SSith S^umexoxts iUastrations








[All rights reserved]


J. B.





In compiling

tiis took, the

Author has endeavoured
treatises or


a void in English technical literature.

While almost
handbooks of a

every art



more or

less practical character,

Soap-making, so far as

the Author

aware, has not until the present time been

furnished with a special book of reference f6r the con-

venience of




In the United


however, several elaborate treatises of foreign origin have
appeared, and to these the author has been greatly in-

debted for much valuable information, especially as regards
the Continental methods of
toilet soaps,

making ordinary

soaps and

given by Dussauce, Oristiani, Ott, and Kiirten.


important feature in the present volume


chapter on the Recovery of Grlycerine from "Waste Leys,
in which


processes for recovering this valuable

product are given.

a great

would not have been possible nor even

desirable to include every

known process of soap-making, number of processes in an abridged form are given,
fail to

which cannot

be useful to the manufacturer.

To write an


work upon an


which has been

.VI built up. must be accepted as an epitome of their collective processes and improvements rather than as an original treatise. therefore. and the Author trusts that in. so to speak. handbook and a work of general he may not have been wholly unsuccessful. would be an impossibility: the present work. his endeavour to produce a work which would be useful both as a practical reference. by the ingenuity of the great host of inventors and patentees. PREFACE.

7 TEB SOAP FACTORY—ITS AFPASATUS AND AFFLIANGES. . The Soap-pans Morfit's Steam Series —The Ley Tanks — The Frames —"Wooden—Frames—Iron Frames— Crutches—Steam Crutch Various other Implements — Barring Apparatus . . PAGE Inthodl'otion 1 OHAPTEE Chevreul's Theory I. . or Colophony—Eecovered Grease or Torkshire Fat—The Alkalies — Caustic Soda —Potash—Silicate of Soda.. or Soluble Glass— China Clay. 16 CHAPTER The Fats and Oil III. CAUSTIC LEYS. . 25 CHAPTER The Ley Tanks ly. —Method of Preparing the Leys . MATERIALS USED IN SOAF-MAKING.32 . —Liebig's Kesearches on Saponification CHAPTER II.. . or Tallow-oil— Fish-oils — Eesin.— CONTENTS.. Oils — Olive-oil— Tallow—Lard—Palm-oil— Cocoa-nut — Castor-oil ^-Bone-grease — Horse-grease — Kitchen-stuff Oleine. or Kaolin— Sulphate of Soda. . SAFONIFIGATION EXFLAINED. . or Glauber's Salt .

X. or White Castile Soap — Marseilles Soap —French Marbled Soap —Notes on Mottling — French Formula) for Soaps — The Composition of Pure Soap Olive-oil —London Mottled Soap— White Curd Soap CHAPTEE VI. CHEAPENED SOAPS. 36 MANUFACTURE OF SARD SOAPS— Cmtimed. Yellow. FROM RECOVERED GREASE.79 CHAPTEE OLEIC ACID—SOAP Oleic Acid IX. . . Normandy's Process— Silioated Gossage's Processes Soaps : —Preparation of Silicate of Soda—Preparation of Silicate of Potassa —Mixing Silicate of Soda with Soaps Sheridan's Process .71 CHAPTEE VIII. . —Anderson's Process— Cocoa-nut Oil Soaps —French Cocoa-nut Oil Soaps . MAKING SOAP BY TRE COLD PROCESS. MANUFACTURE OF HARD or Olive-oil Soap SOAFS. 84 CHAPTEE Dr. making Soap —Soap from Recovered Grease—Morfit's System of Soap— Oleic Acid Soaps—Kottula's Soaps—Instantaneous . PACE —Pure Olive-oil Soap. . — — —To .. 96 . Method —Dunn's Process Meinicke's Process SS CHAPTEE Treatment of " Mgers " VII. CHAPTEE Castile. prepare . V. MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAFS— Continued. Hawes's System Making small Quantities of Soap White Soap Lard Soap by the Cold Process . .. or Eesin Soaps — Continental . Sturtevant's Process .— — vm CONTENTS.

— — — 136 . CHAPTER XV.— CONTENTS. Preparation of the Potash Ley ^The Fatty Materials employed Scotch Soft Soap London " Crown Soap " Eesin in Soft Soaps Continental Methods 128 — — — — CHAPTER XVI.. Rogers's — Gluten in Soap XIV. SAPONIFICATION UNDER PMESSURE. Symons's Disinfecting made from Animal Kef use — Bemadet's Process Process — CreveVs Process —Villaorose's Process — ^^Cut- ting Soap 123 .. . . MANUFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS— Continued. by Lunge's Method .. DISINFECTING SOAF. 112 — — — CHAPTER Xin. W..105 CHAPTEE Chloridised Sanitary Soap XII.. . Bennett and Gibbs's Process Process of Saponification —Mr. Process —New 117 CHAPTER Kiirten's Process VARIOUS PROCESSES. MANUFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS.. — — Loch's Soft Soap — . Belgian Soap Russian Soft Soap Gentele's Process Jaoobson's Process Soap for Silks and Printed Goods Fulling Soap ^M. Bleaching Soap in the Pan Pearlash added to Combined Soap ^Lime Soap. — Guppy's PAGE Process — Thomas's Process — Potato— China Clay (KaoUn) in Soap —Douglas's Improve- ments— Fuller's Earth Soap—Davis's Process . CEEAPENED SOAPS— Continued. Soap —Soaps Villart's —Dumbarton's Process— Mr. ix CHAPTER Dunn's Process flour in Soap XI.. G..

