the light of drunkards. The present treatment. In many cases our information consists "merely of names. following pages purport to place together the most important.ev was at all times a cardinal question to humanity. he will find that upon no one subject is the industry of man kept more constantly on the alert than upon the making of wine" is fully verified in our present time.VI Lutz. But this is not the case. material which to a large degree can at best be found only isolated in the respective literatures. and the saying of Pliny "if any one will take the trouble duly to consider the matter. fully. there have existed at all times some debauchers. the gathering of such materials as contained in still this volume will seem banal. in regard Old-Babylonian beer recipes. I have avoided such details.. which can be filled only by later discoveries. but by no means the entire. be necessary to say a few words regarding to the be the use of alcoholic beverages by the ancient Orientals. finally. it is true. for instance. From the testimony of the Classical writers and according to the ideas of some modern scholars it might appear as if they had been such. who has also announced that he will offer another work on the intricate question of the materials used in the Babylonian brewery. material which has come to light regarding the viticulture and brewing in the ancient Orient. of these we already possess a very elaborate treatment by Hrozny. but the question tt Jticop. but history has never seen a whole people absolutely given to drunkenness. nothing but strong exaggerations. And thus will probably always remain. and wherever technical details might have been considered more. the many beer-and wine-names. still contains many gaps. as.

but should rejoice with them in our journey through their world. Examples so also in the ancient Orient. it teaches us at least this one thing.Introduction. VII has preached at all times and in all climes moderation and The morality of the ancient Near East was. not much inferior to our modern morality. in which we see them engaged in preparing the precious juice in the brewing of beer. only customs have become more refined. Perhaps the minds after the perusal of this book there the painful may arise in of some of its readers thought: Sic transit gloria mundi! . after all. we certainly have not improved very much morally. of very lofty ideals are found quite early both in Babylonia and in Egypt. in order to gladden their hearts at festivals and to drive away the dull cares of of the grape and every-day life. If the history of mankind should really teach us absolutely nothing. Even though we may have become wiser. that mankind has by no means kept equal pace in its intellectual and moral development. Therefore we should not sit in judgement over the ancient Orientals.


.und of vine see Theophr. I. 1) Grisebacb. that it is impossible to ascribe to the plant any special country as its place of origin. a names the countries about the Red Sea as its place of 675 origin. Die Vegetation der Erde. 323. Schrader. Hellanic. 1314. 67 Egypt. 97.and Northern Syria see ZDPV. When the dark mist that envelops the prehistoric age passes away. 4. the soil favorable to the culture Caus. Athen.. 58 and Diod. and we vitis find ourselves at the beginning of historic times. growing vine (four XI. the mnifera occupies such an extended area. Car. breitung der Holzgeu'iichse des europUi&cktn Rttsslands p. h. Koppen. 2 mentions Tyre. 153. l Boeotia. Fragm. XV. p. hist. p. I. but this merely indicates the very ancient extension of the plant in Mediterranean countries. des planles cultivces. I Lutz. Ach. Viticulture and Brewing. It is generally maintained that the wooded regions which extend from Turkestan and the Caucasus to the mountains of Trace are to be considered the homeland of the vitis vinifera^. 25. p. where the conditions of the soil and the climate were and still are most favorable for its culture. Pliny. Regarding II. Pausan. //. Tier. . and Hecat. p. Strabo XV. I. II. to five kinds) in On wildi. I. 26 Etolia. De 2) Candolle. XXIII. 161. 4Middle. Geogr. Theopomp. 328 Chios. As such it is very diffidetermine the country of its origin. 62. 4. Ill. Pfianzengeogr. IX. 27. Verund des Kaukastis. The Classical writers mention quite a number of places as having originated the vine. Tat. It is quite possible to think of a spontaneous growth in many re- gions 2 in view of its wide spread in the earliest historic times. For references in Classical writers to wild-growing vine see N. p. gr. gr. hist. Orig.Chapter One The Wines of The cult to the Ancient Orient vine is a prehistoric plant. Fragm. Mueller I.

This i> 35 (C 808) says "It produces wine in abundance". Nub. 55 grape-seeds together with melon-seeds and barley husks. and XVIII. The wine is thus described by him: "Its color is white. judging from the pictorial representations of those periods. Crocodilopolis-Arsinoe. 2) See Chapter II. 168). 60 he narrates Osiris is considered to be Dionysos. and even pre-dynastic Egypt.2 Lutz. XVII. Bull. 2. The purpose of providing funerary wines for the early rulers of Egypt \ Viticulture seems to have been particularly engaged in during the time of the IV. 133 body-guard he mentions the drinker Mykerinos and in II. We in culture of the grapevine started very early in Egypt learn that during the time of the Thinitic rulers. 91). In II. South of the Delta the wine produced particularly in the Arsinoitic nomos modern Fayyum) was renowned. V. In II.. 42 and 144 author contradicts also his own words. according to him was remarkable for its sweetness.. The best vineyards of Egypt were situated in the Delta and the country not far south of it. and when more wine is drunk than during all" the rest of the year. dynasty. 121 he mentions the chief-mason's son. e. II. . who made the guards drunk with wine. noi'te nome was city. nor does it affect the head" The grape was white and grew in a rich (Virg. 1) For an indication of viticulture in Nubia in predynastic times may ' be taken the grape-seeds that were 'found in the stomach of the Nubians. Finally in' II. where he says of But this Egypt oi) yap tfcpi eicsi ev rfj X^P 1] &p. Egyptian Shedet. XII. vintage and the making of wine.. vineyards had been planted for the 1 . Cf. 37 he states that even priests drink wine. which refer to viticulture. its quality excellent. with a fragrant bouquet.JteXoi. In II. The grape. "the riders' hills". The oldest vineyards had been planted in the vicinity of Memphis.. mark the side of the Regarding the Arsinoite nome Strabo XVII. it is by no means astringent. and it is sweet and light. Viticulture and Brewing. Athenaeus found pleasure in the Mareotic wine. where all Egypt gets drunk with wine. contradicts Herodotus' statement (II. The capital of'the Arse(i. 77). to XIX. the journeys to Bubastis. Again he states that every man of the receives four cups of wine (II. Georg. Modern Kiman ancient Paris.

799." says Athenaeus. where it is produced. I. I. 330. Od. much in the same way as it seems gradually to be diluted.r| is the Egyptian Pa-mer. Steph. 68 Mapicx. Columella (R. Athenaeus mentions the Plinthinic He states. its fragrance is so delightful as render it perfectly aromatic. It is "the produce of three varieties of grape of the very highest quality. Ptol. 2 soil. I. 3) accustomed to the stronger Falernian. Marea owes its name to that of a companion of Dionysos. however. that when mixed with water. It was adjacent to the mouth of the canal which connected Lake Mareotis with the Canopic arm of the Nile. the capital of the autonomous district Pa-mer-ti ( A^ *5\ rWA/ According to Athen. when a liquid is poured into it. Attic honey. Rather so called from a long narrow sandy ridge (raivia) near the Western extremity of the Delta. The town . Mdpeia. tic. "Still.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. Pliny . Marea (Mapea. "it is inferior to the Tenioa wine which receives its name from a place called Tenia 3 . The town (now called Maryut) stood on a peninsula south of Lake Mareotis. Ill. p. that the vine wines. R. 105 naXaipxxpia Kcbp. 2). from which the wine received its name. Diod. 4) Pliny XIV. The Sebennyticum was another renowned Egyptian 4 in fact. who was named Maron. wine. the aethalus (i. 25). Byz. and it has the property of being slightly astringent". Superior to the Mareotic wine was the Teniotic wine. at least in the estimation of some writers. who states that it was too thin for Italian palates. however. It was even exported to Rome and enjoyed by those who were used to the much heavier Italian wines 2 Horace. 37 mentions it as a favorite beverage of Cleopatra. cites it among the best of foreign wines. e. on the authority of Hellanicus. 7. I. and besides the to agreeable flavor of the wine. Strabo 1 ascribed to the Mareotic wine the merit of keeping well to a great age.. and to which circumstance Dion attributes the love of wine amongst the Egyptians (Lib. Its color is pale and white and there is such a degree of richness in it. i* . was first cultivated about Plinthine. 2) See. known as the Thasian. the 'smoky' 1) Strabo XVII. IV. principally composed of gravel.

"that the invalids might take it without inconvenience even during 'a fever". the 'pitchy' grape)". XVII. " "There are many other vineyards in the valley of the Nile. and as such only 'drunk by men. XIV. Viticulture and Brewing. Nat. 33 f. It was "so wholethin that it could be 'easily thrown off. Here it may also be menwhich contains popular ideas . Cf. 9. 2) Ecbolas from ^KpdXAuj "to eject". 3) 4) See Pliny. some". Pliny knows also the wines of Mendes 4 (modern Tell Roba or Tell al-Kasr at for Pliny to make Egyptian women the village of Tmei al-Amdid). "whose wines are in great repute and these differ both in color and taste. Deipnos. This. since he probably saw the abstaining from its use. C. Anthylla ("AvOuXXcc) was a town of considerable size on the Canobic branch of the Nile. flavor. I. but that which is produced about 2 Anthylla is preferred to all the rest". I.A Lutz. .. we may conjecture. The Thasian grape is described by the same writer as such which excels all 1 other grapes in Egypt in sweetness and as having remarkable medicinal properties. arm of the Nile. he says. 2. p. II. Hist. 6) Athen. according Viticulture to Athen. tioned that the story of the shipwrecked sailor. 6 On the whole . at ment was transferred from Napata to that of Meroe has been immortalized by Lucian 1) which time the seat of governThe wine place. Upper especially about Coptos. according to the latter writer seems to have had a sweet The wine of the Thebais was particularly light. I. says Athenaeus. 22}. 18. Sebennytos (modern Samanud). . It is possible that to the Egyptians was a particularly strong wine. 30 5) Pacdagog. 18) it was possessed of the singular property of producing miscar. Strabo. it riage (XIV. 799. etc. some few miles south-east of Alexandria. 600 B. Less favorably spoken of is the ecboladic wine 3 According to Pliny (XIV. 60 produced a poor quality of wines. XIV. Pliny XIV. The wine of the latter city was . grape) and the peuce (i. which are mentioned again by Horace and Clemens of Alexandria 5 The Mendesian wine. 9. "Afendaeum vinnm coelestia numina meiunf. was situated on the Damietta Athenaeus praises the wine of Anthylla. e. p. was engaged in as far south as Meroe the ancient capital of Ethiopia since c. Egyptian Zeb-nuter. c. Coptic Jemnuti.also Athenaeus. may have been the reason this statement.

the home country. 2nd Engl. large quantity of raisins was thrown into the Nile or burned. These grapes were less juicy than those that grow upon the vine-clad hills of Europe. Hakim prohibited the sale of raisins. wine. The wild wine (// Schimperi] was loaded with its ripe clusters and afforded me a refreshment to which I had been long unaccustomed. In the country of the Niam-niam. Dr. on his journey from Marra to the bill of Gumango. but altogether.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. judging Egypt is better than its wine (XIII. addressed to Ptolemy. lity all as being of an infrom his statement that the vinegar of grade. the physician. by the mere prescription of a foreign wine. amongst other forbidden merchandise. 7. situated along the African and Asiatic coasts of the Gulf of Aden. Africa. 122). 234 and 235). This writer considered them ferior king of Egypt. Met. The imagination thus was a factor introduced to effect a cure. in a treatise on wines. H. Some scholars read Praeparentium. they reminded me of our own growth" (Schweinfurth. pp. In the year 401 a. edition. during the reign of Hakim many people of Cairo were beaten and led shamefully through the streets of the city. yet it appears that Egypt produced just enough wine for its own home consumption. famous for wines (Ovid. XIV. ij a . H. recommended for medicinal purposes foreign wines rather than those of his own country. The introduction of Islam in Egypt limited the culture of* vine to a great extent. and issued orders against their importation. and colour. Martial. Vol. The Heart i) 'of Pliny. He praised par- and the wine ol Pontus. Also Apollodorus. does not fail to give reference to viticulture in that country (lines 47 and 48). The Greek and Roman after our writers in the last centuries before and of wine. Schweinfurth "had time to explore the magnificent vegetation of the adjacent hills. VII. and they left a in especially somewhat harsh sensation upon the palate. We Egypt also as a country with plenty have seen above that the Mareoticum was even era laud exported to Rome. 470). which was little known in ticularly the Peparthian J . II. . 5 the Classical writers pass a favorable judgement on the quaAn exception appears to be of the Egyptian wines. This may have been due merely to psychological reasons.. because they had sold In 402 a. while other immense quantities were A regarding the wonderful country of Punt. Preparethos was its one of the Cyclades.

Maillet who wrote a few decades earlier remarks that most of the Egyptian vineyards are situated in the Fayyum. desz Edlen und vesten Hansz Jakob Breuning Ton und zu Bouchenbach etc. but for the sake of pleasure some vines have been planted occasionally in the gardens 2 Pater Wansleben who on June 30. Tom. 1672. c. o. o. Perigi. the Middle Ages Egypt have little to say regarding its wines. 7) Quoted from W'onig. c. ir. F. He says that Egypt has no wine. L. de Sacy. p. but . 5) Lettres Description o.. I.6 Lutz. 1740. They were accustomed to wrap to a tasty dish. quoted from Wonig. de I'Egypte. c. indeed small. c. Printed at Strassburg by Johann Carolus. Hans Jacob Breuning von und zu Buchenbach visited Egypt in 1579. These grapes were visited in . 1677. Norden narrates that he received plenty of coffee and grapes on his journey through Egypt and Nubia in the year of 1737. IV. XI. Viticulture and Brewing. c. Chrest. p. thrown into the Gizah were cut streets down and do the same all The vineyards of orders promulgated everywhere to over the country 1 In Miniet ibn al-Khasib and trodden down. 439. of 1672.of an excellent taste 4 . Some young Turkish sailors discovered that the pater had a supply of wine which he had brought with him from Marseilles. sur I'Egypte. 'o. met with an occurance which shows how strictly the Mohammedan Turks prohibited the use of wine. p. Savary 5 in his description of the old Arsinoitic nomos shows that the Copts at that time still cultivated the vineyards of their ancestors and that they gathered excellent grapes from which they pre6 pared a white wine of agreeable taste. 261. troisieme. 4) See Wonig. Edit. Die Pflanzen ini alien Aegypten. p. 6) Rescription de I'Egypte. . . 1777. Arab. He notes also that the Egyptians esteemed the leaves of the grape-vine much more highly than the fruit itself. p. They became infuriated and wanted to throw the wine bottles into the Nile 3 L. 59. 2) Orientalische Keys* 3) Retazione ddlo stato presence dell Egitto. (^^oil ^\ The travelers who A^i*) vine was cultivated in Idrisi's time. Quoted from Wonig. 1886. II. . p. 254. quoted from Wonig. 1) chopped meat with these vine-leaves and to cook the whole Jomard 7 again mentions the vineyards of the S. went by boat from Rashid (Rosette) up-stream. Quoted from Wonig. o. ir. 156. II L.

*yA j[ AA. Besides the most common it 2 . The oldest Egyptian inscriptions refer to different kinds of wine. M AA (| a lion 1 . which It referred to king Psammetichos refers to this wine. however. p. 185. Psammetichos.rt O ^ r\ ^ xs* Jm * f~*\ a^^= . 50 a. They . U White have been preferred by the Egyptians to the red wine. S3izv (Medic. Mar. 85 ff. C""'^ Dend. word In for wine (j < ? > Q . are intoxicated =v!3 (c) ^A o. It has honored thee. Fayyum.C3Q. Mariette. They distinguish between white wine. by (presenting) the double-jars". he has offered unto thee the (produce of the) Horus-eye. 4) Esna (L^\) was renowned for its grapes iu the days of Idrist. Pap. T iiga. to <~> O^ D I I 1 AA. ^T A A is sacrificial stone which was found in Pompeii and II. c o m P- 's-beer. lord of On. 46. i.. P ~ S. "The inhabitants of Dendera * I | \j= from wine". 1868. vineyards are not to be found elsewhere in Egypt. cial kind of wine. Mastabas. reads: Ib-r'-nfr-lb-r') has come to thee. e. 325 3) (I 1:U See Aeg. p. the son of the sun. 47. Z. "the wine domain". O Atum. T wine seems W 148 a has the reading I I =n=. 4. T . and red wine. Regarding the wine- O cellar in Esna 4 it is written in one of its texts J?U T ^->*S 1) While wine. Atum. Q -d ^ ^ CUD O S! According to him. n 119 a. 3) refers probably to a specertain wine produced in the great oasis 3 A * bore the name "The green Horus-eye". there appear other designations for the inscriptions of Edfu appears the name is $3. -AA. i< "their heart toxicated with genuine wine". -. lord of On.The Wines of the Ancient Orient.. geographic designation in 2) 'Irp occurs as a LD II.

112: IpS I. ^ ^_ ^ j^j fertile e. d'Idrisi. Raymond. I. "furnished with (i. a certain wine tions also a -CC^ \\ (]. Diimichen. produce of the Horus-eye II. Eg. bearing grapes (and) the Horus-eye wine pure things. Inschr. p. I. 6.). _^ <> *5* A O T _ <^> is milk. See Weil. Et. / -CS>2} The "white Horus-eye". T. sage and that of Dum. which probably means either "satisfying beverage". 21: "He brings to thee the fertile field. XV. . 73. ? ? . 17. jtr H 4 ? * anc* of Hat- uVimnt. Dend. Insc/tr. b. Tafel 109 " causes good fe ddess ) humor ' became good-humored on account of o^^^=51^ is The golden the 'green Horus-eye'-wine". 20 O JjIsJ JH V Sohet has (the produce of) the green Horus-eye". II. Hist. tain . Des monuments et de rhistoire des IF 1908. makes it certhat the "green Horus-eye" designates a wine and not another intoxicating drink 2 The 'green Horus-eye' was a pro- pes 1 . that they were dried and shipped all over Egypt (Jaubert. Hist. IN ^/ 9 53. in R.25s ] ^ /WVA ft O beget thy drunkenness".. Inschr. On the stele of Khabiousokari. et dynasties egyptiennes.. judging from an inscription in Esna. According Temp. i) See also Mar.0 . J QA. 128). lfc\ Museum of Cairo stele 3 . all good things and with the Diimichen. 251. Inschr. Viticulture and Brewing. 105 flf. I The same ). .8 Lutz. Another brand 1 of wine is met with under the designation sdw-ib. duct of 3^ to Ombosl. which thou drinVest Wns (and) which gladden thy heart and cause joy to overflow in thee".. The "green HorusIIP eye" is 3) probably a spiced wine. Maspero.. .-. Kal. The vineyard of This pas- 53. M C^3 "O or. not coriander (Loret. 18 AM Jgg *--=> contains gra- ^ AAAAAA O O O ?A? _ / [1 I 5S> "The LJ field the produce of the 'Horus-eye' is wine". V. 233: = "My clusters of grapes ( V3 V\ /?*^ . grapes. in the called k3y. "thirst- grew there in such abundance and such superior quality. p. wine)".. A y -L it Tl / Dum. Paris. men- wine named irp-w3. Geo.

~\ AAAW 4 <^^> *\^ The word irpw. 250. i*"^ "Wf". "to tread". 18. fait ^ .t". 294. p. either a special brand of beer or wine. WB. c^^. v ^0. p. : A Ui i i ^r^ Jl v\ O 3 . Whether the beverage doubtful. 105 ff. it is doubtless a drink. in the Museum of Liverpool. s. Catalogue of the o. m. 3 4. IV. ' Written c =^a W 1463. Since it is one passage 2 together with i. I i named together with i 7@| i. He stating "en Egypte. e. 11 a Semitic loanword occurs which refers to the wine-must as it comes from the wine-press. dark wine. p... wine. n^-J J 6 If // in Pvr. 12. Anast.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. 240. ttTPfi D^p? "must" from ttT^ -|. I. 2) In Dend. See Maspero. et dans d'autres pays on encore de 7\ mentioned for the first time on the stele of Tetiankhni. j is a wine-brand remains The same found in ! l exists as to hlwh. "to tread") 4 according to Brugsch. Mayer Collection. 3) On dlb . Histoire. v..t. e. 2. and it is not the name of a special drinking-vessel. the lady of hlwh. "fi^-wine" see below p. <z^* ^\ jyj fig-wine Ti(n)rkw is derived from ?p_n. is tinrekw. and Weil. In Pap. (cf. ^-^ N 454 a. "the mistress of intoxicating drinks. Mar. . trav. 4) See Brugsch. 1 $dhw./-wine. "pomegranateI I I wine" and dbw.Dp^. e. > x doubt P. c=^a A _. The inscriptions further mention the w. "intoxicating beverage". quenching beverage" 1 . <:=: I the fruit of which. Hathor is called i. _U. has hone: furthermore identifies the plant with the carob.. No. <-. the taste of according to Pap. "to press the grapes". I (1895). XV. Anast. i. Ill.) considers -\ Jl to be a liquor prepared from dnrgZ . W ///. Gatty. g called Sbb. A/VAAAA O Loret (in Rec. I "wines".t. Egyptian Antiquities.

I47-N. n. nos jours une boisson rafraichissante avec le sue de Caroube mele a de 1'eau ou a d'autres liquides". "wine of UpperEgypt" of Egypt. city of the Libyan nomos. 12. 4) .(Whenever) the delivery occurs.1O Lutz. XIII. then appears hearty joy and drunkeness in it. Through these geographic attributes we are -\ enabled to locate the most important vine-growing districts The Pyramid texts mention the "wine of Lower 2 Another wine is called irp rs. districts Most of the place-names situated in the Delta. . Deipn. Pap.W. T. and the produce of the oasis Dsds. Bum.0 I "The produce of Pelusiumf?). JtTtT " ) fl^^^. n ~ is by far the most common *. refer naturally to places or at in- Esna for the Important is an inscription enumeration of different kinds of wine. of Hat-seha- u Hor \ together with (that of) the oasis Kenem. . Egypt".8. note i. 39] c Ep|itdc b' \i6v puiv 0eoic is A general name for wine. Besides these different designations for the word "wine" of which irp. We may finally mention the wine A O prepared either from the sap or J:he fruit of the(|J^| tree. and they intoxicate themselves totally in at its is district". See below p. 7. This _ scription has the following passage [jgg f oJ <nr> : O ^^ @ I .t. are also named according to their places of origin. Viticulture and Brewing. S i S . In the tomb of Ptah-Hotep Saqqara i) 4 mention is made of three of the most important This word preseived in Greek in a verse of Sappho [Athen. later () passim. used less frequently than Irp sB . 3) The most westernly Result. 1. the wines or their special brands.

and irp him 3 . 31 (26. Regarding the Hist. T i2Oa. Cylinder aiuSi-^i-nu. I49a. 92 Kagemui-Saqqara). _^_ 337J '"T^ see Pyr. W II. . Hawara. tioned iu Pyr.. .The Wines of the Ancient Orient. pi. f cf. LD Ptahhotep dos i. . p. Q ed Papyr. The vicinity of Pelusium appears to have been most noted also for its beers see below For wine of Sajn in the Texts see T 122 a. D. Z. fig. and ^~~^ BHI. which makes the vocalization Sajn doubtful. written \\ O - i in the demot. wines of Ancient Egypt. I. 67). . 49. cf. Spiegelberg ad gives also the different writings of the place as coni. B 5). 23. banipal. (Cairo. tained in the old winelists. (j XXX. In the same article Spiegelberg also established the reading See p. The Assyrian text. 3-4. 2) Spiegelberg. ^jC of a locality of Lower Egypt (near Lake Mareotis?). RIH (Dyn. however. for etymology | T 347 ff. in Aeg. city of (see above... /P] 19. (vocalized sajn\ the name mentioned 2 Old Testament. I. n* 1 LI irp sjn. irp im. A.e. Sept. about 8 miles to the S. Dyn. 30). ^^ ffi\ j ^j) "wine of the fishermen-village" i) 'Imt (Yemet] to = modern Nebesheh. 83 of the Aeg. Nebesheh ~ 11 " > where situation of city is given. line 93 Sjn is written >^y^^ffx^f^ . 1693). 26 is identical with Pelu- sium. ^ 77 II Aby- Pieret II. no). E. of 'Imet" is J . Pyramid W N 459 a. 76. Col.. Beni Hasan I. of that name as jf/. f|Q Ptah-hotep. Mereruka e. /. pap. . 81 has I shown 3. Result. Davies. Z. of as-Salihtyeh. Cairo 31 169. (Saqqara. 151 a and p. confirms Spiegelberg's identification of S}n with Pelusium. N ~ 457a. 15 "po. In Ashur(vocalized &ajri). H "wine r'^TJJ^ ~. p.6. II. XIII. that the city of ajn. (L. Ezek. 6 BC 3). 67. f\* pi. Mereruka (Diim. 3) A ^C ^w. I. Saiv) "wine of Pelusium". The wine of Nebesheh is men17. i. Saqqara.t. of Tanis and 9 miles the N. in the (1 . j^jl 'O 5. L cf. reprod. (Saqqani. Dyn.) Petrie. the I2 title) I Petrie. .

says of this district "the vinename of $3-mnh. which is identical with Hat-itar-imn . I. 16 R WW\A -> O O O "I bring will l bearing grapes (and) cause thy heads to wag". and according to Strabo XVII. Die Oasen der Libyschen Wuste.t A^ the Libyae nomos (Ptolemy 5).. Mar. A territory for its is several times mentioned in the texts. is c \c u city of the Apis-bull". Amon". > This the name given the city lists of nomes of a territory which the belonged to the of mvt-nt-Hapi.1 2 Lutz. note 3. e. TflVT is t] I . 5 seems to refer to the city called Hat-seha-Hor Brugsch. Apis to On the city of 2) which Herodotus (II.. nomos of Lower Egypt. Tafel XIX (] *\ 1 i) The city of Apis of Ptolemy IV. renowned for its excellent wines. which bore the "~. name *. a lake in this The Libyan nomos was near the Lake Mareotis. Mar. 513). An AAAAAA 1 E inscription narrates "(the locality of) An bears grapes (and) $3-mnh bears /WWW wine" AAAAAA T ' -HAA/WVA O O O Pyramid Texts mention the wine V of NhSmw. 799 it was loo stadia distant from Paraetonium. Geo. >WW\A ( "the vine-bearing region in I of to . which "Asti- This district was also known by the the Classical writers Dend. /WWVA ^ ^^^ V| i I n U " =rt It: was si - tuated in the third that is. ^j? imn. I LD -Jl ^Tf^. Viticulture and Brewing. p. 5 called imn. \tg I The place. unto thee An SB-mnh bearing wine which . i. renowned wines. 18) refers can hardly be the same Apis see also above p. TtTtT. city of p. t. 1 . IV. 10. Dend. Pliny calls the capital of this nome nobilis religione Aegypti locus. yard of Mnh has wine". 5. """ were planted with vines. I -rO (1 i- The n See also Diimichen. 66. The banks of a canal or of third nome of Lower Egypt.

t flourish in their hands Oasen der Libyschen 2) 3) VVuste.. of the god broken away.His . 3 T//wwvAGj . also Brugsch. Brugsch. 103 "the vine-branches of Sft. It reads: produce of the oases of) Dakhel and Khargeh. "the vine-domain". O^/Q^ ^ fin oases of The oldest reference to the wines of the KMrgeh and Dakhel Osorkon's J capital is m in capital 3 found I. Tafel 89 . One of the most renowned vine-districts of Upper Egypt belonged to the city of Diospolis parva. &jn. 83.. 1345: "Art thou not in Knm. according to the investigations of de Rouge 2 Brugsch later held it possible that the name Sft. See Naville... or.. consisting in wine and pomegranate -wine. e. w /wwv\ 1 5 a . T 121a .t is the name of a mountain situated in the se.. tribute (the 1. in order to maintain . is 4) 5) The name I.. c c^ 3J[ i . parva is possible indication of viticulture at Diospolis contained also in the name of a certain district of is A Ht-shm..The Wines of the Aucient Orient..t of Ht-shm (Diospolis parva)?". pis. "very good wine of Khargeh".. Diim. record of temple is ^ifts . p. geogi-.t may be an oasis of the Libyan desert near al-Khargeh but there is no reason why the results of de Rouge's investigations should be doubted. Diet. in the seventh nomos. XV and XVII... 51 and 52..t. Sft.t. plates Text. Bubastis.. * ^m> J '* e> ' "the vineyard". p. Geogr.. DGI. The most famous vineyard of Diospolites was that called Sft. I. venth nome. N 45 8a that > is the reotic wine. his house according to the word thereof". Hemy wine and wine of Telusium 5 likewise. i) Cf.. {*jn\ .. Kal. which called knm. The wine of Khargeh was of a very good quality. Iwchr. du temple d'Edfou.

fm. and the city of the oases Nham... the produce of Dsds (Dakhel). terrace". is It is not until the Ptolemaic times that viticulture engaged in about Elephantine. of Dakhel appears to have Br. as Elephantine. 1129 2) See Steindorff. 4 V\ J^\2 ^ W o H \ (J (1 1 <z^> O O O *w* would . which was called ht hsp. The two named together with Khargeh and Dakhel and the cities of Nebesheh and Pelusium 1 The Egyptians received also wine from the oasis . WB. L. XVI.14 Lutz. de Rouge. Diimichen. 72 \ m L e- "its riverbanks and its vines". . actively i) "The grapes of Knm (Khargeh). VII. was comparafl 1 tively late. or raisin. Durch die Libysche JVuste zur Amonsoase. U i=r as for all parts of Upper-Egypt and the oases. which was called simply "the wine^ The culture of vine at that district. Wuste. . 9 "the vinefar south first noinos of Upper Egypt. see Neham. Viticulture and Brewing. That the vine was cultivated about Coptos is seen particularly from the name of a territory belonging to the fifth nome of Upper-Egypt (the Coptites of the Ancients). Vineyards were planted also in the vicinity of HeracleoWe have the testimony of an officer of the Saitic pepolis. A reference to the viticulture of that city p.t. we meet with the name of a district.t. V|> ^ -. Geogr. 1422 ( '' a ffiHrx/^i are Another wine-producing AAAAAA /VA. No.t. the wine of the districts of Tbui. The grape.grape".. contain a Edfou XXXIX.x.giogr. is in case that v\ _M^ but a somewhat unusual writing of the name of the city. is found I in J. come on the market by the name "Oasis.. whose capital was Elephantine. De Rouge. p. district was Tbui. I AAAAAA reference to viticulture at Heroo(n)polis. 1904. pi. p. We have seen above that Athenaeus knew of the wine of Coptos. the cities of DieOascn der'^Lib. and &/>". Vol. called Bahriyeh (the "northern" oasis of the texts) 2 . 1446*". Vineyards were planted in In the lower country of the /] c "-I /\ U a Egypt proper as. as well district". Tafel LI.

. e. took great interest. situated L e. How far this vineyard reaches back the history of Egypt is not known. bearing (being) surrounded by a wall around them by the iter". 2. inundated like the great lands of olive. pi. . them with gardeners from the captives provided with lakes supplied with lotus flowers. Anast. 3. Judging from the vineyard scenes in the tomb of Paheri at al-Kab. p. vines. pis. the Delta near the city of OWtpfi Gen. In Pap. 11) It may possibly be identical with the /WWVA = _ WWW /VAAAAA ancient of Tanis (Egyptian 1?S of the Old Testament. 8. They were multiplied in the Northern country by the hundred- thousand. Anast city IV. XL VII. 1) 2) 3) I. 1.The Wines of riod.. . others (I planted) in the South with numerous lists. Mon. "The genius of the Black Land Z. 6. in order to provide wine for the planted god Huneb. and the Northern Oasis likewise without number. King seems. du Louvre. which bear the name of this vineyard 3 According to Pap. Assyrian > case Ptry would be the modern bahr al-Mashra. n. Thus we read in the Papyrus Ramses III. viticulture was practised also in the vicicalled 1 . In this The vineyard bore the name Ka-ti-kemtt*. and with pomegranate-wine and wine like drawI furnished of the countries.. Ostraca. lands. 34. But we know that it existed in the time of Ramses II. pi. "Vineyards I made for thee in the Southern Oasis. The city was situated "on the bank of the canal Ptry\ (Pap. in viticulture. 19 See Aeg. (= Egypt)". 5 ff. Ramses the two III. 6 it yielded sweet wine. nity of this ancient city. says "I in made for it Ka-n-kemet.. One of the most famous vineyards of Egypt was the in vineyard of Arrion. 33 ff. . I. the Ancient Orient. but he also extended this interest to distant places. and Spiegelberg. 1883. 14. in A^ 1 ^). it Harris. jc He states upon his stele that he had Hor two vineyards there. In the wine-cellars at the Ramesseum have been found many sherds from broken wine-jars. 7 lines lofif. Harris. He paid particular attention to Ka-n-kemet. See Pierret.


Lutz, Viticulture and Brewing.

ing water, for the purpose "Victorious Thebes"

of presenting- them for thee in



Since the Egyptians were cpiAoivot 2 i. e., lovers of wine, is but natural that they expended their genius and their

time also on the preparation of


kinds of



The home production of grape-wine was never sufficient to meet the home consumption. To meet this deficiency they either imported foreign wines 3 or else made their own artificial wines. The wine import into Egypt is well attested











a year a considerable quantity of wine was received from Phoenicia and Greece. In the ruins of Daphnae (modern Tell

I '


cnjEOH; the city was situated to the North of the caravanroute between al-Kantara and as-Salihiyeh) wine -jars of distinctly Greek style were found, having been sealed with These winethe seals of Amasis (first half of 6th cent. B. C.) 4 Herodotus also makes jars were imported filled with wine.

the statement that the earthen jars,


which the wine was

when emptied, were used for quite a different purpose. They were then collected and sent to Memphis from every part of Egypt and then, after these jars had been filled with water, they were returned to Syria. Amongst the wines imported into Egypt from Phoenicia figure largely those of 5 Tyre and Laodicea. The caravan-route which the Phoenician

wine-merchants travelled led from Gaza through the desert via Raphia, Rhinokorura, Ostracine, past the station at mount Kasius to Pelusium. The journey from Gaza to mount Kasius took
i) See also Pap. Harris p. 27, 8: "I gave pomegranate-wine and wine a.s daily offerings, in order to present the land of On in thy splendid and mysterious seat". Cf. also line 9: "I made great gardens for thee, fitted out, con-

taining their groves, bearing pomegranate-wine and wine in the great house of Atum During the thirty -one years of his reign, Ramses III. bestowed


514 vineyards. 2} Athen.





Athepaeus, Deipnos.


35 "Dion academicus vino

sos ac bibaces Aegyptios esse iniquit". 3) Egypt, according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 28, exported a little wine into Cana, of the kingdom of Eleazus, the frankincense country 4) See Petrie, Nebesheh, 64.
5) Heliod.

Aethiop. V, 27.

The Wines of
five days,

the Ancient Orient.


one day Since the difficulwine were great, it was completely ties in the transportation of lacking in the earliest times; where local production was limited, as in the case of Egypt, they were compelled to make artificial wines. Pliny, XIII, 5 states that in the former times 2 and other fruits were used in figs, pomegranates, the myxa the preparation of artificial wines. Datewine 3 appears Egypt in to have been a favorite beverage, according to Pliny (XIV, 19) and Dioscorides (V, 4), who tell us that this wine was greatly esteemed. Two modes of making this wine seem to have been in use. The Egyptians either scratched the stem of the date- / palm with a sharp knife, and gathered the sap into jars and let it ferment, or else they pressed the fresh dates, and the

and thence

to Pelusium





The first gained was brought to fermentation. method produced a wine which spoiled within a few hours, while by the other method the wine could be kept for a considerable period. Datewine, which was used also for cleansing

the entrails of the dead, formed an excellent and cheap drink For cheapness it was, perhaps, only/ for the poorer people 4 the barley-beer. According to Xenophon 5 datesurpassed by

wine brought on severe headache 6








inscriptions, called shedekh,




oases of




Kn m ./



y., IV, ii, 5;

Ill, 5,

6 and Strabo

I, 3,






of Linnaeus.


II, 3.




Datewine was used

for medicinal purposes.


fruits of the


palm, mama,


= Cuceifera


were used


1k A

(Hyphaent thebaica Mart.

thebaica Desfon.) were considered delicacies in


dates of



fGellius, VII,



hTDum., Kal.

Inschr. 120,







Pap. Anast.




4, 7,

4 and



and Brewing.



Lutz, Viticulture and Brewing.

*. It must have been a very beverage, since in the winelists it generally precedes expensive It is most likely the pomethe name of the grapewine.

produced shedekh as well as wine

2 granate-wine of which Pliny states that



in use


the Egyptians.


third artificial wine


called baqa.

fej .. v

was probably made from figs or dates. This wine was im8 A liquor, made of figs, ported into Egypt from Palestine


called dbjj




(Med. pap.

19, i), dbjj.t <


(Pap. Anast.



See also Pap. Anast. 4, 12, l. This liquor to a flame, since it burned the throat (Pap. Anast. compared In regard to fig- wine in the Pyramid Texts see 3, 5). 146 a, 11/a, N 4543, Pepi II, 1. 154. See also Dumichen, Der Grab3, 3, 5).


palast, Vol.






Mixed or spiced wines were common in Egypt 4 The mixed or flavored their wines with the juices of Egyptians 5 Whether mixed or spiced rue, hellebore and absinthium wines were admissible for use in the religious cult, is unknown,




possible, to conjecture that contrary to the practise
RecueillV, 82,
5; 83, 7 etc.


Diimichen, Kal. 119, 10;

In RecueillV,

79, 2 occur the writings

o^ ^>



Pliny 14, 19; see al?o Dioscor. 5, 34. According to Pap. Anast. 3 and 4, Sangar, ihe raountainious country

between the Euphrates and Tigris




(modern Sindjar) exported the following The Hittite nekfet'er and yenbu.


Northern Syria and Mesopotamia furnished the

^ \N




_ X^.^_








\\ <c=r>

Alashiya the

and the country beetween the Orontes and the Balikh
(Pap. Anastasi 4, pi. 15, lines 2




name Psammetichus

= pl-s3-n-mtk,

in this connection the popular


See Spiegelberg, in OLZ,
Tu-sa-me-il-ki ,

etymology of the royal mixer", that is, he" who iuvented Assyrian: Pi1905, Vol. 8, 559 ff.

Pi-sa-mi-is-ki ,
181, 182.

Knut, Assyrian Personal

Names, pp.

5) Pliny.




Two To stands behind the frame-work and jars with a cup.. according to Plutarch the list . The Ancient Egyptians]. Wine always heads / brought no wine into the temple and that they considered drinking during day-time as unseemly TOU Kopioo KCU |3atfi)\. 1 He states that the priests offerings. l). however. An Egyptian Siphon (after Wilkinson. Is. 'HXiou) ecpopcovTO^. The process is illustrated on a tomb-painting in Thebes (see Illustration No. (scil. i. [) re-fills the slowly emptying Plut. No. Chapt. VI. For the mixing of wine the Egyptians used the siphon. He wine-cup. siphons are represented as being exhaust the air the servant has put the end of the third siphon into his mouth.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. The same writer also states that the priests abstain from the use of wine only on days of fasting. Another servant is seen holding two small siphons in his left hand. wine did not belong to the offerings. the common offerings and the of liquid In Heliopolis. IQ scruples in wines. and thus causes the contents of the third jar to flow. He sucks it. 2* . of the Hebrews the Egyptians had no as offerings religious presenting offerings adulterated at or even artificial Wine. A servant is raised wine jars by means of three long siphons seen directing the wine of three into a two- handled already in action.offerings were made of the dead.ea)c.