MANUFACTURE OF TOIZET SOAPS— Continued. or Savon d'Amandes Amferes ^Windsor Soap Brown Windsor Soap Violet Windsor Soap Savon au Bouquet Savon a la Cannelle (Cinnamon Soap) ^Almond-oil Soap Marshmallow Soap ^Vanilla Soap Benzoin 149 Soap — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIX. Eose Soap. Kaples Soap. CHAPTEE XVII.— — CONTENTS. SOFT TOILET SOAPS. Apparatus for Be-meltiiig the Soap Machine for Slicing the Soap Ee-melting the Soap—Mixing Colouring Matters and PerfumesCutting the Soap Stamping the Soap — — HO CHAPTER XVIII. French System df making Toilet Soaps Formulas for French Toilet Soaps Savon de Guimauve (Marshmallow Soap) Savon aux Fleurs d'ltalie Savon de Crim^e Savon de Palme Violet ^Vanilla Soap Eose-leaf Soap ap (Yellow) Savon h. or Savon a la Eose Orange-flower Soap Cinnamon Soap Musk Soap Bitter Almond Soap. la Marechale Lettuce Soap ^Amhergris Soap Elder-flower Soap Lemon Soap Orange Soap Glycerine Soap Savonuettes or Washballs Violet Washhalls Honey Savonnettes Savonnettes of Sweet Herbs Savonnettes of Camphor Savonnettes of Neroli Savonnettes a la Vanille ^Marbled Savonnettes Savonnettes au Miel (Honey Savonnettes) Floating Savonnettes — — — — — — — — — — — — . MANUFACTURE OF TOILET SOAPS— Continued. or Almond Cream— French Method—White Soft Toilet Soap—Powdered Soaps Shaving Paste Essence of Soap Essence de Savon Vienne Essence de Savon Corinthe Transparent Soap 165 — — — — . PAGE MANUFACTTTRE OF TOILFT OR FANCY SOAPS. — — — — — — — — — — — — — Sand-Balls 154 CHAPTER XX.

Marsh's Sulphur Soap Mercurial Soap Medicinal Soft Soap Antimonial Soap Carbolic Acid Soap Medicated Tar Soap Tooth Soap Liquid Grlycerine Soap Bordtardt's Herb Soap ^Arsenical Soap A Soap for Washing Dogs Turpentine Soap Tar Soap Black Soap Various Substances introduced into Manufactured Soaps 172 — — — — — — — — — — — — PAGE — . or Standard Solution Sampling Alkalies The Assay Normandy's Method Testing Commercial Pearlashes To determine the Percentage of real 188 or anhydrous Alkali — — — — — — CHAPTEE XXIV. FOTASH. . MEDICATED SOAFS. 176 Bichford's Process Marking Soaps — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — : — — — — — CHAPTEE XXin. Bankinann's Process Mr. 201 Soap Assay—Eampel's Method of Assaying Soaps—^D'Arcet's Method CHAPTEE XXV. G. PURIFYING AND BLEAOSING OILS AND FATS. XI CHAPTEE XXI. Varicas's Process Lorbui'y's Process Cleaver's Terebene Soap Scharr's Liquid Soap Mr. MISCELLANEOUS FROCESSES. Bleaching Palm-oil: Wktt's' Chrome Process Eecovery of the Bleaching Palm-oil with Chromate of Lime Purifying — Chrome — — . ALKALIMETET—METHODS OF DETERMINING TSE PERCENTAGE OF REAL ALKALI IN COMMERCIAL SODA ASS. Payne's Process Mr. Sir >H. Mohr's Alkalimeter Preparation of Test.Acid. W. AND CA USTIO ALKALI.— CONTENTS. Jennings's Processes Levat's Process Violet's Palm-oil Soap Hampel's Shaving Soap Mrs. Marriott's Process Sawdust in Soap-^Lewis's Process Borax Soap Camphor and Ammonia Soaps Mackay and Seller's Process Petroleum Soap Bastet's Process Besson and Eemy's Process Tardani's Process Halfresin Soap Mr. • CHAPTEE XXII. — . METEODS OF ANALYZING OR ASSAYING ^Kichardson and Watt's System SOAPS. Jeyes's Process M.

215 and Co. 228 . Lard. Scales Table showing the Specific Grravity corresponding with the Degrees of Baumg' s Hydrometer for Liquids denser thanWater Table showing the Specific Gravity corresponding with the Degrees of Baume's Hydrometer for Liquids lighter than Water Table of Essential Oils— Fusing and Congealing Points of Fats and Oils Kiirten's Table. Pickling Soap — The Oleometer the Quantity of Resin ia Soap Cheap Almond Soap ^Analyses of Soft Soaps— Potato-flour in Soft Soap Saponification of Neutral Fatty Bodies by Soaps Jellifying Twaddell's Hydrometer Causticising Soda Soda Soft Soap Half-palm Soap Adulteration of Commercial Silicate Soaps for Calico-printers of Soda Fulling Soaps Table showing Percentage of Soda in Caustic Ley at 60° Fahr.ustio Soda in Leys of — —Aluminate of Soda —To determine — Detection of llesiu in Soap — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — different-Densities— Table of the Mechanical Power of Steam . Table showing the Percentage of Anhydrous Caustic Potash in a Ley Comparative French and English Thermometer at 60° Fahr. and Tallow Boilingpoints of some Volatile Oils— Boiling-points of Caustic Alkaline Leys—Table showing the Quantity of Ca. USEFUL NOTES AND TABLES. Victor Clolus's Jlethod— Benno. and Sulman's Process— M. Jappe. — Justice's PAGE Method of Purifying and 208 CHAPTEE XXVI. Young's Process Process —Payne's Process —Versmann's Process— O'Farrell's —Thomas and Fuller's Process—AUan's Process—Lawson CHAPTER XXVn. SSCOVERY OF TSE GLYCERINE FROM WASTE OS SFENT LEYS.'s Method vSoap to be used in Cloth Manufactories White Cocoa-nut Oil Soap Dresden Palm Soap ^Altenhurge's EeainSoap Ox-gall Soap Soouring-Balls Borax Soft Soap Borax Soap Powder ^London 223 Soap Powder — — — — — — CHAPTEE XVIII.— — xu Oils— Dunn's Method Bleaching Oils and Fats CONTENTS. MI8CELLANE0VS SOAPS. showing the Composition and Product of Soap by the Cold Process from Concentrated Ley and Mixture of Cocoa-nut Oil with Palm-oil.

The Romans subsequently acquired a knowledge of the art.THE ART OP SOAP-MAKING. The first soap manufactories in France were established at Marseilles. and then stamped in by the feet. an intelligent and industrious race. Pliny. and also fullers'earth. and even up to the beginning of the eighteenth century this system was adopted in Rome by persons of the highest distinction. the G-aulswere the original inventors of the art of soap-making— their best product being a combination of goats' fat and the ashes of the beech-tree. the ancients employed the. INTRODUCTION. a city surrounded with natural advantages of soil and climate for the production of all the crude mateB . Sometimes this earth was employed as a cleansing medium in baths. of Grecian and Egyptian origin. In proof of the antiquity of soap as an article of commerce. In the eighth century there were many soap manufactories in Italy and Spain. but it is a remarkable and interesting fact that nearly five hundred years elapsed ere soap manufacture was introduced into France and practised as an art by the Phoceans. the fullers'-earth having the property of absorbing grease to a considerable extent. which was first spread upon the surface of their clothes. By this means greasy matter was removed on subsequent scouring. juices of certain plants as detergents. a soap-maker's shop has been discpvered in the ruins of Pompeii. and is still exhibited to travellers. AccoKDiNG to the great Roman Hstorian. Prior to the invention of soap. and eventually introduced it into Italy after their successful invasions of Gaul.

in which potash. or barilla. and ultimately formed an extensive and important addition to the soap trade. were introduced. many patents for important improvements in soap-making have been taken out in England. with barilla (crude carbonate of soda) and some other manufacturers adopted a method practised in Germany. comonly called by the name of Venice or castile soape. Marseilles. followed up by salt. or known by the name of berillia. makinge thereof. rials necessary for The olive-tree. without the vse of anie fire in the boyling or makinge thereof. We below "The misterie. that is to say. tlie fruit of -which yields a fixed oil in great abundance. an abridgment of which is given . when it was chiefly made upon the French system. from which crude soda was obtained by calcination. however. flourished in the south of France. The exact period at which soap was first manufactured in England appears somewhat uncertain. but it was probably in the fourteenth century. and The art. and means of makinge of hard soape. by Messrs. with all these advantages. find that the first patent for improvements in the manufacture of soap was obtained in 1622. . and with a materiall comonly called. while Spain contributed crude soda." From the_ above period up to the present time. while the shores of the Mediterranean yielded an ample supply of maritime plants. . superseded the use of soda obtained by "the calcination of maritime plants. arte. soap-making.: 2 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. misterie. The manufacture of soap in France was entirely confined to the combination of olive-oil and soda until the beginning of the present century. way. Jones and Palmer. way and means of makinge of softe soape without the vse of fire in the boylinge and. as time progressed. or fancy soaps. Italy furnished supplies of olive-oil.. was unable to produce sufficient material to meet the demands of her manufacturers therefore. when palm-oil and cocoa-nut oil were also employed in the artj and subsequently toilet.