39 and No. read: "4632 measures of wine was the (assessed) produce of my people. Knudtzon. e. Merchants and servants of foreign' kings thus seem to have enjoyed the privilege of exemption from paying custom-house duties 2 Under the rule my lord. yet it seems that the treasury of the State drew no small income from the custom house receipts of foreign wines. "Thy custom-house official shall not draw nigh unto them (i. had These letters its custom-house officials at the Delta-harbors. e. the wine tax was paid with wine. His people he assessed to an excess of 25. 39 lines 17 20 read: a\me\l pa-ga-ri-ka ulia-ga-ar-ri-ib it-ti-su-nu. No. lines 2426: a[me\lu annu-u ardu $a Sarri be[-li-ia\ u amel p\a\-ga-ri-ka it-ti[-$u]-nu ul i-gi-ri-ib muhhi-hi-nu. 4 facing p. them as 30000.. Lines 17bff. who prolevied . 40.. See Gardiner.2O Lutz. . 56. In a letter of the king of Alashiya and one of the "rabisu'of Alashiya to the king of Egypt we seem to have an indication that the Egyptian state.. the early time are silent the question of a wine-tax. Viticulture and Brewing. "the man who makes claim for thee (i. an excess of 25. 1) 2) Z.368 measures of wine. shall not draw nigh against them".e. Bilgai boasts in the last section of the inscription of the greatness of the revenues for which he was responsible. For the time The Egyptian monuments of before the end of the twentieth dynasty that the wine tax we possess testimony and that this tax consisted in That is.. "the men are servants of the and thy custom-house official (who) is with them. No. the king)". Die El-Amarna Tafeln. It is rather to be conjectured that the contrary was the case. This. 40. The wines I delivered imported from Syria and Greece were most likely subject to a custom house tax even in the time of the end of the Middle and the beginning of the New Empire. of course. 368". . e. 50. of Bilgai 1 the Overseer of the Fortress of the Sea. was bably lived in the time of Tewosre. i. king. In the stele kind. i. my merchants and my ship)". call the official of the customs amel pagari-ka. and pi. p. No. in Aeg. does regarding not imply that there was none such existing. The title of "overseer of the Fortress of the Sea" shows that the Bilgai wine spoken of. Although the Egyptian records are silent on this matter. was wine produced in the Delta. 496.

124 125 gives three wine. 270. called oivou TSAOC. 1) Wilcken. 362. and Hunt. The wine-merchant 43. p. son of Heraklas. oivoirpdrric or oivoTOJuXric BGU 34. p. which. P. Griechische Ostraka.. son early century of Inaros and Plenis. and Pap. 3) Grenfell o. in order ultimaThe difference in the quality tely to be paid by the consumer. Pap. on */ 6 arura 2 4 dr." A custom-house receipt for wine imported upon a donkey is 3 It reads "Aurepreserved to us in the Tebtunis papyri lius Plutammon has paid through the custom-house of Kaine the tax of Vioo anc^ Vso on importing upon one donkey into the official bank". 2 A. [time. of the grapes and the wine was seemingly instrumental in the Theban strata. 61. No. 21 . OiVOXipiO"Tr]C in Byz. Griechische Ostraka. Year 3.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. 14 I. Year 1O of Domitianus our Lord. Grenf. P. The wine-administrator 1410. superdated in 181 visors of the valuation of wine and palms to Pekrichis. r. according to Wilcken. assessment placed upon the amount ol the produce of wine yielded from the individual vineyards. Part No. . son of Premtotes. The the third . D. reads: "Miusis and his colleagues. may have been levied indirectly on the producer. Also for the fourth year 8 dr. II.. . 88 (G. No. in respect of Aurelios Pechutes. which we will pay year eleven dr. 89 (Gr.). = 150 (Wilcken. Oxyr. The Tebtunis Papyri. e 90 A. 70). c. The tax is levied in the Roman period from the owners of the vineyards. who produce This tax may be viewed either as constituting an wine 2 . 86 discusses the winetax of the Roman period. of Toronto Studies. = third document dates back to A. We have received from you for the valuation of wine of the produce of the twenty-second 11 dr. 693). = 86. son of Psenenphos. collectors of the valuation of wine and palms of the third year. D. II. 1913. of the Ptolemies the winetax seems to have been paid in money ! Wilcken. son of Petosorkon has paid through Horos for the valuation of wine for the tenth year in the Upper toparchy 4 obols. pp. son of Pekrichis. Hathur ll" ( No. University varying amount of the winetax. 2) Oxyr. 2 obols receipts. The wholesale wine. 327.: "Aurelios athes. Berl.mere hant oive|UTTOpoc. Mesore 8. 2 obols. 280) is as follows: "Tithoes.. D. or as a tax placed on the consumption of wine.

i. 18. the Syrians are tity of wine . 4) XV. of wine. geogr. 27. Syria supplied Egypt with a considerable quan4 In the tomb of Rekhmare. 27. which was exported 'from Damascus to Tyre 7 and into Persia. Die Bibel und der Wein. and the Syrian wines were considered most excellent 3 We have seen above that together . appointment. Pap. Lutz. Urkunden IV. Sethe. med. 6. Rev. 188) narrates that the clear. 297. oivou Kepa(iuia) (TOU<. 6. p. Viticulture and Brewing. Tale Ill. Arch.) TT\ouT(i|U|uiuv p' xai v iacpfujv rri dvuu ivi '&. Dynasty. i.. bi(d) iruA(r|<. of "Phoenicia". goodtasting water of the Choaspes formed the ordinary drink of the Persian kings. perhaps. Auswahl. or. The fifth year. Phamenoth. the wine in the presses of 6 water". 3) Ezek. Ill. XVI. Syria was the wine Its climate country par excellence of the Ancient Near East 2 invited the culture of the vine. 18: Hos. At the time of the XII. p. 7) 8) }^J jj 1 "^ PD "^ ^ mentioned Ezek. describes . 9. and preferred by them to the exclusion of any other kind 8 The wine of Chalybon is mentioned also in the . 12. de Rouge. more Sinuhe further narrates that following his plentiful than water was its wine".22 six jars fifth"i. nat. ta iHT(?)] is a name generally i used in a very vague sense. 5. hist. Strabo. geogr.) KaivP|<. with Greece. Pliny. 12. . Strabo. They used to take . Athen. 14. Daha [=i!iT. It was the wine drunk by the Persian kings. Herod. deipn.) e 0auevu)d e ir(euirrrj) 2) Pangeum in Syria is considered by Hesychius as one of the itiany places claiming to be the birth-place of Dionysos. the We turn next to the wines of Syria. correspondents to Syria (and Phoenicia) Its meaning cannot be narrowed to that Daha wines. XVII. 687. the fifth. that of Chalybon. it Lepsius.. a region called Yaa in Syria is mentioned as having more wine than water 5 Tothmes III. Berlin XI. Partly and partly to the Semitic Canaan. see also Delitzsch. 5) af Sinuhe: daily and wine 6) (88) for every day". "like a stream" . Aupr)\(io<. Daha to have been "like running The most famous wine of Syria was. Herodotus (I. 7. (81) "there were figs (82) in it and vines. represented as bringing their wines as tribute. as sheikh of the tribe by Emuienshi (87) "I portioned the bread Herod. 1860. lines 11 13.

also called pamXiKOV. XIV. applied. East Africa. South Arabia and India. name Damascus. Either honey mixed with must or grape-juice. 152 praises the vineyards of . although faulty. honeyed wine. The district of Damascus which is the paradise of the Orient. Baccheia munera. . mulsum 3 like that of Praetutia in Italy" 4 Elagamaking also the wine of "It is . Trail. according to the Periplus. subtle. 43. etymology finds in the an allusion to the red juice of the pttJE". n. II. According to Strabo Laodicea "is a very well-built city. 7 revised version "the scent thereof shall be as the 3) I. or honey mixed with fermented wine. 9. The wine of Libanios had the odor of incense according to Pliny. 2644. refers to the sweetness of the wine in the sunny Oron. A. 751. quod usque ho die cernimus". -jfaab -p^ i-qt. was for remarkably well adapted Apamea. to Posidonius (in Athenaeus) vines of ChaAccording A lybon had been transplanted to Damascus. besides its fertility in along whole wagon-loads of this water in vessels of silver. . 483. 887: significat autenij quod inter ceteras negociationes Tyri. XIV. 4) Pliny. D. p. fies Laodicean wine. 22. the territory'. d'As. 2. in Ezech.. 5) Alexand. Elag. 23 Cuneiform literature 1 . wine of Lebanon". bulus supplied his horses at Rome with Apamene grapes An inscription. vine. See below note 2. He states "The Libanian vine also produces a wine with the smell of frankincense with which 2 Praiseworthy of mention they make libations to the gods" . the Somali Coast. Min. Hieronymus testithat still at his time Damascene wine was exported to " Tyre in his Comment. Strabo. with a good harbor. 2) Pliny. e. see also Waddington. ad nundinas eius de Damasco deferebatur vinum pinguissimum et lana praeFamous was the wine cipua. Hosea 14. For this reason the xootarreiov 1) ubwp was p. Ibn Batuta I. c. XVI. Ill. Cf. was imported into Abyssinia. To both kinds the name mulsum is For a reference to the wine of Apamea. 21). . Insc. must have been rich in vineyards and wine. 188 [Bara]).The Wines of the Ancient Orient. 27. p. p. cernis Quae bitis genuit sup aprico sole refecta (CILIII. of Laodicea 5 Aleppo. probably of the fourth (Lampr. over the door of a large wine-press near Apacentury mea. tes valley: Nectareos succos.

ed. It is. southwest of Qinnasrin: "There are here also fig-trees and olives. Idrisi refers to the fact that the vineyards of Baalbec produce more grapes than the people need for home-consumption. Anir Mu'allaqat I. which came l fromthecountr) ofAmurru. Wiistenfeld. Vol. or a must' of Baalbek and Qasirin. and bring our morning draught from thy goblet. Both possessed 4) vineyards. Memoire sur la a In Nasir-i-Khusran's Diary of a Jour). 3) Strabo. IV. The country of Alashiya. . line 2. renown 6 1) . of which the greater part The whole mountain overhanging is exported to Alexandria. who go up from al-Khuss with wine. awake. Viticulture and Brewing. Mu allaqat 7 mentions the wines fruit-juice. 829. but that it is a special c 2 Amr. furnished a liquor which ' . 7 and Yaqut III. In Pap. Q^ T lA \^> pi. cial 15. Z. 6) . MQA J^vi or also kenny. v. other respects. See Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society. < > situated near Qadesh. 646. the other near Aleppo. the city is planted almost to its summit with vines". p. called fity. and pistachios and The culture of vine at almonds and grapes in plenty".. l 1877. 32. de Rouge. Hamasa. 1 . according to Pap. one at the Jordan. which exported it to Arabia 4 Hassan ibnThabit 5 mentions the wine of Bait Ras. 5. . Anast. 8. 3 the name of a certain beverage is given.. Strabo 3 mentions the wine of Seleucia. p. IV. and do not keep the wines of Anderein". 8: "merchants. 97 ^^ ney through Syria and Palestine mention is made of the grapes of Ma'arrah an Nu'man. 15. 3. "Now then. The wine of al-Khuss in the neighborhood of Qadesia is mentioned in Imruulqais XVII. abounds with wine. of that name. Nasir-i-Khusran wrote in 1047 A. 380. was *><> b*to>. Good wine was grown in the Syrian Androna. Kitab al-'aganl XI.' Anast. In the Hauran the wines of Sarkhad and Bosra enjoyed c . a s P e' propagation. It is called keny. 4. kind of grape-wine (see E. Mac arra an Nu'man is also mentioned by Idrisi. until they discharge it at Yusur''. . Yaqut knows of two localities 5) Ibn Hisham. VII. refer to a certain however. IV. 87. D. 2) Aeg.24 Lutz. likely that this name does not brand of grape-wine.

5 that the Hebrews regretted to leave behind the wines of Egypt. . 25 / read in Num. pp. as now. 33. XX. i. South-west of Hebron. ii . the vine Such trees as need little water. 8. and farther south the old country of the Philistines. T. T 3. e. The words are equivalent to "a land abounding in flocks and thickly planted with fruitful vineyards". were renowned winedistricts in Rabbinic times until the beginning of the Middle- Hakkerem 1) Num. Ammonites. 7) Jer. 13. ed. also the Diwan of the Hudhailites. 13. 6) Jdg. at the time of their departure. IV. 23 ff. and each kind had its special use. S. according to the Kitab al-'agani VIII. grow here abundantly. Jer. Hos. 225. Neh. 17. 7. MNidda 1. Pi). 96. 3. 4) Pal. . grape-syrup)". 17. 6. 11. . 3. 5. Along the way are many villages with gardens and cultivated fields. Wine. . 10. the olive and the sumach. Dt. 4. milk and dibs (i. 5) $253. (i. 2. probable that the proper ren- (Ex. Sour milk. ii. 10. 9. 14. 24. 9. fl^pl) is a place-name testifying to the culture of vine in the plain. 8. 3) . 8) should be: "A land flowing with milk and honey" "A land flowing with leben* sour e. 24. in attested even the Old Testament l . The grapes of the vicinity of Hebron were partiNasir-i-Khusran 4 says: "From the Holy cularly renowned. indeed. according to Abel Keramim (DTQ-$ 55) 6 a village of the was still rich in vineyards at Eusebius' time. and of their own accord".The Wines of the Ancient Orient. valley near Hebron bears the name Nahal Eshkol (bsit^ bn?) 5 i. The plain of Sharon. 6. 74 and 75 was considered to be food for slaves in Ancient Arabia. A of 'Anab (S3*). 2) Dt. as for example and the fig. 6.. was one of the chief It is 2 products of the land dering of the expression . 7. Yet Palestine was a country richly blessed with vineThis is We yards long before the Hebrews arrived. Nu. 14.. in the mountain of Judah. Lagarde. lay the city . Beth Onomastica sacra.. and the road runs towards the south. 20) saw in Noah the The variety of grapes in ancient times. i. b 2Oa biq'ath beth kerem (DID mD. Cf. "the valley of grapes". The Hebrew tradition (Gen. XIII. City to Hebron is six leagues. 9 but compare Lebid XI. e. Vol. was very great in Palestine. 22. 39. originator of viticulture. A number of place-names bear witness to viticulture. 7 in Judah is another place-name indi(D"V2Jl rns) cating the culture of vine.

Next follow the wines of Beth Rima and Beth Laban in the mountain. were very sweet. n. a sweet and weak new wine. while at the time of the second temple this wine was furnished to both the people of Tyre and of Sidon is attested by -a Viticulture about the city of Lachish representation of the Assyrian king Senna. planted with figtrees and vines (see Illustr. =f verso 2. 3. 2. as well as those of Syria. the hlllston i) The Babylonian Talmud 4 men(rjXiotfTOv). 16. 9. The. 19 ff. 7. 8. yard in Baal-Hamon ("pEjn b#3) mentioned in Jdg. In the Inscription of Una lines 24 and 25 we read 0<wwvv^ Jj Jin "this its figs army returned in safety (after) it had cut down Herusha (and) *" its vines". Geogr. According to the Mishna Qeruchim and Chatulim produced the best grades of wine. mentions also the vineyard of Kefar 'Aziz b Sabb. like syrup. in which the king is shown seated upon his throne in a hill-country. 2 cherib. 14 the people of Tyre were furnished with Judaean wine during the building operations of the first temple. wine of the plain of Sharon Haru or Northern was extremely strong. 5 l saret see Neubauer. Anast. is Southern Palestine. portion of */ 3 wine to to After 2 /3 it water had been mixed it still was equal kinds in in the pro- undiluted to Carmel-wine. 2) Cant. of Sharon. Chron. Esra 3. 45. MKil. that ). "prima wine Kharu". No. The wine Palestine is not infrequently mentioned the Egyptians 3 by The wines of Palestine. 4) Baba Bathra 97 a . According to Solomon possessed a vineThe vineyards of Shilo are II. 215. Different strength of wines were known tions the Hebrews. and Kefar Signa in the plain. referring to the country of the (r of ^\ . 21. U 3) See for instance Pap. . 2). m> _. I and Pitomstele 17 1s /WSAAA Q I 5 I 66 o XC ff. of 4. These places were probably situated in the plain Ages. Viticulture and Brewing. 147 b mentions the wine of Perugitha Regarding the wine of the valley of Genne6.26 Lutz.

2. called "the smoked 1 wine". vine-clad hills in the background (after Gressmann. was of a wine prepared from raisins. the name . "Three-leaf" wine (tfZ"ibm 13 VTfan b Sabb 29 a) was the name of a wine pre ssed from the No. grapes of a vinestalk that had borne leaves for the third time.. Altorient.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. the grapes were exposed to the sun Another new wine was for a few days prior to pressing. e. Kushi was a dark red wine prepared from dark blue grapes. the Psythia or Amminea of the Romans. Texte und Bilder). Sennacherib before Lachish. From the grapes Simmuqlm. 27 In preparing this wine. i.

. 14. whenever wine was mixed with 4 honey or spices Honey-wine was not known to the ancient Hebrews. who came to Jerusalem. p. brought him many precious gifts. This vineyard was planted in this place. was a bitter-tasting herb-wine. This vineyard is mentioned by Solomon in the Song of Songs. which seems to have For ritual been used more generally for medical purposes and days of festivities only Yayin was permitted to purposes be used. sheni 2. of the Speculum Historiale says. Greek oivdvx)r). of the wild-growing vine (Vitis labrusca L. Engedi. or (bJnvOiTr^ fcttlpT. IX. from the ends of the earth to hearken to the wisdom of Solomon. Felix Fabri. 2. 'ptPl^p was a spiced wine. Pilgr. "Moreover upon these mountains there once stood that exceeding famous vineyard of Engedi. which root the king planted on the Mount of Engedi. The custom of mixing the wines with water seems to have been first It was considered introduced in the Graeco-Roman times 2 a deterioration of the precious and noble juice 3 So it was considered also in Rabbinic times. 2. 6) Pal. . Viticulture and Brewing. and it was grown in the vineyard there. Yayin was an old. i. 4 under the name ttJN3. and it. The author *. that the queen of Sheba. shall who it was who dug The II. A second honey-wine.28 Lutz. possibly mentioned in 22. Shabb. M. also called "pFO^OSK. up and transplanted is and of the 1) vitis laorusca L. cant. S. . i. where he says: "My beloved Engedi". Vol. The vineyards of Engedi are mentioned in Cant. 15.. 189. . . Kings 1O. 4) Maas. "pbttlStf in the Talmud used to one part of honey. among which was the root of the balsam. 39 3) Is. as being a gift beyond all price. Its foreign origin is shown by the nomenclature 5 Four parts of wine were otvojieXi. 2) 5) Mace. I. as is told in I. 20. Is. which received a /certain The quantity of frankincense (iDllb) and pepper ("pbsbS). T. Greek d\]/iviov. unadultered grape-wine. by King Solomon.) was prepared a wine called tVWbS. by the mouth of Josephus. wherein grew balsam beyond all price. is like a cluster is of camphire in the vineyards I of tell This vineyard it now in Egypt. vinum conditum. writing about 1480 1483 of our era gives us the following account of the vineyards of Engedi. 5.

He writes "Half a league west of Bethlehem is a village called Bezek. 1213. Vol. Tal- mud. of Antaradus and of Margat. by forbidden to be drunk on account of the neighborin hood of Kefar Pagesh. as we read in Gen. so that there is land". zar. that of Borgatha on account of the neighborhood of Birath Sariqah. 31 b: KnBBB 5pTP KTQrn 13E tfb Kb^bto)Josephus. 89 ff.. Meg6a the country of Naphtali was everywhere covered with fruitful fields and vineyards.) praises particularly the wine of Bezek. it was more greatly esteemed than oil (Nazir. Pilgr. 29 balsam and camphire. T. of Sidon. and for this reason. Beside balsam there once grew on this mountain an excellent wine. . that of 'Ain-Kushith on account of the neighborhood of Kefar Shalem". pp. Gi-im-tu Gi-in-tu] it appears that viticulture and the making of wine must have been very prominent here as well as in "isnirj = nil and "jiBi nil. c X. According to Babyl. but no shrubs. D. wherewith it is believed that Lot's daughters made their father drunk. Wars. Regarding the vineyards of Samaria and Moab see Jud. XII. on account of the fact that these wines were grown inhabited Ogdor is places which were situated near settlements Thus Abod. 8 states that Gennesaret "supplies men with the principal fruits. p. of the Lebanon. 4: "The wine of Samaritans. The same author mentions (n|.The Wines virtues of of the Ancient Orient. Judging" from the name of the city of Gath cellent wine. Assyr. S. 9. In Galilee little wine was produced. 31 a the reading is: "fiotf tfnpn "ISO bttn KP^HO rrru ^a&B mox ^ans "p* ^ "P [) Pal. west of Bethlehem. which abounds with exin no better to be found in the also the wines in the Valley of Rephaim. and that in one place they found shoots of balsam. 19". TT3n btt r btt? nn*o ^DDIO ^nsms 5toi TDDE IBD ^SSB iio&s &on rip^no DbtD 152 ^DSia rpETD "p*. The Talmud mentions certain wines which were prohibited at a certain period. in Part II. B III. Burchard of Mount Sion 1 (1280 A. zar. I have read an ancient pilgrim's book that some pilgrims to the Holy Land once wandered over these mountains searching carefully. during the months in the year". 68. with grapes and figs continually. In Abod.

It dia- was Apple- wine seems also to have been known to the inhabitants of Palestine 5 During the time of harvest a sour beverage called pph (Rt. strictly Palestinian undoubtedly due to the fact that much of the wine that was exported from Phoenicia was labelled as Phoenician. Aram. 2. Terum. Syr. j^. however. JsL) is the which was customarily prepared from a poor quality of wine (vinum culpatum}. From K-n 1) K"Ott> of the laurel-tree was prepared (bPesach. Ps. 8. FMX. while amongst Romans. 56 a).. but we shall rather follow the Greek and Roman usage and refer to common word them the here. The leaves of the MD. 15. 5 (-rjOa). whereas it was originally prepared by peoples This is living in the countries adjacent to Phoenicia. or thought to be Phoenician wine by Ihe foreign receivers. the fruit All the ancient people were fond of spiced wines. Pomegranate. sbn. M. liked it to strengthen the wine . 9. 2. by adding 2 Wherever the Old palatable Testament speaks of "mixing the wine" 3 the preparation of such "spiced wines" is meant. 11. 5.^O Lutz. cf. is possibly identical with spiced wine. 14. Chomez . i. thus making more . The pomegranate. There remains some doubt whether the following beverages should be classed with the wines or the beer. 1O ttfiirt riK M^ti pfcinfi. Spiced wines were prohibited. The Hebrews 1 spices. for "vinegar". 5. which . It was considered a refreshing and strengthening beverage even in later times. 22. 23. 3) Is. (Coptic MX. 2. Ps. 8. from this juice that pomegranate-wine was prepared. f. 9. 22) was sometimes used. cf. Mishna (Baba Bathra 98 a) mentions perfumed wine. 69.2 . Ud. The Classical writers do not dwell on the discussion of the wines. Wine mixed with myrrh was considered a narcotic 4 the the Greeks and myrrh-wine was esteemed as less intoxicatThe ing. 2. Talm.) 4) Mk. Arab. Prov. contains a large number of juicy fruitstones. i. e. an apple-shaped red fruit of 510 cm meter. therefore being favored as a drink for women. for ceremonial purposes. Viticulture and Brewing. (C^iB") 0^0?) is mentioned in Cant. According to Rabbinic usage they should be enumerated amongst the beers. 75. 2) Yayin harekakh\ Cant..

which came from the Phoenician city of Byblos 3 The vinestalk of Byblos was planted in Luciana as well as in Sicily 4 . 9(7). 2) CIG III. understood to be a wine. 107 a). lo: dives et aureis mercator exsiccet culullis vina Syria reparata merce Dis earns ipsis\ quippe ter et quater anno revisens aequor Atlanticum impune. Phokas 4) It else stated that a certain king TT6\Xiq of Sikyon (Poll. to have contained the birthplace (Nysa) of Dionysos. also neighborhood of Damascus. n. speaks of |3u(3)ua and of (BupAiva u. nician wine was exported together with the wines bought in Palestine and Syria and elsewhere. ^ttW btt? "Ott was a date-wine mixed with cus- cuta. Jo. bably reference to the viticulture of Byblos. for we read in Pap. enormous.atfxAa which has pro. modern Djibeil. in the 3) For this but afterwards grew wine see Pliny. Geop. The . I. Apoll. or VI. II. is brought to her by ship". 16) brought the plant to Sicily.. Od. 327. XIV. and Athen. 17 states that the traffic of wine led the Phoenician traders even to Spain and the nearby islands. 485. p. p. Rhod. The wine of Tyre is mentioned in Alex. 1) The Chalybonium came originally from Beroea. Horace. 2. 77 b and bPesach.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. is i. 18 that "water . Most of it was shipped to Egypt. Arabic el-Kobyle.. 5. an Argeian called TT6\ioc or Syracuse. but also Arabia. Pliny 14. 457. Gubel. 31.. 407. Similar was the beverage called 1:08. Byblos. It claimed distinction together with the Syrian Chalybonium ! Tyre was richer in beer and wine than in water. 73. Trail. 5774 lines 58 and 92. 3! the laurus malabathrum. Wine constituted one of the chief articles of the Phoenician traders and the gain from this export article must have been Compare f. The BipAivoc. also were used for making wine. e. at least in some instances. C. "Brier-wine". eastern Africa and India were supplied with the famous stocks of the Phoenician wine-merchants. According to Schol. Phoenicia Phoecultivated wine of excellent quality and great quantity. Phoenicia also was one of the important wine countries of the Orient. which grows on a thorn-bush ("Win). Anast. 540 and 983 it shared the distinction. oivoq is. Diod. amongst other countries. 28 d.. i. IV. An inscription of Heraclea in Lucania 2 dating from the end of the fourth century B. I. and 495. prepared from the fruit of the USD brier (See bKethub. Hist.

217. 6) Corp. h. 29. of Arvad is mentioned in an Egyptian inscription 3 'For the many that .. Hippys (in Athen. court of Guntram. . 17. op. 562. p. Pap. Diac. 1) The famous vine-plant of Byblos was moreover cultivated in Thrace. 16. 7. Carm. 88 7) Stark. Pliny (XIV. called Maioumas.. c. Egypt. Ill. Bu|3Xi(v)o<. but that they are possession. Idrisi also mentions the vineyards of that city. king of Syracuse. 5) 18). 2) names this wine besides the maroneic. of Archestratos (in Athen. ff. was a wine of Phoenicia. p. king of Burgundia (Gregor. I. Carm. 15 and Isid. p. Not every ginal Byblos vine-stalk The |3ip)uvoc. 335. Armenides (in Athen. olvoc tainly to the wine of the Phoenician city. 25. Joppa Thou enterest for the purpose of getting food. 2 ff. Dtscr. Marc. and thou findest there the . Achilles Tatios (II. Viticulture and Brewing. Orig. I. 461. XVI. v 3) See Breast. . 29 b) refers cerBupXio. i Gaza was the center of the wine-trade for Egypt and This city had built up a considerable industry in the . olvoc. (Ael. contained a colony of wine dealers 5 Mention is made of the wine of Gaza also in the Code of 6 Justinian. and 407. 7.22 Lutz. 9 (7)) mentions the wine of Berytos 2 and the wine of Tripolis (XIV. Sid. 483. olvo<. I. min. which is a Thracian wine. . therefore. . olvoc. 17. 62. II. The wine of Sarepta is mentioned in Alexand. I. Just. Raisins of excellent quality 2) See also Imhoof Blumer. Syria. contains a reference to the enterest It reads: "When thou vineyards of Joppa. also called Antisare and Oisyme. 31 a) knew of a Thracian Bi^Xia. of Sicily XII. but from Italy. V. Orb. 31 b) states that an Argeian TT6XXi<.. p. 325. Trail. and some other places 1 All the wines made from the oriwere called |3i3>uvoc..was therefore also called TT6XXio<. p. II. had brought the fyuueXo? pipXia to Syracuse. c.. The wine of the country now nearly completely destroyed. thou findest a garden green as the spring. and in Sid.. Regarding the viticulture of Horns he states that this city . I. 4) Tot. The harbor manufacture of wine-jars for the export trade 4 of Gaza. v. 9 (7)). Apoll. luxury at the Turon. together with the other famous wines of that time This wine was known in the Occident under the names of "Gazetum" and "Gazetinum" 7 The wine was considered a . were exported from Berytus (Plin. Anast. 31). XX. Apoll. 29). possessed vineyards at the time of the Muhammedan is prior to the Crusades. de laud. wine of Gaza see 3.

.. 6. who resides in Egypt) the Fenkhu sail southward with their wine". because that country produces much it (Peripl. which produces about twenty different kinds of grapes and all other kinds of fruit of excellent quality". i) ibid. 64. 4. In Edfu the wine of the Fenkhu . 2. however not much.). 66. met. the ancient times planted in Arabia. ( see Br - WB. H. and a larger one of wine". amongst other countries mentioned. The poet al-A'sha of fertile Bakr 4 sings of the pleasures of the vintage at a place called He was in possession of his own winepress. erythr. I. Aen. 434). A III. 13. AWWN city. 2} j\ Geogr. for the country itself produces a fair quantity of wheat. Sabaische Denkmliler. 3) See also Diod. l8lff. d'Edrisi. According to Bukhari of al-Yaman also used to drink honey-wine the inhabitants Sprenger. Into Muza in South Arabia were im- - ported "wine and grain. vineyards were also .) says: "It is situated two Dahr hours or less (west) of San'a and a brook waters both sides of the wadi. Vol. No..The Wines of the Ancient Orient.__ (1 I jQ. (to Buto of Am. Diet. to the viticulture of this city in conjunction with that of Ascalon and Arsuf import in I. Geogr. p. cf. Virg. 4) contemporary of the prophet. 3 . 11 contains an inscription which testifies to the culture of vine c amongst the Bata who dwelled near the Wadi Dahr. e. in al-Yaman (p. D. Lutz. c Anafit [CUiUp] in al-Yaman Idrisi states that. p. Ill. 5) Bukhari. p. it was surrounted by vineyards. 348.. According to Diod. citing Hamdani's Iklil about the Wadi (bif). Mordtmann-Miiller. IV. 3 1 5 Osiris had even discovered the vine at Nysa in Arabia The of Periplus advised the sailors to load little wine for Arabia as a place of destination. is called an article of the foreign country 2 Wherever the climate permitted it. 46 states that according to Hamdani the Wadi Jaubert. in his garding 5 time. 805 und Ovid. it is said of an Egyptian coast LJ O /WWW i. Miiller . is also placed in Arabia. Viticulture and Brewing. 78. p.. Vol. According to Hesychius Nysa and the Nysaean mountain. 1 . 33 Idrisi refers ovely maiden who takes care of the wines". V. The sufficient valleys of al-Yaman produced at least wine for home-consumption. 650 _ __. ReAthafit.

The Omayyade caliph Yazid T.34 Lutz. 9. says: *U\ J~XS vJU. I. According to Wellsted I. Fee See Dalman. exists. 103 ft. p. the excellence of their grapes i) 7 . p.. Oppo- 'Oman Masqat (ksL**~o) in 'Oman. distant from San'a and 48 m. Mecca produced but a small quantity of grapes 4 The 5 vineyards of Petra are mentioned by Pliny (XIV. Granatapfel. place. 7) See Abulfeda. the inhabi- tants of G'abal akhdar in make site wine.. a mount. near and far 1 . I: "Feigen. Vol. 8. Jaubert. 144. p. vineyards of wadi musa near Petra.. in wine was exported from Arabia to Barygaza in India. The the middle of the Persian gulf vine was cultivated 3 mountain valleys of 'Oman were the regions originally proThe Periplus even states that ducing the muscatel -grape. 7. in vines which produced grapes of an The dried grapes were of an excellent extraordinary The raisins of G'enwan were exported taste and expensive. p. I. parasangs west of San'a. Viticulture and Brewing. 49. v.*> regarding which the Tag al-'Arus. . s Dahr produces a certain kind of grape. Studien- zur mittclaltcrl. dated suggested Petra in the Balearic Islands. on the island of Kaish (^u^). c. 3) Jaubert. c. are mentioned also the See ZDPV. pL IV. Shibam. welche hier gedeihen". _?. c. 153. Aprikosen und Weinstocke sind die Fruchtbaume. und Topographic Syriens. 5) Vol.1 having vine-culture. 141). 4) Jaubert. Vol. abounded size. Culturgeschichte des Orients.. The island of Tylos in the Arabic gulf contained remarkable vines The surroundings of at-Ta'if and of al-Cathif were renowned for . wan (c>ly*^)> which is 72 m. p. Doubt.. called s. Idrisi 2 are engaged in viticulture and f states that Oman is growing wine. I. Kremer. Petra und seine Felsheiligtumer . c. Vol. o.. p."59. Jxol i'l^b u^O* ^UxJb c San a is mentioned by Yaqut as -xwo^JI. 6) Pliny XII. I. Hist. Mohammed 2) Jaubert. 151. p. Annal tnosl. 1218 and which was repeated Jan. Rohricht. p.. lu a papal bull of Honorius III. however.W ^>\ Jls (_^>) from Sa'da. predominantly Italian. I. 1226.. 139. . the fruit of which was used to make wine. o. lo possessed G' envineyards. I Geographic . caused the vineVol. 23. 238. X. o.. Aug. . which is situated eight ^^\ ^ ^A^. procured his wine from at-Ta'if (v. G. p. Theophr. according to Imr. 7). o. 6. giving an enumeration of the landed property of the monastery of Mount Sinai. 20. Of the latter place he says: "Wine is imported in the trading Laodicean and Arabian". if Pliny had in mind Petra in Arabia. 126.

a well-inhabited fortress of considerable . I may add here the interesting passage. J. 139). e. 64 praises the grapes and the raisins of at city Ta'if. . p. This was before wine to excess 5 significant case of inebriation is narrated. II.s *lj 7) Jaubert. Fleischer. generally date-wine seems to have been drunk 2 Several large kegs filled with strong drink were broken to pieces and wine-skins were emptied on the ground at the time when one of the castles of Chaibar was . 2) Bukhari. visions troop of the Sulaim goes to at-Ta'if in order to buy proand wine (Diwan of the Hudh. which abounded in dates. In Medina. On festive occasions the Arabs of pre-Mohammedan times were accustomed to use . Berlin 1882. the black stone and the Zemzem-well) l^. 21. 275. 1866. c. I. p. Wiistenfeld. At-Ta'if furnished Mecca with grapes (Idrisi.. MDCCCXXXI. 8) Palgrave. p. III. size. X$ p. taken by the forces of Muhammed Koran shows (v. 873. 184. 1 86. see also chapter IV. Kitab al-Ashriba. o. Eastern Arabia. Sadurn .. J. and it 69) testifies to the viticulalso that they prepared palm- wines 4 Mohammed placed the prohibition of intoxicating liquors upon his followers. U Geopn. Muhammed in Medina. 370. For a menfor instance. 48. 151 a. Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and I. Vol. 3* . No. I. possessed makes 1) 8 describing the G'auf. Vol. Muhammed in Medina. c. ist Das 3) 4) Wellhausen. 21 6). vineyards". Vol. in Abulfedae Historia Anteislamica 6 tion of the grapes of ad-Damr see Lebid. W. Yaqut. G. 145. Vol. (ed. lines 3 and 4: (i. A Rah (-\j {****>). 35 A yards of at-Ta'if to be destroyed when he beleaguered that 1 Qazwini II. lines 68). IV. . Palgrave a casual mention of viticulture in that district of Nor- many Ibn Hisham. 15lb) 3 . XLI. London.. ed. p. 380.. p. Lipsiae. p. The sixteenth Sura of the ture of the Arabs. and Wellhausen.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. Vakidi's Kitab al-Maghazi. (Waqidi.

. XIII. Viticulture and Brewing... 16. Lebid. there to eat grapes under clustering vine-trelabove and running streams around". 11 mentions dark wine. The Pre- 1416 Islamic spices Arabs prepared a punch from grape-juice by adding and hot water 5 A beverage. 14: "And ofttimes the wine. 1920.^6 Lutz. Vol. 16. 1866. old. p. which foams ^reddish the cup. and enjoy ourselves lises. e. water. Leyden. .. lo compares it to gazelle-blood. XVII. year after . Sir Charles. 15. 'Alqama Amr mixed with hot water. ' Arabia seems to have been generally of a red color. I. . 59. c 13. 1) Palgrave. c. pouring it freely to all" 4 Wine was quite frequently mixed with rainto heal headaches Krenkow. XL. Leiden. of Asad and '1913. Judging from its designation damu-'z-zicjq 2 i. "The apricot and the peach. Kowalski. 1 . Lebid. in tightly bound wine-skin flows wine. abound throughout these orchards and their fruit surpasses in copiousness and flavour that supplied by the gardens of Damascus or the hills of Syria and Palestine" For a casual remark on vines in Ha'il see Palgrave. them Arabia. XVIII. seated with palm-trees 1 . 3) Lyall. o. IX. From the blackish. The Diwans of^Abid ibn al-Abras. ibn at4) 5) 4 7 ufail. ^/^ *U-^. 17. Wine simply Mu'all. 38. London. (wine mixed mixed with rainwith rain-water and bee-honey). p. The Poetical Remains of Muzakim al *Uqaili. 2) Ham&sa. I. Lebid. or rather orchard. ed. c Lebid. . Old wine water. Wine grown Amr Mu allaqat 2 speaks of the saffron "blood of the slough". . Aged wine was highly esteemed. in fragrance of musk long time has it spent in the wine-jar. '* 559. -Vol. He says: "Sometimes a comfortable landed proprietor would invite us to pass an extemporary holiday morning in his garden. 9. 48. at will. 59. Narraive of a Year s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia. prepared from raisins. 74. XLI. in . F. XIV.have I quaffed in the morning before the year passing by Dawn shone forth to our mirth in the tent of a man rich in 3 Good wine was supposed bounty. p. Pure red wine. I. also Kais ibn al-Hartm. 47. color of the wine and Imr. of Amir ibn SaftraA.*>. ed Freytag. 2. He further states. the fig-tree and the vine. like broken pieces 13. XVIII. Abid V.