Dalton. at the beginning of the present century commanded the attention of scientific men. of St. and other English and foreign chemists. Helen's. was due to another French chemist Chevreul who raised soap-making from empiricism and rule-ofscientific — — present exalted position as a the rapid advance of chemical knowledge which followed the discoveries of Davy. the aid of science was never consulted. near Liverpool. the soap and glass manufacturer than any other invention under the sun.— INTRODUCTION. Chevreul. 3 Having passed through a long period of rude and unmanipulation. by giving it a fair trial. however. the lengthy list includes oils and other fatty matters which were never dreamed of by our forefathers. though not second in importance. Mr. The next great discovery. was so great. James Muspratt. it can never be forgotten that its introduction did more for." At the time we refer to. Indeed. that even scientific men of the highest ability . It would not be incorrect. at the present day. was invariably opposed and frustrated by the so-called " practical man. the manufacturers were so completely in the power of their soap-boilers that any attempt to recogto its thumb guesswork truly scientific art. the art of soap-making gradually improved. the art of soap-making at last namely. The advantages of this invention are far beyond estimation. With nise an improvement. and although it has since been superseded to a certain extent by the ammonia process. Except in very rare instances. the prejudice against chemical interference. if we may so call it. and the world was startled first by Leblanc's splendid process for the manufacture of soda from common salt. and the operations were frequently carried on by persons absolutely void of even the rudiments of chemical knowledge. and many saponifiable substances were introduced from time to time. to say that up to forty years ago soap manufacture was generally conducted without any reference to scientific principles or chemical theories. until. which process was practically developed in this country by the lato.

patented his now well-known process for bleaching palm-oil by means of chromic acid but it was not until several years after that soap-makers "took up" the process and adopted it. William. The estimation of the actual amount of alkali in a given sample of soda-ash was determined by their own chemist. The soapmaker's argument seemed to be " soap has a large sale. howart were foiled in every possible way. soon converted the operation of soapmaking into an art. Although the great French chemist. . in many instances indicating a wide difference when compared with the analysis of the alkali-broker's chemist. but they also employed chemists in their works. soaps. furnished with a laboratory and appliances. So great was the prejudice against . and Thomas Hawes. Not only did these manufacturers encourage improvements based upon chemical principles. a few exceptions to the general rule (of thumb). it yields a good profit what more can I require ? " If the chemist told him that he was liberating a large portion -of glycerine. which flowed away with liis waste leys into the river or sewer. and thus the intelligent manufacturer was protected from fraud and imposition. All " goods " were subjected to examination by the soapmaker's analyst before purchase. the author's father. the soap-maker cared not. were spurned. instead of being recovered. Chevreul. of Lambeth who dared to admit the teachings of science within their portals. few soap-makers would venture to modify their antiquated system of manufacture by calling to their aid the man of science. In 1836. had clearly explained the nature of the reactions which take place when fatty substances are treated with boiling solutions of caustic alkali. and he was thereby losing a large sum annually. and their attempts to improve tlie crude There were.4 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. ever. who. Charles Watt. in the proper sense of the term. which gave him an incalculable advantage over his un- — — aided competitors. for he still had a good profit on his : My . the late Mr. and several large firms notably the firm of Benjamin.

and there is no doubt whatever that the whole of this waste could be avoided by manufacturing soap by the cold process.000 tons of tallow were converted into glycerine annually. and superheated steam.000. or at least one of them. under whose skilful guardianship the various operations are conducted. have acquired suflieient knowledge of chemistry to enable them to conduct their operations miih a knowledge of what they are doing . Mr. stated that 6. after some of the more intelligent firms had become licencees under the patent. unbleached) palm-oil into the batch which had been . in Again. that even a trial of tlie process was for a time rejected and when at last the trade were induced. improvements were place of the ordinary fire. Another important feature in the manufacture of soap was the application of steam. In some establishments. but an experienced chemist is engaged. ia London and the provinces. who for many years conducted the operation of bleaching palm-oil. In some instances the sons of members of the firm have been properly instructed in chemical knowledge. in a paper which he read before the Society of Arts on the 28th of March. so that their employers might denounce the demonstration as a failure. in most of the larger soap-works. not unfrequently would the workmen put raw (that is. causing a loss of about £180.INTRODUCTION. At the present day. and to them are instrusted the scientific details of this strictly chemical art. on his father's behalf. In at least one instance a trick of this kind was practised upon the author. made in the machinery and appliances of the soap-works. the principals. 5 any and all improvement. to give the process a trial. . the teachings of science are not only recognised. during the patentee's absence. except in a few instances where the British workman is still looked upon as an idol. Referring to the importance of chemical knowledge in soap manufacture. William Hawes. 1856. or at all events this valuable product should be recovered as hereafter described. operated upon. so that we may now say that at last science and soap-making go hand in hand.

the steam-pump superseded the ordinary ladle for fitted soaps the steam-crutch. To these may be added the long series of patented processes having for their object the cheapening of the manufacture by the introduction of certain substances which. enable it to be sold at a lower price to the consumer. without injuring the soap. The various processes will be fully described when treating of the manufacture of hard soaps. . and (in America more especially) many mechanical contrivances have been introduced for diminishing labour and hastening the operations of manufacture. supplanted the wooden or iron hand-worked implement. . . in some works. amongst which may be noticed the substitution of castiron frames for the old-fashioned wooden ones.'6 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. from which many a ton of soap leaked out before solidification took place .

" which was found The gifted chemist thus proved that soap to be glycerine. Chevrenl's Theory. remained in the " mother liquor. like ordinary When a solution of carbonate of soda was added acids. is the result of chemical action. —Liebig's Researclies on Saponification.CHAPTER C!h8vreura Theory. possessed properties entirely When melted. remained in the waste or spent leys. after their perfect imion has been effected. for we find. which substance. being soluble. but infinitely more economical. * The more recent research proved liquid constituent of tallow it to be a was generally termed oleine until compound of palmitine and oleine. and oleine*). it different from the original substance. and eventu- The combination and potash. that the constituents of tallow. It is not a mere combining of the substances in the ordinary sense. and thatglycerine was set free during the process of saponification. of fatty matters with an alkali as soda" by the aid of water and heat. made from tallow was in reality a cqpipound of stearate and palmitate of soda. for instance [stearitie. the fatty matter which thus became separated or set free. soap was agaia formed. palmitine. SAPONIFICATIOjy JEXPLAINED. Chevreul discovered that when soap was decomposed by an acid. while a third substance. I. to the separated and saponified matter. and was capable of forming salts. and when properly understood the practice of soap-making becomes not only more certain in its results. reddened litmus paper it was freely soluble in warm alcohol. This important discovery was made by Chevreul. have undergone a remarkable change each of these substances has acquired the properties of an acid. for example — — — — . . possessing a very sweet taste.

When tallow is boiled for a considerable time in a solution of caustic soda (or ley. found be. however. Mottled. namely Hard and Soft Soaps. fish. formed by boUing litharge (oxide of lead) with olive-oil and water. assume a granular or curd-like appearance. process remains with the water. olive oil or other fatty substances with caustic soda that is. and if a small portion be pressed between the folds of a piece of paper it. as the case might fats acids liberated during the process of converting oils into soap are called "fatty acids. oleic. palm-oil. Palm-oil yields a mixture of palmitic and and cocoa-nut oil furnishes palmitic. White Curd. Olive-oil and other soft fats yield on sapobification The and oleic acid. and Transparent Soap. cocoa-nut oil. oleic acids. These soaps are combinations of tallow. stearine and palmitine. with Metallic soaps. to form yellow soap. which is or other fatty matters. and the latter are made with potash combined with horse-oU. and fats are employed in soap-making . a compound of several vegetable acids. or river. and hence these are sometimes distinguished as soda soaps and potash soaps. as the solution is called) the fatty matters. is a compound of fatty acids combined with Other substances. and other inferior oils. called. are produced by boiling oxides of metals with oils Diachylon-plaster. Hard soaps are of various kinds. and lauro-stearic acids. The former are produced by combining soda and water with fatty matters. besides oils alkali and water.8 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Soaps are divided into iwo principal classes. entirely losing their greasy and oily character . is an insoluble soap composed of oleate and The glycerine formed during the margarate of lead. soda deprived of its carbonic acid by boiling with fresh lime and water. its ally way into the sewer. as they are tallow. the most important being Castile Soap. for example. Yellow. then. is used." those obtained from tallow being chiefly stearic and palmitic acids. Soap. will not produce a greasy - — . resin.

it will readily become acted upon by weak leys. stain. the transparent soap will remain. a weak ley will act upon tallow until its whereas a ley of alkali becomes exhausted. If the ley be too strong. After expelling the alcohol by evaporation. will appear on the surface. forming a transparent solution of soap. with tallow soaps. although it is readily converted It is well . it will readily and entirely dissolve. the glycerine is usually recovered by one or other of the various processes fully described in . therefore. 9 This is proof that the conversion of the fatty substances into stearate and palmitate of soda is complete that the mass is saponified. and the boiling continued until the grease or fat is " killed " or neutralised by the alkali. or nearly so equal strength wiU scarcely. . It now a small portion be treated with warm alcohol. and which differ greatly in their composition. to apply caustic ley of a moderate strength at first. For example. in fact. It is commonly the practice. If the boiling has been suflB.cient. and this substance. much care is exercised as to the strength of alkalme ley used in the first and subsequent operations of boiling. cocoa-nut oil is blended with other fatty substances. which on cooling wiLL assume considerable hardness. its superior density will retard its free diffusion through the mass of fatty matter. subsides with the ley. and a fresh charge of ley of superior strength given. In saponifying the various fatty matters employed at the present time in soap manufacture. saponify cocoa-nut oil. the exhausted leys were allowed to flow away as a waste product at the present time.. being soluble in water. after being allowed to repose for a short time. however. and when this has become exhausted or " spent. Again. known that caustic ley acts differently upon the various fatty bodies with which it comes in contact." as it is termed. however. this will subside. Until recently. and an excess of caustic alkali remains in the ley. During the boiling glycerine is liberated. Chapter XXVI. if at all.— SAPONIFICATION EXPLAINED. When. resin. it is pumped out of the copper or pan.and the soap.