The Wines of the Ancient Orient. e. . but and planted their vineon artificially raised plots (Gudea: "which rises up on yards This fact has been overlooked by a magnificent place"). 1011 of Gudea. Babylonia was no real wine country. 1 . is that in Cylinder A. e. i. Egypt . To speak of borrowing would be very hasty. regarddate. name like of the vineyard 1) "The garden 'anqullu (that is e. It had a sour taste. aixepa BapuXwvioi. that the very same mode of planting vineyards was used by them. c. XXVIII. we shall see. A Yet vitiand turned away from these countries culture was practised in Southern Babylonia at a very early The earliest reference which we possess.13).. cerevisia). The alluvial ground of southern was Babylonia would have been the early Babylonians detrimental to this viticulture. which rises a mountain (planted) with vines on a magnificent place". 25: -rrivoum KrjXroi peppriaiav ujptitfjudvoi. so far. The genius of both civilizations was such that each one could come upon this devise without the help of the other. 23 the er& sar-gig-edin i.. as far as 2) See following chapter. tells us that Dionysos was angered with the Babylonians who drank beer (sikera). Afric. honey was added to sweeten it (Diwan of the Hudhailites. ing the planting of vineyards in Babylonia. Ancient Arabia imported most of its wines from Syria. however. This same passage is instructive up from another point of view.. In view. A. e-^u sig-ga-bi kur-gestin-bi- bi-x ki-ni-ldm-e ma-dm. is 3) This instance in Gudea is Babylonia concerned. .. The conditions of the soil and the climate in Southern Babylonia prohibited an extensive culture of vines. Kecrroi. udov AIYUTTTIOI. stating the reasons for the lack of extensive viticulture in that country. vines We 24: know like a mountain (planted) with also of the fact that the Babylonian vineyards had their special names as was the case in ancient 2 This bit of information we gain from Gudea. KaXajaov TTaioveq. myth. XXVIII. knew scholars so When we come to speak of the viticulture of the Ancient Egyptians in detail. It reads: ne-sag-bi kur-ge$tin-bibi-x '. 37 was called ma sebtb. Cyl. "The ne-sag was ". 100. (i. Aiovuaoc Y<*P KaT^Xmev the only reference to the custom. of the fact that the Babylonians at this early date at least 3 . i) Jul. fact far. "raisin-water". which was planted by the temple.

R 27. 47. 4) I 6) 7. According to Sanherib himself boasts that his land II. XXVI. A is undoubtedly the "raised plot". No. 19). 3 the wine matured in Babylonia was of a pale color: p. No. line 239: "[kimai]?u gapni tar-bit sadi-i eli ubanatsadd Ar-za-bi-a a-su-ni". c. According to 'Abid. is emphatically wrong. 193 Assyria suffered from too moist a climate. . the god said to have cut down its grapes. vines even flourished luxuriantly. . XV. 8. 2) Strabo. Viticulture and Brewing. Assyria was preeminently a land of corn and wine. . is such. Nabon. according to Kings 18. geogr. The kings of Assyria seem viticulture of Assyria. For the mountain-vines which grew on the heights see CT XXVI. 5 show that branches bearing from fifty to a hundred grapes were no rarity. The mountain called (II Habur R 51. it seems that if any borrowing occured. 606. lo and 869.38 Lutz. 1. 32 DTg-p*! nb ing t&'rvn'] pi fig. gave special names to their vineyards. XV. 28). in this instance the Babylonians were the In Northern Babylonia the conditions were more borrowers 1 . Herodotus. 16 ff. 8. More extensive viticulture lonia during the time of the . (ibid. The Babylonian wine was called nectar by Chaereus in Athen. see Lebid. 1) The ne-sag in Gudea's cylinder "the terrace" of the vineyard. 37 and XL. 3. for its vines. . we may suppose. 3) Strabo. For wines of Babylonia in pre-islamic 5) times. is In the legend of the god of pestilence. however. favorable to the vine. I. to have shown a great interest in the Herodotus I. 8. 4. 3 b) probably produced the Karan Ha- or. Strabo speaks about the vines' of Mesopotamia 3 Asurnasirpal planted vine4 while Sanherib tried to acclimatize all kinds yards in Kalah of foreign vines in Nineveh 5 As a particularly good grade of wine is mentioned the "mountain-wine". 2 1 and Thureau-Dangin. XVII. CT XXVI. which was detrimental to the raising of the vine. It seems that the wine of the mountain of Arzabia was one of the famous wines in Assyrian times 6 Hi-hi was likewise a mountain renowned . was introduced into BabyMacedonians 2 During the century preceding the advent of Islam the wines of Babylonia were renowned and exported to Arabia. I. Vines on the bank of the Araxes (Xenoph. wine of Caen ae I. 29 f. In some localities. Huitieme campagne de Sargon. 4. Anab. II. 2.

68l. and : drink ^U^l^ and II. the al.1 JUy It never became empty of pleasure-seekers (Yaq. festivities". 679 regarding the adara (the cloister of the virgins). The most famous wines. c. iLo shall sip wine of the in the shade During the rule of the Sasanides the Nestorian and Jacobite c Christians possessed many cloisters in the lraq in viticulture. Dair Thus we read in Yaq. 660 "It is large and frequently visited by people on account of the revelries. 30 bu-ru (IIR44. 17 states that has the most excellent grapes that are pressed in Bagdad". ui*aJb J*AX J^>T *j^xJ^ Regarding the Dair az-Zandaward in "it ^S _^AJ Bagdad Yaq. j***->.^ j*>) ^o.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. II. c .Atiqa of Bagdad e. 280. YaqutHI. 3). The district about for its wines.6:^. pi. p. Here they were more or less safe to enjoy the excellent wines that were stored in the cellars of the cloisters. Even nunneries possessed their wineshops. the entertainments. was renowned for its black grapes. The vilMahalla al. were extensively engaged These whose inmates cloisters were the meeting-places of poets and cavaliers during the time of the Omayyades and the first 'Abbaside caliphs. Bakuba north-east of Bagdad produced plenty of wine. II.mountain. virgins live in it. of all 665. or wineshop. however. 49 (14434). this place than all others elsewhere. the holy wineland of the goddess In the mountain of Hamrin was situated a city called Siris 1 . According to Muqaddasi grapes abounded in the neighborhood of the 1) See Hommel.jj-uJ^. The to cloister Dair Darmalis (JjJ seems have contained a hanut. came from tfie Hamrin.Alt from its location near 'Alt: "Halidi says: I have seen it.Atiqa or lage Sunaya. 13g).. Grundriss. II. me it grapes of Zandaward the forenoon of (grape)-clusters". which was also c called Dair al. 197. 10. ^Jl I w_jUft\Jl y^Ll ^ ^*$ ^IvXsLo Abu No was sings (ibid^}\ "Bring . judging from the words of Yaq. line . which ripened sooner at Ninua 2 which was noted c i. 2) CT X. there are also wineshops in it c al- ^a OUUw^ ^^ a^-uJ <*oj <*6\XfcUo2 ^xJU.

29. Assyr. Hauqal 167 mentions the extensive vineyards about the Accordings to Johns. 29000 vinestalks (Johns. Vol. and a shop of for wine-merchants. Only special means assured the growth of the vine. classical writers assert that there Regarding Susa. IV. fD". Thus karanu. Inu (f^. Idrisi states that vineyards were planted lines 21 and 35). c along the river Hawaii (<J>^) which comes from Diyar Rebia These vineyards were probably tended to by (^j*. or else imply still another. Instead of loosening the ground. "wine". c. p. 896. He further notices that karmu "vineyard". It is a constant pleasure-resort for people who have leisure.. gupnu. and *inafru. "grape". p. 3) Aufsatze und Abhandlungen. p. 1 tf?" !? i s non-Semitic to him. pluck" (Assurnasirpal 43 and 71) and "fruit" (inbu). "stem. geogr. "vine". Deeds and Docu5 ments. the poets frequently make mention lAj>.o^ J^).5 [grape]. o.40 city of' talm.: +\ U^ u-^^^o \^^ . they simply drilled a hole with a rod which was fitted with an iron on one end. the better to admit the heat. Lutz. Viticulture and Brewing. Into these holes they placed the shoots 2 . which according to him are either non-Semitic words. and "vineyard".4 states: "It is a village between Bagdad and 'Ukbara. from which originates a well-known wine. it". Some vineyards one single garden in Singara bore 2400 vinestalks. 2) Strabo. 362. inu wine is late in Babylonian and Hommel is right $a titti. Doomsday Book. more general meaning. II. Greek Kapoivov.. it is regards Babylonia. the ancient capital of Elam.>luXob city of Samarra. have in Assyro-Babylonian still the general meanings "acreland". I. about Harran numbered even 15000 and .^Inu 2. 149. A famous wine was grown in the village of Qutrabbul (J?^)' Yaq. . XV. and a foreign importation as far as West-Semitic. 133. who lived in settled habitations on the banks of this river J . 3 words as "vine". the Arabs. 16 we possess a reference to fig. An Assyr. In Strassm. 93. Hommel vine at all conjectures that the Semites did not know the This he supposes from such in the oldest time. = 1) Jaubert. Col. 0^. the were no vines at that place before the conquest of Alexander.

same as the sahtu above. HW. . 5136. p. 6.. AL. to which some sesame-oil had been added. &lu supplies us with a number of of towns and districts in which the vine [was cultiObv. 67. 705. 122) is important . Sometimes also cassia-leaves were used to flavor and improve the quality of the date-wine. of wine: Meissner. 25. 2) = More probably 4) See chapter III. wine. names vated. was always beer Harper 43 (K. 278. "Pressed" wine? a "filtered" wine C^J?^Tp D-patZJ. 383. According to Xenophon (Anab. 48. as well as inu sa Ukari in words from inu. "fruit (ka) (which) grows in abundance. the poorer classes of Babylonia. Delitzsch. Heidelberg. Babylonien und Assyrien. This is shown by its Sumerian name ka-lum(-ma) which signifies = . Namzitu 57) inu (b). but caused headache. The national drink of the Babylonians. VR 64 65 a with II R 25. 51) states that fresh dates cause intoxication and headache. b shows that a word inu line is 168 (Delitzsch. or. p. Jer. 5. 48.' s. The date-palm grew in abundance in Babylonia. in- probably in some stances the in Str. Also written mnnziqu and munzuqu. Sttidien. how4 5 ever. Tabatu was a beverage prepared from water and a small addition of fermented fruit-juices or wine. Is. It is frequently mentioned in medical texts. Studien. Sum. v. 240 observes that during the Nee-Babylonian time 1 kur (= 121 1) of dates yielded one ton of date-wine. n. Assyr. 14) it was a pleasant drink. S = namzitu = pressed wine. . Kurunnu was the name applied to datewine. compa- A rison between = mutin = kar&nu existed. 23. See ZDMG. 5) See also J3AIV. 49. Pliny (h. 1920. Meissner. 3) Delitzsch. which grows luxuThus date-wine supplied a cheaper drink for riantly (lum)"*. Assyr. VI. See also Syl. for our investigation.. ed. read: am ^ lu rab-kar-man m -Daian-Adad since it (19) (21) l-sa-na m * tu Hal-zi-ad-bar aiu &lu (20) ilu Bir-tum Sa-ris * lu &lu Ar-zu-hi-na * Iu Arba-ilu Gu-za-na (22) Tam-nu-na 1) Ini alpi in Meissner. II. 3. (== tintu) are West-Semitic VI mentions three brands = alpi = ox-eye = sa-ah-tu = pressed wine gi$-ge$tin-sur-ra gis-ge$tin-ha-babbar-a = mu-zi-qu = mixed wine gi$-gestin-igi-gud i-ni * 2 .The Wines of in the Ancient Orient. II. A j saying that -inu as well as tittu borrowings. Namzitu = "must" Nbd. lines l8ff. are naturally different 52.

187 10) III R 48. "an overseer of the vineyards" was Arba'ilu are well 15. raised in BA IV. of Arzuhina of Arba'ilu. (23) Ri-mu-su. of Birtum. Claytablet inscr. rad. 8 The It was situated on the river Habur. 12. (Cf. both of which seem to have been situated in the district of the Gurumu on the lower Zab 6 Arzuhina (written also Ur-zu-hi-na in Harper. "the overseers of the vineyards Daian-Adad of Isana. Pil. 26) last city mentioned in the Harper text. Arba'ilu (ApjBrjXa. 3. modern Erbil) lay between the upper and the lower Zab. 346 10 mentions an overseer of the vineyards See 1) PSBA. p. of Rimusu". Kings 17. Viticulture and Brewing. of Sharish. 4 (== KB IV. 12. alu Ar-zu-hi-na. Birtu-sa-Labbanat Birtu-sa-Kinia It is more likely that . 516 cites San. and Babyl. and opposite the city of Zaban. Isan Koi. 8) 18. i. cities compounded with . I. Pa1 ff. Chr. e. 49.-Letters. Delitzsch. . II. 6. 9) BA 11 "ultu libbi IV. IV) and 4 matati. Birtu was Since situated west of the Euphrates. of Guzana. Assyr. between Aleppo and Biregik. See also. 11. and was a Hittite city 2 the name Birtu occurs frequently. iluRi-mu-sa It is KAT.. IS. (ffte. 117 and to BA II. placed. The former. 4. 513. 4) Tigl. June is 1882. Delitzsch. No.42 41u Lutz. Ina eli aluZa-ban u-ba-li-e ina* tar-si raufoviTK. No. . p. however. the sixth of 8 villages which were connected by a canal with the river Choser. Rimusu lay on a canal of the river Husur 9 All of these cities had vineyards over which a rab-karmani.. 5) Ibid.. 8 1 8 narate uSahra ana libbinaru Husur uSesir". 6) 7) See Schiffer. in Ptol. p. in the country of Halziadbar. Guzana is a city which is mentioned in the Old Testament Is. 2 . 114. 123. whether this city is meant 3 The texts mention the following. which sheds its waters into the Tigris south of Kuyungik. Birtu: 5 Birtu-sa-Kar-ilu-bel- and Birtu-sa-Sarraone of the two latter cities is intended here.. according to river 16 b 7 was situated on the lower Zab . is Tell Isan. 19. 184 and Winckler. known cities. names of giti. it remains doubtful. 8. The city Isan. of Tamnuna. Die Aramaer. V. II R65. . p. p. mentioned first. in the plain between Sadjur and The city is here stated to be Kerzun. 269). Obel. p. Bav. Par ad. . 33 35. 2) 3) Thus according This doubt Salm. 37. 45' north of Zembur 1 situated in the country (or district) of Halziadbar. . 5. Tablet K.

Socin II. In PreIslamic times Babylonia exported some wine to Arabia 4 Amongst the multitude of business documents of Assyria and Babylonia. yrfto (Gen. Wine is also mentioned among the tribute of Hapini of Tilabne. continually. 2023) and Giri-Dadi of e. south-east of Arab-Dagh was Marqasi. mat Simmini. Sarugi is the district of Serug. Hazaz ( Azaz). Bit-Adini was an excellent wine-growing country. This would give us an additional Assyrian testimony of the viticulture of the district of Damascus 2 in . 7. . i. 5) (i) I. 125: [. Nulia and Butamu. C.. So does Arame c apil Gusi.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. according to the list of tribute. probably rrtttj Job II. Cyl. X. XVII. . . 47. b 31 32 end. Ahuni of Bit-Adini offers wine as tribute to Salmanassar II. . . XL. mat Tu'immu. Die Aramaer. modern Mar'ash. Grot. . in the governor of Damascus 1 it is most likely that the city of Maganuba lay within the district of Damascus. II R mentions as wine-countries Hulbum and Izallu. 59. Siklu]mes j a matuGar-ga-mis (4) (2) [Sa m. 41) e mention the wine of Ana at the upper Euphrates.).Za-ma-a-ni iddanana [Sum] -ma la iddinini a-ki ma-hi-ri (7) . Imr. mat Hilbunim. king of the Patinaean cities of Taia. mat Aranabanim. shekel]s .-abu-u-a s"a (3) (5) a-na ina sa m-Bel-ahhemes na Hbbibi 9 imeru karanimes ina gib-bar (5) 9 qa mini Bit. the year of 877 B. between Belih and the Euphra3 Mutallu of Gurgum. See Johns. Assyr. The wine of these countries he offered up. A? of the city of Maganuba. mat Bit-Kubatim and mat Bitatim (I R 65 I. 37. Since the document is dated . 64. . in 859 B.. In mat Asalli Adad-'i-me brings to Asurnasirpal among other tribute also wine. 11). 4) Lebid. which we shall presently discuss. C. C. p. there are some which refer to the sale of wine. Nebukadnezzar praises the wines of mat Izallam. 22 25. 3) Schiffer. 21 23. mat Suham (extenting from above the mouth of the river Belih towards the mouth of the Habur. also furnishes wine to capital Salmanassar II. At alBahrain the vines were planted between the date-palms. i) Year 694 B. 423 5 reads: "[. 2) I R 65 66'a. whose tes. Ga'uni of Safrugi].. the eponymate of Ilu-ittia. 10 and Alqama (ed. . K. Deeds and Documents. like the water of the river on the altar of Marduk c and of Zarpanitum.

however. 276. he shall give according to the marketprice of Nineveh.. m. that part of Hittite empire of Shubbiluliuma. Amida of the Classics. 687 B. after the break-up of the unified Since 876 B. In the of Riba. Viticulture and Brewing.. of Shepapresence Ashur. pp. of silver of Carchemish [belonging to j-abua. Its capital was Amedi (or Amedu).Ri-ba-a-a (9) mahar m. But it still uses in 687 B. if he does not give (the wine).. The wine shall be given in Bit-Zamani.CT -bu-ku (12) mahar m. 2) Cf. e. C. Wo lag das Paradies. ina pan' 3) "2 imeru 50 qa isukaranimes (2) a m-Man-nu-ki-Ninuaki (3) m. ahhe. 1893. The money paid for the delivery of the nine imers of wine is that of the standard of Carchemish.Ut-ta-a-ma (4) [ina] arfcuAiaru isukaranumes (5) [ina alu]Ni-nu-a iddanan (6)Summa] la i-di-ni (7) [ki ma-h]i-ri Sa Ninuaki (8) [kaspu] iddanan ( 9 ) [arfcuTebetu Schiffer. the former Hittite kingdom was. Die Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforschung. 361 refers to the sale of wine Bekr. of Nabu-bel-ilani.Man-nula-pa-a-a ki-aluNinua (13) mahar m. Streck.. of the eponymate of Mannu-ki-Adad" 3 text 4 speaks of the delivery of wine according to the measure (8) mahar m.gepa-Agursur (n) mahar m. of Ubuku. XIII P- 73 and Die Aramaer. C. . turk. the capital of the former Southern Hittite kingdom. In the month of lyar he shall give the wine [in] Nine. modern DiyarK.ilu Sin-ahhemes-eriba". to Mannu-ki-Ninua (are) at the disposition of Utlonging tama.ilu Nabu-bel-ilani mes (14) arhuSabatu(P) umu 3-kam A aluNinua iddanimes (15) [lim-mu] 1) I. 124. 146. C. Assyr. 81-2-4-151. ZA. its own monetary standard. Fr. Deeds and Documents. The third day of Shebat(?) in the eponymate of Sin-ahhe-eriba" ! . [If] he does not give (the wine). of Batiti. The 25th day .AA Lutz. i. Kara -Amid 2 "2 imer 50 qa of wine. for BelFor it he shall give nine inter of wine to the measure of nine qa in Bit-Zamani. Schrader. m. veh.Man-n]u-ki-luAdad (n)" follow witnesses. e. similar of Tebet. umu] 25-kam year is (10) [lim-me that of 683 B. along the river Tigris. The 4) Johns. beto be imported to Nineveh.Abdin. p. E. of Mannu-ki-Ninua. 76 80. mons Masius.Ba-ti-i-ti (10) amelug e mahar m. C. modern Tur. the shelapu. in the hands of the Assyrians. i Delitzsch. he to shall give silver according the marketprice of Nineveh. The country of Bit-Zamani was situated north of the Kashiari c mountain. TO Mdtfiov opo^ of the classical writers.officer. p.

were subject to an extra custom-house tax. therefore. subject only to the tariff of Nineveh. In this case. 1 and not by the buyer. the wineseller must give another wine corresponding with the marketplace of Nineveh. This additional tax naturally made the imported wines much more expensive than the home-grown wines. according to these docuto giv"e an equal quantity of wine ordered. Assyria. . 45 of the king *. All these documents show that the price of wine was subject to a special tariff in Assyria. In case the wine is not delivered. the revenue on the wine would have to be borne by the wine.The Wines of the Ancient Orient. In case the winesellers from districts outside of Assyria proper did not fill their orders. ments 2 seller. they were compelled. it The wines imported into seems. 2) ^(-measure) of the king. ) 5 inter of wine according to the ki ma-hi-ri sa Nimtaki.

_CE\S' \ A V f" Q SES <^2> (] i W I Rec. ^ . . Rosettana. ' Coptic lAeaAoAt.. 6. Mariette. 7. pp. ). . Irrr . 47 LJ : TTfff <n> J^T \ ^ > \fr. n AAAAAA fcrf. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient ilUll^^p The numerous us to Orient - * wall-paintings in Egyptian tombs enable a fairly detailed account of the Egyptian reproduce vineyard JTV[. 181 The vineyard was generally planted on an artificially raised plot. . 1 57 .Chapter Two The Vineyard. whenever the district lacked hills or mountains. 1 D ^s ^ W^AA 2s JL 2 <--'-^ o o [I <=> >^ . Stele J (1 Irr .tr av.t. " ^^/^A J ^\ U==? jj.f. the Vintage. Mastabas. | U : I J and 186 1 . W. "The vineyard is ted with vines". i (D "'" 29. U See also Diim. It was always Also called 9 IIHI in i) hsp. Her us atef 135. KaL plan- Inschr. W A . Variants etc. 36. \ pi \^^\\ o ^b.t see. bnd.

probably did not permit it. Vineyards at that early age were an expensive luxury which the king and some great officials. the Vintage. like Methen. could indulge rather than a profitable investment.The Vineyard. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. which closed the large wine jars of the pre-dynastic and Thinitic graves bear in. 3). There is a strong doubt. The political and economic conditions of the time of the Thinites and the Old. . 1! if* 13 No. whether during the early periods of the Egyptian history vineyards were in the possession of Egyptian commoners. judging from the wallpaintings (see Illustration No. The Ancient Egyptians}. however.and Middle Kingdoms. there is no doubt that poorer vineyard owners contemied themselves with the less costly hedges. A large garden with vineyard in centre (after Wilkinson. AJ surrounded by a stone-. The sealing-inscriptions on the clay stoppers. But since these paintings present to us only the vineyards of distinguished and rich persons. or clay-wall. 3.

5. texts. Most of them had been broken. in each instance.48 the first Lutz. "Praise of Horus. seem to go back to the 2) same remote number age. . the First 1 1 1 Over the vineyard governor. Every king of the early dynasties a special vineyard. Besides these "sacred vineyards" the early kings undoubtedly also possessed their private gardens. In the oldest names is contained. or. and wall. Viticulture and Brewing. According to these inscriptions the earliest vineyards. names of the Egyptian vineyards always refer to some religious idea. whose produce adorned the royal table. see above p. NhBmw and Sajn. . 91 ff. From/ these its sealing inscriptions we learn that each vineyard had Whether this was true of the vineyards in special name. Le Tdmbeau d' Osiris. yard called ka-n-kemet. i. e. see Sethe. testimony to vineyards in Egypt. Urkunden I. enclosed by a spiked dedicated to ceremonial purposes. conical stoppers. but See Amelineau. and flTh 1 1 Petrie. founded by Zoser was placed a local n 15. M. 1899. was also intended solely for religious purposes. "Sunny Brook Farm". few still preserved their Paris. according to the Pyr. an expression of a certain divine quality of the god Horus. which were situated near the so-called "White Wall". p. King Zoser's vineyard was named "Praised be Horus. 4) of Heaven". near Memphis *. l?=:=. however. "the genius of Egypt". chapt.. ' 3) ^c \*v rr^V D^-Hr-bnty-pt estate or. names are vineyards dedicated . king Hnt fjTh.View The "Glen-Side Farm". to ceremonial purposes and to the royal usufruct.! ' Royal Tombs. These vineyard names are thus no forerunners of the present custom of American farmers to call their farms by names such as "Fair. were of an oval shape. The vineyards Quite a of Nebesheh. All the vineyards known not known. called "anqullu". The cereas was seemingly the case with the vine- . which we have seen Gudea planted. of wine jars were found in the tomb of a n. . which furnished the funerary possessed 2 It is of v wine for the royal family and the royal servants 7 course only an accident that we know only of these vineyards. name 1) "Praised be the souls of Horus" Khasekhemui's vinegarden bore the 4 These expressions. Farm". private possession is to have had special monial purposes. etc. who is ' in the front of heaven" 3 .

over which a wooden pole was layed.Hasan. AT\ however. The avenues were generally wide enough to permit an easy communication from one end of the vineyard to the other. were kept low and required no support. On one of Dja's cylinders the name is also called "Beverages of the Double Commen(kS) of the enclosure of the beverages of Horus" *. Viticulture and Brewing. it required until a sure sign of a higher degree of civilizaa greater amount of labor than the and demanded years of patient waiting young shoots had grown up to bear fruit. the rays of the sun being kept away from the ground in order cultivation of grain and tending. whose ends were placed in the ground. The different modes A simple make-up consisted simply of pliable branches. the that it might retain its moisture. have undergone already a stage of development. . as is seen in an illustration from Beni. "Enclosure of the beverage of Horus". The vines were trained on espaliers or trellis work. Pap. VII). thus forming a large arch. Vinedressers who were less careful. The gardener "passes the morning watering vegetables. resting on beautifully carved and painted columns. whose upper ends were forked. is still simply "Beverage of Horus". or else. the Vintage. Irrigation was one of the tasks to which the Egyptian vinedresser had to give much of his time. II. Sail. or else they let them grow up in hedges. cing with the time of king Den. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. The vine-arbors of a more third way was that of erecting two wooden pillars. /WWVA the vineyards bear in- name "Enclosure is of the beverages of the body Viticulture tion. Such vines. since . and yet not too wide. the evening vines" The Egyptian vineyard is (Pap. a Lutz. variably the of Horus". of the predynastic time. Anast. Rows of columns formed pleasant arcades. as were allowed to grow up as bushes. which was supported by transverse rafters.The Vineyard. simply allowed the vinestalks to shoot up without any props. often pictured as having a water-basin. for the name of the vineyard of the Horus Dja.

The More as stripes indicating the stems. %***$.' Viticulture and Brewing. l8th and the following color is \^\The 6. jjjjjfr. espaliers of papyrus". Kilaim 7. The color leaves are seldom the grapes. X. the props in red. the vine-foliage green with dull maroon longitudinal blue. II. The ancient Egyptians already had a knowledge that certain grapes do not promise any fruit. earth-heaps are cup-shaped in order to hold the water The hieroglyph of the vine a greater length of time. L.. Egyptian tirr. < seen in the dynasties. whenever this was practicable. ways of training the vines naturally depended much upon the tastes of the owners and on the nature of the locality and the ground. ^ n> ~Y' i ' The Egyptians do not seem to rfjjf. and III. I. These grapes were cut off with a speThe grape cial knife which was of a sickle-shaped form. 173 = . espalier on (-cluster). 3 nTViB^BK into "the rest of the No. i) \ paintings II. PI. tell.. and frequently with the form ' w1 \". for Vol. 53. U*^^' i fi represented in different forms of Der-el-Bahri In the temple III. In the tomb-painting of Paheri at al-Kab the vinestalks round about the roots are banked wfth earth.D. 405. D. See L. trains the 2} Kilaim 3 ni^B^BN nspE by jsnn nx nVron "whoever vine over a part of the espaliers of papyrus". Purely realistically drawn grapes are mostly of the l/th. 3) See also No. 244 = E&\. possible that they trained them sometimes on papyrus. J. M iff on the monuments. l66 3 which is painted shows in Ptah-hotep. No. then of a beautiful dark blue. but since the Mishna refers to that practise. have attached the It is. we meet with this form: HRV\. of propping the vine are exemplified in the hieroglyphs for vine and vineyard. and the grape-clusters often the grapes are painted red or reddish brown. Kilaim 6. . we The may infer that it was also an Egyptian custom 2 various modes of arranging the vineyards and the different vine to trees. however.CQ Lutz. We possess no Egyptian references to this mode of training the vine. 3 ni-^S^B TUB "two espaliers of papyrus". One drawn and show sometimes the same picture from Thebes shows an which lotus-plants are climbing up.

1 the grapes are of a greenish color. Thut-hotep at al-Bersheh At the time No. 24. as well as all distinguishing between Orientals. while the berries is are in indicated by black dots. towards to Virg. 6 and 7). or shoulders. 5. in the tomb of Sennofri near Sheikhthe cluster pink or a pale violet. the picking of I the grapes (see Illustrations Nos. blue or dark blue is naturally intended. The bunches were 4 When these were filled. Deshasheti}. of the ripening of the grapes great care was taken to preserve the clusters from the birds. Men. The Egyptians. 4) So according Georg. El-Bersheh. 2) or the The vintage took place commencement of July. as for instance. (]%. or slung upon a yoke to the winepress. I.t. X 3) Tomb of Ptah-hotep. Whenever the grapes are painted black. 4. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. children participated at the time of vinI wfa \> A %. red wallpaintings and dark blue grapes. Vintage-scene (after Petrie. 4. carefully put into deep wicker-baskets men carried the baskets either on their head. W I a in . pi.The Vineyard. and in the tomb of Ti the legend A "the bringing of the grapes for press1) See Newberry. have great difficulty in In the tomb of these two colors. These men are sometimes Q /WWVA seen marching in file. pink. in the month Epiphi. women and ilrr. the end of June. II. Sometimes According to the painted the Egyptians knew white. / abd-al-Gurnah. 241. greenish. tage 2 . <^ 77 rr\S> r\ rr\S' . 26. 31. the Vintage. 4* .

are seen without foliage and without grapes.. ing" pes. with palm leaves. which were then covered No. Those grahowever. 5. II. the making of wine. The Ancient Egyptians]. Viticulture and Brewing. Tomb No. one of its paintings the end of the vintage. which dates back to the sixth dynasty represents No. Vintage-scene.|J2 Lutz. Gathering grapes (after Wilkinson. in 6. l) The espaliers The workers L. . or vine foliage. were placed open baskets. is written below the picture of the carriers. 53 and m. which were not used for. XIV in Sauiet 1 al-Meitin. in flat. D.

The paintings sometimes show five or six men standing in such vats. The men their position by holding each other pressers next made the round in held on to poles. i) See L. which between the two secured by the the hips. while singing a rhythmic song. The winevat.< away birds with able to find standing room in the vat. D. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient.The Vineyard. who vat pres- sed the grapes with their The large was No> Pl uc king grapes and frigthening a sling (after Wilkinson. and during the New Empire was round in form. It seems thus that the vintage was over the domesticated animals were allowed to enter the vineyards in order to browse upon the after vines. It hardly went beyond the ankles of the vine-pressers. 53 seen below with the grape-filled baskets. The layer of grapes in the vat. The paintings do not show New very distinctly the form of the vat in the time preceding the Empire. which was of acacia wood. are the Vintage.. In the wall- painting of Beni-Hasan two long-horned' goats climb up the bush and browse on the vine foliage. and to keep time for the dancing men inside of the . was not deep. In case that there was no roof or cover supplied with ropes which were held by the men in order to hold their balance. the men at both extremities of the vat were placed on both sides. The vat was always placed on a slight elevation. but it is possible to think that they were gene- rally round in form. Ergamungen. Two men near the winepress marked the rhythm by simply clapping their hands. pi. feet. which was of a rectangular form sometimes women were called upon to mark the rhythm. 21. least The grapes were put into large vats. From the roof Or the cover hung down as many ropes as men were . or else by a special 1 It is possible that object. . The Ancient Egyptians}. inside of which at four men could find sufficient room. sometimes covered with a roof.

"to produce a sound by The grape juice flowed through a bung on the clapping". II. A in order to extract the juice which still remained in the gra3 We observe on the wall-paintings of Beni-Hasan 4 an pes oblong linen slough. The Temple of the Kings of Abydos. D. which permits the cloth to be twisted tighter. Viticulture and Brewing. flf. 687. Beni-Hasan I. 24 28. keepers is called e. The Ancient. which is filled with wine-lees removed . 12. there is an additional crosshead attached to the end of the slough.54 press ! . 1906 09. "to clap". Caulfeild. Dyn. the daughter of one of the to workmen is seen un- wrapping herself and going up musicians or timekeepers. Winepress (after Wilkinson. St. Leipzig. which are placed through the turning ends of the slough. in Aeg. 8. Res. . pi. Egypt. See also L. This slough is No. She is probably one of the f. Urkunden der 18. 5) In A. p. and Montet. 4. Egyptians]. p. 8). 120 4) See Newberry. 2} the press. The winepress AAAAAA /VWvAA J and Sethe. 10 was menting". fer- 3) See Klebs. i) In the tomb of Ti. Account. 13. 1902. pp.. Die Tiefendimension in der Zeichnung des alten Reichs. G.. d. Z. Rcc. The pressed wine flows into a large stretched . out between a strong wooden frame 5 Men are the cloth with sticks. pi. Lutz. side of the press into smaller vats. from the winepress (see Illustration No. XX. 29. 96. time. In the tomb of Mera the work of these i. in which the juice was 2 second pressing was necessary brought to fermentation . for "fermentation" occurs i. trai\ XXXV. 1914. in d'Orb. The Egyptian word II.

So also Caulfeild. the 1) Middle Kingdom.. 1902. The Temple of I. 9) is designated by the word "f. the Vintage. but since perspective. It To generally person seen on the wall painting Gizeh.Hasan the 2 its orthography . pi. Beni-Hasan. D.. shd $ms. 9. This person's work consisted in seeing that the wine flowed exactly into the large jar and that nothing was spilt. Res. of the fifth dynasty. No. In " ^~ Egypt. he could not be drawn without some part of his body being No. the tombs of the Old Kingdom show us still the more rude way with men wrenching the poles' in opposite directions.. Beni. This is of course an acrobatic trick which possible to perform. (?()> while the other men are the smsw. Ill. L. Newberry. Kings of Abydos 4. slough. He is called n . and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. 126). D. 2) XX. which is placed below the must have been a very difficult linen task. pi. of the tomb of Ismaih fifth A at it was imBut these drawings are not faithful to The fifth person was in the centre. 9). zc earthen twist it jar. While the winepress ofBeni-Hasan referred to above shows already a solid structure at the two ends of which the linen slough is attached *. 163 ^V^IT". hidden by the cloth. 29 in Newberry = This W0rd L. The pressing of wine-lees (after Newberry. II. 29. %""~^ ^ /] . II.The Vineyard. Percy E. the artist chose this impossible position for him. This process of pressing the grapes in the slough (see Illustration in No. 13 (PI. seems to keep both poles apart by holding the poles at the proper distance with both his hands and his feet (see Illustration required four persons. El-BersheK]. Account.

Medum. lo). was put into very small vases 3 which were closed in the manner of perfume . is This also used for "braiding the hair". The slough completely curled up. The sticks cross each other. to wring. globular or 2 The wine which was differently shaped stoppers and sealed . II. 36. since it w ould have shifted all the pressure and the is r greatest amount of work and weight on the worker nearest to the slough. 3) seems See Petrie. stand near b4. pi. vases 4 . By pushing the linen slough towards the end. The short. linen to turn. Rosellini II. voy. but wide-necked jars were then closed with covers. 1) Newberry. L. men are emptying wine into large open-necked jars. 2) On the east wall of the mastaba of Akhethotep at Saqqareh. cf. 21. 53 shows further the heating of the grapejuice. 4) L. In the Thebaid the footpress is only represented and thus. 66 shows two women turning a slough. Viticulture and Brewing. The wallpainting of Ptah-hotep in Beni- Hasan 1 representing the pressing of the lees is unique. and the slough is attached to the lower extremity. I.. 6 pictures a wine-press with two sloughs instead of the customary one.. 119. II. Rec. the workers gained greater force. 96 with the legend: ^Q c * ^ 1 < -T- . before pouring the wine into the jars. probably in order to hasten the process of fermentation. p. D. 11.and earthen jars (sle Illustration No. This pould of course not be done as long as the sack was still filled with winelees. we may conjecture. Two men stretch a large piece of cloth over a kettle while a third pours the wine into the cloth. The Egyptians. fft (j which means "to press. without the second process of pressing the winelees. to Chab. D. filled with winelees. however. The two storage jars. These modifications are due to the artist's desire to show the completion of the work of pressing. The original meaning have been "to wrap into a bundle". The wine finally is poured into large variegated stone. the wine was filtered. Beni-Hasan. trav. destined for funerary purposes. pi. to turn the slough". which are long-necked.56 is Lutz. stone plates. was only used there. generally smeared the bottoms with resin or bitumen. Next.

The Ancient Egyptians]. p. Tutmes". 10. 77 and 96. in Per-Amon.The Vineyard. the Vintage. they No. Wine was sometimes also put into skins. e. . a word used to denote more com- monly and ^^^ tP =0= Rcc. a mode which probably prevailed throughout all to times of Egyptian history. Lepsius. 1883. was done to in order to preserve the wine. which were stored in their cellars as well as in the skins" When the wine had been stored away in the cellars. Pouring wine into jars (after Wilkinson. of such wine labels chief of the wine-dressers. trav. Z. 12. "their wines 1 . 5 refers to this mode of storing the wine: "^ sv * [Jq?' M (1 i.. 21. were marked with wine first labels. Auswahl. It reads: AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA n Good wine of the large t\ jj jj ^ ! ^ ft R V&. Hieratic Ostraca i) The wine-skin the leather-bag is also called Q. It was also thought improve the flavor of the wine. whenever such wine was intended be taken on long journeys. "In the year 1 . this Theban ostracon of In Aeg. Many have been published since by Spiegelberg.. the kind was discussed.. The irrigated terrain of the temple of Ramses II. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. 336.