"Potassa and soda soaps. Justus Liebig Iiiebig's Besearcbes on Saponification. forming a gelatinous mass with two parts. Margaric acid acts like — — — From this it follows that soaps are soft in proportion to the oleates. and when in contact with ten times as much water it undergoes no striking change.10 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. its percentage of water. . exerts a powerful influence upon its constituents. to whose original mind we are indebted for so many valuable discoveries in organic chemistry ^made some important researches on the saponification of fatty bodies. and possesses such a strong affinity for water that 100 parts absorb 162 parts in a moist atmosphere. . and its marketable stearic acid. and stearate and margarate of the alkali (potash or soda). The addition of a quantity of water to the aqueous solution produces precipitation. on which depends the separation of all free alkali and oxide of glyceryl (glycerine). probably by chemical action not yet fully understood. Oleate of soda is soluble in ten parts of water. while oleate of potassa dissolves in four parts of water. which remains in solution. which precipitatfes in the form of pearly crystalline scales. iato soap by treatment with alkali. will not form a hard soap unless combined with a certain proportion of tallow. and this remarkable action is an important condition in its manufacture. during the process of saponification. condition. "are readily soluble in hot water and alcohol. and his views should be well . Potassa soaps are more soluble in water than those containing soda.understood by the soapmaker who recognises the value of scientific knowledge in the pursuit of his interesting art. "and hard in proportion to the stearates and margarates. which. Stearate of potassa forms a thick paste with the same quantity of water. the neutral salts of stearic and margaric acid decomposing into free alkali. Soda soap exhibits a peculiar behaviour with common salt it loses the power of being penetrated by ley or dissolving in a solution of salt of a certain strength. they contain." says Liebig. Stearate of soda may be considered as the type of hard soaps.

If the solution of salt be not quite saturated. the watery flocculse swell up. they congeal on cooling into an opaque mass. and in a short time all the froth disappears. the finger. Bv boiling the dilute solution with soap for a considerable time. . and the solution and soap cease to attract water from eacb other. which may be pressed between the fingers into fine laminse without adhering to them. but they still are undissolved. the liquid continues to boil without foam. on the quantity of water taken up by the soap. and the mixture assumes a foaming appearance . At length a point is reached when the solution but before this. and if heated to boiling. and their clamminess is due more or less to the quantity of water they have taken up. the latter again extracts water from the flocculse. By continued boiling this character again changes. have become soft and pasty. it again collects on the fluid in a more or less solid state. depending on the greater or less concentration of the solution that is.. The flocculse. boiling produces no solution. the soap takes up a certain quantity of the water. all the soap collects in a translucent mass on the surface. . But even when the water contains -3-5^^^ of common salt. and in proportion as the evaporation of water renders the solution more concentrated. from which the solution flows off like water from grease. and allowed to cool. and upon cooling unite into a solid mass. and the flocculfe separate through the fluid in boiling. which collect on the surface. large iridescent becomes saturated bubbles are observed to form. it will have become so solid as scarcely to receive an impression from In this condition it is called grain soap. it floats on the surface without becoming moistened. it separates into gelatinous flocculse. ii " If a piece of common hard soap be cut into pieces and then put into a saturated solution of salt.SAPONIFICATION EXPLAINED. " If the soap be boiled in a dilute and alkaline solution of salt. for the solution separates — from them. but the bubbles are larger. at the ordinarytemperature. If the plastic soap be now removed and cooled while the solution is pressed out. however. If the flocculss be taken out of the fluid. even when cold. the liquid continues to foam.

or a solution thereof. bj' separating soap from the alkaline fluid (ley) in which it is absolutely insoluble. and the mixture behaves precisely like solid soap boiled with a dilute solution of Carbonated and caustic potassa act exactly like salt. to a concentrated alkaline solution of soap in water. each requiring a different treatment for its skilful and economical conversion into soap. being soluble in the fluid. . If the fat ley be stronger. but the addition of carbonated alkali instantly clarifies it'. tallow may be boiled for days in a caustic potassa ley of the specific gravity of 1"25° without saponifying. free alkali. or are more milky and gelatinous. Thus so that the soap may be perfectly dissolved in it. the boiling is continued or fresh alkali added. and which. but." These observations. When excess of alkali is present the cloudiness arises saponification or insufficiency of water: from imperfect the former is seen by dissolving a little in pure water. "The addition of salt. salt. Liebig says. but the ley should have only a certain strength.^erfectly clear and transparent if a sufficient quantity of alkali be present. Continuing his observations. when it drops from a spatula. at the present day. so carefully made and clearly explained. By the gradual addition of water and continued boilings. and with more water a kind of emulsion is formed. which becomes perfectly clear when the whole is saponified. precipitates the soap in gelatinous flocculae. it floats upon the surface as a solid mass. cannot fail to be of the greatest value to the manufacturer of a commercial article so important as soap. at a certain point the mass becomes thick and clammy. a partial saponification takes place. The is kept boiling in an alkaline ley until all pasty matters disappear. " In order to separate the soap from water. If the ley contains lime the mixture is also clouded. which continued heating renders . In this state it may be drawn into long threadg. which on cooling either remain transparent. exhibits cloudiness or opalescence. " The application of the above to the manufacture of soap is evident. As long as the hot mass.12 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. is made from such a great variety of fatty materials.

and not to rely solely upon The soap-boiler. when the gelatinous flocculss separate froma clear watery liquid the fire is extinguished. the salt (chloride of sodium) operates in a two-fold manner it dissolves in the pasty liquid and decomposes. so is soap purified by a solution of salt rendered alkaline. In the preparation of potash soaps.SAPONIFICATION EXPLAINED. a large quantity of salt is gradually added to the boiling mass. that the first duty of the soapto make himself thoroughly conversant with the principles of saponification. . besides purifying. and cooled either on the liquid or ladled out and allowed to solidify. As soon as the congethat is. till it loses its threading character. on each addition waiting until The first addition increases the consistency it is dissolved. but is the and gradual chemical action. the soap. " When the saponified fluid is made with potassa. saponification of fats is not completed by the first treatment with leys." It must be obvious. a concentrated The potassa ley is employed for separating the soap. It will be seen that the combination of alkali with fatty — — matter is result of slow not by any means a rapid process. free alkalies. also renders saponification more — — : perfect. and the subsequent addition of fresh leys. of the mass. first salting requires more than twice the quantity of salt. In the former case it is impure from water. should avaU ful and observant and there are many such himself of such important information as is conveyed in the above lucid and practical observations. be he ever so skilhis own observation. and drops from lation is complete the spatula in short. although sufficiently good for domestic use. or other impurities of the ley. thick lumps. and on the other soda When potash ley is employed in soap-making. while each successive portion renders it more fluid. during which . on perusing the above remarks of the great maker is German chemist. and is therefore unfit for the market. forming on the one hand chloride of potassium. As in other chemical operations a precipitate is purified by boiling it in a fluid in which it is not soluble. the soap allowed to collect on the surface. 15 and oxide of glyceryl.

but also to determine the intrinsic value. while most of the impurities and foreign matters subside with the ley. of his productions. their gradual combination with the various fatty bodies with which they come in contact. by either of the processes hereafter described. during the first operation. and the mass is again "cut. The examination. are introduced into the pan for the purpose of " cutting the pan. it is not advisable to applj' vigorous boiling in On the contrary. as a valuable by- product. are important considerations. according to the nature of the fatty matter to be used. from the ley and salt. it is the earlier stages of the operation. by analysis. after which a second dose of ley. the operation . If the materials are not sufficiently saponified and purified. upon which too much care cannot be bestowed. Although saponification is hastened by the process of boiling. with further boiling. The proper strength of leys. by the addition of weaker ley and salt. and rises to the surface. In making what are called " fitted soaps. as also a considerable quantity of common salt. or when the materials have absorbed their full percentage of alkali. or emulsion. and the treatment of various fats and oils with alkaline leys of appropriate strength. so to speak. found better in practice to allow the boiling to be gentle at first. Indeed. it is gratifying to know that of late years some of our leading soap-makers have devoted much attention to alkalimetry. considerable heat is generated over and above the actual temperature of the materials when placed in contact. and the slow and gentle augmentation of the boiling operation while saponification is progressing. and to increase its rapidity toward the close of the operation. Although it is practically impossible to make soap without liberating a portion of the fatty matters as glycerine." or separated.14 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the ley is pumped out and fresh ley introduced. by which the soap separates." the ingredients are boiled into a thin liquid mass. this soluble substance may be recovered. of samples from various boils of soap enables the manufacturer not only to regulate his mode of working." as it is termed.

the ley doubtless enables it to acquire a higher temperature during the subsequent boilings. and thus hastens the evaporation of water from the saponified materials. faciliMoreover. but it also.saponified matters from existing impurities and the exhausted alkaline ley.SAPONIFICATION EXPLAINED. The application of common salt not only promotes the separation of the saponified or semi. by its density. 15 being repeated. . the presence of salt in tates their subsidence. if necessary.

— Morfit's Steam Series. — Crutches. Wooden !Frames. caustic alkali. and the large quantities of soap annually produced by our numerous manufacturers. a few hydrometers and thermometers . set in brickwork. — Ley Tanks. The Soap-Pans. CHAPTER II. — Frames. with firegrate below.— . in the operations of soap-boiling. . however. a wooden machine for cutting soap into bars. — Barring Apparatus. we cannot help reflecting upon the comparative simplicity of the apparatus and utensils employed at an series of iron pans or coppers. a series of wooden or cast-iron frames to receive the finished soap sundry pails or buckets. Various othet Implements. which will be referred to in the following pages. " swimmers " and ladles of various kinds " crutches " and stirrers . wheelbarrows and trollies for conveying materials . TSE SOAP FACTORY—ITS APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES. form the chief requirements of an ordinary soapery. or steam-pipes passing into the interior of each pan . ordinary soap-works. tanks for preparing "When we A . — Iron Frames. iron pumps and "shoots" for removing waste or spent leys. as also of the application of steam. In some of the more extensive works. For the present we will endeavour to demonstrate the requirements of a soap factory of moderate dimensions. consider the magnitude of the operations connected with the art of soap-making. in place of fire. — Steam Crutch. in which advaniage has been taken of some useful labour-saving appliances. shovels and trowels. many mechanical improvements have been introduced. with ihe usual firing tools.