195. hard-baked clay winejars. A wine cellar in Esna 5 contains the legend: "This is the wine cellar.58 Lutz. dinan. 140. 1898. Max. See Brugsch. later into the Arabic language. Nos. 3 The paintings show us also the mode of storing I. 367. to drew attention in OLZ. and "very good wine" (Nos. dann. 257. lo) . Max Miiller first two additional names of vineyards. VI. Jo also T r V '&x ^ /wv^ V Bln-nty (has become) the wife of the royal prince Sl-mntw vineyard of the temple of Ramses II. two purposes. 186. . dannu. and Papyri^. 4 Obv. Rec. while in Syriac they bore the pi. 224. 12). in Egypt (see Illustration No. The quality is expressed by "good wine" (Spiegelberg. C who is in the 3)4 IU&U-/l 7f' TT^AiQ^S!- ^e waltung Aegypt. flA V-^<q AAAAAA the daughter of the ship-captain . 256). which were pointed were in use by the Orientals and Greeks and Romans alike. A rare word probably denoting wine-cellar' Miiller. That row which rested against the back wall of the wine cellar was the last one used and therefore contained the oldest wines. The wine was inspected and tested by 197. these jars are called at the base. 611. Babyl. Kad. 162. 259. 255. In these ostraca reference is made to the vineyards ka-n-kemet and to the "large irrigated terrain in PerAmon" 2 which is on the west-side of the landing-place. XIX XXXV. Viticulture and Brewing. 291 and 299). "the brook of the country of Musur. (Nos. p. nahlu\ III R 35. water) nahlayn "double-brook". They were placed in successive rows. "the prop". a dual-formation of bW. Vol. there = r special officers called "inspector of the w ine test" (Pap. 64 ^Irit. which were pointed at the bottom 4 rested either in the ground. or they were attached to a wooden stand or a stone ring (see Illustration No. ll) The jars. Leiden. offers W. Die Liebespoesie der alten Agyprer. The . The one is called the "vineyard (hsbtl\ N(e}-h-'ira-y-na^ (determ. 262. to show the age of the wine in the different jars. 1 896. /wvw\ see Spiegelberg. II. 12: na-lial m&tMu-sur = asar ndru la isu. at Memphis". and second. No. 229. 266). pi. Assyr. where is no river". 177. W. The other vineyard was named p-N-s-bu These wine labels served (determ. tree). . p. 16. 248. which In word passed 5) . trav. Vol. Ostraca. 4) Large. occurs in WB. unter den Phar. away new wine . same publication which p. Hebrew name danna. First. i) Egyptian Research Account. to mark the quality of the wine. 113. "sweet wine". 348.

One and the heart of him. or of r (after Wilkinson. 1899. j D -J\ ' v AAAAAA 1 1. 234: . ii. for the produce of the vine is in it. And again another passage reads : I "This is the white(washed) room of the grapes. . j < I2 wine-jar supported by a stone-ring . who goes forth from it.The Vineyard. the place where the rt'/atf-vessels are I. = of the vineyard. stored. 50 The place in it. i. with the best ingredients for the preparing of the produce of the Horus-eye. The i i Ancient Egyptians). Leipzig. The storing of wine (after Wilkinson. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. vineyards of c A-\ Egypt were No officer Calj Jl under the Special Care of an led nd-mr. is merry rejoices".. e. p. 12 dldi . 3. ID X room at the going forth from the The i official ^t~ ^ A^. For an interesting graphic variant of 'wine-cellar' see BWB. Different spices are there in their multitude furnished and the grape is in its closed stalk". o. the Vintage. The Ancient Egyptians].

. "the superinten- dent of the vineyard" l Vineyards owned by the temple-fiscus or the king were naturally exempt from taxes. Philadelphos. in the payment of money. Wilcken-' has shown that the amount of taxes paid for vineyards varies at this time between twenty and three-hundred and fifty drachmae per arura. e. pi. Griech. rial was time a tax ujrep cxujteXebvtov i. He established the fact that the land tax of the best and most productive vineyards of the Theban district was raised for the temple treasury. This tax was either paid to the 6ioiKr]tfiq. while the remainder went into the state treasury. Roman the temple-resort. took away the benefit of this tax from the priests and appropriated it to the use of the queen Arsinoe Philadelphos.. and now was regarded as having a perfectly legitimate right to it. however. e. the state-resort. This difference in taxation was due to the different qualities of the vineyards and to their different In case of a poor inundation a lighter tax was locations... In the early Ptolemean times there existed a tax. Prior to the decree of Philadelphos. e. the military coloIn the Impenists) to pay a SeKdrrj instead of the usual eKtr). observed that a tax of twenty to forty drachmae per arura was regularly raised for the 6ioiKr|tfiq. while a tax of 75. V of Wilcken. who had earlier been declared a goddess. which was paid by the possessors of vineyards and gardens for the support of the temples. in whose storehouses a rich quantity of wine was placed. 2) Griechische Ostraka. Dr. of the vineyard. pp. sometimes placed on the owner of a vineyard 3 Wilcken also . 150 or even 350 drachmae was regularly due to the iepcc. i. Viticulture and Brewing. This tax amounted to the sixth part of the yearly produce of each vine-land. i. 1) Pap. The taxes for vineyards had to be paid. "for vineyards"* raised.60 the vineyard. called drtojioipa. or. which was a land-tax for the owners of private vineyards. Ostr. the owners of vine-land paid their tax in furnishing a certain stipulated quantity of wine. IV. 7. Anast.. 3 mentions a master of the vineyard. The tax was presumeably only partially used for the cult of the new goddess. Ptolemy II. . Lutz. See Grenf. or to the iepcc. i. or > I a . 147 3) ff. Philadelphos later permitted certain classes (f. (II) LVI and compare chapt. in isolated cases.

II. of the vineyard of the thirtieth year".jreXiTi8o^ ojioifcoq] TO Kepdu-iov TTJI dpoupai. the prophet Isaiah speaks v of the laying out of a vineyard (DID) in Palestine. Jer. This was already For instance in the petition the rule in the Ptolemaic times 1 . has paid for the rent of his vineyard in the cornland of Ophi. dprdprjc. o. not jrpoc. Pap. i. The wine gained from low growing vines was superior to that gained from vines trained on espaliers. together with his wine for one vineyard two (keramion of) wine for his vineyard (and) for the (of) the produce half a (keramion of) wine. tfjc. Is. yevrjiiara. rfji dpoupcu rfjc. of Toronto Libr. 4. "Herakleitos. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. arura of vineland..The Vineyard. C. 5) 5. 5. ofKXecovAiOTip. 4) Is. Jo. year 15 year 12. "I was noted down by the jtpoq rd apjreXiKcc rod XI fq for being ninety drachmae in arrears for the land tax praetor : 2 i.. 17. 35. 31. son of Aristippus. XVII. According 2) Petr. c. 7) Hist. dpyupiov. 3 of Khapokhonsis. Univ. but in money. 1913. For the vine. C. Written by of) wine.. making 2*/2 (keramia They are received by reckoning (?).." In the well known comparison. He cites line 30 ff. of the ' decree of Rosette. the land tax for vineyards was always paid in cash and Wilcken notes only one exception. 6. yfjc. 150 and 151. ftpoc. published and translated in Theban Ostraca.. The Demotic ostracon D45. Amos 9. The dp. . Epiphanes freed the temples of Egypt in the eigth year of his reign from Kai d[jtoTeTay]p. 3) I follow the translation of to "vineyard". Since the third century B. nat. Km I. 13. 80. is another document which shows that the vineyard tax was paid in kind. pp. has both meanings. which was conveyed before Amonrasonther the great god. 6l not in kind. Shev. as the phrase is used in the documents. but change the word "garden" 13.evr)c. 5.ou jrapayeypajiiiai rax jrpdKtopi cbc. Ps.. Thompson. 6) Mishna. to that time thus paid one keramion of wine per temples up TYJC. Mishna. . to Pliny 7 the / See Wilcken. Thoth(?) day 25 etc. 6[cpeGuov] e. the Vintage. 18. n etc. 2 (b|3O). = son taken to culture a sloping tract of ground was selected 4 Care was rid the ground from the superabundance of stones 5 This was a task which the Hebrews could undertake to do . according to which Ptolemy V. iepdc. dating back to 102 B. even during the Sabbatical year 6 ii .

Jer. Jesus Sirach. in the plain of Yisreel 1 the 2 and probably also in the Negeb 3 The vineplain of Sharon 4 or walls. Bava-Bathra and Bava-mezia. 25. 271 to the ff. "iS 1 30 "without a hedge the vine- yard is being fed off". the 15) Pliny. XVII. plain). rising to the height of forty The top-story contained several apartments. it was permissible to raise other crops c between the rows(M Orla 3. 6. i. 5. I Palmer. 1 6) Mishna.52 Lutz. Tasa Is. 2. vinedressers . 6. 5. 12. 36. 12) 13) Mark. 2) According pp. sisted of a square building of solid masonry. 15. work of cane-reed and to trees 10 They often propped . and 289. Wuslemvanderung ft". The lower portion of the tower had also a small door and a few narrow windows at a considerable height from the ground. 3) See 4) 9. 27. . Viticulture and Brewing. with suffifeet. Cant. i) Jdg. also planted on low. These towers. for instance. 25. While Pliny testifies to the culture of low growing vines. fencest in thy vineyard with thorns". 9) Is. Is. 9. . 8. 11 14) Deut. 8) Is. Chron. But the . 24a . however. land (!"#p3. 2. 10) Matth. 21. h. n) 2. 7) Is. Cf. 5. n. 8 p-p Jhttt DID). 12. 14. 22. on the mountain slopes generally a low Vineyards were. 10. the Hebrews certainly knew it sow other . cf. sometimes proyards were surrounded with hedges with both 5 in order to protect them against the wild bably animals 6 and the pasturing cattle I Sometimes vineyards were simply surrounded with thorns. 26. 18. also trellis of the practise of training the vines to wooden poles. 5) Is. The tower sometimes reached a considerable size. earlier The fruit of the than that of the trained vines. 80. . Palestinians cultivated growing vine. called pyrgos 10 (D*b"3MS). 6) Ps. ff. also Sir. 286. Kings 21. 17. however. ii. 7. Talmud. 21. of the Hebrews was harmful to the culture of vines to between the vines and this was legally forplants bidden 14 although it was the custom of antiquity K) In Rabbinic time. . In the vineyard either 8 or watchtowers 9 were erected. 2. i. Cant. low growing vine matures weeding hoe.. 28. often contained on the ground floor a stable and the wine-press. 7. 283.. 8. rt3J|iZJa. Job *ns 27. The latter consimple huts . Kilaim. as a dwelling place of the or the guardians of the vineyard 12 Great care was taken to weed the ground 13 According to the experience The pyrgos was used 11 . 33. 5. !^ 1*1*1: "p&Q. cient windows. I. 10. Israels. D"C i..Thou .

6. . It seems clear. were pointed below and notched above. that this acquittal could only be granted to those. in order to replenish the gaps caused by the withering of the old vinestalks. a straight line. Only the latter practise would explain the acquittal from military service. i) 7 . 4. 15. was for- much larger which also keeps longer on Mishna. of course. 4) Mishna. that were raised on espaliers. that he its military service until planted a new vineyard. 4. The vinestalks. 5. the Vintage. stood in In order to get straight. These vineyards were greatly prized as being accessible and enjoyable at all seasons of the year 6 Those vineyards which lay a considerable distance off from the villages. 2. a cord (tain) was stretched alongside the vines and the branches were entwined on the stalks and the cord. 3) Is. who actually had planted a new vineyard. 7) Amos 3. 3. . if such acquittal had been given to every one who had made some props or who had made a layer. 5) Mi. shows the high estimation of the Hebrews Kings ai. The vineyard was plowed two to three times a year. were used for espaliers. 5. SoKcxpiov).The Vineyard. often by means 4 to occupy it in spring. The 6). but the Hebrews multiplied props must certainly have known also the way to propagate the vines by means of shoots. . 2} Is. Kilaim. . which would have taken on too great proportions. The cutting of the vines fruit. i. fact. for the culture of vine.. Generally cane-reeds. or worked with the hoe 2 The foliage was carefully pruned and the superfluous shoots broken off a The vines were . who (Deut. The custom of remaining throughout the summer season in these mence cottages also prevailed climbing vines produce a account of the thicker skin. needed shoots 5 In some instances vineyards were attached to the houses of a city or village. 18. Kilaim. 6. The family would comof . 6) I. sometimes also quadratic rows. 5. for which they. 63 the poles with long sticks and drew them together. which i. binding them with willows *. should be free from dedication which occured possibly at the fourth year . jo. at the time of the digging of the vineyards and again later at the time of the vintage. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. but sometimes also more expensive wooden staves ("plpl! e. contained not infrequently a summer cottage for their owners.

comp. joyful mood is much greater in the Orient than in Europe. but accord girls 1) developed which the young later into a general harvest festival. bidden in the seventh year. ZDPV. T2D. 34. Apoc. E"OD2 Q !) 1 Another indication that the inhabitants of for the grape-juice. 49. Dt.. 11. p. 2ff. The preferred kind of grape seems to have been the dark blue grape.64 Lutz. 25. which greatly help to make the time of the vintage the most favored season of the year. Die Rebe in Syrien. together with the white Dskenda/e-grape. 27 ff. which festival was the old of the gathering of grapes and olives. which undoubtedly pi received its cultivation of the white grapes superseded that of the red to tell dark blue but Palestinian Jerusalem. Gen. XI. Gen. ft-pSD) was a time of great rejoicing as in all wine-growing countries. grapes. Matth. 5. Jer. 30. Jer. In the vicinity of of the two kind of Tabuke-v'mzs. 14. 6. Palestine cultivated particularly the red or dark blue grape vines 3 or is the name "J"V0 4 for a special wine. Is. 12. 9. but the cleaning out of the vinebranches was permitted *. 63. The (B^n at inhabitants of Shilo celebrated at the end of each year nsnpnb I. with the beginning of the Middle Ages the export of wines was that of white wines. Sam. 10 Mace. 27. Only the latter. n. the other dark blue grapes. 161. often disturb this joy. -50. 16. 15. 31 . ^ 2) Lev. insbesondtre Pahstina. 5. where early frosts . 2. 4) Gen. while the white however. Prov. This festival of Shilo was not merely of a local character. 49. 23. 33. 21. 48. Sir. 26. This was really a piece of bad legislation. 14. Is. because the vinestalks exhausted themselves by over-production and they were much harder to cut in the following year. are used for the making of wine.. 6) Judg. But this festive. . . 5) Anderlind. Later. Tabuke grape is eaten 5 6 (ISD. 1. the one bears white its name from red grapes. 19 ff. In the Orient after the blazing summer heat generally follow beautiful days. I. 32. 3) Is. This is indicated 2 by the designation of "blood of the grape" (njirtn. Viticulture and Brewing. The vintage . the and At what time this change took place is hard grapes. which furnished a dark red wine. 20) the hag Yahveh. 2. the CpOfctfl It used to perform dances. JlW Ml. 25. 49.

This generosity later ceased on account of the great number of travelers. 27. 1) See Pal. Ant. 9. and Brewing. are gathered somewhat ear- commencing with August. pp. those which budded in April are gathered in September. S. 4. Dent. The lier. but those which budded in March are gathered in August. This is done in March. Thus they have three vintages in one year". 8 an old custom was to offer grapes to the passing traveler. then they straightway cut off all that remains of the branch beyond those bunches. 5 . 65 ing to I. however. which all grow alike. bunches of grapes as each vine and each branch usually does. Lutz. naanitish inhabitants of Palestine used to celebrate their fall- which was their New Year festival. jud. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. 1 people attended it from far and near. T. 2) 3) So the Canaanitish inhabitants of Sichem.) l informs us of the marvellous vintage in Antaradus thus: "But I have seen a wondrous thing at Antaradus. The time of the grape harvest is in the month of September and part of October. When they see this they again cut off all of the branch that reaches beyond these bunches of grapes In May the trunk puts forth a third branch. Every stranger was allowed to eat grapes until satiated in the vineyards.. eating grapes. which naturally tended to curb Viticulture the old-time liberality. 89 ff. sea of Tiberias and at at the At some places as for instance Ror the grapes commence to After the vintage the old Caripen even as early as June. 25. Also the state fiscus claimed a large part of the produce of the vineyards in later times. D. Judg. on the other hand. Burchard of Mount Sion (1280 A. Pilgr. In April a new branch sprouts from it with new bunches of grapes. and throw it away. time the vine-dressers see when the vine has formed as many. . Vol. XII. and thus they have three sets of grapes. in the following manner.The Vineyard. 23. According to Jos. with its bunches of grapes. was not perney mitted to clean and pick up the grapes that had fallen to the ground. the Vintage. but he was not permitted to take any grapes along on his jour3 The vineyard owner. These had to remain to be gathered by the festival 2 . for there the natives told me that from one and the same vine grapes are In spring- gathered thrice in a year. and those which budded in May are gathered in October. Sam.

at Tell el-Hessy 5 exhibits mud. Chron. . Sam. 69. ujroXfjviov) round. 36. 3) Judg. 146 ff. mannnfi na. 16. 18. The grapes. vine-dresser (nlD) cut the grapes (ppy)with a special In order to proas was the custom in Egypt. It was sometimes covered by a roof siderable size of some presses can be gathered from the fact that Gideon was able to use it as a threshing floor. and sometimes three or four.. who 6. gleaneth behind the gatherers of grapes". acus vinarius. but were dried in the bunch. 1906) "And 30. in order to conceal his wheat from the marauding Midianites. but were used as raisins. or T. In Rabbinic times the grapes used to be pressed by men (ZYDTTi) hired especially In the pur a the grapes were trodden with the for this work. 12. 30. i6a and I des Jesus Sirach. 10. Berlin. Die Weisheit have come as one who had tarried ong. like one 2) I. (gath. with two yeqebs also angular. vats which were cut into the rock of the mountain. ^qvoc. 25 (Smend. The pressc NH jrpoXfjviov) vat reached a diameter of up to four meters. Liitz.66 poor knife 1 . The (DVWa). NH .walls. The winepress consisted of two. as is the present custom in the district of Malaga in 2 The grapes. II. also Sir. 40. which were sold as eating-grapes on the Spain market (pltDb 1SD) were generally of the white color. 12. . the piira and the cemented and sloping yeqeb were carefully washed and cleansed. The vats were either round or angular. 19.D. which were not used for the making of wine. The grapes were carried to the winepress in baskets. und seine A Mound. large baskets (ftbDbD) were placed below the vinestalks. n. Viticulture and Brewing. The winepress was situated in the 3 The convineyard. rrfiS. tect the grapes from falling to the ground during the time of the vintage. while The winepress its flooring is slightly to a hollowed stone. I. "pbo) or in vats (niDIp). which was placed in the cement. Cf. Prior to pressing. seem not to have been stripped by the Hebrews from the stems. This winepress belongs to the Xlllth cent B. 1) Num. or the pressing vat or (piira. more specifically wbyn agi. called Kdpiakoq in the Septuagint (Hebrew D^o. ^Artttf 5) Bliss. 4) Schick. p. i . X (1887). but a fourth and lowest vat had a round form. The winepress near Artuf 4 shows the pur a in angular form. D3. 25. Umgebung. pp. ZDPV. was angular and the lower vat (yeqeb. Sam. na).

6. 6 Rabbinic times a certain kind of siphon purpose was used which consisted of a long and a short hollow glasstube. 25. 33. or willow-work. 63. According to their form they were eithet called "bread" These were placed into pits (ni^BlA) and covered (Dfib) or "apple" (men). 32. u. on which were placed heavy clay-rollers ("pVttS). 5* . 9.seeds. 19. or finally. Jer. 12. 9.. Taltnudische Archaologie. See Krauss. Talmudic times. 6. feet (darak.means of laying heavy stones on the grapes.13. 3) Jer I S. 10 . Zeph. 5) Jer. the other with the mouth being placed at the hole of the bend. The grape-juice was then poured into jars 3 or into skins 4 It was allowed to ferment in them. 17. 39 by this procedure the wine grew milder. 3r 12 4) Jos. 6) Is. 5. 6. which remained at the bottom of the vat were formed by hand into loaves or balls. Job n . the Vintage. second fermentation set in. while a hole was permitting communication with both.-^"3M& 48. and probably much earlier. A piece of cloth. 25. Is. by by means of levers. this channel could be channel (TlDS)). 48. ff. They were put together at an oblique angle. The wine at that stage was called "yeast-wine" 5 skins. which commenced . ii. served as sieve. on It was also laid for some time Then the new wine was poured into other jars or yeast. causing the juice that remained in the lees to flow 2) In forth. 48. the skins and the grape. ved the purpose of letting the pressed wine settle the lees 2 and then the clarified juice was allowed to run into a second vat. 48.The Vineyard. According to Luke. The pressing-beam (Jimp) finally was lowered and pressed against the boards. which was connected with the pura by a Whenever desired. i. The pressed wine flowed from the pura into the yeqeb. This kind of siphon seems to be identical with the in 1) Is. 4. II. Jer. stopped up (pp&) in order to get a closed vat called ffl Wherever there were more wine-vats. 2. 25. p'n or -|) . 30. 1 D^pj^Tl?) For this . 67 l which was the more general custom. or . pi 235.econd into the vessel or wine-skin into which the wine was desired The wine was drawn (nb^H) from one vessel into to flow. . in order 'to transfuse it into other The wine was filtered before being used (D"nip1p jars or skins. One end of the siphon was placed into the full wine-jar and the s. . which had the form of a mill-stone. . and the Making ot" Wine in the Ancient Orient. with boards. the first sernpipfe.. Matth. when the within six to twelve hours. Sometimes they waited until the next year.

lime. "the sucker" (fem. 27. or finally in jars.68 so-called called Lutz. as the barrel or the wine-jar i) Sellin. This cellar was situated in Four large wine amphoras stood side side on the ground towards the southwest corner of the by cellar-room. disinterred a house which brought to light a wine cellar of the Jewish period. or were The clay-barrels had stop(850^3). man. ' King David placed special overseers over his wine cellars 2 When the wine was pressed and brought to Cn*!J tTnyitf) in order to be put into the cellar. On in top of two of these amphoras lay a large two-handled plate with spout. - the tax. tax-gatherers met the wine-pressers at their the city-gate and levied the accustomed tenth wine was stored in the cellar either in clay-barcalled or in wine-skins (115. Amphoras. excavating on the site of ancient Jericho. 3) Sam. These pointed seem to have been out of use in Talmudic times. a sieve and a spindle. Three of these amphoras were well preserved. called 851 in Syria and Babylonia) also ma. of the Greeks. the Northern corner. 3 .whorl in the debris were discovered. plates. which were wrapped either with bast or papyrus. it was subject to town. I. The vintner was called ^?fc. according to were found somewhat higher in the Sellin. more simple siphon was 8ia(3r)Tr):. They hung probably to the wall on wooden plucks or were placed since these vases on wall-boards.) (np^B). Viticulture and Brewing. in order to be placed into the ground. of clay. Jericho. p. pointed at the bottom. pitch or gypsum. accessible This room possessed especially strong inner walls. 27. A In 1909 the German expedition.. large and small jugs. It was by means of a stairs. debris. which led down to the cellar { . 15. As soon 2) I. . but sometimes a piece pers of leather or cloth or papyrus was simply placed over the simply tied with a cord mouth of the cask. The jars wine-skins were kept closed by means of pieces of bone. large four-handled amphora was found broken A pieces before the north wall. 8. 535 and 3p"n according to their form). OWS = jriOcx. Chron. 77. The entrance to part The rels (t^Drt. The task of transfusing the wine into other jars was called ftBtt?.

but also his assistant called am * lu sanu. and we found that this vineyard was planted on an artificially raised x This practise. the second (winetemple. Contrary to Babylonia. prevailed all over Vine. The umu i6-kam (10) limtranslated in Kohler and Ungnad. in which m. We had occasion to refer above to the vineyard planted by and particularly a multitude of different kinds of plot of ground. . 1 3 and 14). probably. but that the Code of Hammurabi. In the Assyrian documents there is mention of an officer called rab karani. 342 a und b is important for our present investigation.Zeru-ti rab karani biti eSSi (6) pan m. for instance. it was sealed and the name of the owner and the illu- quantity and quality of the content attached in writing. Assyr. moreover. the Vintage. e.Zeru-u-ti rab karani (2) kunuk m.The Vineyard. i. where conditions were very much alike. ar^uUlula-a-a amlu| a nuu (3) 9 mane Agursur (8) ina aiu Gar-ga-mis" (5) gi-nu-u 3a 15 ikil kaspu (4) ina i mane 3a a m. The Assyrian monuments represent the vines very realistically and with a great deal of truth (see Illustrations Nos. since it mentions not only the chief winemaster. master). a detailed account of that part of Babylonian legislation. we never hear of "beer-houses". however. It is strange. refers only to winewill have occasion in Chapter Four. while they mention very often fruit-wines. since the vineplant grows well in many districts of Assyria. to enter into shops. which would strate the laying out making grape-wine. deals with a transaction. Babylonian history. was never extensively cultivated in that country and the documents refer comparatively seldom to wine. in the vicinity of Nineveh as well as in other parts of the land. however. such as date. l) (i) The kunuk text. Rechtsurkunden. and the office 1 may refer to a state posi- tion as well as to a position held in the service of some large Tablet K. which deals with the wineshops. (5g wa s closed. Babylonia. that at the earlier stages of beer. arfcuUlula-a-a am^luganu" (9) arfcuSimanu text is mu m. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient amJu r eu(?) etc. Assyria We cultivated the vine very extensively. and that it differed from that of Syria and Palestine. Babylonia has left us no monuments..As'ursur-re'gu-i-s'i (7) ina pan m. This title represents the "Chief winemaster". of their vineyards and the process of But we may conjecture that in the low- land of Babylonia viticulture was essentially the same as in Egypt.

Fr. $aku. that is the "beer-house is. "Seal of Zeruti.70 Lutz. the chief winemaster. the mina of Carchemisb. the brewer. Ulula. Viticulture and Brewing. belonging reshu-ishi. seal of Nine minas.. at the disposition of Zeruti. 13. e.. the chief sacrificial to Ashurwinemaster . that keeper". The No. the witnesses two are of special interest. namely the a "<*l Marduk-ibni. according to tablet reads: offering of the god Ashur. the second (i. and Mutakkil-Ashur. Histoire ancienne de I'Orienf). fifteen shekels of silver. money is Amongst paid in order to obtain wine for sacrifical purposes. Bas-relief of Nimrud (Calah) in the British Museum (after Lenor- mant. the sim -\-gar. the assistant winemaster).

In CTXXII 38. j\ of the New House (winemaster). accord- my ing to Oriental custom.. but also retai- No. 242). in the eponymate of etc. the Vintage.The Vineyard. p. He not only pressed into kegs or wine-skins." Sha-Nabu-shu. Climbing vine of a bas-relief in the palace of Sennacherib (after at Kuyunjik Lenormant.9 a Neo-Babylonian temple-official informs his master. the chief-officer The pressman was the wine and filled it called siratu. the second of Sivan. 14. was at the Meissner. The l6th day (and) at the disposition of Ulula. and the Making of Wine in the Ancient Orient. same time a perfumer (see Babylonien und Assyrien. Fr. . Histoire ancienne de 1'Orient). led it. a priest of Sippar. that "the wine has been pressed in presence". The manufacturer of spiced wines.

17). an "iron beer" and the 7^-beer. Under the ty.t A T ll6a. 17 etc. ^^ . On the stele of Khabiousokari in the Museum of Cairo a certain beer is W c n . N 44Qa) and the beer of Nubia. One of the texts enumerate quite a number of different beers. * N 452 a. T H2a. can be augmented by the addition "and of beer". oldest generic terms for beer home seems to be Sfhpet. 53. -beer. hk. The brewing industry in its beginnings in historic sider the matter. 22. pi.Chapter Three The Beer in the Ancient Orient Peoples in all ages and climates have prepared naturally fermented beverages from any available material. beer" 2 . \ I beer Pyr. N451 a. Texts 143 a. XIV. The statement of Pliny 1 "if any one will take the trouble duly . (W J I44a. In the pyramid-texts i. . 54. Shpt- called hn- ~ '.to con- upon no one subject is the industry of man kept more constantly on the alert than upon the making of wine". pi. Tli4a. "garnished The pyramid-texts furth er mention the /$-beer. Indeed baker and that of the brewer was very much the work of the The earliest Egyptian alike in the initial stages of brewing. \ \ A d u (W 145 a. t with a "dark beer". will find that he times was a industry like that of baking bread. are also mentioned very early the Pliny. rubrique sfhpet.. N 453 a). which is probably the same as the /$ n Beni Hasan I. T 115 a. 1) "beer". 2) See Unas 46. Beni Hasan I. we meet e. 55. ^ . the t\ -beer S"^. (W 141 a.

which was probably an old Sweet beer is mentioned. (1900) plate facing p. but there II LM^\ tx^f^land//^. since it shows that even at that early time liquors were sold by women in public places. 256. is of interest. nected with the name for cellar. is a cellar in which any kind of beverages were stored* The beer -cellar proper was 3) ^ called Q O Q T U. f. 79. hnms. Des monuments et I'histoirc des H e et III* dyn. nmw. I kneels before a parfume vase. 17). which bears the name nmst. i. Asiat. Bibliotheque Egyplologique. "It is . Journ. beverages led ==* QJ /wvwv /WWVA (probably identical with the beverage cal-. . i. [] "v\. n. "beer of the protector" Ao^ 1 1 * (I H I 1 vl . 449. Y tU Probably these . 8 f) cLI ji>^ and refer of nms./*... 1867. also _c!r^ t\~\ A fl^. the second row shows a woman offering for sale a beverage.t. ftk. p. who . to a man. 2) The nmw 1908. I. In Diimichen.t may possibly be con. 4) Mistake for /to. VIII. The woman is saying to him 4 ^^ ^d^^fcln=~^% (Ilk 1/J& JJL The liquor is contained in two white extends towards the prospective buyer. which was kept in the cellar. called Kal.. >^. egypt. Raymond. 249 and 253.& that satisfies thee". in Med. r ^n X^l * LD II. /WWVA (Ibv Ms ^1 Ji^ >. Inschr. %. pp. latter two names to certain kinds of beer 1 Nms. which she This market-scene <cr> c ^= ' "friends-beer" or.t or lager-beer. de 1) Weil. In the Egyptian bazaar-scene 3 dating back to the fifth dynasty. ^-__* bowls. The former only is found A-~JI again by Hathorneferhotep in the same category. pi. f\ \\ !V" ^ Jo^ -!L f\ as the \\ \ designation of a beverage. Paris. see above. 1 appears a certain kind of beer . 46.t. Beni Hasan beer..H^S ^ it is again mentioned under the heading of hw.The beer in the Ancient Orient. . p. 96 and Maspero. On the element jig = beverage.

math. Kla^se 54'!. see also Diod. Papyr. whose names we beer or wine. Veroffentl. . in Theophrastos 2 who reckons it to those beverages. c. and 382. may either denote certain kinds of S Jrv O f which two kinds have been found in Egypt. hk. For a reference to the beverage called thviw. by 'C. of '. like those made of barley and wheat. 3 C3^K The (1 ^Q see Budge. 7. XVII. A fermented U liquors appears in v . ^ and Pap. X. Sit/. called KiAArj1) Sclnveinfurth. 2. of rotting fi . Wiener Akad.. hbt. Berl.evcp 8taXpecovrat "they use wine made of barley".. which were prepared... 77. Athen. register. Theophr. 153. I Papyrus Ebers under the name m I I i n I l(L U I /VWAA - W*M . in Wissenschattl. eating loaves of rye. Athenaeus. while XtilO is the general word for "drink.. the hordeum grain hexastichum L. P. d. 2).uOo.ungsber. med..The beautiful upon cake and ^fe The following five beverages. 3) Herod. Berlin.t ndm. 5. 25 . 3 /x f\ d O ? -WvV A II I A Jj hk .t. 1 3. Pliny XXII. 2. and the hordeum tetrastichum Kche. n. ^^ ^/"//^ Dead. is found for the first time Classical writers.uro. II..M (or 1 \Ir).- p 41. beer of Egypt. 3 *V\ 1. de VI. in which the gods live passage reads: . latter West-land.. I. on the fruits. A o O> This name j^OOo. The commonest beer was prepared irom barley. nat. Viticulture and Brewing. _M^ . mentions the fact "that the Egyptians were great bread-eaters. p.. 34. 2) See also Unger.. VIII. der deutschen Orientgesell- schaft. Hadad 9. was called or the Herodotus states 3 oivcp 8e BK Kpi^ecov jrcn:oti]p. pi. beverage". Ox 74.3^7.7A Lutz. In the Panammu-inscription 1 1 6 iTCJE is a special beverage. which is nritttt. authority of Hecataeus. The former was the most common grain in Egypt The barley 1 . Strabo.

strangely. made grow. in order that they should arouse the appetite for drinking. de cultu hort. they were obliged to have recourse to other plants. 0x)oc.The Beer in the Ancient Orient. B X. It is derived fro verb eco. eo> means "to boil". The the not Egyptian.) and the root of an Assyrian plant were used by them for that 7 In Hellenistic times Egyptian beer was imported purpose . i) Athen. Since hops were to the Egyptians as well as to all the ancient Oriental peoples. . Assyrioque venit quae 7) Columella. I. 5) Aesch. it known The beer while according to the same writer 3 Osiris in those countries where the wine does not constituted an indispensable beverage in those parts of Egypt.r)... Act. Gal. 20. Diodorus 2 the j^u^oc. 953.. also considered. the shepherd. who drank a beverage that it 4 was nearly . zythos endangers the brain membrane. It is stated the Greeks good as wine. 3) Diod.. that it understood by some scholars in a different way. "leaven. in which the vine did not grow. which made it possible to bend the ivory into any desired form. 13. i. Hik. yeast". 2. This passage is. goes back name or . 114 semine radix sectaque praebet-ur madido satiata lupino ut Pelusiaci proritet poctda suite zythi". and bruising barley ox)oc. 116: "iam siser . They say refers to the previous eating of ra- dishes and lupins. 6. 6) Orib. 20. it which was prepared from barley 5 and materials . 6. This property of elephantiasis. IV. but to its property of softening ivory. which they learned from Egypt. an old Greek word.UToq is m to the same verb to According ^eco as goes the word ^6|J. The lupin (lupinus termis Forskal. XV. bad phlegms Since the zythos was a product of decayed caused bad phlegms 6 The best that is said about it by the Classical writers refers not to its use as a beverage. X. 2} Diod. The Greeks the barley beer as being the direct cause of leprosy. but despised the Egyptians. as old as Homer and Hesiod. order to improve the taste of the beer and to keep it for *a longer period of time. It was the drink of the peasant. Arabic termus]. "to foam" and the Greeks applied it to the beer. to extract a drink from it 1 . as Dioskorides taught that causes urination. 4) Diod. 75 . the sailor and the fisher- man. causes bloating. I. however. was considered an inven- tion of Dionysos. the slum sis arum L. affects the kidneys and the nerves. the skirret (siser'. unknown in the zythos was due to its element of acid.

The brewery.76 into Palestine. 196) and "" JK^. Anast. 123. 75. Econ. Hor. See Col.. X. 2) . after all. Aeg. Stele V. 16. Z. be more correct. Gardiner. 8. Coptic BO)TF. 3) See Aeg. pour exciter les convives a boire de la biere. pi. the national drink of Egypt. p. I. Stele C. either prepared from barley. 6) 1897. sat. pure". Barley beer was Jj the most common beverage. *y^ _ ^n \ \ Jl) . Pap. II. 179: "Dans ces vers je n'apercois autre chose que la couturae ou Ton etoit de servir a table du chervi et de la racine dont . g^( Aeg. 4." Cf. . where we do not find bitterplants added to the beer. Anast. it. This may. Pelusian beer was also exported to Rome 1 . Z. <=> ^ . or also /-^ ^3 jy ~. 126. parle 1'auteur. Bent-Hasan I. 114. 152 and Pliny XXII. See also Sprengel. 42. 29 see L. Beer. CCO Coptic FIODT.. him on n (c) C9 " /WWVA o X^j ^ O brewed for the day of festival". p. name for which is a Canaanitish loanword. 27. p. 8. Z. 4) Pap. 4."^. Besides the it.MjM^l. bd. which was a special part of the kitchen. II. 4 . is ^ V//. 161. 3 =~ Pap. Versuch einer pragmatischen Geschichte der Arzncikttnde 1) I. black and red barley or of spelt. Chrest. 3. Diosc.t. For a reference female brewer. Viticulture and Brewing. D. Arab. since we should expect otherwise a similar practise in Babylonia. 5. Lutz. p. n 1 . 155. 1897. r~^ i Hymns to Amon from "beer is a Leiden Papyrw. e ^y . . name it. ^ 2 brewer is "MH"^ (Leiden. "those who crush the grain Nl r\ ' for beer". ==* Mj Amherst p. see also to a Newberry. 133) 3 (Louvre. 8. probably from Pelusium.. n the texts mention another srt. which seems to have been the most noted city for its beers in Egypt. p. according to the Egyptian texts. is called "the is /J r^. The Egyptian word The name v^> for the fl for "brewing beer" '/#/. . II. Hebrew de Sacy. . of which ' three kinds were distinguished : the white. maceree dans des lupins en fermentation. 34. Aeg. 1896.

to press out". is most likely derived from the root y^.. und Agypten (Anzeiger der Wien. deriving the word from fyaqu. which occurs innumerable times in texts of every period. "beer which does not sour(r)". XVIII. i. from Syria. a word. 14 "bread of black barley 2) The chief barley growing district of Palestine was the southern part 3) Plin. Ak. Totenbuch . Harris I 2 Syriac \ir ul . It is hardly possible to suppose.tSv' o ^sr^. Ac 9 J C2 'CL A A P \\* _ZT^ 391. The word A hkt. to have been unknown to the Egyp3 very late time.The Beer in the Ancient Orient. alien Babylonien Cl. Z. M65. Uber das Bier im phil. called //. Certain beers used for religious purposes exclusively were called A 9 fi ^ (I vb\ 1 Jyv^ Q t\ _r^ O T288. 1877. M 5575 N 1164 "beer of eternity". of the country. . should have been borrowed from the Babylonian hiqu. n. 1910. 17.. "to mix". 173 "beer of white srt". Pliny's statement that the durra was brought in his time from India to Italy may be correct and explain the fact that the Egyptian inscriptions do not guarded the shrine of Durra-beer seems tians until a 1) F. with IT the determinative 8 Aa 5 \\ i \o\ Jfi^s. Dez. Hrozny. or simply. It is it refers to . \ A ^ Q. The was a beer drunk by the 12 gods who Osiris.). connects hkt with the Babylonian beer called hiqu. e. "to squeeze. p. making (//)". according to Pap. H. i. while the black srt was more generally used for the making of The white and red barley. apart from other considerations. and 8 A & M I A^ \y s=> ^^ n [) Jj "beer of the goddess Maat". 30 * s. 77 probable that whenever this latter word an imported kind of barley. which is not at all met with fre- word quently in Babylonian texts. "beer latter of truth". " ' Aeg. which came is used. n ? oA O ui p fe p ared beer Tpn from white srf\ White srt appears to have been preferred for brewing. that a like Egyptian hkt. / I J r"**O N WWAA 126. are also more generally mentioned bread. in the of beer than the black Totenbuch 189. in the city of U f^^\<=> d Jl x^sK-> it..

has never been found. Bibliotheque gyptologique XXVIII.. 26. e. or merise of the NuIf this is bians. Pap. ^^]^-^ La Flore pharaomque. p.78 Lutz. just like bread and cook it rather raw and whenever (the loaves) rise. 2) Brugsch. See. it. 144. shake. however.. however. has left us a description of the method of brewing beer amongst the ancient Egyptians. 467. Dourati dans une lettre d'affaires ecrite vers le milieu de la XIX e dynastic" (i. AX 1 MplC. He says: About beer-making "Take fine clean barley and moisten it for one day and draw it off or also lay it up in a windless place until morning and again wet it six hours. xai KCUTCKJOV 3) TTepi 2u&ou iroirjaeu)? xpidr]v KctOctpiav KaXrjv Pp^ov aa xai dvdairaaov ^\ . Next grind it and make it into loaves adding leaven. Others in baking the loaves cast them into a vat(?) with water and they boil it a little in order that it may not froth nor become luke-warm and they draw up (= absorb) and strain i) it and having prepared Ill. a chemist who wrote probably before the time of Photios. . pi. 13 line 12 and . "fine flour". Viticulture and Brewing. VI. An Egyptian word. p. it would still be a late evidence for durra^beer in -Q The Egyptian plwr. dissolve sweetened water and strain (it) through a strainer or light sieve. 252: "La dourah est originaire de 1'Afrique tropicale. a beverage which is prepared from durra. For the must(?) is bitter. Anastasi IV.. On see also Loret. to crush. a is generally translated: Hebrew nbb* siltu. Maspero. WB* Vol. V. "mustum" Egypt. p. which could mean durra. Mel. ^)^. or rub) in the sun-light until it falls apart. the case. FMTTplC.. 89 ff. mention it. ^ -r^^ ^^ 1 j hardly equals Coptic Zosimus of Panopolis in the Thebais. e. appears word which may refer to the merisa. G. The word Assyr. In Coptic. Cast it into a smaller perforated vessel and wet it and dry it until it shall become shredded and when this is so pat it (i. et j'ai cru la deviner sous le nom de Dirati. 2 e edit. pl. yW<2/. heat (it) and examine 3 (it) ". 17 Hne 4 .

TiXri. i) 3) ff. 6. /. Solisbachi. it was broken into pieces \ dvrjvtjatu Toiriu. 2) See below p. that have come down to us 2 . see Br. to ves- When and the bread was 'half baked. Z. Another word for yeast is f=^=T% d \\ y II! WB.. who sels. ^ "AXXoi be oiTTOVTec. |LirjT . Kai OTav ^iravdujaiv. -*^ ^s. are taken by a man and stacked for baking (see Illustration No. C..wall of the J either barley. ^uuq e'mpaXXe ei<. I. XXXIII. Kai O'TC Y^vrjTai. 4) M^\ O> ^v C P- Hebrew *iett3. see f. Kai dvaKpivouaiv. 4 and worked ( into y the dough. which contain the earliest beer-brewing into recipes grain. 11. Kai TO ^v AIYUTTTUJ KaXoujaevov Z[0x>o<. sur). . 3: A n I I : 1 1 /wwv\ i. bidXue (ibuup Y^ UK ^ K0t ^ n^l111 bid rjd|Liou f| KOCJKIVOU XeTTToO.The Beer in the Ancient Orient. AOITTOV aXeaov.. i'va |ur) eic rj KXoupov |ueTd ObaTO?. pdXXoumv lniKpov. Kai x^ ia P v Kai dvao"Trio~i Kai Kai Trepio"Keudo"avTe<. irpoavar|paive e. Ppaou fvr\ta\. $.. (Zosimi Panopolitani de Zyihorum confectione fragmentum See also Dioscor. VI. tomb of Rahenem el-Gebrawi 5 ^\ named Isy H ((] at Deir (]j. 88. That sometimes also wheat was used is indicated in Theophrast. 36. XX. Below these vessels was then set a slow fire. 9 pr. 109 and no. 5) Davies. i. 128 De causa plant. A On certain amount of a poured mortar and After that yeast was added the east. dicnrep dpTov. after being moistened. Oeojuaivouaiv. The man. KOxXdarj. ed. t)ig. "I put the yeast into a jar (and) the beer into the cellar". apToui. oi'vou<. e\ju<. Gruner. 79 Ludwig Borchardt was the first scholar who explained the meaning of those pictures and statues which refer to the in Egypt and who indirectly helped to brewing industry l understand also the Babylonian texts. Xiuuviov dYY i (uc. II. spelt or wheat 3 is ground. 72. irpun Kai irdXtv Ppe"ov uipaq v udjuoeibec.. 660. Kai Troirjaov dpTOuq irpoa^dXXajv 2u|ur|v. G. dx. 1814). 15). el The Rock-Tombs of Deir Gtbrawi. O ! I I e. Rec. Kai Ppe'xe. vyf|?:ov iv rjXiiu. 2: oi TOU<. p. part II. pi. p. is is about pictured slightly bake the loaves in the shading his face from the heat. 6. Vol. Kai 6rrTa obnoTepov.. Aeg. iroioOT ^K TUJV Kpidi&v Kai TUJV irupOuv See also Ulp. ou Tre'arj TO (uaXiov YP TtiKp6v... we see the dough Some of these vessels piled up in many earthenware vessels.


Lutz, Viticulture and Brewing.

soaked for several days. The bread pieces were then placed into a large fermentation-vat, which was large enough to hold a man or woman, and the soaked pieces were then small statue trodden by the feet (see Illustration No. 16).






loaves for slight baking (after Davies, Rock

soaking bread-loaves in large bo^vls; at right man staking Tombs of Deir el-Gebrawi).

woman standing in the vat, holding her hands at the In the painting at Deir el-Gebrawi we see of the vat. top the process, which was most characteristic to the Egyptians
shows a





in centre pressing the soaked beer-loaves in large vat.



and right

beer through woven baskets over large bowls (after

Davies) Rock Tombs of Deir el-Gebraiut].

for brewing,

the act, performed

so that the hieroglyph "brewer" is taken from by a man. In the latter painting the artist
Neggada and preserved
in the Berlin





see Aeg. Z.,

1896, p. 161, illustrations



The Beer

in the

Ancient Orient.


has even gone so far as to show the yellow grains on the exterior of the vat, which is painted red. Next we see the The semi-liquid mass is poured sieving of the beer-mash.
flat, wide-woven basket, in which we see sometimes sometimes two servants kneading the mass with both one, hands. The basket is placed over a large jar, which stands


either in a turned over basket

or in a foot-stand of basket-

the beer loaves had been thoroughly kneaded and stirred, the liquid filtered through the basket into a large jar below, from which it was finally poured into the large





This work of


the beer jars



mh kk.t,

.In X o kg X have been bottom

large conical bowls with a hole in the

found, which served the purpose of pressing and stirring the beer loaves, in order to squeeze out the fermented beer from the loaves. Petrie notes that one still contained a pressed cake of barley mash and grains. In grave No. 29 were also found mud-models of vases with blue line pottery belonging to the end of the XVIII th dynasty. Some of these vases were closed with mud caps, many of which still containing barley grain and barley mash. The persons

represented as on the ground.


One hand

the beer bottles, are always seen sitting is inside the long bottle, while the

other is holding it (see Illustration No. 17). It seems that before the bottles were filled with beer, they were smeared with bitumen or the like, as was done with the wine bottles.






finally closed

with large balls

o f Nile-mud.

recipe to prepare Egyptian beer is also found in the Rabbinic literature, to which J. H. Bondi first called attention 2 In Mishna Pesackim, III, 1 are enumerated pttim ""HEft "OB cnmn *WlSfi "Median beer and Idumaean vinegar and Egyptian zythos\ The Gemara (B. Pesackim 42 b) remarks




that barley is put into the first two. beer: "What is Egyptian


says regarding the


Rabbi Joseph

Gizeh and Rifeh (British School of Archaeology 1) Flinders Petrie, Egypt and Egyptian Research Account, i3th year, 1907), p. 23.
2) Aeg. Z., 33, p. 62.



and Brewing.



7 Lutz, \ iticulture and Brewing.

and Rabbi Papa took barley off (the recipe) and They moisten it, roast it, placed instead (of it) wheat .grind it and drink it from Passah unto the week-festival. It causes diarrhea to whosoever is costive, and whosoever suffers of diarrhea, him it makes cosof barley,

of saff lower seed


a third of





a danger for the



pregnant wo-

man" 2 The "foaming" of the beer was expressed by the

a /"^
also im-

The Egyptians The ported beer.


country seems to have been along the Syrian and Asia Minor coast, which

was known geographically as

The Qode-




probably not a Syrian product, but came from inland, from Babylonia, or either more likely, from the Hittite country. Qode may be iden.


Coating the interior of beer bottles with bitumen (after Aeg. Zeit-schr.


with the Biblical "coast of the Kittians", i. e., the

Bd. 3 X


reached from


formerly to Pe-

cf. Solin. 38, 1: Ciliciam, qua de agitur, si, ut mine loquamur, derogasse videbimur fidei vetustatis: si terminos sequimur, quos habuit o/im, absonum est a con-



tinctorius L.,


xrbri ^BTip xrbr
n^b a^c

which grows in Egypt. nrus Krbn tibi* 31 tor


inb ^inai inb ibpi inb

XBB a^


Pap. d'Orb.

8, 6.

4) Pap. Anast. 3 verso 2; 4, 12,


The Beer in the Ancient Orient. 11: i.5. Anast. from Qode.e. 5. e. 5637. 345. Pap. They stay all day at the door of my house. where it was often imitated role in Egypt. important In a letter 2 the writer. sub imperio Cilicum constitutis: mox ab Assy rUs This beer played an subacta. Ci 1 1 1 I \\ x &L- TL/vww Jarofc \^ I. Inschr. Two kinds were known in Egypt. (scil. $00 in all.. 12. Each time that I go out while they sleep. 4. beer was differentiated by the name 8 /> . . 33 temptations rerum praesentium. Pamphilia.. 4) Pap. G. filled with beer the people go forth make a drinking-bout outside. 3. whenever the n:ck of the bottles I should be excluded. if I did not is broken and when the jug is opened. Armeniis. ^(j^1\j^j. VII is mentioned "a which empties the Qode 1) Hierat. It is my house. 3. 4. 16. 6. in breviorem moduni scripta.d . "Sometimes when to bottles are opened. Medis. 3. Cappadocia. Anast. i. Anast. who dwells with the dogs)". me Location unknown. have the in little jackal-dog of N'hr-hw. In Pap. Leid. 2) Pap. then(?) There are 200 great dogs and 300 jackals. "imported Qode beer". rev. the imported 4 and that which was brewed in Egypt by foreign slaves 5 The genuine Qode 1 * . 8. 3) 5) he who saves me from them the royal scribe. who was stationed in Qenqen-tane 3 writes to his superior that the food at that place was bad and the best drink he could get was beer from Qode. thirst. Cilicia antea usque Pelu- sium Aegypti pertinebat. 6* . Lydis.

II. 13. 22$). | . jars. It is of interest to note this connection that the pre-Islamic Arabic waiter also 1) Stele C 45 in the Louvre. ^-tO *> ? /^T"^ \\ A' 1 - ( time of - /I Vf IO (Amarna). 50 (cf. For a graphic variant of the name "butler" (jug . 37 $ 1] ^ _ J J^. bowl) from Bab-el-Moluk see Desc. Rec. was a high court-official. Tafel 8 (Pap.84 countries". Ab. Abyd II. Marseille. is A servant. dyn. ed. Stele of Marseille. Var. Characteristic are the sleeves and the double garment in the dress of the butler (see Mar. order to protect his chief-garment. 85 similar Wilkinson. For a good picture of the butler see Champ. trav. For the best and dinet Abu is garment in in largest representation of the butler of MeThe uppersee Desc. Lutz. Wiedemann. 15. Viticulture and Brewing. Louvre 3308) the a stands behind the king with a fan. Ill.. 129 (Hnmhotep). called whose hair-dress seems !r /) to point to A \ JV ^xj IA ^1 ^ L o "The cool one". LD in III. mon. I. 1 ^. 0%*w** ^Cl Ao 5m V JL A II I ^ and to the "royal chief beer-inspector". mon. de II. 242. The the "royal butler". 49 and Champ. . which the butler wore tg. In representation of Wiedemann. I <= "7^ A T /WWVAA^I Za^ ^ I I 2 . dyn. with bottles and LD II. Hierat. 2) Stele of Ramessai-m-pr-S in Bulaq. pi.X -A--=dl O _Mx& \\ 9 21 n 00 luii Next on a the 12. /l ^ ^ O ^37 |^^' Var - fJ ^ etc - etc. most likely a sleeve-apron. foreign origin. II. which also indicates that Qode was the beer country "inspector of The inscriptions refer to an officer 1 * called the brewery". Texte. ste ^ e f 1 19 (18. to butler the Q ^\ r V. lo). Mar HI | il t a? A\ /WWV\/N^ (time of Merenptah). Var. 425. 434. 8 (smaller II. 1 ! 3 6) 1 T _ =7:/wyvAA^ncnDn n 8 (sic) -^ 1 T JL selon DHI SL 1 40 e. trav.. V n -Ji /WAAAA I Rec.

. of the income and the expenses of the royal court at Thebes. lived in the first century B. 40. Griech. It was leased jrpoc. which must have done a tremendous business. temple . ^ccXKov i(5ovou.<WWVN AAAA/A ^J c . brewers. 9. paid five copper which according to Wilcken 3 is the tax for production. as cpopoc. 2. agio i. Die Oasen der Libyschen plate XVII). Xaipeiv. p. This tax was paid by the producer. as the tax receipts show.S=* x calls emperor: V ^ \$\ /vwwv (5 ^? Q 1 -<s>. of course for the identical purpose. 1 wine (see Diimichen. >/ ^ I X HA off ]=::. Regarding the chief-butler of Pharaoh the d^pttJEft "ite see Gen. Gricchische Ostraka.The Beer in the Ancient Orient. the An _]/ inscription in the same. For each month of the year the two "Pasion and Sentheus". 2) See Grenfell 39 YccniuriTixcx. who talents. Under the Ptolemies and the tian and Roman emperors the Egypbeer was subjected to a tax (^uTi]pcc. . C. and Hunt. 85 wore a kind of apron.. 21 and 41. 20.ov. The consumption of beer in Egypt for all periods of its long history must have been considerable. dating from the end of the Middle 1) Wilcken. or a woman's garment. p. p. 371. was to be paid in copper without . II. sciL <bvfj). great role in the finances of papyrus in the British A Museum 2 refers to the taxation of a large brewery firm. TTaaiuuv (read TTam'uw) xai levdeuuc (read levfrei) ZUTOTTOIOIC. for instance. (q>)6pov [roO [rcxXa]v[Ta Trevre 3) Wilcken. According to an inventory. i. 369. The tax on beer played a the Ptolemies and of Roman times. Emperor Augustus is represented in the temple of Denderah as ^ QA A/VVVNA ^ "the butler of Re'". the ^UTOJCOIOC. named This text makes us acquainted with a brewery.5=C \\| the drink for a flO "the butler of Re who prepares Re c . Ostr. filling the vessels with "green Horus-eye"Wiiste. e. 9.

the of the brewer "black beer". 2) trcide The first scholar. "40 qa beer". 1914. Akk. "fine spelt beer". kurun-gig.. kas-^o-qa. pp. however. "fine white beer". explained these texts was Hrozny. in Aeg. "beer mixed with water". Since the . C. kas "barley-beer". ka$-as-a-an-mah ululinmah. bappiru. Akk.BA). Egypt until recently. ka$-sig "fine-beer". like that of Egypt. Akk. was considered last the oldest beer decades. we learn that Babylonia was not less engaged in the brewing industry than Egypt. who XXVIII. "prima beer". u-lti-si-in-nu. . that purpose-. * Kingdom there were brought daily 130 jars (c. The material is so large and so detailed that we are enabled to receive a pretty complete 2 insight into the work of the Sumero-Akkadian brewer in the world.. 1800 B. kas. and the queen received on one day five jars filled with beer. the "red beer". Ka$-as-an-na or ka$-as-a-an u-lu-si-in. Later written /w-SlM -j. NINDA*. the "man of the beer-loaf". 66 ff. GIG. bappir Das Ge- im 3) Wien. . we meet continually with the word KAS+ NINDA.* GIG. kat-jo-qa. e. "fine black beer". The texts acquaint us with a great variety of beers. = } "30 qa beer".8(5 Lutz. In addition to these = we also find a large number of so-called mixed beers. 1890. C. kas-2o-qa. Essentially the method of the SumeroAkkadian brewing industry differed very little from that of ' The commonest beer (Sumerian: Egypt. and the many beer names composed with the element 1) See Borchardt. extent We have seen that in Egypt beer brewing to a large was connected with the baking of bread loaves.NINDA alien Babylonien. and it is possible in some instances also wheat e (*'GIG. "spelt-beer". as for instance. "prima spelt-beer. kas-a-sud. The oldest evidences of beer brewing in Babylonia reach back to the very threshold of its history. from country the materials published. kas-sag.) of beer to the royal court. Akkadian sikaru) in Babylonia was. lu-KAS-\"beer-loaf". that is the Also the name in Sumerian for brewer. kas-sagas-a-an. In the Sumerian beer recipes which go back to c. relation i. also called ka$-bir. "20 qa beer". kurun-babbar. 2800 B. Z. kas-si. We meet with the kas-gig. Viticulture and Brewing. ulusinmahhu. points to the close and the baker. prepared from barley But also spelt (as-a-ari) was extensively used for ($eum).

is 19) Ni. 3498. . 10872. which are taken from so-called "lists". kal-u-sa-e-da-di^. No. See farther Kas-ti is . 10816. a beer mixed with fruit-juices. Ni. Dr. The multitude of names. a mixed beer flavored with spices. 10873. i9 kas-tin. ka$"-sa-&&rQ)-a* ka$-ii-sa-gin t . 10815. 11324. . or read kas-u-sa-as($}-an~: 9) Ni. Chiera has kindly placed the 3) Ni. 4) Ni. kaS-u-sa-stg. . ic-sa-sag-gi-pu (?) l2 kas-u-sa-ud-sal-la 3 kas-u-sa-ud-tab-ba 4 kind of beer was called kas-nag-lugal^*. kas-u-sa-lal iQ kas-u-sa-sim-dug-a^. which the above list does not aim to exhaust. 11204. "the beer of man" 16 The saleable barley In BE. 11326. 161. 10813. Ni. kaS-ti-ri-a. A called ka$-lu-gal-la. . n) Ni. 5^7. 11325. probably qa to be supplied. 7 beer appears under the name kas-se-ri-a 17 is found a beer called kas-dur-an-ki. -7 which according to t Hrozny are all mixed l beers. plhu. . 10820. kas-u-sa-as-a-an Akk. 10817. XIV. 20) Ni. ka$f> beer". 11386. "the royal special beverage". 12) Ni. 14) Ni. 2) 5) Ni. ka$-u-sa-gu-la*. and which describe the different kinds of beer. 15) Ni. 10877. 11080. 22) Ni. be borne in mind that some of the beverages mentioned above. l6 ) Ni "3 2 9- 8) Ni. Meissner. "fine mixed beer". 22 and &a$-um-ri-a**. ka^-iisa-ku-an-mah^. 1 breweries. kas-ti-Sar' ^. the interpretation of It 1) Ni. show how many-sided and specialized was the industry of the Sumero-Akkadian fcas-umfy-ra. must. So long as such names composed with ka$ are not found in texts in which the context can assist. There are found the ka$-u-sa ka$-ii-sa-al-pu-ba . in the Ancien Orient. 10810. 23) Ni. . dttiptahhu or alappanu. 10819. or read kas-u-sa-as(\)-an-mak'r 10) Ni. probably identical with the following. 10815. &aJf~m-5-} . . 10814. a "fine beer". 21) Ni. Ni. lists of beers to my disposition. as distinguished probably from the common beer 1 1 '. however. 10812. ka$-u-sa-ka-kak' kaS-u-sa-ka-gi-kak 1 kaS-it-sa-ku-an^. 17) Ni. 10811. may refer to artificial wines just as well as to beer.The Beer u-sa. 1 13) Ni - - 10818. = 7) Ni. 10872. 11385. "a sweet mixed dida imgdgd the "common mixed beer". ka$-u-sa-e-du-di*. 6) Kas-u-sa-ka-kak 8) Ni. .

to break forth". 46. the date-wine lost in quality according to Sar Shalom 3) For the occurence of the cuscuta in Babylonia see Pliny.. where the process of boiling was unknown. it is difficult to understand what purpose malt could have served. In- script. does not out of place in the Babylonian method of brewing. XIII. seems to refer to a certain kind of grain. apples. ~^o. No. seemingly 4) The translation of bulug. 12) Semitic languages. We can get along very well with the common meaning of JJo. de Genouillac. p. brewer furnishes 8 nigin (= 80 qa) of black beer. . This is due to (as the fact that Babylonian h&aru. Viticulture and Brewing some of these names must remain doubtful. 45. . is growing profusely in Babylonia. II. or dodder. one of the most ambiguous words in the It may mean any intoxicating beverage . Malt is always barley (notice se-bulug besides bulug) that was dug into the ground and left there until it had commenced to germinate. buqlu as "malt". honey mentioned may ultimately be recognized as words for arti- ficial wines. grapes. 2) it grows. Since the Babylonian method was similar to that of the Egyptian. . was not sufficiently cleansed from other herbs. JL-o was made from * "*'* of cuscuta. Whenever the cuscuta. i) Compare from for instance the Arabic 0" ^ Js-*<o ? " called vX*-o which was also' pre- pared dried dried dates (so " in ** the Koran). dates and from i^j^JLvS a species on which Gaon. 34. which surprising. "to appear. for the purpose of mixing it with their beverages. loanword in Egyptian is ta-ki-ra J^-r fc^ \\ |? S$ K. 18 qa of ninda-tam-ma4 loaves. IV. It is still the custom in modern Egypt to use germinated grain for purposes of brewing. by Hrozny. 5 ff. see Hrozny. For its . i ff. which was prepared of barley only 2 An exception is a text 3 which enumerates an addition of Lutz. No. 24 qa of beer loaves and 36 qa of germinated grain The materials used for the "good black beer". Bulug. A brewing he needs 18 qa of spelt. Ethiopic fJ*f>A " to germinate". fresh or dried dates pomegraBut even though some of the names etc. Das Getreide im de Genouillac. there is still must remain a great variety of beers. 1 prepared from grains. The cheapest beer of the oldest time was seemingly the "black beer". kas-gig. 154. alien Babylonien. Obv. kas-gig-dug-ga. Arabic " Hebrew nyc Piehl. In order to brew differ little from the common "black beer". and was probably used already in ancient times by the Babylonians. then. Obv. nates. ^b^D. = seem to me to be correct. Hierogl.

169. with a statement of their respective amounts. 161 p. Since the texts. No. The Babylonian "Prima beer". The barley. thus was composed often with somewhat more than than 2 /5 */ 4 . 2) 3) Hrozny. Hrozny 's investigations have given us valuable informations concerning the composition of the old Sumerian beers. always mention the beer loaves.. p. .. Obv. 5ff. 159. So in Allotte de la Fuye. 168. or barley with the addition of spelt. The name of which was of a syrupy this beer is written ideographically ^A<MS^. In this case the more valuable barley products were used in larger quantity. mentioned Rifeh there still remained In many 1) a quantity of barley grain and of barley mash. was kneaded with the beer loaves in the same way as was the of beer loaves that in customary with the Egyptians. For the making we may refer back to what has been stated above p. 170. and No. i See Allotte de la Fuye. /. c. no statements re- garding the method of brewing itself. The Sumerian beer recipes give us only knowledge of the materials of grain that were used by the Babylonian brewer. *-. who gives a very detailed account of the composition of the Babylonian beers prepared with an addition of spelt in particular. 174. HUBUR+GUG+BULUGi have followed so far the exposition of Hrozny. refer- ring to brewing. p. it indicates that the method of brewing must have been very similar to method employed by the Egyptians. 78 ff. 172. iff. thickness and was eaten. I. above. and p. kas-kal. 4) Hrozny.The Beer in the Ancient Orient. of (hulled) spelt and 12O qa-sag-gdl of ground germi72 qa nated grain. of husked spelt 3 of hulled spelt. /. c. p. /. No. 161. I. The texts mention further a beer. They contain. 89 lo of red beer there were necessary 96 beer-loaves. ff. or the composition of different grains. /. and Hrozny. U. amongst the vessels found We in have. or somewhat more The "good black beer" was some- times prepared from barley exclusively. c.. however. Hrozny 2 has further shown that the Babylonian 1 nig-in beers are valued according to the amount of spelt that was added to the barley and the barley products. I. Rev.. We Leaving out of consideration the surely erroneous idea that the Babylonians used malt with the preparations of their beers. Hrozny..

which were trodden by the feet of a man who stands up to his knees in the vat. and indicates that the activity which to the minds of the Egyptians was most characteristic of the brewer. Zeitschr. The and and industry of brewing beer thus was Babylonia. While with the Egyptians the process of treading the beer loaves and the grain. or bappir. Both countries supplement in their literary pictorial remains our knowledge of the making of beer to press. artist indicated the the tomb-painting at Deir el-Gebrawi we also noticed that the hidden contents of the brewing vat. to knead. the the Sumero-Akkadians called /-KAS brewer + NINDA. "the loaf". showing the yellow grain in the white mass representing the beer loaves. e. the Sumero. contains plainly An Egyptian brewer (after and simply the word for brewing.Akkadians considered the mak- ing of beer loaves as the activity most characteristic for the brewer. while the Egyptians called the brewer *fty and represen- ted him ideographically by the sign . to stir"alike both in Egypt . 35).Lutz. 1 8. No. bably "to originally promake loaves". Bd. Lahamu is of course connected with the Hebrew word nnb "bread". Thus. beer thus probable verb "lahamii\ which is used to indicate a certain activity of the that the brewer. was also so considered by the Sumero-Akkadians. or the working and kneading of these substances with both hands was most characteristic as the (see work of the brewer Nos. Viticulture and Brewing.. Aeg. 18 Illustration and 19). and probably means also the same as the Egyptian *ft in t "to wring. man of the It is i.

tab In. No. "< 2) -rsn-ss*. this beverage. dug-ga. this l in connection refers prepared from fruit-juices. Brewer and bottle washer (after Aeg. not to beehoney. 11 . 19. whenever Babylonian texts speak of honey with beverages. Zeitschr. evident that the Babylonians knew well to preserve the quality of the beer for a longer period. gi to the Ancient Orient. I) Mun. 2. Also the Hebrews prepared "beer". but to a syrup which was thickened with Sikaru. 35). according to Lev.The Beer in in the Ancient Orient. nxitf-bs . menZ P^^^w^f-^T. Egypt contributed our knowledge of the methods used in brewing beer. and Babylonia gave us It may finally be remarked that the earliest beer recipes. makes it tioning "one year old beer". Bd. Inschriften von Darius I. line 2. was excluded for ceremonial purposes 2 Strassmaier. which No. 168.

which was the accession year Xerxes. VI. cane and cover(?) the roof. See Pliny. rity He shall stand secu- for it that the offering of the repast (of the god Nabu) suffers no delay and for Nabu-usallim shall give nine kegs unto Rimut-Bel. 132: circa Alpes vi-num ligneis vasts condunt tectis circulisqtte cingnnt. which is closed up. which were made of wooden staves and held together with hoops are an invention of the Gauls. For three years The work of tiles.Q2 Lutz. he has given for preparing unto Nabuusallim. the descendant of Ilu(?)-abusu(?). one 1) Nine two bukannu. It reads 2 300 clay jars of beer for the repast of the god Nabu. as much as Nabu-usallim shall make in the house of Rimut-Bel. XIV. Therefrom (!) Nabu-usallim has received from the hand of Rimut-Bel 80 gur of barley Rimutand the remainder of the barley in Barsip(?) Bel shall give to Nabu-usallim. which is closed up. . kegs) for the cellar(?) of Rimut-Bel and of Marduk-balatsu3 beginning with the month of Kislev of the 36th year according to his document. work of repair of the walling. See VS. 2) Tuns. responsible. 182. Nabu-usallim shall reckon and houseup to the charges of Rimut-Bel. Nabu-usallim jars. For furniture. In the house of Rimut-Bel. 18 clay-kegs machine of cane. the descendant of Lakuppuru. contract of the time of Xerxes narrates the hiring of a certain brewer named Nabu-usallim for the purpose of preparing mixed beer for the repast of the god Nabu. mix the kegs to the amount of 300. the son of Iddina-Nabu. Nabu-usallim shall dwell. of 3) That is the 36th year of Darius I. which Rimut-Bel shall entrust is to Nabu-usallim in the closed-up house. He shall stand good(?) for(?) the correct delivery of good mixed beer before the cellars (?) of Rimut-Bel and of Marduk-balatsu-iqbi. barrels and casks.'. execute (it) and give (the iqbi. Viticulture and Brewing. The cassiaspice(P) Rimut-Bel shall give to Nabu-usallim in 1 gur Rimut-Bel shall make with Nabu-usallim. He shall take care of the he shall beams. the son of Nabu-aplu-iddin. For the keg Rimut-Bel shall give to Nabu-usallim Then he shall 78 qa of barley and 6 qa of cassia-spice. one mixingone of cane. be* : A longing to Rimut-Bel.

11 it becomes. 15. stimulates appetite. 1O. For the Sekhar prepared from grain. Vallarsi . particularly in the stomach and the abdomen. Follow the names of witnesses. 13. Ill. same way the fokka as the zythos is by the earlier writers. The brewery was known in Rabbinic times by the name "place of the brewing vat". harmful to a watery stomach and persons with cold temperament. . evident that the word . aut quum favi decoquuntur in dulcem et bar bar am potionem. and causes frequent urination. 93 belonging to Rimut-Bel are entrusted to the disposiThe brewer. 266: Sicera hebraeo sermone ontnis patio quae inebriare potest slye ilia quae fruniento conficitur sivt pomorum succo. iiSff. WTlO h D.The Beer in the Ancient Orient. ed. Chrestomathie arabe. 9. 1. See de Sacy.. Lev. 437. The fokka is particularly good on hot It drives away thirst.. The Old Testament mentions the tekhar (Deut. It is. tfm'nD iD. The. The Arabian beer was drunk by the Byzantines under the name cpouicac. is hired for the period of three years in order to prepare mixed beer. Is. I. good keeping of which he is held responsible. 28. He states that a good beverage for those who have a very warm constitution. rum fructus exprimuntur 3) in liquorem. Ep. or "place of pounding". coctisque frugibus II.Sam. however. 6. 4ff. 7 etc. ad Nepotian. if it is free from any spices. aqua pinguior color atur. for the tion of Nabu-usallim" 1 .). 29. according to the document. 4) p. sekhar was also applied to the beer. for which he receives certain quantities of barley and cassia-spices. see Pesach. In return for his labor he is given a house with its furnishings and the brewing outfit. 1) 2) I. 2. however.. 1. Arabs drank a certain beer called fokka 3 Simon Seth 4 characterized it in the . aut palma. According to Temimy a variety of beers were called by the name fokka.Different kinds of beer are made. is laxative. This writer gives the following account of its property and its ingredients: There is one which is pre. days. Nor does Jerome know what kind of beverage it was 2 From passages such as Lev. and for those persons who suffer considerably from thirst on account of excessive heat. On account of the too general meaning "intoxicating drink" it is impossible to determine in each instance whether a certain kind of artificial wine or beer is intended. Judg.

also a more simple kind of beer. which benefit and strengthen the stomach on account of their aromatic nature. musk. well prepared. it causes diarrhoea. dry.put into each jar a heart of dracunculus hortensis. But those who are of a rather moderate temperament. mastix. and desire to prevent to render it its (causing) flatulence. with a heart of mint in each jar. exceedingly putrid It produces flatulence and (and) harmful to the stomach. cinnamon. with bread of best grade wheat flour.. which pass off with painful diffiAnd often. or a heart of dracunculus mint. We its should evidently expect here the name of a vessel with a specification of size. They make hortensis only. pared from germinated. and two leaves [of the heart] of a lemon-tree. It is more suitable for choleric persons. and of fine germinated it is less dangerous than wheat. dracunculus hortcnsis. hyacinth. being fermented with mint. water. rumbling and injures the brain-nerves. winds and rumbling. and to strengthen the stomach. long pepper. and their absorption of its moisture. dity. and an infusion of musk and mastix only. on account of its bitterness and its pudriculty. and who moderately warm. or germinated barley flour the first kind. It is warm. some cardamom and nutmeg and clove. dried (and) ground barley-flour. having been filtered. Viticulture and Brewing.94 Lutz. of parsley." I i) De Sacy reads: JOjLiJl. because it fills the brain with thick. leaves of the lemon-tree and pepper. as e. Of the powder thus made from these spices let one mithkal (two drachms in weight) serve for each twenty If it is jars of beer (the jars being of the kind called?) desired to render it agreeable of taste. put into it some aromatic plants. g. . with a little rue and 1 . and often it causes diseases of the bladder and heartburn to those who make a habitual use ol As for (the beer) prepared with bread of the best grade it wheat flour. rue. well prepared. warm vapors. there must be .

According to Gawaliky 108 the Abys- beer. 513 it was prepared of wheat. a stronger kind of beer than the '^COoc. durra and barley and was the national drink of Egypt long after it had embraced Islam. Chitat I. (J>^**). De Sacy (Oirest. being. 105). Paris 1845. or sokorkah (sokorka ).The Beer in the Ancient Orient. w * Dadiyy (^>\ > ). a partifavored drink. It cularly was a barley-water. 150. 1 j.y J^ ^ called wz>r. ?. jJ-l <LcoU^Jl x. means of straws. 151) identified misr with the Greek Kouppit. I. The misrbeer was subject to a government tax (Makrizy. which was introduced into Arabia at a very early time. Relations des voyages faits par les Arabes et les Persans. iXSlxJI - ^o _ Another kind of beer was 5-00. sinian 55). . This seed tasted bitter. is doubtful. seems to have been quite harmless. Bokhary mentions the use of this beer also in South-Arabia. O 1 111 (Jv^U. which was imbibed from the vessel by in the same class as wine. )y* "wine of durra and barley". somewhat thinner and longer (see Reinaud. called ghobaira. however. p. ^*^)J1^ i^JJl Arab. This identification. which the Kamus explains as ^-o misar. and resembled the barley.Xs ^IjJI Lo ^X^. or dadiyy (^^) was the name of an intoxicating beverage. which was probably prepared from a seed of the same name. and was generally drunk bj' sick persons.11 JjJ. since Mohammed had placed it The sawiq. was especially prohibited to be drunk. According to Ibn Baitar II.. however.

(the peasants of the Armenian mountains) Kpixhvog dv KpaT?|po"iV dvPjaav b Kai abiai ai Kpidal itfoxeiXeu. p. oi jnev ^eiou<. Vingt-quatre tablettes cappadociennes.. 1) 2) Niebuhr. Viticulture and Brewing. ubujp dmx^or Kai TTCIVU r]bu aumua^ovn TO 3) GolenischeiF. biif/ibri ^XXdTrou?. When Niebuhr visited Arabia. the 2 subterranean Xenophon with it up if saw jars filled to the brim.o5 Lutz. he found the Arabs drinking a beer that was white and thick. Barley was mixed strong it diluted with water. beer was brewed in Asia Minor by the same methods used in Babylonia. being prepared from flour 1 In . 5. 57. fovara O ftk g XO vre^ ei? ' TOUTOU? b' r|v Xa^ovra TO arojua jauZieiV xai irdvu rrojua fiv* i|ar|Ti(. accustomed to the taste of this beer found it very agreeable Old Cappadocian documents 3 show that during the third millenium B. . C. Anabasis IV. oi b bei 6-iroTe TI<. The was not dwellings of the North Armenians with barley beer. KCt\a(iioi dv^xeivTO. Armenian barley beer was very One who became . 26 they had: Kai oivo<.

IV. the moral sense of wider groups of people reached a stage where it found intoxication unbecoming to the dignity of a man.Chapter Four Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals as well as in Babylonia and Assyria. Intoxication was not yet conconcerned. Anast. So at the time of Athenaeus the Egyptians were described by him as temperate in banquets of every kind and that they used only so much wine as was necessary to gladden the heart. we find one view regarding intoxicants. is as far as It the national conscience of these was impossible during the early peoples of the national development of these peoples that any stages considerable group should rise up in protest against the excessive use of beer or wine. r w 1\ JzF^fc n 1 . rable character. 3. Viticulture ' and Brewing. beer."i LJ x The same text refers to the hilarity that it caused But there were always individuals who took a different viewpoint. It was. and as ages passed. The statement Lutz. sidered as constituting a moral offence against the drinker's own self and against society at large. on the whole. The moral sense was still too undevelo- ped to put a different construction on excessive drinking. This view is of a favoonly In Egypt. rather considered in the light of a harmless pleasure in which one might indulge. fectly I 7 it is stated that the mouth of a * per* happy man iPji is filled with wine. In Pap.. etc. 7 .

Herodotus bouts (~ jrotfiov) 1 ~ reflects. Inschr. The first slave holds with his hand the head of the master. The drinking' | q=n li (] r-~-i [Dum. 20] = rtPil&E. Viticulture and Brewing. for after thy death thou wilt be like far this one!" That the this second and probably monition well is the larger group heeded in ad- richly illustrated the tomb-paintings of Beni-Hasan. bent over the arm of a drunken ladv indicates her condition. for this flower even more unesthetic picture. overcome by the use of wine. tfup. They show us that beer and wine were drunk No. . one at the foot. drink and be happy. Two slaves carry their totally drunk master. I. Hist. Illustration upper No. too much i) Herod. 20. They are followed by three slaves who have lifted their master on their heads and carry him away like a stiff pole (see Illustrations No. pay a painful and ugly sacrifice to Dionysos (see Illustration Nos. Then a wooden image of a dead person was carried about and to each guest was given the admonition: "Behold this one. the other at the head. by the Egyptians often to excess and that the classes women of the from this habit. Slave ottering Avine cup to a lady (after Wilkinson).98 of Athenaeus Lutz. only one group of Egyptians. II. however. 20 shows a slave offering wine to a lady. presents us with the second group. 78. The lotus-flower. On a wall-painting at Thebes we behold an free were also not Ladies.- generally started after a meal. 21). 22 and 23).

No. serves as determinative of joy. f. 21. i. Scene after the close of a banquet (after Wilkinson). i) So in Demotic 00 ^> The lotus-flower. { QQ determines also the concept of intoxication These ladies are held by their female servants. in a more general to way.. For an Egyptian banquet scene . From a Theban tomb (after Wilkinson). in the verb ''to rejoice. 22 and 23.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. be in an . Nos.

Paheri see Illustration No. which in English. AAAAAA[ )|Q * AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA A Tk JL & The companion of Amensat. 3) Lit. ft AAAAAA 'VAAAAA g) You **'*** see 3 . ^. saying: "Drink! Do not refuse (?).the artist has grouped Sensenbet with a lady.L }(P \J[ I . to Amen-sat. 24. 112. she calls out unto him. of refusal with her hand. Viticulture and Brewing. I n shall n r\ not leave!" -f\ -* "^=^ <=^> *-* . She is of a different type. (I 1 K\ ^s>- AAAAAA _H^> . 105. sisters A of Thebes. The lady was of another type than her a drinking-bowl. as we can judge from her words. (I v\ f*i I J] \A J. 2) Lit "Behold". In the banquet scene of the tomb of we are enabled to become quasi listeners to the form and tone of conversations that prevailed at these banquets. ^-^ "to rejoice". o-=> M M \\ J \_^ v\ ^^ AAAAAA fl 1 ^\ 211 <n> A A g JH W o <^> o <^ Here again exalted ^^ DKI. by her refusal. "(It is) for thy ka". too formal. the nurse Tupu. to which the servant refers. is her distant cousin. The ser- vant. drink. of his position while the drinking-bout pro1 drink unto drunkengresses says jokingly: "(It is) for thee ness (and) celebrate! O listen to what thy companion is saying. "Behold'*. She says: "Drink! do not spoil the entertainment. D Another lady is depicted making a gesture It is the nurse Sensenbet.lOO Lutz. with which she addresses the porter: "Give me eighteen cups of wine". called Nub-mehy. "dont you see 2 I want to f\ | /NAAAAA get drunk! My ins ides are as dry as straw!". spoil the entertainment. one of the daughters of Kem. . do not weary of taking (?)". mood". DKI. IP" 1) Hiis Lit. servant had offered. whom another servant invites to drink. who calls upon her to drink and not. forgetful She refused the proffered .


10 7. "Place aromatics on thy head! The garment on Dipped into the thyself (let be) of byssus. Let the cup reach me. 516. drink - You know 1 it is due unto the ha to f) AA/WVA ~~1 \\ / n& "^^ l/JT* -O ^^ _ "N AAAAAA ^^ <IZ> U 1 - M- l\ I t| See also Lepsius.3 2 : Pap. The Egyptians are advised therein to enjoy life to the utmost. Viticulture and Brewing. pp. since the underworld for the dead. 2) text published in Reinisch. to "Do make not cease to drink. 294. the name of the \OICLK and in the 105). 31 33 and the Miiller. precious (and) genuine things of the gods! Surpass (even) thy life of pleasure (shown hitherto)! Let [not] thy heart get weary! Perform thy i) affairs on earth Lit. Erman. 29 and 30. Aus- wahl. pp. 5316 and See also Miiller. which seem to have been most popular at banquets. the wife of the high-priest of Memphis. or rather in LjTLJ which word is preserved XOlAgK. Liebespoesie. Vol. 16. to intoxilove. see OLZ.. implores her hus- band to enjoy this present life to the utmost. III. ih-ku (Winckler. Maspero. World's Best Lit. Aeg. Egypt. is a land of dense darkness and a dreary place . to eat. Chrestomathie I. 164. No. XOIAK. ibid. See Goodwin. 404 also Etud. and to use every day for mirthmaking until the day shall come to A 6. "Behold". 387. 1880. 20. have come down to us. TSBA. They contain exhortations similar to the one Herodotus had taken down. in which the deceased lady Ta-imhotep. (and) to celebrate good days". t The Egyptian k'l-k. i. n toast seems to have consisted k'i-frr-k'l. I. Journ. depart for the land whence none returns. name of the vessel ku-iAmarnataf. Aegypt. in the address: e. Asia*. KIA^K. few songs. 1899. Griffith. II.1O2 Lutz. "to thy double".. month Koiahk. line 16: cate thyself. Harris 500.

and (yet) he is able to sing only one song. See now Revue Egypt. We possess an interesting. This text was first transl ated by Revillout in the Revue egypt. who has gone hence and has returned again. "He drinks for two. is to take along' one's possession. I wish to drink. 1Q3 according to the bidding of thy heart! That day of lamentation will come to thee. Moral(?): Celebrate the joyous day! Do not rest in It it! Behold! was not granted. he eats for three. . the fly.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. (He is) like a fool who has digested a book. since he was born: Is there "I am hungry. thirsty". 1919. He knows only one song. Behold! There none. though very difficult text 1 which describes the manner of life this minstrel lived and parti- At banquets . he goes to the banquets of the But moderation in eating and drinking is an unknown virtue to him. When he is called upon to play his harp and accompany his instrument with his song. When he first eats and drinks. the harp-player was seldom missing. "He has doctrine and he has not. to look for provisions. (in which) he of a paralyzed heart will not (be able to) hear their mournings. 31. Weeping will not compel the heart of a man (to beat) in the tomb.. in which is contained every teaching. he satiates himself for five". He is in want and privacularly his struggle for existence. After this first endeavor. Krall published partly a new translation. tion. of which the theme is "I am hungry and rich. nothing to eat(?)" when before him more than he sees meat. although (being) intelligent. being fully dressed they call unto him "There is will i) He Vienna Demotic papyrus No. and who does not know to answer in a satisfactory way. he is so drunk that he is unable to perform and the guests chase him away from the banquet-hall. He searches after the blood (more than) the vulture that has decried the mas- sacre. be able to pass four days awake. (He is) like one who can not speak.

meat in there with the harp. In a company of high-living guests Pap. 56. Viticulture and Brewing. He converses with the guests: "I can not sing. his art of his flees. and he He has no is (it already is) the who destroys his own self. as contained in Pap. 15. Anast. The harpplayer is no uneducated person. 8. pp. V. The harp presses (against) his heart. his highest i) See Rec. 3 l. an fell easy prey to a debauched life. Ill. uses wine for two. differs the harp him. witness to his his bad behavior. food for And he five together. since his early childhood. 9. but is of a mind that seeks. and Pap. different professions and crafts. They will not receive him at another place because many vices. . sing. 617. I can not bring the harp in order to chant (it). of literature. (and) eaten from the jar meat for three. 3. 6. it . them to call to him three times for a song. As soon as he has found wine (and) meat before him he goes there without being invited. The text was probably written as a warning to those who desired to choose the tempting life of a musician and minstrel as their life's work. V. without having drunk. Anastasi V. 1. is He responds to recite the .1O4 Lutz. 7678. first He causes the hour to pass to show(r) his face. I am hungry. . (and) his words do not bear art. and doings of men of 2. Sallier II. 9 Anast. 5. He plays "Serve food". (For) his strength. the harp-player 4. He mouth is accustomed to exaggerate his art. 19. . de trav. 68. order to exhibit every kind of vice in him. it is like a heavy load. Sallier I. He causes He is ac- in to carry the harp in order to inebriate himself. 19. (on) the harp in entire discord customed He his turns it to his side. throat (?) of the man. Once satiated he leaves the harp. order to unaccustomed eye. he he departs. against the speak against "Shame with thy splendor!" They are until the pupil of his It differs his voice." Krall was the scholar who recognized 1 that this text in belongs to the same class a satirico-humorous way the 4. life which depicts III. "he has doctrine". IV. 4. 410. such and such a bad place 1".

. nj^ft^ojj <rz> /WWVA A. that thou wouldst comprehend that wine is an abomination and that thou wouldst abjure the pomegranate-drink. intoxicated husband. art like a art detected as thou climbest up the walls. Thou dost wander from tavern to tavern. until he beso depraved that his presence is offensive even in those The circles. The teacher . 8 ff. also Sallier. in were. O. it appears from a let11. the banquet-adornment. who returns home from the banquet. 1 1 . the smell of beer frightens men away (from thee). when he has retired (Pap. Anast. 105 good and plenty of food and drinks. 7. 9 ff. in comes does not meet an enfuriated wife who showers him with reproaches and moral lectures.) @ 7 III ( $ O . Thou Thou (like) canst guide to neither side. She removes the wreaths. . and thou dost strike and wound them. a house without bread. and breakest the plank. IV. cf. that thou wouldst not set thy heart on fig-wine. The people flee from thee.Wine and ideals Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. (and) thou art like a broken oar. which otherwise are all but Puritan themselves. Thou The Egyptian I public beer. this monument The Egyptian demimondaines embrace him i) condition in which he I. ter written by a teacher to his pupil 1 was prone to forget his studies and frequent the taverns of the city in order to get drunk on home-made and imported wines. "I am told that thou forsakest Every evening It the smell of beer. Harris.and wineshops ^?. The young Egyptian student. temple without a god. and that thou wouldst forget the carob-wine. 9. 500. corrupts thy soul. it seems. Pap. often i IJ see on one the company of an intoxicated man. writes : (and) dost books abandon thyself to pleasure. 12).oLJI i also girls dens in of o "nflp We prostitution.

6) Herod.. 688. as we read in a love-song: "The banquet is disThe keepers of public taverns ordered by drunkenness" 1 stood very low in the estimation of the better class of their We gain this information from a satirical fellow-citizens. which consisted of 2000 men received four measures of wine* . . which a taverner figures as criterion for the moral of a certain scribe Roye. 3) Sethe. him of the wine- remark in : shop. II. 8). Urk-unden\M. Maspero. 44. 168. pp. Viticulture and Brewing. for instance. 124 and 125. pp.1O6 Lutz. 2) Pap. A servant carries to *~ Amenemheb a drink". Z. I. Egypt. The girls have placed around his neck and have anointed him with oil. 4 ff. he is ten-times better for thee than these". warriors and priests by right of state in specific quantities.. Anast. p. in order to equip with abundance the land of On" (Pap. Harris I. "good intoxicating Holidays were always especially days of great drinking bouts. 916 and 917. 4) Sethe. Wild scenes and disorder may often have ended the drinkan easy . 27. See also Aeg. says: "I gave every day wine and must. 228. Every warrior. I describe (?) unto thee Nakht. was a wreath mark to their lures. '' AAAAAA LJ n . Urkunden IV. 9. Etud. 5) Ramses III. It says 2 "Well then. the cattle-counter Kasa depravity and an official of the treasury called Amen-wah-se. if we can trust the statement of Herodotus 6 of the royal body-guard. I. ing bouts. At Q) social gatherings the participants were invited to drink heartily. . "The soldiers of his Majesty were drunk of wine and anointed with oil each day as on a holiday in Egypt" Thus we read 4 : consumption of wine and beer must have been enormous 5 It was brought to kings. his wife a beverage ^ I . In the tomb of Ahmes at el-Kab we read: "drinking unto intoxication and celebrating a festive day" swry r and tht iry hrw nfr. 1) Turin love-songs.

the children skipped sportively about from sunrise to sunset" (Dumichen. The old Canaanites similarly. alls In the inscription of Tehutineht. Thot was probably ori\\. there was more wine drunk on one day than throughout the entire year. Bauurkunden. 59 mentions that at the /^^-celebration of the bacchanal Bubastis (Bestis)-festival. V evil. who attends school. which originally inaugurated the NewYear of the Egyptians. celebrated p. Hero- dotus II. Ani. ^<LJ which was celebrated on the twentieth day of the month of <d> m. ginally called thy. 51. fl _CE\S> Although the Egyptian monuments make it clear that the Egyptians were heavy beer.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. according to a passage 2 which states that a good mother is accustomed to bring to her son. the ancestors diverted themselves. the inhabitants ran merrily to and fro. son of Nehera. x r i) Cf. lo? Every priest. The Egyptian calender contained a "day of >WW\A was a monthly festival. Sail. The month of the year.--^ PSrt 1 | 0" - Th ^^ X!Si t Thot. or. . 21). in honor of the goddess. 0O)OyT. received one measure. Resultate. It is possible that the origin of the Purim festival goes back to the old Canaanitish vintage-festival (Purim etymologically connected with^rtf. II. in the the dead is praised as (lo): "loved by his town(s-folk). Bootid. women as well as men. their heads streaming with perfume. 20. which referred to the "vintage-festi-^ val". (11) great of beer f \_ *^L A ^ |Mo!)". yet there were at all times voices raised against . 2} Pap. "vine-festival". These festivals. Pap. Coptic OooyT. and that from their early youth. m hrw tpy n th. those who were present became drunk with wine. or rather after the wine-harvest. three loaves of bread and two jars of beer daily. Diim. women and children came from all parts of Egypt to take part in them. 25: cf.and wine-drinkers. in honor of the catgoddess. who performed service at the temple. quarry of Het-Nub. 10. "The gods of heaven rejoiced. 6. their heads were crowned with flowers. 20. commenced the New Year with the vintage. first name of the Greek 6co. "the wine-press"). were of proverbial gaity and men. not conspiring etc.

7983. W. "Do or. Etud. i) Pap. W. 272 and 273. See Miiller. little commences and its to speak. as long as he enjoys the pleasant company . I. Clemens Alexandr. 10. 39 and 40. Sentences such as "A cup of water satisfies the 2 . also i. and Erman. cf. Miiller. It is pretty certain that moderation in drinking was recommended to the kings more than to any other class. 2} p. "A short minute overpowers the heart" 3 show this conclusively. 3 ff.1O8 drunkenness. 6) Maspero. Tubingen. p. Behold.. The. its foliage is beautiful. Liebespoesie. i. M. 4) Diod. Egypt. Max. Viticulture and Brewing. in view of the dietetic and other laws by which the priests have regulated and assured the life of the king 4 Many references to drinking are found in the Egyptian love poetry. 4. who hast drunk enough!". Jo. Prisse. Pap. and thou breakest the limbs. Anast. lover is even satisfied to go without his accustomed beer. 1885. out the hand to help thee. is Its their color its stem is (transparent) like the glass. pp.thirst" or. 1 . 8 etc. 633 mentions rdv xXof KJJUOV paaiXiKoO 5) piou. not speak evil about thy neighbor even in intoxication. It is laden with fruits redder than ruby. I. is the following 6 . i. 3) See also Pap. Lutz. . The not set thy heart on fig-wine" scribe Ani indulges in the following warning: "Do not pass . Liebespoesie. Prisse. It is (words are as) drops of honey. pp. charming. (thy time) in the beer-house and thou shalt of his sweetheart 5 beautiful lovesong. Agypten und agyptisches Lebcn im Altertum. I. thy companions! reacheth They drink and say: Go home. Stromata.. 217 ff. 5. : A "The sycomore which she has planted with her hand. Turin pap. VI. thou. . with a reference to the sweetheart making her lover drunk with love as well as beer or wine. more green than the (papyrus). Then (if) thou none fallest to the ground. leaves are like malachite. like the color of the (yellow) neSmet-stone. A.

while hastening to thee. I am of a silent mind. The meadow. young folks. I see. the daughter of the chief-gardener. the sister. she obeying that which he sayeth (when) the drinking-bout becomes disordered by drunkenness (and) she is left alone with her brother unwrapping herself below me. full of bushes. the second a captain of police.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. that and I do not tell In the records of the so-called Harem conspiracy we read that certain persons had forsaken the king's instruction and that the women had gone to these men. one an infantryofficer. coming with their utensils. Thy village-chiefs rejoice. It t sends its letter through a small girl. Her companion sitteth to her right side. and to-morrow and the day after to-morrow three days sitting in my shade. the third a butler. celebrate this day. who belong to thee furnished with their tools. the . flowers from yesterday and to-day. before they have (started drinking). and do not say anything. celeb rates (?) its day. all many and kinds of refreshing fruits. are drinking. on her promenade. 1 (and) she maketh him drunk. The arbor and the tent are to thy disposal. round (?) like the Besbes(-trze) its shade cooleth. who behold thee! send thy slaves ahead of thee They (and) the . The servants. They all bring beer of every (kind). kinds of mixed bread. (when they) hear their comrades. Come. It causes her to hasten to the much-beloved: "Come and tarry amongst the young people.

waded. This he did so secretly that the people were kept completely 1 ignorant of his plans. their refuge in the desert. which was red-colored. e. c became known to Re and he caused the gods to assemble before him in order to inflict a punishment upon mankind. She killed the people. But he grew old. sat . who had started The rage to take refuge. women had gotten drunk. as 1 Lutz. which descended as the goddess Hathor. until will the last She did not want to man was destroyed. against the order to look like the blood of men. Re conceived of a trickery. and the fifth a standard-bearer Both men and it. c of Hathor was so furious that it became too much for Re . He caused immense quantities of beer. own life. [stood up] in the best part(?) of the night for and the fields were flooded causing this sleeping draught to be poured out four spans high by [that] liquid through the power of the majesty of this god". But Hathor's fury knew no bounds. Mankind became aware of this and had put it But their thoughts in their minds to blaspheme the old god. She of the sungod. 133 c ff. states "I 1 .hair was genuine lapis-lazuli. The butler evaded court-proceedings by The standard bearer Hor was acquitted. until. i. i. Re recognizing the people.t-hk. fourth a scribe of the archives. Re sent his eye. When they had brought it. stream-upward. according to this myth was prepared of barley and dada-fruit. 1) Pianty Stele.t.. "Hasten to the island of Elephantine. to be poured over the 2 The beer attracted the goddess. finally.fruit from Ethiopia. or taking his the phrase expresses they had "made a beershop". He had become old and stiff. who The beer. Once upon a time in primeval days Re* reigned as king over men and gods. not in fields .HO of the infantry. had taken Thus. is the order given c 1 by Re to his messengers. some people were saved. the mandrake. in his in the message of submission expressly have not beershop" Beer has found a place in Egyptian mythology. and bring me much dada-fruit". Viticulture and Brewing. for a number of nights c in the human blood. his limbs gold and his . Tefnahte. into the mountains. stop the slaughter. . his bones were silver. 2) "On that day Re . It tasted good to her and she returned home in an intoxicated condition.

Si ~ S -5- ( Diim -' Hist InscJir ' n > 57 a ) A special part of Hathor's temple was named "the. since wine was held to be the blood of the one-time enemies of the gods. The one version gives us the origin of the beer. She or. W. instead of beer. the kings had abstained from wine. the other that of the wine... also ml 1^"&" (^ um -> Dend.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals.. house of drunkenness". "the intoxicated one". Iftlu 8 From is temple inscription of Dendera we learn that Hathor called "the mistress of intoxication". 14). d r or even. miller" (?). p. the vinestalk was created. Hathor figures Max W. The story of the first version winds up with the statement: "Thus originated who formerly fought against the Plutarch in this connection asserts that before the the girls in the Pleasent City. into is connection with the . gave it to the it. in order to was added to the barley which was grind crushed by the slaves. Dendera and its temple bore the name "the place of drunkenness". Kal. VI. p. 100. 3) De Max Iside (ed. 76. first. Dend. making thus 7000 jugs of beer Another version has it that wine was made. L^-J-^ - (Diim. the "the inventress of brewing". see Miiller. For it states that when these enemies of the gods were killed and their blood mingled with the earth.invention called "she who. as the 1) Or read "the See Miiller. Parthey). made the beer".. Inschr. Myth. tehy. m l goddess Sektet of Heliopolis.' draughts for(?) the Hat-hor by is all Thus originated the making of sleepingnumber of slave-girls at the festival of men since that day". Plutarch. gods" time of Psammetichus. *~ has 4. The dada-fruit out of "the blood of those 2 . generally brought of making beer. 10. Myth. probably in connection with the myth of the destruction of mankind.t. ^^^O. 4) Diim. 3 The goddess Hathor . 75. Re c said to that goddess: 'Make sleeping-draughts festival! for her at the time of the (shall Their number be) according to(?) New Year that of my (temple) slave-girls. 2) Cf. and had even not allowed themselves to offer it up as sacrifice. . and the whole was mixed together with the blood of men.

Poesie aus der Sfdtzeit. . Viticulture and Brewing. Fof thou our hearts rejoice at the sight of thy majesty. who offers the wine jar with his right hand. Every day. h. 200. Z. is a long inscription. 5) Mariette. who sits on her throne. whose ka was first 3 This day was the "feast prepared on the 2Oth day of Thot there . Aeg." SI' 2) Mariette. The mistress of drunkenness without end" 6 . Res. I. The song of reads 5 : the seven Hathors is of especial interest. 101 6) 128. thy heart rejoiceth. when thou hearest our songs.. of drunkenness of the mistress of Dendera".r. who resides in hat-ii ar-lmnt. Dendera. XLV. As the patron goddess of the Mareotic wines she is called "Hathor. i. H. patron goddess of wine. art the mistress of the wreath. pp.r unto the goddess of wine. It "We And gladden daily thy majesty. shout. 60. mistress of Yemet. see also Junker. In the same passage she is also called "mistress of the jars. Dendera. With reference to this mnzv-jar Hathor is called "mistress of the mnw-ja.. which were sung on the 20 th day of the month of Thot before the mistress of intoxication during the ceremony of presenting he wine jar to the goddess. 43. Tempel Inschr. 3) I. i) See Diim. is In Dendera 2 represented the festive offering of the mnw-]a. -which contains the songs. every day. Dendera. The mistress of the dance..H2 Lutz. e = Diim. Between the king. 73. W : 31. We And when we behold thee. the mistress of neka. 4) Mariette. and the goddess. III..

IV. Diod. CIG. bull... """ ' f. Plutarch. Anson. ep. c noHI Ton?. "Menqet. give me beer!". The with Dionysos . Z/Vr^ $rw^ mon nom fleurisse. She is often described as maker or giver of beer. The identification of the two gods was undoubtedly due to the similarity of the rites of the Anthesteria (dv^etftrjpta) to those Egyptian festivals which took place in the month Choiak. the Egyptians xevoaipiq.. and as such she is orthographically connected with a tree. 50. wandeln. 37. u. IV. 42. Dio Cass. in Melanges Charles de Harlez. v. The holy plant of Osiris as well as of Dionysos was the ivy 6 but also the vine. 28. 50. 15. Z. \ i. No. The reproduction Classical 5 . to 26.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. 19. . 13 if.. i. Se tfri Ai6vutfo<^ Kara EXXcxSa yXtbtftfav. Ombos. Buck vom Durchde Iside 17. 3) Aeg. etc. Diod. Bergmann. I. cf. . 4893. 6. Dcndera.. ^ v^ ^~> i j > muh] 1) Rec. AA/VAAA /( ff\ tt / O\ O ... 96. Menqet is mentioned as a vegetation divinity. Mariette. 16. Lutz. XXIII. \ \ --2 By the side of Hathor appears the goddess Menqet. cor. as a beer-goddess of the Egyptians. But later she is shown as a woman holding two (beer?-)jars. A O 1 * " Menqet.. p. or the "plant of Osiris". . 7. de Iside 37. XXXIII. TiTertull. I. 1. 112. According Plutarch the ivy was called by I. 222. . 4) See further De Morgan. commemorating the passion and resurrection of Osiris. 29 30. 6) Plutarch. p. Viticulture and Brewing. 167. 7^ 29 ff. the goddess who makes beer". " ii i Hi i /^ thee beer writers most frequently identified Osiris Herodotus states "Otfipid. 8 . 5) 71. Piehl. 17. ff. 34 5. p. 2) Lieblein.

Lutz, Viticulture and Brewing.

of vegetation

in general,

and the

fructification of the vine in

particular, symbolized of the rebirth of Osiris.

to the

Egyptians the successive phases In this mystic signification the vine-


plant figures for instance in the tomb of Sennofri near SheikhThe observation made by the Ancients of

the vine's reproduction and multiplying without seed, tended naturally to see something divine in this plant. It was, there1 or Osiris, who revives fore, a befitting symbol of Batau

2 again, in spite of his mutilation According to Pyr. 1082 the conceived Osiris by wine. In a bilingual the element sky-goddess

IDS of the name of a man of Tyre,
to Aiovudio^, Baudissin,


called "1D&TDP, corresponds phonizische Gott Esmun, ZDMG,

Vol. 59, (1905) p. 485, note



second Egyptian Dionysos

was Antaeus, who is known to us only by this classical name Antaeus (or Antaios), and who was worshipped at Antaiopolis in Middle-Egypt. Also to him the vine or the ivy was holy. 3 Golenischeff wished to identify him with the Semitic god

chapter 37, in which
tian Aptfcccpfjc;.

Respu, referring to Plutarch's de Is. et Os., it is said that Dionysos is called in Egyp.

The god Osiris of the Ethiopians of Meroe Also Horus considered very early as a Dionysos 4 has been with Dionysos by the Greeks 5 is sometimes identified deity,


identified with the l6th decan star, the principal star of the constellation Shesmu (Sedjjir)) is written with the hieroglyph of a press. In Pyr. P 707 he appears to give water and wine.


See have been a patroness of intoxicating drink, according to de Morgan, Ombos No. 65. It may finally be remarked that the misshapen god Bes, of Punt(?), who gained a footing in Egypt as well as in Asia

T 41

brings him into connection with a "vine-city".
p. 58.







Pap. d'Orb.



historiques, avril,

the identification of Osiris with Dionysos see Revue des Questions 1893 and Rec. XX, p. 211 if. See also Miiller, Max W., Mytho-

logy, p. 113, fig. 117 Osiris

3) Aeg. Z., in the



under the vine. and plates 3 and ff. identified with Seth.



Antaeus sometimes

4) Herod. II,

29 and Origines,


Celsum V, 37 and 38.



Plut., de Is. et Os., cap. 37.

Wine and Beer

in the Daily Life

and Religion of the Ancient


\ \ t

islands of the Greeks, was very fond of drinking and represented on scarabs as sucking beer from a large vessel in the fashion of the ancient Hittites, the Armenians and

and the

He "is no other early Babylonians (see Illustration No. 25). than the benificent Dionysos, who as a pilgrim through the world, dispensed with hand rich in blessings, mild manners, 1 peace and jollity to the nations"

The frequent mention of wine and beer in the SumeroAkkadian documents makes it quite certain that the quantities of intoxicating liquors consumed by the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians were enormous. The Babylonians had
the reputation of being heavy wine-drinkers, and they surpassed even the Persians in the consumption of wine, who were notorious as wine-







which refer

documents to drunken-

ness in Babylonia, but this in the nature of the


The Babylonians,

prone to

picture their own vices than the more careless

No. 25. God Bes drinking beer through a reed (alter Miiller, W. Max, Egyptian Mythol.}. Egyptians. But such docuhave ments, nevertheless, come down to us. In an Assyrian letter 3 to the king three army-

who had recently been raised to higher military posts, accused by the writer, Bel-iqisha, of drunkenness. The letter reads: "To the king, my lord, thy servant Bel-iqisha. May Nabu (and Marduk) be gracious unto the king my lord!



servants of the house of my lord, whom the king, my lord has distinguished to-day, Tabzua, son of Bel-harrani-ahusur, whom the king my lord has raised to the rank of

a major, (and) Nabu-sakip,
to (the rank of) third



the king my lord has raised of the regular cavalry, (and)

Brugsch, History of Egypt, London, 1879, Vol.1, p. 115. V, i, 37: CowvvoaUs ludi tota Perside regibus purpuratisque cordi sunt; Babylonii maxime in vinum, et quae ebrietaUm sequuntur, effusi sunt.
2) Curt. 3)

K. 613; Harper 85; see also






Lutz, Viticulture and Brewing.


the king



these three


lord has raised to (the rank are drunkards. As soon

as they are inebriated, none turns away the iron dagger from him, who is in front of it. The information, which I know, I write unto the king my lord. The king my lord may do

For a drinking scene in a fortress see the as he pleases" 1 second tent from the left in the middle row of Illustration

No. 26. In the right compartment we notice the army-brewer and a huge beer-vessel. In the third tablet of the Babylonian

No. 26.

Interior of a fortress (after Klio, VI, p. 396).

creation series

Anshar speaks unto Gaga,
prepare for a

his minister: '"Let

the gods,


of them,

(3) (6)



at a





Nabu Marduk




ardani la bit beli-ia

Sarru be-li


(7) an-ni-it


(8) ni.Tab-zu-a-a

mar m.Bel-harrani-ah-usur


a-na amelu r ab ki-sir-u-tu


Sarru be-li


m.Nabu-sa-kip Sa

ana amSluHI rakbe

(12) ka-a-ma-nu-tu (13) iarru be-li xi-se-lu-u-rii (Rev. i) m.Emur-ili-s'u (2) a ana am61u utir-pute (3) garni blu ii-e-lu-u-ni (4) III annu-tu sabe (5) a-ak-ra-nu-tu iu-nu (6) ki-ma i-lak-ki-ru (7) amelu patra par-











(14) ki-i

a u-du-ii-ni

(n) a-na



(13) Sarru be-li

a i-la-u-ni

2. they sat at the banquet. all of them. who decree fate." From 3- the Assyrian version 4. cattle. the custom of the landl" So "Enkidu ate food till he was satiated." life. let them mix wine. The great gods. They became intoxicated with drinking. .Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. His spirit was loosened. (their) bodies were filled. Sweet herb-wine confused their minds (?). seven goblets. "He ate herbs witfi the gazelles. who introduces him akul aklam sikaram siti to civilized Uu Enkidu speaks to him : simat balatim Zimti mati "Eat food. their spirit was exalted." In the recently published version of the Gilgamesh epic Enkidu is decribed in these words: ul idi ilu Enkidu aklam ana akalim sikaram ana Satim la lummud. O Enkidu. They entered and before Anshar they filled They kissed each other. he became hilarious. 3940. 117 banquet. 3334. His heart became glad and his face shone" . strong wine they mixed. Beer he drank. He had not been taught to drink beer. 37. the provender of life! Drink beer. Bread they ate." The closing lines give a vivid description of a banquet of the gods: iksahmimma illak\kuni\ $imti\ Hani rabuti kaliSunu mu$im[mu trubuma muttti An$ar imlu inniSku afyfi ahi ina puhri lisanu iSkunu ina kireti \usbu\ a$nan zkulu iptiku [kurunua] Sir is a matku usanni beradisu\rui\ sikru ina Sate habasu zum\ri\ madiS egu kabittaSun itel[li] "They came together and went. we know (see Tablet I. let them eat bread. 34) that. in the assembly They prepared for the feast. They were wholly at ease. Drank out of a through with The woman. "Enkidu did not know to eat food.

Monument. i. Dauiel 10. as stubble Ishtar bids Assurbanipal: "Eat food." a-kul a-ka-lu H-ti wine. 9. 3. As's'urbanipal reclining in a bower (after Jeremias. i. II. Sic. Das Alte Testa- size. 1) Herod. the ground and is of a tremendous No. The prophet Nahum 4 : cha- "While they saying are drunken. racterizes the Ninevites as drunkards. drinking. drink strong fully dry". ment im Lichte des Alien Orients). Diod. Babylonian Version of the GilgaDrinking was practised on a large scale at 1 . they shall be devoured. 65). plates i. We see we The wine-bowl stands on emptying a huge wine-bowl with drinking-cups. . no. 5. 4) 10. 20. Viticulture and Brewing. make music (and) exalt my divinity. latter city p. reaching up to. mesh Epic. a man's chest. 2) 3) Nahum Nahum See Botta. Lutz. the servants and Nineveh 2 From the monumental representations of Assyrian possess The banquet scenes represent the guests only as The sculpture never shows them eating. as drunkards.Il8 (see Jastrow-Clay. An Old the courts of Babylon and Persia banquets 3 . Esther i. 5167: 107114. . 27.

animation into his picture. 28. 65. now in the British Museum pictures Assurbanipal with Cyl. They show the form of a lion's head. depict the guests as sitting together in the company of always four on one table. An Assyrian banquet scene (after Meissner). enjoying the precious juice of the The Assyrian banquet scenes 27). Herodotus' statement 1 that the Egyptians drank wine only out of brass i) Herod. the Egyptians reveal a great deal of The Assyrians. The artist has- brought little No. 5). holding with the head (see Illustration No. . fr. in his right pose. In one case there are depicted some forty or fifty guests present at the banquet. Hellanicus. two on each side. The wine cups are very beautifully worked. diva udaav 8 b'oO. from Each guest is shown in the same hand a wine cup. II. raised to the level which as the cup itself rises forth. 37: . These cups had different shapes and were made from different material. K A his consort in a bower. \\g ku-ru-un-nu nin-gu-tu $u-kun nu--id ilu-ti (Assurbanipal.. V. biao>iuwT<. Each table had its special waiter. as well good taste in the form of their drinking-ctips. Annals B Col.u^pr|V. Nineveh. 149 makes a similar statement. grape (see Illlustration No. Rev. ciXXd TrcivT<. 28). OIK 8 uv K xaXxeuuv irorripiujv irivouai.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. 66 and marble slap from 2652.

or birds. judging from the pictures. 31 see also . while golden cups are mentioned in goblet wrought the demotic novel (Papyr. bowls. i. "and they had set down many golden cups 2 on the drinking-table. rab $aqe. . M. Two players are playing on which were of a square shape. Mariette). Viticulture and Brewing. which was held in a stand.t~irp. had a wine Joseph of silver. heads of animals. 44. The Assyrians also had musical entertainments with their drink- ing bouts. Leipzig. as is seen in the banqueting scene of Khorsabad. 106. Each of the golden goblets was filled with wine". 29). Amongst the many jugs and wrong. 32). while one bears a wineskin on his neck and shoulder (see Illustration No. like the Assyrian representation.. rr^ often fl O (1 1 . 6 mentions vessels of gold for wine and beer. or contained. 17 "And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rab-saris and Rab-shakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah 1) 2) Gen. 3) This word represents at the }). They had either the form of an opening flower. i kanaan&ischcn Fremdworte und Eigennamen imAgyptischen. from whose necks they drank (see Illustration No.12O or bronze cups is Lutz. <K\ made of alabaster. In one monument we see representatives of conquered Semitic principalities bringing their tribute of wine in such bowls. F r wine-cups "made of gold". 1909 . chief-cup-bearer". ten-stringed lyres. 59. Wine-cups were LJ the drinking-scene on the Stele of Nerab. 10. 30). /VVWVA A PI Tx v)rs^rf^ ^"* /~S J ^ fa n n ^' II. same time a certain measure. e. of glass. f . Die ah10. see Diim. and perhaps also. On leu (determ. These latter forms seem to have been most customary with the Syrian neighbors of the Assyrians. 2. or "chief butler" and the rab bap"chief-brewer". see Bnrchardt. since we find the rab saqe employed as military commander. A simpler drinking-vessel had the form of our own coffee-cups or saucers (see Illustration No. These titles were rather honorary. 1 we are told. f. and hung around the neck of the musician by a string.. i. 5.. i O or "wine-cup". there have been found particularly often the "" l<) . porcelain. Among the high court-officials we meet with the piri. "wine-cup" 3 . Also Papyrus Harris pi.. Illustration No. \ I Recueil de mon* Egypt. II Kings 18.

" art On one of the most an- dating back to the time of UrNina. the last king of Lagash. surrounded by his children and the cient relics of No. we see the king in the guise of a laborer. 121 with a great army unto Sumerian Jerusalem. who stood forth prominently as a great reformer. ancienne de I'Orienf). Assyrian eunuchs carrying drinking vessels Hist.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. 29. Thus it appears that this official must have held one of the highest court-positions even at this very early time. royal cup-bearer. the founder of the dynasty of Lagash. (after Lenormant. From the cylinders B and C of Urukagina. . Fr..

. Sennacherib upon his throne (after Lenormant . No. 30. . Viticulture and Brewing. ancienne de I'Orienf). Hist.122 Lutz. Fr.

"(When) a dead body (was) laid in the grave his beer (amounted to) seven jars".Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. passage 3 the lamentation-priest of Girsu. one hubur and one amphora of beer for the lamentation-priests. his beer (amounted to) three jars". as against formerly seven. 490 loaves of bread. one hubur of beer See also Cylinder 1) B and ff. reform. lu-idim ki-mah-su gub kas-ni 7 dug. No. two hubur and one amphora of beer for the lamentation-priest of Lagash. to contend themselves with In an other jars of beer. In Cylinder A. when officiating at funerals. 26 X. (was) laid into the grave. C. liiidim-idim-a ki-mah-$u gub kas-ni 3 dug. Fr. ancienne de I' Orient}. he narrates what took 1 place after order was again restored "(When) a dead body . Hist. i ff. 2) Cyl. 406 loaves of bread. IX. by Urukagina's three. 31. Assyrian king 2 Representatives of conquered peoples bringing their tribute to (after Lenormant. the lamentation-priest of Lagash. B and C X. one hubur of beer for the artisans. The priests were restricted. 250 loaves of bread. 1 ff. V. 122 we learn that it was customary for the priests to receive a certain quantity of beer besides other things. .. the he fixes the quantity of beer for the lamentationof Girsu. 180 loaves of bread. 21 3) Kaln. and the priest It reads: Two hubur and one amphora of beer for artisans.

124 Lutz. Viticulture and Brewing. 32. No. Light from the East). . The stele of Nerab (after Ball.

Wine and Beer
for the

in the Daily Life

and Religion of the Ancient
etc. 1



Hubur and sd-dug measures of liquids. The The dugspecific amount of these measures is not known. which was smaller than the sd-dug, contained either measure, 20 or 30 qa, which equalled about 8 to 12 liters. The fyubur
of the city of Nina"
designate in the

pre-Sargonic tablets

was again larger than the sd-dug'1







In the oldest periods of that also the women

received their special quantity of wine or beer. One text interests us in this connection, since it shows that wine was drunk by the ladies of the harem 3 The text reads: "130

pomegranate cakes, 40 qa of wine, Etur; 90 pomegranate cakes, 30 qa of wine, Urki; 138 pomegranate cakes, 20 fig cakes, 1O qa of wine, Etae; total: 358 pomegranate cakes, 20 fig
cakes (and) 80 qa of wine the gardeners have returned. Shakh, the superindendent, brought it into the harem. Year l (of

Wine and beer were offered up as sacrifices to the gods 4 and Gudea ordered his donkey-shepherd Ensignun "to make
5 for the god Ningirsu, plenty beer" daily six metretes of wine (Hist. Bel.


Bel-Marduk received
v. 3).


daily wine-

offerings were presented in gigantic golden chalices. 'Upon a golden table of offering, measuring 41 feet in length and 15 feet in width, and weighing 500 talents, stood two golden chalices (Kccpxrjtficc) weighing 1 5 talents each, and three golden chalices, the one of 1200 talents and the other two of each



60x8 -{-io

B and C X, 21 ff. 2 kas hubur i sd-dug its-ku Gir-suki-kam ninda 2 kas-hubur i sd-dug us-ku &irpurlaki-kam 6ox6-\- 10x4. -{-6

10 ninda i kas hubur nam-umninda i kas hubur i sd-dug us-ku-an 60x4 ma-an 60X3 ninda i kas hubur AB.AS.SI Ninaki-na-me.
See Zeitschrift f. Assyr., XVII, pp. 94 und 95. In Rev. Tablettes Sumeriennes archa'iques, No. 43. d'Assyr., VI, p. 134, AO 4424, Obv. i ff. (neo-Babylonian) ladies of the palace
2) 3)


H. de Genouillac,
three qa called,

receive each





however, kas-ka-lum-ma.

of spelt-beer as their daily portion. In the suratotal See also "datewine". i. e.,

AO 4423

in Rev. d'Assyr., VI, p. 134



V, 21 (wine libated in a vessel of lead, bur-an~na mu-tum din mti-ni-de-de)\ Cyl. B VI, 26 (beer- and wine-libation named together, kas bur-ra de-da- din kas-a de-da, "in order that he libate
Gudea, Cyl.





beer, in order that he libate
5) Cyl.

wine with the beer".


X, 3 "kas ha-da".



Lutz, Viticulture and Brewing.

XXXIII, 15) speaks of a chalice of Semiramis, taken by Cyrus in Babylonia, which only weight 15 talents, while according to Diodorus its weight was 600 talents. Assurbanipal on one of his hunting-inscriptions, is pictured as offering a drink-offering over four dead lions (see Illu(Plin.

600 talents (Diod. Varro aggerated.

II, 9).

Diodor's account


of course,


stration No. 33).


inscription states:





up over them. Wine I libated over them," muh-hu-ru e-li-su-mi u-ma-hir karana ak-ka-a e-li-hi-un. The same king refers to a corner-stone rite of the bit riduti in Nineveh in the following words: "With strong wine and wine I sprinkled its cellar, I poured (it) on its foundation-wall 84 (?)," (Annals, Col. X, 83

No. 33.

Ashurbanipal pouring a drinking-offering of wine over lions slain in
the chase (after Ball, Light


the East).

ina kurunni u karani ka-lak-ka-$u ab ju lul am-ha-sa sal-la-arsu).

K 2674, 26

refers to a libation of


after the


of enemies:

"The heads of my enemies I cut off, (and) I libated wine over them," kakkade mel \nakir e\ me *-ia ak- kikis karana ak-ka [e-li-$u-nu]. Illustration No. 34 shows king ASsur-

nasirpal about to pour a wine libation, after a successful lion hunt. The fermented liquors were conserved in the e-

KAS + NINDA, We have seen above








The wine was 1 From large jars

that Babylonia imported much grapebrought from the Eastern mountains

a text 2


appears that brewers were
gestin qa-gal kur-ta tum-a.


Tab. pier. d'Urukll, 6:





(No. 12 in Friedrich,


Urkunden aus Sippara\


Vol...V, p. 491

and pp. 422

Wine and Beer

in the

Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals.


drafted into the army, probably to provide the soldiers with beer rather than to serve under arms. It perhaps contains

of military conscripts, who were called to the colors 1 In the second tent in the middle row of Illustration No. 26,

which pictures a fortress we see in one apartment two sittingmen, of whom one is drinking. The second compartment shows
a large vessel probably

with beer.

2 which Babylonia possessed its wineshops and beerhouses seems to have been located generally near the water of a river or of a canal. See f. i., Ebeling, KAR, I, No. 16, Rev. 35, 36, kar

No. 34.

Ashurnasirpal about to pour a wine libation over dead lion
(after Ball

Light from

the East}.

ship stopped
n. 4.

ma ne-in-u$\

at the 'wine- wharf".

ina karkarani elippu um-mid-ma, "The See also references below, p. 130,

The Babylonians, however, considered the frequenting of a public tavern by any respectable person as disgraceful. In a moral text 3 it is said (line 15): ^TTT ^T?^i, (belnm ana] bit Hkari la tirrub, e., "O lord, thou shalt not enter the beer-house". The same view prevailed, as is well known, amongst the

Greeks, for



was likewise improper
ugnim(M} ab-nun-naki
lines 2

to visit a kapeleion.
i. e.




32th year of
see Meissner,


For instance, Bu. 88-5-12, 58

"bit $ikari"\


Altbabyl. Privatrecht. 3) S. A. Smith, Misc. Texts.


chief-shepherds (?) will reach you on the 24th to Sippar. According to tradition Kish owed its existence to queen Ku-Bau. The taverner was also bound by law to give full measure. The price of a drink had to be paid in grain. The Letthrow her into the water" ters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi. the judges of Sippar speak as follows: Thus says Abi-esu: are going from BaMessengers and. Severe punishment was inflicted upon her in case the measure for drink was not in proportion to the measure of grain. or make the measure for liquor smaller than the measure for barley. They bylon day of Tisritu. (= pihu) When from taverners they send you in in- se'am la imtahar ina abnim rabitim i) summa sals&bitum and sim sikarim kaspam imtahar u mahtr sikarim ana mahtr se'im umtati sa-habitam suati ukannusi-ma ana me inaddusi. Sin-idinnam. No. Viticulture and Brewing. buy 300 (kegs) of mixed barley-beer Sippar-Amnanu. writes: "Unto Ibni-Samas. In Athens. merely accidental. refer only to such wineshops as were also brothels. for refreshment(?). but if she receive money by the great stone.128 Lutz. paragraphs to the The Code A ners. The Code may. striking feature of the Code is the fact that it speaks only of female taver- prostitution. which are "called "wineshops". who was a woman of obscure and humble origin. Paragraph 108 (Col. after all. this is Men in the liquor-business are not / mentioned.Yahrurum. reason to at believe that the public inns (without exception) were of the same time places of Hammurabi devotes four regulation of inns. sal gestin-na . and shall BM 26961 (King. they shall call that liquor dealer to account. the board of trade (?) of Sippar and l . XVIII. C). a visit to a tavern was a sufficient cause to bring about expulsion from the Areopagus. lines 1525) makes it clear that it was illegal to accept money for drinks. in a letter to Sin-idinnam. L. W. . kept by women only. The para- But graph reads: "If a liquor dealer do not receive barley as the price of drink. 85) illustrates the King Abiesu application of this section of the law-code. (2042 2015 B. As soon as you see this tablet of mine. sabitu.. It is told of her that she achieved her first popularity and influence as the There seems to be sufficient keeper of a wine shop.

natitum entum sa ina gagim bit sabl iterub awiltam suati and Brewing. and the crime of incest of ( mother lines 157.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. which the horrible punishment of death by The one referred to above. The next paragraph ( no. about which you have written unto me (I reply): It has been ordered (that) they shall give the barley in Sippar to the taverners. thus. "If outlaws collect in the house of the liquor dealer. The last paragraph 111. for otherwise we should expect the causative form. summa ana sikarim ana Lutz. Viticulture 9 . The innkeeper certainly was immensely concerned to keep order and not to allow outlaws to make her house a meetingplace or a place of refuge. lines 3644) provides for the punishment on the stake. in case a vestal virgin leaves her house to open . XVIII. "cause them to be arrested". \ 2Q formation. It was a breeding-place for all kinds of crime and the best way for the state to protect itself and its citizens was the imposition of a severe punishment on the innkeeper herself. and. and she does not arrest these outlaws and bring them to the palace. It would be interesting to know how this law worked in actual practice. XVIII. According to the verbal form employed in the paragraph it would seem that the innkeeper had the power of arrest in her own hands. Regarding the barley to be given to the taverners. issabtam-ma ana ekallim la irdiam 2) ^sabitum si-i iddak. they shall burn that Only two cases are mentioned in the Code of is Hammurabi. regulates the price of liquor "If a liquor dealer". Col. Col." The second paragraph prohibits riotous gatherings in public drinking places and fixes the deathpenalty on the innkeeper in case she does not cause the arrest of the outlaws. who enter a tavern woman" 2 burning other in . a wine-shop or to frequent a votary. 45 49) payment. was a favorite haunt for all kind of rabble that shunned the light. it states. dealing with the heinous and son. "cause them to be brought". it for strong drink. la wasbat bit sabi iptete & lu iqallusi. It reads: "If not living in a cloister open a tavern. ship the barley (?)-beer to Sippar-Yahrurum. is in ordered. "give one sold on time 1) summa s ^sabitum sarrutum s ina biti-sa ittarkasu-ma sarrutim sunuti Id. or for a strong drink. that liquor dealer shall be put to death" 1 The tavern.

fellow may enter with thee. and possibly also a goddess of beer and wine. 114. VI. 2. 16. "Incantation for the profit of the innkeeper 2} Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie. which had for some reason or other fallen off 3 Two incantations were to be recited by an incantation-priest. Vol. thy beautiful bed. All three incantations are addressed to Ishtar. p. Zimmern. a love charm. enter at my word. by referring to the sabu kari. pp. Kusse tamti. the goddess of love. so may be plentiful the (saying): 'Be sweet unto me'". that the Babylonian inn was at the same time a brothel. support thy hand on the jug and the pressing vat! May profit enter unceasingly. 164 184. which is of interest in this connection. i. which were intended to Zimmern has increase the business of a . Siduri sabitu. while the third incantation. . also Albright (AJSL. Vol. however. if proof were necessary. Ill. KB. at the 4) dyke". XXXII. taverner. p. Some passages may illustrate the general "O Ishtar. Vol. 1 . 169 explains this phrase quite naturally. mi-hi-ir-tum ina bit amelus a~bi-i par-sat. The incantation of the harlot ends with the sentence: "As the heaven fructifies the earth (and) plants are plentiful. at the time of harvest she shall receive 50 qa of barley" 2 the transliteration and recently published translation of a text. 45 (= Jensen. like her Egyptian counterpart Hathor. XXXVI. The text contains an additional proof. ZA.12O Lutz. in order to bring back the lovers. Gilga- i) summa salsabitum $iham ana qiptim iddin ina eburim jo qa se'im iliqi. Vol. on credit. "the innkeeper of the dyke" and to the si-bi-'-i ka-a-ri in Gray's Hymn to Samas. "Incantation in case that the profit has ceased in the house of the taverner" inimnim-ma is-di-ih sa-bi-i ka-ri-ka. p. (and) thy lover and thy courtesan". who dwells at the "seat of the ocean" 4 isten . Vol. character of the text. 260) who considers the phrase "a yery curious detail". 104) and ZA. It contains incantations and rituals. Viticulture and Brewing. or a votary of Ishtar. (since) thou takest upon thyself responsibility!" The harlot recites: "Come enter into our house. Col. 3) Inim-nim-ma summa^ a . See. and this tavern let be thy tavern! O Ishtar. In mythology we meet with a divine female taverner. XXXII. was to be used by a demimondaine. XXXII. who had stayed away from the inn and the brothel.

c. temple A was dedicated to her in the city of . it 1 Grape-vine was . 1914. Tablet X. Gilgamesh meets Siduri. 3) Gilgamesh-Epos restoration nam-zi-tu see Zimmern. Clay Tablet. This was but vated in natural. 1. the vinestalk the tree of life and the noble and precious fluid. "the mother vinestalk". magnificent to look upon" trellised. p. vine was and on the culti- other. 1 3j mesh in his the abodes burning quest for eternal life. the taverner. Lagash. He is unwillingly ad- on the dark road of the sun. (MVAG. bore as grape-clusters.. He travels twentyfour hours. Giant scorpion mitted to pass for men guard this gate. "the lady of the waters". she loses all characteristics of a vinegoddess. finally reached the gate of the sun. p.Wine and B eer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. "Amethyst it bore as its fruit. and appears as the goddess Nina. Scluvenzner.. ancient Sumerians was a vinegoddess. when we consider. 25 ft'. in this her vineyard. on the one hand. Wirtschaftsleben. the taverner. Rev. On the 4) Or dingirMu-tin and dingirMu-ti. the means of imparting eternal life. or Mu-tin-an-na. Ama-gestin. called din s ir Gestin 4 or din g ir also. i. good to behold. Altbabyl. i) sdmtu nasdt inibsa isfyunnatum ullulat ana dagala t&bat uknu nan hashalta inba nasi-ma ana amari sa'd/i. As the Babylonian female taverner was primarily concerned with the preparing of beer or wine. e. which she prepares. 5) Urukagina. so Siduri. III). The vineyard is her domain. they have made her of the a pressing vat" divinities 3 . and 3. 2} . "the vinestalk of heaven". 9* . is described as engaged in the preparation of wine. which is men- tioned in an inscription of Urukagina 5 At a very early date. II. One oldest of the pantheon of the . how little Babylonia. and secondarily with the serving of beer or wine 2 . Lapis-lazuli Fruit it bore. however. To this purpose "they have made her ajar. 3: epsusi kannu epsusi namzltu. having passed of men. 169. As the consort of the god of heaven i she is later called Ges"tin-anna. and at last he comes to a beautiful vineyard.

beer or 'wine)" in one instance (see Meissner. of course. 2) See CT XXIV.. e. "he of frightening speech". This goddess is followed by din ir SIM -fAS. Sabu. and Sim&ti seems to be etymologically con- . "the clever woman. In the list .. probably a dark kind of beer. i. which follow. is means either "the mount of the . or. The names. din s irNu-silig-ga. who tends to the giving of drinks". are 10.. II. describe the effects of beer or wine. "the lady of life". the sixth. e. also called din ir Sa-bil. din s ir Ninma-da. i. dingirSiffs is mentioned first. Altorient. who may perhaps by literally. which. and the last. i.. i. As din s ir her mother appears the goddess din g ir Nin-til. She is also mentioned by the name din s ir Kastin-nam. 41. i. best be translated "the brawler". . e.e. "the mount of 4 The god Ninurta. whose consort was 2 "the Pa-gestin-dug "the lady of Nin-kasi. karanu tt-pat-ra qable-ka lis-sa-pah sepe-ka dan-nu ki-ri-mu-ka li-ir-mu-ka. "she who causes burning". No. KARI. "he of a clear speech". i. how important lonia 1 .. "he of the abode of mirth". Here we meet with din s ir Me-hus. the seventh din s ir Ki-dur-ka-zal. the "snake-drivers" of "heaven". e.Lutz. azag. XV. Viticulture and Brewing. not a geographical designation. "they are the nine children of Ninkasi. the inebriating fruit". Texte und Untersuchun- 1) For -wine in the incantation literature see Ebeling. 3) They sailed gar 4) Ninkasi is called in CT. Ninkasi lives on Mount e.. or. i. "the braggart". at least retailing (scil. The fifth child is called din si Medin & ir Eme-te. "the boaster". "the lord of the land". nected with sibii. Sa-bil is the mother of nine children 3 who seem all to have some connection with intoxicating drinks. "the intoxicating beverage. e. and din s ir SIM-}-KAS-gig. ilinimu-dm dumu-mes dingii'Nin-ka-si-ge mus-lah-lahe-ne an-na-ge. but taverner". e. 62. or describing an effect of the use of alcoholic beverages.. lines 10 13. a role water and irrigation din g ir din s ir played in Baby. 22 ff. 24: geme-tug-tug dagar-ra me-Usinnistu itpistu ummu sa ana simati saknat . i. A good vinegod appears by the name vinestalk". a certain kind of beer prepared K of barley and an addition of spices. which decreed life". Her name refers to "beer" or any intoxicant not prepared from grape-vine. the eighth. "he of an eloquent tongue".

at a later time. and x . Vol. That such "proverbs". appreciated wine. 13. n. 2 Numerous passages in the Old points to this "Wine cheers praise the vinestalk and its fruit.8. Drunkenness was by no means unknown to them 5 Only the Rekhabites and the Nasiraeans abstained from its use. no But it opposition from that side was as yet encountered. the drunkard is not inferior to it" *. 22. 25. 5. "wine and beer gladden the heart". i. . Hos. regarding the use of wine 7 During the early days of the history of Israel. i. "(as for) the strength of the worm. no festivity like their neighbors.Wine and Beer gen. was looked upon with disfavor. however. only bread and meat are mentioned mon. On a discussion of the "Wine Jer. The Hebrews. The majority of the people. 1 33 is referred to as one who knows "well to prewine. it. Sam. II. 40. while the possesssion of a privately owned ascribed to every citizen (I Kings 5. . The numerous . .. 39) moral prescription in which a warning is contained in regard to the excessive use of alcoholic beverages. It is (I Kings vineyard 3) but not wine. soon set in. e. which. The simple beduin 24 d./ was held without . however. II. 1) II R 1 6. 9. 7. 5). 5. 9. 6 9). i. Testament It is indispensable at the man's heart" 3 yea even the gods 4 meals of the Hebrews 5 and was not allowed to be missed on the altar of Yahweh as a drink-offering. wine-presses course. Cf. in the Pentateuchal Codes". 3 etc. 296. see Jastrow. is 4) 6) 7) Judg. 279. we may finally remark that the Babylonian literature has not yet produced anything like I. always regarded wine with favor. 36. 18. 20 a: 3) Psalm 104. Sir. p. 23. and even at the mention of the deliveries for the royal court of Solomon." pare strong In passing on to Palestine. still testify to that The religious leaders. XXXIII. 9. in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. Sam. see also BA. probably. . M3 *l[0]lna. 2) This designation occurs first in Gen. Sam. 13. Sir. lines 23 diminishes the strength]'. in JAOS. 15. like every other form of an advanced stage of human progress. 2. were existent is seen from such passages as: pukli napi me$tu ul uhhurSu. of took quite another view-point. 13. 180192. 13. 21. 30 "(wine) It becomes more com- strange that in the story of Abraham's reception of the strangers (Gen. 34. for the very name "festivity" mishteh. 5) I. . I. Viticulture represents a higher form of culture. pp.

An Account of the Manners for rulers to mix strong i) Gen." 5) Levit. history. or number of stripes. p. Nor drink. The Ancient Orient otherwise knows no punishment for into. which stands without parallel. 9. life Israel's of the nomadic patriarchs was the ideal life to which Each step of an adreligious leaders looked back. in which the use of wine led to shame2 The lawgiver permits ful intercourse with his two daughters parents. 2) Gen. 3) Deut. Critical and Evangelical . in this respect by the introThe Muhammadan law provides for forty They could be augmented beatings in case of drunkenness. . 5th ed. On the other hand. though not often: the hadd'. 32 ff. 21.Lutz. and is still in Cairo. 20 permits the most severe punishment to be imposed upon the drunkard.. 20. vance to a more refined mode of living is a step farther away from Yahweh. 21 ff. A change was wrought becomes inebriated. xication. they forget the law. 6) Proverbs. Deut 21. Cf. 4 The up to eighty strokes in case of habitual drunkenness the priests to partake of intoxicating Hebrew lawgiver forbids The assumption of the predrinks during their services 5 leaders is that he who drinks wine necessarily exilic Hebrew . or any other legal regulations of Babylonia and This fact is significant and tends to show that Assyria. . duction of Islam. Drunkenness. is eighty in the case of 4) Mawerdi. and Customs Modern Egyptians. . Lest. drunkenness was not considered a" crime by the Babylonians and Assyrians. p. 19. by flogging. 3 1 Commentary on the 4 7 given according Book of Proverbs. to Toy . for instance. Viticulture and Brewing. This is Hebrew There evident in a later period of preserved a pleasant song. in which is still : the mother warns the royal prince of wine-drinking 6 "It is not for kings to drink wine. by the Prophet. and forty in that of a slave. 388. London. also Lane. 1871. . 9. of the l a free man. . is never mentioned in the Code of Hammurabi. 10. for this offence. whose son is living in debauchery and is a drunkard This is an extrato accuse him to death before the judges 3 ordinary ordinance. 137: "Drunkenness was punished. To warn against viticulture and wine-drinking is narrated an occurrence in the family of Noah 4 and another in the house of Lot. drinking. 539.

he does not prohibit the use ment Judas. 2930. 7) JAOS. for the drinker and the gormandizer shall 4 impoverish. however. 182. 25: "I stood in the blessing of the Lord. p. and like a gatherer I filled my 7 "the later view of postwine-press. And ing. undermined the ultra conservative position of the religious leaders. p. think of his misery no more". 31. The establishment of the kingdom. "he who loves wine and oil will not be rich" 2 "look ler" 1 not on wine when it is red. ness of eyes? They that tarry long at the wine. him who is in That. . becomes opposition. 4) Prov. . drinking he may to bitter distress. they that 5 go to try mixed wine" The religious leaders. the bad experiences of Judah with wine. strong drink a brawposition to wine. . 21. . vine-harvest showed a good crop and the winecould be fully stored with wine. 6) 2021. when it sparkles in the cup" 3 "thou shalt not be with the wine-bibbers. i. 23. which marked a real political and material progress in the history of the Hebrews. Vol. and drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags" "Who crieth: 'Woe'? who: 'Alas'? Who hath contentions ? who hath raving? who hath wounds without cause? who hath red. i) as the accessory to the blessing formula in Gen. . In post-exilic times only the excessive use of alcoholic beverages is condemned 6 It is now considered as a distinct blessing of God. from the weaker as the time passes on. Give strong drink to him who is perishing. 2) Prov. all Prov. but only warns against its excessive use. with the gluttonous eaters of flesh. 135 And Wine disregard the rights of the suffering. Motive and close of the admonition are equally interestThe Book of Proverbs takes a decidedly unfavorable "Wine is a mocker. Prov.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. Sir. . In spite of it." According to Jastrow the cellars exilic when Judaism is reflected in the juxta-position of 'bread and wine'. in Kautzsch Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen. 20. 23. . 5) 3) Prov. and by the end of the seventh century the opposition towards wine and other intoxicants had ceased. XXXIII. Vol. forget his poverty. II). 23. (See Das Testa47 1 ff. 30. but making also higher claims regarding the mode of living. 17.

nan 1 (p. wherever wine become 1) necessary. In this phrase ttrbs is used. is Wine lacking. i. 9. Each year duct of the land of former years. new wine and oil". 18".136 Lutz. and which was 'the proland. but the change to yayin is really less correct than the tiros of DeuterOmy. to a Sir. 27. Yayin was introduced due change of view taken towards strong old wine. of course. is the fore- most of all medicines. was celebrated with wine.. ttrbS yishar ("in$11 tBiTft "J^r) undenvent later a change due to the view taken by the post-exilic prophets towards wine. characteristic of Deu14. . it is true. it. in Hannah. ddgan.n. 10. with means "new wine". 2) See Jastrow. semen: p. then thou 11 likens friend. teronomy. here Alcharisi's Tachkemoni t^tpag is fsinp ] nb. as f. fp^t). Sir. when it becomes old. 28: "Wine like medicines water of life And instead of d&gan (corn) hittim and in place of yishar. does not imply that at the time of the Deuteronomistic writer "the process of manufacturing a thoroughly fermented article had not yet been perfected" 2 but that for quite another reason yayin was not used in a phrase. nourishes cf. give up an old New wine is mayest drink new wine to a new friend: "Do not for a new one does not equal him. also bSukka49b). while women found their pleasure rather in beautiful dresses (bPesach 109 a). This. Viticulture and Brewing. but not yayin. which refers to "old wine". although custom it No permitted women Wine to drink wine." ten btf Cf. a new friend. refreshes (120) the example of and cheers is (ntt) (bBerakh 35 b. 34. which according : to Jastrow "represents a preparation of the grape-juice in a less advanced stage. 183. which summed up the products of the . In place of tiros. 70 b): bs \y\ D^J tntM^! tntfba ttato 1$^! ftbai "iip$ feast was considered to contain true joy for men unless. Also the stereotyped phrase. than the finished fermented product" the word yayin was inserted *. the land yielded "corn.

had the same evil reputation as those of Babylonia. probably in order to take out the wine with them from the chalice. 1 "When *. rtrrft. 9. 3) Joshua 2." i) I Kings 10. 4: of musical instruments. Sir. with which were given drinking cups. inns were attended by singing-girls. Sir.Wine and Beer for in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. ^^ '10'iDSl IM Dltfn t3*ny] fittbtpa ^ft I D 5??> the wine goes in." Sir. Wine often brings the fool to ruination. He who in large chalices. 21.1 T9tf]But the use of wine may become also dangerous. ("p. which is drunk in quarrel and anger. Cf.?. which led so much more readily to debauchery. similar to those in Assyria. Shem). we are told. whenever he drink is who "Wine and aroma clarify" [(i"? tfW) D^npS ^n^.^ ijD^ '. since it is destined from the beginning for joy! Joy of heart and jubilation and life of pleasure is wine. . bowls 2 seems. j 37 it moderately. we may conjecture from the story of Rahab. "Man is known by 34. as was the fashion in Assyria. 25: "The must has killed many. who "Do not have intercourse with a cither-player in order that thou art not caught in her snares. sings Bible-verses in the tavern has no part in the eternal blessed life (Sanh. Rahab. ^tib &$$$ Fiiobl). the secret goes out/' var -> the sense'. i. by his purse and by his anger. which is drunk at the right time and for satiation. Tanchumah. loi a). 34. What is life for him without wine. 1 Solomon. or wine-bowls. In the time of flat the prophet flat Amos These wine was drunk also from flat it dishes. 2) Amos 6. 6 "." (SttinDfi. the innkeeper was at the same time a har- The lot The public played some kind 3 . since they let the spirit of wine evaporate quickly and thus necessitated faster drinking. iOSD^ ' mp)." three things: by his (wine)-cup. were an object public inns of Palestine. had golden drinking vessels Jeremiah speaks of "chalices" filled with wine. This indicates that the wine was served . it diminishes the strength and multiplies the wounds. The Hebrews seem to have practised a good deal of luxury at the banquets of the rich and at the royal court." man. . of bitter reproach of the prophet. 29: "Headache and shame and ignominy is wine.

Lutz. 149). 2 has pointed out that there exists a striking Is. 21. 9. 5. 8. An inspector (plE 31 in the inscriptions. In view of conditions in Arabia. 28. The Talmud seems to in- dicate that the rabbis also connected the crime of the priest's daughter with the tavern. 5. tasted (WB) the e. 22. Sir. the Laws of the The Relations between the Laws of Babvlenii and H. 14. and in the same cases. mentions the horrible punishment only twice. more often DIB^i-fta and DlBTflK. Josephus directly states that in Death by burning is unchaste. Johns parallel between the Code of Hammurabi and Lev. i. if not the largest. I)- 2) . 3. 7. prostitutes. had been introduced also by the Jews (Wisd. we have seen above. 27). cf. dyopavopo^) who controlled the market-prices and weights and examined the provisions and the grain. Arabia m &* Correct singing at drinking-bouts 1 is likened to a seal-stone of carbuncle on a golden neck-chain (see p. 1906). tavern ("j^Sl Sn^) was distinguished by a sign. W. sm bip M b? DTK t> zipni Dimw The custom of the Greeks and Romans. 6: below and to a seal-stone of emerald. is decreed to the daughter of a priest who The Code. Wine was sold at the market. 2. for they ask: Shall not a priestess or priest's There daughter be treated better than a tavern-keeper? appears to have remained thus in Talmudic time a recollection that in certain circumstances the law had prescribed the death-penalty by burning for innkeepers. 23. of Josiah is likened to a song at a wine drinking-bout (Sir. NH pwn b^. a which means both the foreign woman and the harlot T J. Die Weisheit des Jesus Sirach. . 20. The Palestinian (Prov. 5. 5. class of Here as well as in Arabia she was a foreigner. 49. Berlin.she at the same time opens a tavern. l 5). the bin. we may judge that these singing-girls in Palestine constituted a large. . to wreath oneself at banquets. the case of the priest's daughter it is not unchastity alone that brought upon her this fearful punishment of burning. but so does Hebrew legislation. Hebrew Peoples. 35. but this punishment was imposed upon her in case that . 2. (Smend. The Schweich Lectures. Viticulture and Brewing.. 1912. 1) The name Johns C. 16.

-The price of wine was of course fluctuating. The effects of chronic alcoholism are mentioned neither in the Old Testament nor in the Talmud. 36. a siphon or a special cup. had the reputation of often being drunkards. is not worth his food" (tltB tfb rTO'ni D1W "D2 bBm 64 b). the person slightly intoxicated. 22).. 235. who In the cylinder of black serpenKueltepe. 14122. 88. according to Ned. 99. which was found seated men. ibid. =follis and cpoXXdpiov. nummus). In Northern Syria the custom seems to have prevailed of sipping beer or wine through a long cane directly out of a large vessel. wine.. GenR Wine was drunk to excess at wedding49. in Rabbinic times. Vol. Nos. . and "the slave. but in case one is unable to buy 129 a). The in same custom of drinking appears in Babylonia in the oldest time 2 but seems to have been unknown amongst the Hebrews. e. which is A one quart. 65 a. see plate 17. who frequents the wine-house. legal distinction was made between the Satkuy. seven black dates should be eaten instead (Sabb. The slaves. 2) See Ward. Wine was also used as an application (Sabb. the main-scene shows two drink barley-beer through a long reed.Wine and Beer. or by simply smelling the wine. festivals (bBerakh 9 a. Erub. wine. tine. Seal-Cylinders. 87. wine should be drunk after letting blood. 4.) and at funeral-feasts but in order to prohibit over-indulgence. A Aged intestines. in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. 732. . Z. 3ob etc. C. Eben haezer 44. i. sextarius (Vlb. 84. of common tavern-wine cost four pieces of the small coin lumi (tflb v "pttlb. vooiip-tov. This custom prevailed amongst the Hittites and the peasants of the Armenian mountains. 83. 109 a). ten cups of wine were the maximum set for the seven days of mourning. 85. facing p. in which the liquor was brewed. the person totally drunk (Erub. 1) Berlin Museum. IX. 8 (66 b) is beneficial to the As a rule. 86. 734 and 738. 3 and Choshen hamishp. and the sikkbr. 32 ounces. 6b. 126 in Aeg. LevR 27. it was not missing. On a tombstone 1 of a Syrian mercenary found in Tell el-Amarna this custom is proved for Syria in the fourteenth century B. According to another reckoning a sextarius of wine cost ten follars (obIB and "ib"!5 cpoXXic. 95. 139 quality of the wine by means of a reed. unmixed while new wine is harmful. No. 2). 64a. KoruXr]).

Drinking. the euoi. strange as was identified in Classical times. Ill. e. 1876..and myrrh-branches of Jewish feast of the temple-dedication. was responTacitus 5 also mentions sible for this mistake of identification. Bd. Mace. 254. at 1) L. W. that the god of the Hebrews is the same as Dionysos.. Der Ursprung des Gottesnamens c. ing the Armenian as well as the barley-grains. Vol. 2. II. the laO-shout had same rite as or eiixx-shout as well been considered the priests. W. 1. the identification of Dionysos with Yahweh is due to misunder- led The eud^eiv. 4) See Baudissin. IV. the Hallelu-yah of the Hebrew on the other hand. which they themselves call those of Bacchos 2 Movers 3 explained this statement in Plutarch by referring to the Hallelu-yah shouts at the feast of the tavernacles. 6. e. i. He makes this assertion on account of the fact .. as the icrxstv. V . Vol. 307). Studien Religionsgeschichte. 1901. particularly. while the tubes possessed the yovu. e. Wiedemann. 3) Movers. i. while carrying lo. . was to his statement on account of the Hallelu-yah shout which reminded him of the lately. 5) Hist. In the Symposion of Plutarch 1 it is stated by one who is initiated into the Athenian Dionysian mysteries. III. with Dionysos. standings. dX\d avriKput. Viticulture and Brewing. 7 drew attention to Armenian tubes for sucking beer differed from those used in Egypt. the fact that the in so far in OLZ. thus. The Athenian.Lutz. Yahweh that the Hebrews commence other . . festivals some days after the feast of the tavernacles. pp. Die Phonizier. the thyrsos-staves of the of Dionysos were wrongly brought into connection with the palm. 7. thyrsos-staves. festivals. which lasted for eight days. festivals while the Fa-shout. which gathered on top of the brew (see OLZ. as Xenophon states regard- KdcAajioi: yovara OUK e-xovtec. 181 Leipzig. i.tubes were proEgyptian bably used in order to avoid swallowing the particles of yeast. 5. palm-branches and other branches. BCXKXOU zur Semitischen 'loiuj.. 1900. the austere god of the Hebrews. 2) doprriv oiJK ftv bi' aivrfudriuv I. the iau-shout of the Baudissin 4 has shown beyond doubt that Dionysian rites. IV. e. i. may seem. the god of wine and merry life. The to according which hymns were song.

p. 245. found the plant after the Flood. Der phonizische Gott Esmun. El! APTEMIN. p. It was planted by the angel 'SamaeF. n. therefore.. 4) Rouvier. Vol. d'archeol. n. \A\ confusion of the ceremonies. 248. p. "to call aloud" 2 . This angered God. 6) Rouvier. Euioc. n.Wine and Beer this in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. In order to ascertain the will of God regarding it he prayed for forty of Tyre 4 since the time of Seleucus . But Satan seduced Adam through the vine. but it was not completely destroyed. n. ir^xeiv idxeiv goes back to iarjxew. o. According to Baruch II. VII. n. 76 n. 1397. > > pp. n. 2366. 230 ff. Liberum pairem coli. domitorem orientis. p. p. 1) Finally Scil. While the identification of Yahweh . V. 1613 and 1614. Intern. p. n.. Evan and Ebon are derived from the exclamation eucc. ZDMG. t with Dionysos must be X' rejected.. 279. 1279. 1418 1437 267 1528. 1417. 1299 p. The names of Dionysos. Journ. 2) Baudissio. 1573. p.. God sent his angel Sarasael with the permission Judaeorum. 1298. has no idxeiv. A days. Vol. Eoac. Vol. or euoi. Vol. and he cursed it and did not permit Adam to touch the plant. lar^xeiv bearing on the question. p. 1829 -1835. C. In Homeri Hymni. numismat. 277.. 3) See Baudissin. c. 35.. 307 ff. 230. 482-489.. o. C.. the verb It.. 5) Vol.. 59 (1905). nequaquam con- gruentibus institutes : quippe Liber festos laetosque ritus posuit. 248 ff. p. 4.. n. The vine was swept away from Paradies through the waters Noah of the flood. In the time of the emperor Gordianus the representation of Dionysos appears also on coins of Berytos 6 Hittite wine-god appears in Illustration No. IIT. 603 ff. p.) and on coins of Sidon 5 since 111 B. but he rejects it: sacerdotes eorum * tibia tympanisque concinebant. Judaeorum mos absurdus sordidusque. quia hedera vin- ciebantur.. the tree that seduced Adam was the vinestalk. KI. quidam arbitrati sunt.. 1302. Rouvier. 7: idxei b' em bdaiaoi. . p. there is a strong probability of identifying the Phoenician god Esmun with Dionysos 3 Dionysos appears on coins IV (167 175 B. EiHjioq. vitisque aurea templo reperta. . pp. He was troubled in his conscience whether to make use of the plant or not. . n. 209 and 210. n. 282 ff. XXVII. uXrj bevvov OTTO K\crfYf|<. c. and the name lacchos ("laK^cc.) from the Homeric la^eiy. dipuiv. o. 131. c.. n. 606.

104. What did Satan do? He brought a lamb .142 Lutz. "When Noah began to plant the vineyard. 'Its fruits is wine made from them. came Satan up ing?'. and the hearts. written: said to . green as well as dried. 'What are properties?'. No. Rock. Noah contains the story as to what happened at the time when Noah was about to plant the first vineyard.Alright' he said. 15). to him and said to him: What art thou plantits he said to him: 'A vineyard'. 35. Satan him 'Come on and let us both lay out this vineyard'. Light from the East}. Viticulture and Brewing. Tanchumah.sculpture at Ibriz a king or noble worshipping a god of corn and wine (after Ball. to plant the vine. which gladdens : are sweet and pleasant. as it is 'Wine gladdens the heart of man' (Ps.

ifv). that the vine was not one of the trees cultivated in Arabia and that old and young regarded wine-drinking as shameful: ^\. which pictures the daily life of the Arab. trodding about in the mire and if he has become drunk. Should he drink wine beyond measure.dn^ttiB impt?m diDrt inia d*n is^tj ih ^n i^n din bn-iDi dibD JHV 15^10 tr^DD dn aoift mm xn ifb (V't: "i"p pw ma p ('r a "5 n^w^ ntab^i mm ns nibns bDrr ^s Pre-Islamic Arabia has left us sufficient material to form an idea of the use of wine in that country. There always were. of course. He indicated thereby. and is saying that none is like him in all the world. without knowing what he does. I. he will act like a monkey." i^b hi fctttt? and and killed it killed it "6 -) staia nntf rra ib "IES -pssb -roan TBE a ib d^hb nnb ib niatf nw ^n d^pinft i^stt? iw^s ib -ifcK is^ta ma ^ 1^1 rrnDi imnnb cinncsi httftfrn "jtstt ^ "i nr d-on ^n nwy innD ID nni. he will become like a pig.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancit?nt Orientals. and they were moistened from their blood. ifi. makes the strange statement that the pre-Islamic noble Arabs abstained from the use of wine. Ibn Haldun (see S. 143 under the vinestalk. to be found individuals in pre-Islamic .^s^n nnn nnn n^m C|ip x^nn ^D inxi na-im ^i K^sn ID ins D-npw ib TEH . Chrest. which knows nothing and like a sheep that before its shearers is dumb Has he drunk moderately. Wine-drinking was a habit freely indulged in by the pre-Islamic Arabs. and again he brought a pig and again he brought a lion and killed it. before he has drunk of the wine. 52/7). is without a reference to it. Vol. and no old poem. arab. and he brought a monkey and killed it under the vine and again caused the blood to drip on the vinestalks. de Sacy. jumping about and speaking filthy words. (then) he is strong (Isaiah. is innocent like a lamb. that man. like a lion. pp. Our sources are exclusively Old-Arabic poems.

. slain by the tribesmen of Hudhayl. Viticulture and Brewing. 100. VIII. Mufaddaliyat. The poet boasts of his drinking powers. p.Lutz. chief of In the deathsong of 'Abd-Yaghuth. Amruul-Kais. sale of wine. Kowalski. ZDMG. son the Banu-1-Harith. p. and the exorbitant price he paid for the drinking-bout. Poetry. i. often undergone before starting on the mission of bloodrevenge. 1892. XIV. . he sings: "Now am I as though I ne'er had mounted a noble steed. years. 382 ff. p. Ta'abbata Sharran. 3) Lyall. 'Asad. 1617). mentions his liberality when drunk." Three motives are always recurring. of II. But these were rather isolated cases. p. Cambridge. A Literary History ed.. 53. 86. Since with grief for mine uncle am wasted. who was 2 and sometimes a Christian. or called to my horsemen "Charge! gain space for our men to breathe". 2) Goldziher. so f. 'Asad's father "a. the Arabs. f Waqqas. A. IV. Lyall 34. 1885. of Najran. long forbidden: Sore my struggle ere the ban was o'erridden. at the news of the murder of his father etc. Kowalski. He was dependent upon the wine merchant. VIII. London. 'Abu Kais ibn al-'Aslat swore to abstain from wine for thirty nights (var. p. who abstained from the use of wine and other liquors. Selfabstinence from wine (and food. after having accomplished his task of avenging his uncle. ed. . . O son of 'Amr'! I I would taste it. Kais ibn at in Demmun drinking. Vol. 79 generally a Jew the Christians of Hira are mentioned as being engaged in the Wine was very expensive in all parts of Arabia.) is al-Yaman vowed. Yet.. sings 1 "Lawful now to me is wine. 1) Hamasa. XIX. the tagir. time. Transl. 28). 22). women. 4) Lyall. Charles. the son of c Kurz ibn Amir ('Ag. imposed temporary (see. 3: "The wine-skin is a kingdom to him who pos. of Anc. Ch. In 'Ag. ^ The Poems of Amr son ofQamfah. 185. the Arab had not always a chance to drink wine. 1919.. to abstain al-Hatim. 68). Arab. ed.46. man of high qualities" was seemingly always well supplied with wine Kais ibn al-Hatim. R. translated by Micholson. : Pour me wine. after seven nights spent in from it until he had taken blood-revenge (Kitab al-'agani. or bought c Amr ibn Qafor a wealth of gold the full skin of wine" 3 mfah 4 XII. J.

in BA.. <:. that his own volition it. let me die as befits one "And how wouldst thou die?" asked they. it .. then he said men of Taim. 4 (Lyall.." '2) o. if ye must slay me. c. wine to drink. 84 and 85. But. lest he should utter satires against them before being put to "Ye death: for he was a famous poet . frivolous. p. And we hold of no account. strong and fragrant. 3) See Vollers. how great 'Abid VII.." When 'Abd-Yaghuth was taken prisoner and "was about to be gagged. p. c. he severs the bonds and gives up drinking. i) Lyall. IO . (8) Lutz. Viticulture and Brewing. It has made him lightminded. . though small.Wine and Beer sesses is!" in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. if I buy the costly juice at its price. and let me sing my death-song. the mass of our inherited wealth. o. The poet is really turns it around and describes his sweetheart as wine. drink wine. when we are drunken 1 . finally. o. 59): "If Lyall. whiles we are sober. is His love 5) filled for woman as though he a drinker etc.. pp.. V.. it is gene- I see also 'Abid XXVIII. pp. 'he answered'" 2 Mutalammis 3 describes the wine as his sweetheart 4 who exercises such a great power over him. after he recognized that fear of god and thrift are after all more profitable. 218. IAC and the kingdom therein. Vol. completely succumbs to his beloved. 29. 1718: "We bid up the price of all old wine. He says 5 : ( "My heart is frivolous after a period of rest and rous in submissiveness to the friend. in pursuit of its delights. "Give me noble".. 189 4) 190 and p. Arabische Gedichte des Mntalammis.

In this mood he turns back and remembers the joy which he experienced in life. l Amr . D. He died on the Asia Minor at a great age. or like the joy for every pre- But (now) cious thing from which one draws profit.). cool beverage. XII. a curse upon it! And thou shalt never say is mentioned: Praise unto it! 1 like the love is either non-enduring. am like a drinker on the day they go their own way. in which he sit in the wine-shop. 535 A. which the people guard? And has he not taken a morning-drink of wine. but abundance does not remain with corruption. I know with absolute certainty. when eyes of the locust. whose fire "And permeates c his members. . Amongst the pleasures he does not fail to mention also the wine: did not a maiden give him to drink of a well-tasting.146 I Lutz. 2) 3) to the Court of the Greek in way was a contemporary of Imruul-Qais with whom he journeyed Emperor Justinian (C. since the fear of god is of the best endowment: To guard A is easier than to seek it and to wander country without provisions." the wealth about in the In a second poem the same author thinks of death and the grave and he asks his friends to think of him when he is gone. be the day warm or cold?" 2 Amr often used to ibn Qami'ah' 3 deplores his lost 'youth. little which is kept in good order multiplies. agreeable. in the following verses: for the youth which no small thing!) I "O woe unto me (I miss miss in it 1) A c similar sentiment L> is expressed in Amr 'ibn Qamfah. without a doubt. Viticulture and Brewing. and the driver rouses (a drinker of) them for the departure to the desert. until the drops of its it! foam are it A Its curse upon to it. in wine that has aged the wine-jar. 6.

slight intoxication 3 .^ ii 4^-1 He seems to have lived some two generations before ^ ^^ Muhammad. <*0 jJiil ^ ^_jl^JL)\ J* ^jX^AJ CAj^J \S >. S 1 < x^ **> Jy*. . r * "' i$ ^ * *'" ^^ ^ t \ > (3) ^JLS ^f liw ^-? & (5) (7) . the rebuke of him who found >\ fault.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion. With pure wine. my locks" l . lifted his head and removed from him. silk and wool to the " - slight intoxication of life's joy by Sulmi ibn A was considered as constituting one Rabfah of Dabbah2. when the stars disappeared. - who increased the cup's sweet odor. I gave to drink. "Roast flesh and a These are life's joy" 4 Burdj ibn Mushar of Tai describes his care-free his friend in the following life with song : "And many I a drinking-companion.? 2} 3) J>\ 4 i. When And I I trailed nearest of shook my garments of my wine-sellers. [' > ***?j \$y* * ^ ^^ 9 s <^ VI * ^^ 9 S .of the Ancient Orientals.

Carpets or rugs with elaborate 4 were spread on the floor. you will find hanut which is most generally frequented by a The wineshop. he was inebriated. The tavern contained (sometimes) . 438. 77. 4) 5) 'Abda. if me" The is i. so that they seem warriors. XXV. Stammkneipe. whom wounds have exhausted. Viticulture and Brewing." is called hanut. e. he rose up liberal youth (and) a well-bred lavisher Unto a strong and fat camel. 102.. designs of animals. which could easily be erected and taken down. Tarafa. etc. Sfudien in arabischen Dichtern. you seek and 1 . "the customed. . Syrian influence. The tavern was most likely a wooden booth. -*Jl*.Lutz. The Arabs. Heft p. which is a piece of furniture which is otherwise unknown in the Arabic 2) 3) Ibn-Hisham. reclined at their banquets 5 a custom which was introduced into Arabia probably through person called place". die i. Jacob. malaf. or "If tavern. since these wine-booths were to be found particularly at fairs 2 In some instances it may have consisced of a special compartment of the bazaar-booth. .. ed. which was illuminated by lamps. also a table (khiwan\ f. An old (and) noble (camel) which belonged to a sheikh. it Its Like drinkers stagger. XII. 71. 72. . When The most Whose disposition was feared by the creditor. you will meet you hunt for me in the taverns. Abda 3 describes the tavern as a cube (kaba]. He satiated his drinkers and hastened unto them With two wine-jars. XXV. Georg. being separated from the bazaar proper by means of curc tains. me in me. whose cup filled to the brim. 70. familiar Kais ibn al-Hajim. . i in Abda Mufaddaliyat XXV. Mu'all. Mufadd. 4. Mufaddaliyat. in the vessel having strength. like the Greeks and Romans. 46: the circle of the people. Wiistenfeld. reddish even You see As the red goat's skin (of Yaman). It limped And its knee-joint and tendon was torn. f. III.

30 the singing robe and saffron-colored mantle" 5 wears a wide kimono and is. when it was raised and the wine had become high in price". c. you do not know how many ful serene nights pleasant in their amusement and mirthrevelry I passed in gay conversation and how many a sign of the wine merchant I went to. 5 the wineshop-keeper had still a supply of wine for sale. o. therefore. garment that of the ancient Egyptian butler. p. 5758. i. The wine was served by a waiter. When c the wine had run out. Compare with 29. . gently. About him were gold and silver vessels household. 51 52. steps When "When we say: 'Let us hear'. Heft I.). ed. Tarafa. be that of a camel lamenting her lost young" 6 Abu Mihgan 7 compares her song to the buzzing of flies of the meadow 1) the tribe of Tayyi'. 3) See Jacob. in a voice not forced. 15 24 ff. He also wore a woman's upper-garment and was The wine was drunk either from adorned with ear-rings 2 1. see also Lebid. 7) See Jacob. m. . 4) Lebid. Heft III. e. 2) Jabala was a contemporary of the ruler of Hlra lyas ben Qabisa of who ruled from 602611 A. 5) m. she "let us hear". The drinking bouts were attended by singing-girls. XII. mfina". 50 the singing-girl was by no means bashful. the sign was taken down. She is asked to sing by calling to her "as. D. Studien in arabischen Dichtern. 4 sings: "Moreover. m. "My companions are bright as stars. 6) Tarafa.Wine and Beer in the Daily Lite and Religion of the Ancient 1 Orientals. XVI. Lebid . The Ghassanid king Jabala full of ambergris and musk (Agani. Thorbecke. clad in a striped In A'sha m. she repeates her tones. probably a green branch 3 which indicated that .. this al-Aswad ibn Ja'fur in Mufaddallycit. . 20. 18. p. p. called sahn (c^"* ) o r from a bowl. 103. and a singing-girl comes to us at night. Georg. called girl (Qaine) fudul. Georg. <5 '-' a glasscup (J^) or from a goblet. before us at her ease. 84. According to Tarafa m. 49. whose finger-tips were colored red with firsad. 23 and The upper-garment is called ^a^S kurtak. lAQ sat on a couch of myrtle and jasmine and other sweet-smelling flowers when he would drink wine. XXXVII. Antara calls him a gallant man "who causes to be taken down the taverner's sign". A'sha muall. you would believe her voice to . called qadah (***). The tavern was distinguished by a sign.

. 63. Viticulture and Brewing. 37.. Culturgeschichte des Orients.girls sang Babylonian airs. m. stian girls. by lyas of Hira. When Hababa died." The tavern was hours. The Hira singing. . singing-girls and prostitutes (Lidzbarski. 150). 'Alqama XIII. etc. XXV. 30) Mandaer. 61. 5. 6l The morning draught is called sabuh (^y^).d Tha'laba. XV. Lebid. 23 the song of a man inebriated with wine compared to the humming of the fly. For the use Gabir ibn Hunay. wird man mit Kammen von Ketten zerkammen und er wird seine Augen an Abathur nicht sattigen. Mufadd.. sich bei Pauken und Liedern berauscht und in diesem Zustande Unzucht treibt. 81. 60. which her I hastened in the early morning skilfully. The singingmusical instrugirl accompanied her song sometimes with ments 1 As presents the qaine received the drinker's cloak. For the evil influence of the tavern see. Kais ibn alfrom it. Das Johannestruck der 107. : singing-girl thumb manages taking her stringed instrument. that I might take a second it. often visited during the early morning- m. and five came from Hira. Mufadd. is likewise In Antara. "Many a morning draught of pure wine I quaffed. 17. 97 and 99). 1915. In Lebid XVII. . In addition. I. and 'Abid ibn al-Abras V. The 3 were disrespected (Diwan of the rfudhailites. 76. 37 the song of the drinker is 'whining'. line 22 ff. of whom five were Greeks. Mufadd. XVI. 1913). the 60. ibn Qabisa.) mention is made of ten singing-girls. singing Greek songs to the music of lutes. l ar. p. XXI. 2) 'Abda. which was torn apart in case two singing-girls were present 2 In the description of. of the tambourine (duff'] see himself to death over her loss (Kremer. M. XXXV. when the sleepers awoke" 4 draught four "As often as I take my morning draught. p. 14 (Lyall. was completely under the influence 3) The oraayyade caliphe Yazid II. probably Chri. 9. 4) See also Abda. 15. I. Giessen. The diivans of ^Abid ibn al-Abras. XXV. Mufadd. ' 6. Hatim. who had been presented who was the successor to king Jabala of Nu'man III. the Ghassanid court by Hasan ibn Thabit (Agani. Kitab al-agani. p.Lutz. m. ibid. Imr. 3: before the cock for want of 1) See Lebid. he worried of two singing-girls Hababa and Salama. Arabic singers were accustomed to come from Mecca. 99: "Einen jeden der in einer Schenke Wein trinkt. 66 ff.

Wine and Beer (cups) I in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient lines (in the sand) Orientals. Jacob also cites a passage in which slaves were spent iu drinking. The generous host is praised even though wine has overcome him in at his Manfuha Yamama. c I have drunk". m. 16. H. old wine bought with bright and well-stamped coin". 37 speaks of the time of the midday-heat: "And I quaffed after the midday -heat had abated. m.. Arab. ior. Antara. Heft III. staggers at evening" (III. 1907. 39. and Antara. The al-'Aus consider their price despiceable. p." Also A sha makes mention of is his stating that he in followed by a early walks to the tavern. on account of the great expense of wine *. see reference in Jacob. 104. my mfzar draws and in generosity let my c pail follow its pulling-rope. by pleading poverty)". fr. but my fame remains great and unsullied". 151 . quick and active cook (de Sacy.. . p. to grave and . Georg. 17) when one of their drunkards \M 1) The price of a wine-skin filled with wine was a three-year old camel stallions . tell 21). Kais ibn that "And you meet am : al-Hatim. 124). 2) it is said that also mares. Studien in arabischen Dichtern. verse ro). A sha was buried c Revellers were accustomed to meet wine over it (Nicholson. R. says Antara 2 I am the squanderer of "verily. v. r Kais ibn al-Hatim probably reviles the Banu Harita in the following verses: "But there are in aS-Saut some servants from Yathrib. (Lebid XII. my property. e.. if I Liberality was a characteristic trait of the my drinking companions they will the string of a purse. whose price will perish in wine. p. Chrest. New York. host. A Litepour c rary History of Arabs. Fortunes were squandered in the "When tavern. from which I never you took refuge in poverty (i. zealous.

. in his intoxicated condition. Annals. according to Diodorus 2 Antigonus sent two . The Nabataeans from about the sixth century as the B. IV. The Adites were of great stature destruction of the peoples of We may i) 3) In 85 B. cultivated the . whose chief sanctuary was situated at Petra '. Inscr. 94. . 1902. d'arch. coins were struck a"t Bostra cus 3 in Hauran. when. Viticulture and Brewing. Paris. The Nabataeans. 345) appears the god Sai al-Kaum. vine extensively. 5) . XIX. they do not appear capital. Twice it reached even as far as DamasIn the third century A. XII. C. In the first century expeditions against them. Les Arabes en Syrze avant I'Islam. 382 402. XIX. with Petra In history. however. p. is The drinker. compared to a male hyaena of the Arabic race. before era 312 B. 3462 A. 3. D. in which wine and two famous singing-girls play an important part c (Tabari. who were (Lyall. 70 5 1. = Ephemeris to Palmyrene inscription (Littmann. I. Since Petra. 22. occupied the old Edomite country. Greek shipped Aoutfccprjq). 15). 2) Diod. Clermont-Ganneau Rec. The Classical writers identified Dushara with Dionysos- 'Amr ben Rami'ah. E. See also Dussaud. 4) See Epiphanius. and Wellhausen. solar deity to that of a Nabataean Dionysos 4 Gods of Bacchic character are otherwise unknown in Pre-Islamic . who seems have been worshipped by a group of Nabataeans in op' In a c position to the cult of Dushara-Dionysos. The votive inscription reads in lines 4 and 5: "to Sai* al-Kaum. who does finally not drink wine. C. and about 1. gelehrte Anzeigen. For wine-prohibition amongst the Nabataeans see Diod. C." mention the old tradition concerning the c Ad in the Hadramaut. Rene. Bacchus. Haer. 94. 231 ff. the kingdom extended from Petra northward of our ast of the Jordan over Hauran. p. Gotting. it is altogether possible to suppose that the Bacchic character of Dushara is original and that he did not change from a Arabia. woras their chief-god Dushara (Nabataean fcOtBTi. as we have seen above. which show a wine-press and the legend AKTICC Aoutfdpia. p. Sem. D.1J2 Lutz.. 269. or.). 1907. the good and gracious god.

and we will not abandon our gods for thy saying. took part in these entertainments. For an c A A entire last. sfnce much water. Fistrength. We say: 'One of our gods has afflicted thee with madness'" (Koran. fearful c number of Adite chiefs were draught fell upon the land. This prohibition was never felt to be very severe in a country. to preach repenThe 'Adites. one However." .Jaradatan. at executed it. known as al. 66. for God drove the cloud unto the land of 'Ad and from it issued a roaring wind. 57). The divine punisment at last overtook the evil Adites. black cloud 1 they brought about the destruction of their people. on account of its strong Christian and Jewish population. Compare here: 133S it was con- (o"p bxiDii: aipVi it . month they neglected their mission. XI. one black and one white. They were entertained by him with wine and music. Two famous singing-girls. disregarded the warning of this tance. the chief / ? wineland of the Orient. there appeared three clouds in the sky. The prohibition of wine-drinking by Muhammed brought about a great change in the attitude towards wine and other intoxicants. which consumed all the people. . while amongst the Persians the new conquering religion of Islam very seldom took a great enough hold on the people in order to break them away from the customs of their wine-growing country. an Amalekite prince sent his envoys on their arrival to the city and he received the 'Adites hospitably. thou hast brought us no evidence. such as Arabia. since wine was always expensive and often difficult to procure. sent to Mecca to pray for rain. nally God sent the prophet Hud un to them. by choosing the red. however. the white clouds water. The prohibition of wine in Sura V.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. it never vitally affected the culture of vine. nor will we believe in thee. 1 e? and They committed all sorts of evil deeds. Mu'awiya ibn Bakr. except a few who had listened. messenger of God and answered: "O Hud. And in Syria.a"s : "* n*2$n) *irra "pwt "pttJh 1153$ 11 r "In Palestine contain little is said The dark clouds contain much water. 93 is stated as being due to the fact that Satan causes dissentions in the congreThe i) sidered to contain 'Adites quite naturally choose the black cloud. When they.

of cheerful and elegant domestic. been not only to- by the Founder of patronized. Mean- while his &eer-like sagacity. G. of a nature to last through all time. if I may so raised to a dignity of the highest reli- ^ who own. lerated say. Palgrave it. and at the same time the prudent and almost respectful toleration which numbers and strength exacted. to the Prophet's antipathy to Christianity. of social. nay. and "the work of the devil". his Greek neighbors alone. nor yet securely persecute. and to a desire to broaden the line of demarcation between his followers and those of Christ. not the which induced Muhammed to introduce his injunc- tion. book". 1 held that "the strongest arguments would lead with considerable probability. . in which he had few equals. in the mosque that antithesis of the sanc- i) W. even of political union. rendered pre-eminently necessary the' establishment of distinctive nay disjunctive marks. "an abomination". and a more lasting and more perilous hostility than whatever might be expected from Jews or Persians. paniment of life. Central and Eastern Arabia. absolutely supernatural. and of equable application Palgrave. To declare the social. But this is. and in this wine has always been civilization. Close on its religious and mystical use follows its social quality and among all nations Christianity.Lutz.. in the belief of three-fourths of the Christian world. the sacred liquor which had become well nigh typical of Christianity. the accomof friendship. is. might suffice him for a good example of the fact. calculated to maintain his followers in a permanent antagonism with those whom they could not lightly despise. was to set up for his own followers a counter-badge. "unclean". of daily occurence. however. p. led him to anticipate from the Christians far more dangerous opponents. and in a manner its badge. in Eastern phrase." us to assign "Wine"' he proceeds to say. This Mahomet well knew. that of the term. but even. equally unmistakable and irreconcilable. "the Gospel for their are Christians in the most comprehensive sense in high favour. 428. I real cause gation through wine and gambling. view has been everywhere greatly esteemed and largely employed. Viticulture and Brewing. in fact. with whose ways and customs he was by no means unacquainted. and gious import. I. Vol. "has.

however. I53 it is said of the tribe Garm: "They did not drink it. 155 Palv tuary. first expounded by Georg Jacob. which. 106. nions. had not always the desired effect. Since the law falls within the time. 1) This view was III. o. in order to carouse therein with his drinking-companions. i. . 107. H. singers and his drinking-compamorning. he entered Mecca with great pomp and even desired have his tent erected on the roof of the Kaaba. classes in the Irak continued to drink date-wine." grave really ascribed to the prophet greater wisdom and insight than he actually possessed. e. When in 1 pilgrim-caravan to to 10 a. In Mas'udi. although it was not always easy to enforce the law on unwilling Arabs. in the fourth in a warfare of extermination year of the Hedjra. in arab. 2) Cited after Jacob. was forced to issue a special order prohibiting the use of fermented wine.. spent most of his time in the circle of musicians.. Transgressors were threatened with severe punishments'. tolerant attitude was taken towards the wine-prohibition 3 but the 'Abbasides introduced a stricter enforcement of the law. but allowing the use of ma zebib and date-wines. and did not raise its price on the market-day.. and in the harem that contradiction of the house.Wine and Beer in the Daily Life and Religion of the Ancient Orientals. of whom it is said that he intoxicated himself daily and Abdalmalik drank wine once every month that he hardly ever was sober. Stud. Dick- tern. when it was permitted. The lower and sakar. Murug edhdhahab 2 VI. during the campaigne against the Jewish tribe Nadir. p. his uncle Hisham appointed him leader of the Mecca. c. Historical evidences also would point to another direction. drank wine every second day. but since the prohibition of wine has come from heaven. it is probable to suppose that this law was primarily directed against the Jews. Under the Omaiyades a . 1 . His son Walid I. Heft p. behold no Garmi is sober anymore". Walid II. emptying his stomach by means of emetics. Already Omar II. At the court of the Omayyades in Damascus wine-drinking was introduced by Yazid I. 1 in order to undermine their flourishing wine-trade in Arabia / During the earliest period of the new religion prohibition was strictly observed. In South-Arabia the muslims continued to drink the misr-bttr as well as their national beverage of honey-wine (pif also called madi}. when Muhammed was engaged of the Jews. in order to be well again next 3) .

a stricter application of the prohibi- tion had taken place among the people. chewing of the leaf of the <$<-shrub (catha edulis). for the instance. . The court-poet Abu Nowas frequently mentions the songs. which was prepared from dried dates and addition of bitter herbs and myrrh. in his winetime. Viticvilture and Brewing. and the consumption of coffee. other narcotic and stimulating substances came more generally into use. the in When.. effect of excessive drinking. as."' khumar. Lutz. a plant which grows only in South-Arabia.

Apamea. anthesteria. 17. Asalli. tempory 144. wine see Yemet. Adam c 14!. Apple-wine c 25. c city of 44. Ascalon 33. Antaradus 29. 59. wine of 38. 42. wine of 32. wine-export 43. c Amurru f 24. Abyssinia. Amr ibn Qamfah of. n c c 12. Baal-Ham on 65. mahalla 39- of Bagdad Anafit. vineyards of 33. Assyria. of 39. 'Atiqa. Arabia. 146. Amminea country of 43. 24. 26. 71. Absinthium 18. 42. *nd-mr Androna. Arba'ilu 41. city 24. wine of Anab. 70. 48. 30. Ama-gestin. 'Artuf 66. A$^-beer 7 n. 43. wine of anqullu 37. Amt. . wine of 36. in 69. Arzabia. 6 Aleppo 23. wine of 24. Arvad. Alashiya 20. 25. 86. vineyards of 33. wine-import into 23. Aranabanim. wine of 4. 43. Anthylla.Index Abel Keramim. l assistant wine master Athafit. Arab-Dagh . Alexandria 'Alt. 43. Ana. viticulture of 38. 1. 31. abstinence. chronic 139. wine export from 34. B Baalbek. goddess Amedi. rites of the 113.31. 27. al-Yaman al-. mountain of Arzuhina 41. wine import into 24. country of 43. alcoholism. wine of 29. . 38. 24. wine of Artificial 2. 19. wine 16. . 38. 33. Ain-Kushith. viticulture of 37. 42. Arsinoitic nomos. Babylonia. . . wine of 23. beer of 4!. . Antaeus 114.

90. Chios 1. Bostra. . Caesarea. Byblos. Book barley 74. 95. 90. coins of 152. Bahr al-Mashra Bahrain 43. Boeotia 1. wine of 31. Beth Rima 26. 93. lo.158 Lutz. 127. in Babylonia 41. c Kerem 25. 138. 3. beer-mash 8l. beer-loaves 8l. a keeper of -ka$lub == saku] . Viticulture and Brewing.8l. butler 84. 54. Butamu | 43. Beth Laban 26. Bait Ras. 93. 40. 31. Chaibar 35. 92. 70. of hands 53. grapes of Caucasus 1. 85. cinnamon 94. wine of 29. 8l. Biq ath beth Biregik 42. c Bata 33. Bit-Zamani 44. Chalybon 22. wine of 23. 127. wine of 32. 94. bottles. of Eleazus 16 n. 105. wine of 24. 126. black beer 88. 75. Hebrew 18. 86. chief wine-master 69. coins of 141. 94. Bosra. . "beer of eternity" 77. 137. 82. Borgatha. Beth Hakkerem 25. 89. Bakuba . Bilgai. Bit-Adini 43. Bezek. oasis of 14. beer. banquets. Barygaza 34. 121. 1 lo. beer-tax 85. 15. 2. wine of 24. 92. 86. baqa 86 . mythology Nubian 72. "beer which does not sour" 77. 78. 93. 1 lo. 39. Bes. 42. 108. 120. wine of 29. Bagdad 39. in . clapping. stele of 20. Carchemish 44. wine of 26. god 114. 76. beer. 70. no. 43. 96. 107. 72. Birath Sariqah 29. Assyrian 11 8. 87. 120. brewery Bubastis 76. of Proverbs 135. Chatulim. 116. beer-house 69. 81. Cairo 5. Bit-Kubatim Bitatu 43. 119. bitumen 56. 70. Bahriye. 89. 34. cardamom Berytos. Brewers 70. 86. 79. "beer of the goddess Maat" 77. [ "brier "-wine 31. c Birtu 41. carob 9. Cathif. Cana. Belih 43. . . 89. 85. catha edulis 156. Arabic 148. in Arabia . 76.

140. Esmun. 36. Libyan . Diyar-Bekr 44. Dadiyy 95. Fayyum. dnrgB 32. Ethiopia llo. Dendera desert. wineshops of 39. City of the Apis-bull 12. 9. 36. Dionysos 2. cuscuta 31. 20. drinking-tubes 140. Etolial. the presses of Dsds. wine of 4. 41.152. wineshops of 39. 7. drinking. 31. 14. 2. Dair al-'Alt. Diospolis parva 13. 6 etc. loo. 35. official of the 20. at banquets loo. see butler. dbw 9. 13. 6. of Justinian coffee 156. 23. drinking-bouts 98. 13. Code of Hammurabi 138. 41.t 18. dark beer. of wine 137. oasis of Damascus 22. 115. drunkenness 1O. 17. 95. 128. Fenhu. Expense. tax 45. 64. 35. 43. 85. drinking-custom 139. 9. 133. grapes Daphnae 16. god Esna 7. 138.vessels 133. 134. Eme-te. dark wine 72. consumption. 14. 97. cup-bearer. wine-import into 23. 143. 5. 140. 22. 10. 43. 113. lo. Dair Darmalis 39. dby(y}. Damr. i. 20. 31. Elephantine 14. Edom Egypt 152. 106. wine of the 33. vineyards of the 2. 144. Daha. dracunculus hortensis 94. 18.Index. 78. Dshendale-grape 74. Dair al-'adara. oasis of 1O. 114. vineyards of 28. 2. 108. Crocodilopolis-Arsinoe Dushara 152. day of drunkenness 107. date-wine 17. Delta 2. 115. Euphrates 42. grapes of 39- Ecboladic wine 4. Dakhel. 112. of ad 35. conversations. 134. 98. Engedi. durra-beer 77. Dair az-Zandaward. loo. 141. god 132. 15. 141. East Africa. . custom-house . llo. Coptos. Fall-festival 65. 159 clay-barrels 68. of beer of wine 115. clove 94.

Hathor. Gath-Hahefer Azaz) 43. . 72.t 9. Harran. of 36. hag Yahweh Ha'il. Gath. 18. vineyards of 14. 39. 8. Hat-ur-imnt. wine of 26. 43. 65. 42. 40. 23. Kche. grape-juice 54. Oman Heliopolis 19. 74 . produce of 8. viticulture of 29. . hellebore 18. ill. 74. 29. river 40. frankincense 23. 72. Gath-Rimon Gaza 16.33. 9. hbmez Horns Gurgum. goddess 131. 150. hops 75. viticulture of ghobaira 95. 29. 24. grapes of 34. G'auf. . 41. Herb-wine 28. inventress of beer ill. Hat-seha-Hor Hawaii. Heracleopolis. ( Hazaz c ^-- 29. 25.29. hk. vines figs 17. 39. in Gennesaret 26. . - "Friends"-beer 73. L. filtration.l6o fermentation . 51 6. 104. of wine 24. 7772. 36. G Galilee 29. Gurumu Guzana 42. Heroonpolis. harp-player 103.91. 54. 50. honey-wine 28. 32. mountain 38. etc. fcwfr. 22. 35. Gestin.t 74. . Gilgamesh 131. Halziadbar 41. mount 38. ^^-beer Hihi. 74- Habur. 25. 64. 42. Hilbunum 43. 74. G'enwan. Lutz. 34. country of 30. 56. Greece. Garm. Hemy-vj'mz 13. 33. vinestalks of 40. G'izah. produce of lo. Hamrin-mountam y#/-beverage fokka 93. Hauran. vineyards of 6. 20. 4. 56. foreign wines 16. hinwaya-beveragQ Hira 144. wine of the 24. patron goddess of wine 112. Viticulture and Brewing. Habur. 56. hiliston 26. tetrastichum.20. honey H 88. Haru. river 42. horteum hexastichmn. viticulture of the 35. G'abal akhdar. 1312. 14. 32. funerary wine 56. vat 80. Hebron c 25. tribe 155. 40. wine-export of 16. 43. 14. gods of inebriating liquors grapes 3. fig-wine 9. 34. 38. ^/-beverage 74.

8. inspector. of brewery 84. incantations 130. . 14. of Diospolis parva 13. wine of Irp-sjn 11. god 15. 128. 'Imet 11. Kefar Signar. Laodicea.t. Jaradatan. of wine test 58.153. laws. Jemnuti. of wine.t 14. city of Jericho 68. "house of drunkenness" 111. Kefar Shalem 29. 1O. India 23. Viticulture Lot 29. Kaine. Kefar Aziz. of beer. irp-rs 10.t. river 42. regulating sale of beer 128. kurunnu 41. 7. 3. Kalah. Lutz. Kasiari-mountain 44. ka ^/-leaves 156. vineyards of 38. ii and Brewing. mount 16. 29. oasis of 1O. knm. kushi 27. 119. Irp 7.t. 17. into Egypt 16. Lachish.16. vines of 26. 23.t 11. Lebanon. Irp-wl i'-p-lm. oasis of 13. fc 76. Kerzun 42. u lacobite Christians 39. ' Kas-tin-nam.Index. iron-beer 72. 12. inspector.15. 129. 153. wine of 26. customhouse of Kaish. knm. Lake Mareotis laurel-tree 30. Imn. 42. 117. wine of 23.the white 8 n. import. al. 4. Kefar Pagesh 29. 58. Huneb. 16. irp-hm lrp-mh 11. into Egypt 82. 10. Kiman Paris. 59. ht-hsp. . 2. country of 43. 9. 161 Horus 114. ^ze/. 134. 130. ka-n.regarding drunkenness 1 34. Joppa. nomos of 12.kerne t 15. Koran 35. Kab. lemon tree. 21. 137- Khargeh. inn-keepers Io6. wine of al-24. 48. Khuss. irrigation 49. 31. Isana 41. island of 34.^-beer 73. 44. 'Iraq 39. Husur. Horus-eye. laurus malabathrum 31. Kara Amid Kasius. leaves of the 94. Libyae nomos 12. mounds of 2. . al. goddess 132. 83. the green . lynbu 24. la. Kantara. vineyard of 26. vineyards of 32. 8. 129. Izallu.

Nham. 13. luxury. mulsum of 34- 23. vineyards of Maioumas. Miniet ibn al-Khasib. 151. Nestorians 39. Nasiraeans 133. 14. mixed wines Nulia 43. Marea. Viticulture and Brewing. Nu-silig-ga. mastix 94. nms. Love-poetry. nahlayn 58. 69. wine of 2. 94.t-beer 73. muscatel grape. Malaga. wine of 29. 3. Negeb 44. Maryut 3. noon-day draught 72/r-beverage 74. myrrh 30. in South Arabia Mykerinos 2. Masius. Meroe. 132. city of 14. Mar gat.t. Nin-mada. myrrh wine 30. mn-wine 155. companion of Dionysos 3. 134. Nin-Kasi. Mar ash c 43. nunneries. 38. 45. 1. 142. Ninua 39. wine of 4. Egyptian 108. nutmeg 150. Naphtali 29. god 132. 9. 24. harbor of 32. mount Masqat 34. 35. god 132. Nahal Eshkol 25. wineshops of 39. Ninurta. 89. 62. myxa 17. an-Nu man Muza. 6. 155. 99. viticulture of 4. 149. 5. 153. 66. madi 155- Maganuba. god 12. Mecca Medina 34. Arabian beer 95. 18. lupin 75. Nabataeans 152. goddess 132. Mutalammis 145. at banquets 137. Nebesheh 11 n. Mendes. Nin-til.162 lotus flower 98. vine of Nubia 2 n. goddess 132. in Spain malt 88 n. 41. 150. Memphis 2. original home musk 94. 44. vines of mint 94. 126. morning-draught nvut-nt-Hapi . Menqet.' mizr. mandrake llo. Nh3mw. mizar. 16. Me-azag. wine Nineveh of 12. Mesopotamia. 1. Marqasi 43. beer-goddess 113. . M must c ma zebib Ma arrah c 37. Noah 6. 78. 43. 4. Lutz. 38. goddess 132. 24. 33. Maron.

36.of wine-drinkingl 53. 82. Qasirin 24. vineyards of 34. 91. Qeruchim. 13. . Pyramid-texts pyrgos Pa-gestin-dug. red beer 89. Osiris prohibition.vat 53. 144. Patin. 72. 5. . prima beer props 63. "ox-eye"-wine 41.Ramses.Mery-Amon raisins prohibition of the sale Persia. country of 43. beer- 78. . 113. 83. 89. pressed wine 41. priests. 130. /$-beer Raphia Rashid recipes. 2. Pa-mer 3. valley of the 23. raisin-water 37. . wine of Oasis. oinomeli 28. wine of 26. 89. 94. god 132. Orontes. Qutrabbul. canal 15. Peparthian wine pepper 28. 5. red wine 7. 2. overseers. 9. the southern 13. Pelusium lo. 31. the northern 13. in Arabia 33. Ostracine psythia 27. 163 Nysa. wine of 26. 62. 30. lo. 67. 1 5 Per. 64 etc. Ogdor. wine-import into 22. wine of 29. ptry. of 5 . 14. 17. Phoenicia Plinthinic 31. olive 25. Egyptian 2 107. poetry. 16. pomegranate -wine 17. pressing. 76. Qadesia 24. 14. Palestine 18. n.Index. Pa-merti. 36. 16. Petra. 16. 66. 94- wine 3. in Phoenicia 31. 152. 24. 6l. palm-wine 35. 6. of wine-cellars 6 Purim 107. 1 6. pura 66. Babylonian 123. Qenqen-tane 83. Pontus. 114. 8l. 84. 12. 15. 14. 26. wine and wineshops of 40. priests. 18. Pangeum 22 Paraetonium parsley 94. 93. peuce 4. 25. district of 3. Qode-beer 13. r 73. viticulture of 34. 'Oman. Perugitha. pre-islamic 143. 30. 24.

wine of 24. 9. sdw-ib Resheph. sabitu 130.t 9. shoots 63. siphon Siris. sajn 11.beverage 74. Rephaim. 64. Sa-bil. 12. Somali Coast. wine of 32. rue 42. j smh. as. 39. Sarugi (Serug) 43. Sarkhad. Rome. 138. 133. 46. wine import to the 23. Rimusu Ror 65. 149. i Sadum Rah c Hebrew Arabian 137. vineyard of 8. 73. wine of 26. 18. 29. Scbennytic wine 76. vinestalks of 40. resin 56. 67. 24.11 salt 82. 25. linen 54. Seleucia. 8. Singara. . South Spain Arabia. Viticulture and Brewing. wine of Uh 29. Sidon. Rekhabites 133. singing-girls. . 3. wine of Sharon. city of 41. '\ sign of wineshop 138. 149. goddess 132. Ub. the 139. al-Kaum. "smoked" wine 27. vineyards of 40. Sai singing-girls. sehpet 72. Siduri. 16. 55. goddess 132. : slough. . Ukk&r sft. Samarra. Sarepta. 152. 26. 17. goddess Samaria 29. Shedet. . city of 2. Sohet. Sabu. 19. 56. 34. beer and ! 132. 12. 114. 5. Shesmu. 150. 94. 7. ! skirret 75. wine import Sawiq 95. beer export to wine export to 3. constellation Shibam. SIM + KAS-gig. 43. Shilo 26. sikkor.t 1 93. the 139. Sadjur 42. 31. country of simuqim 27. safflower-seed 82. plain of sathuy. into 23. 131. 4. 139. j Simminu.164 Lutz. 62. 42. 16. 35. 1. 125. coins of 141. I Salihiyeh. mount of 34. . 68. god 152. 7. god 114. San'a 33. sokorkah 95. Rhinokorura 3 . 126. Sicily 31. mount 132. goddes:. Saris. n. 18. sacrificial offering of SIM + KAS. wine ill.

vintage 50. 6. etc. 23. 66. 21 etc. island of 34. Upper Egypt. 26 12. sea of 65. 26. of wine 58. 1.festival 64. 6. goddess 114. 22. 39. Thebais. 153- Ukbara. vineyards of 13.22. 128. wine. Sulmi ibn Rabi'ah 147. 30. 150. 148. 64. city of 41. 65. 3. 20. 26. tabatu-wme 41. sweet beer sweet wine Syria 16. 5. 137. 17. tax. Tabuke-grapes Taeniotic wine Taia Ta'if. 28. vinegod 132. 53. sumach 25. wine of the 4. vintage. Tripolis. 8. 30. moutains of 1. Tamnuna. Schimperi 1. 22. Tyre 73. "Vinebearing Region of Amon" vine-city 114. Suhu. Tenemet. 14. 89. Tbui. vitis vinifera Tmei al-Amdid . tinrekw 9. grapes of at. 30. Thasian grape 3. 1 8. 43. vineyard 2. 14. country of 43. 15. 36.34. vitis labrusca. 31. coins of 141. Tell Defenneh 16. L. 86. use of wine. Tell Roba 4. c U 32. 14. 4. 13. vine-goddess 131. storage. Tanis 15. Turkestan 1. 31. Tiberias. 16 5 spelt 76. Tell al-Kasr 4. for vineyards 60. Susa 40. of wine toast. vinum conditum vinum culpatum vitis 28. vine 1. in Palestine I33ff. 25. tavern 127. 22. 26. country of Tur-'Abdin 44. .Index. tribute. 37. th 9. spiced wines *rt 76. Egyptian 102. 151.of the vineyard6o. 42. vinedresser 49. wine of 32. 24. vintner 68. 52. 62. 24. 43. grapes of 40. superintendet. . 129. 15. 16. 79. Sunaya. district of 14. vinegar 5. 54. "Three-leaf'-wine 27. vats 53. Tilabne 43. wine of 4. 35. transportation. 6l. 107. Tylos. 64. grapes of Tu'immu. 4. Trace.

141 al- wine. Phoenician 16. 53. Yaman. "Wine-district". mixed with rain-water 36. 105. 144. 105. 34. 94. wine-offering 19. wine-drinking. Zeb-nuter. . "White Wall". drunkenness wine-skin 36. 47. Viticulture and Brewing. 32. 140. wns 8 n. warning against wine-presser 53. wheat 79. city of 33.wharf 127. Zembur [62. . 68. the 14. wicker-baskets 51. 51. wine-jars 1. 82. 131. 55. wine-must wine-press 9. in Syria 22. 128. 54. 130. Hittite 141. 134. 58. 66. city of 15. 71. new yeast-wine 67. in Arabia. in Arabia 143. wine-lees 54. 66. 58. 68. wine-cups 119. wine-god. 120. Arabian 149. wine. Yaa. 39. . waiter. . plain of 62. 67. price of 139. 59. Yusur 24. Zaban. 33. Zab 42. 69. white wine 7. 108. Zanet. 7. 57. 15. wine-cellar Yemet. 57. 79. near Memphis 48. 111. Yisreel.166 Lutz. 137. wine of yeqeb 66. Zoan. 68.127. 69. 68. 133. 56. w wadi Dahr 33. Yahweh yayin 28. wine of yeast 75. 15. 1 .6. city of 42. 11. wine-labels 57. . city of 4. 68. 56. 151. wineshop 148. 58. 42. wine-merchants. 86. 21. in mythology 136. wine-tax 20.