and not upon its sides. the whole being sfet in brickwork. This pump is worked by steam. 17 The Soap-Fans were generally made of cast-iron. and is connected to two movable arms of broad iron tubing. Morfit's Steam Series. Morfit. and an iron pump for removing the finished soap and leys is fixed between each pair of pans. or into the ley beneath it. which enables the soap-boiler and his assistants to manipulate them with perfect ease. being of a concave form. so that they may be allowed to dip into the soap to any required depth. which is made of stout sheet. it is an ingenious system. kettle). with a flange round the upper surface. imited together by iron cement. 1) represents" a'steam series designed by Mr. Sometimes (when steam heat is employed) stout blocks of wood are placed round the flange of the pan instead of employing the curb.APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES. the lower portion.iron. These tubes are raised or lowered by means of a chain and pulley. and might be adopted with . or pan proper. The lids are lowered or raised by a chain and pulley. These pans are concave at the bottom. The object of the curb is to prevent the overflow of the soap during the more vigorous operation of boiling. in several divisions. is sometimes made of cast-iron. The accompanying engraving (Fig. The soap-pan is sometimes extended by placing what is termed a curb above its upper rim. or of wood bound with iron. or with a wooden lid covered with sheet-iron. Soap-pans of large dimensions are generally made of wrought-iron plates riveted together. Each pan is fitted with an iron lid. The pans are set in brickwork. Although not so simple as the arrangement previously de- — scribed. and are fitted with steam-pipes which terminate in a perforated coil which rests on the bottom of each pan. The pump can empty the contents of one or both pans at the same time. The pans project about three feet above the floor. The soap-pan or copper (or as the French and Americans term it. one of which rests in each pan. which is so constructed that the fire plays only upon the lower part of the pan.

are very useftil in a soap factorj-. and to assist in stirring up the contents of the pan. boiler. The tap p is used for regulating the pressure of steam from the boiler w. are each fitted with a wooden curb A A. for boiling three different w Fig. Steam-jacket pans. and a third for superior soaps. The taps h h " blowpipe " are used for turning the steam on or off. to which the main pipe or feeder g is connected.— t8 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. for drawing h h is a downward pipe for conveying off the spent leys. Connected to the bottom of the pans is a pipe and stop-cock i. which terminates in a vertical length of piping X for the escape of waste steam. L is connected to the maia pipe g. one for white or curd soaps. The three pans represented if preferred. hooped round by iron bands. the steam to the coU. which are of iron. 1. This blowpipe terminates ia a single coil perforated with a number of holes. The object of the blowpipe is to give additional heat. kinds of soap namely. may be employed. when necessary. another for yellow is the or resin soaps. lower part of each pan b is of cast-iron. especially for small operations. The advantage. The boiling-pans. and are admirably suited for A .

These wooden frames are furnished with pegs and holes. so that they may be piled one above another. as were. Wooden Frames. These frames generally hold about 11 cwt. 2) represents an . The Frames for casting the finished soap are now generally made of cast-iron plates. forming a receptacle for an entire boil of m. 19 remelting. Such pans are much used in dissolving silicate of soda. united by movable the ends and' sides of which fit into an bolts and screws iron base. and other materials employed in cheapening soaps. in the preparation of fancy soaps. which formerly were used for all are now chiefly used for mottled soaps. iron screwed rods which pass down through Iron Frames. sometimes these frames are built up. sulphate of soda.APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES. deed. 2.any tons of soap. of — varieties of soap. frames are bound together by long them. and form. and at a suitable height above them. by turning the tap connected to either tank. through it several floors. one deep frame or well. containing caustic alkali of Tarious ascertained strengths. capable of holding a considerable quanIntity of soap. so that the lej'^s may be conveniently run oflf by iron shoots into each pan. are sometimes placed at one end of the series of soap-pans. which are required to cool slowly in order to acquire the agreeable marbled appearance for which they are famed. to a great height.—The engraving (Fig. The Ley Tanks. a Sometimes the FiS. These tanks are commonly made of wrought iron plates riveted together.

contheir other.THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. iron frame partly screwed up m s> . Degs m "^"^ t^pch nterior widtf frai . and several Fig. 3. \^4 m woode% frames slio%n nected £sY are Fig. Fig. 3 is a single wooden frame.

The arrangement for steam crutching may be thus briefly described wooden platform is erected about ten feet above the floor of the boiling room near the soap-pans . and the soap thus treated is much more uniform than it is possible to become if hand-crutched in the frame. 'witHout manual labour. and soon after the required qtiantity has : A been crutched in. This revolving spindle or "steam crutch" is raised or lowered by means of a rope and pulley. Fig. and its contents allowed to pour out by raising an iron gate situated near its base. The pot having received a supply of soap. which is then wheeled away to make room for a second pot. 7. and which receives the required charge of liquid for a frame of soap. The contents of the little pan are now allowed to flow into the pot. in a few minutes.— APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES. the wheels of the " pot " being placed in grooves or hollows in the floor. 8 raised by the represents the crutching pot with its gate and at Fig. lever B The. By the side of this platform. the steam crutch is Fig. in this a small pan is set for containing the liquid materials to be added to the soap. 7 is a drawing of the steam crutch. the revolving shaft is stopped. revolving with considerable rapidity. the materials is effected. and the crutch raised out of the pot. and connected to a shaft above. and is then drawn up close to a frame. lowered. the crutching pot iswheeled up to and immediately beneath the crutching spindle. In small works. bevel wheels in which its several blades are shown. where steam is not extensively A . above indicate its connection with the usual shafting. 7) fixed alternately and in an angular direction. furnished with several flat steel blades (Fig. the quantity of which has been duly gauged by a notched stick. is a vertical revolving spindle. and sinks into the soap. . When required for use.

wheelbarrows and Fig. 10). latter the being used for conveying leys and soap to and from pans. 10. and other goods.22 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the ladles (Figs. Various other Implements are employed in the soapboiling department these are the trowel (Fig. which are lowered into the pans by rope. 13). waste leys are iron means of a chain or Fig. 11. . Besides these. 9. resin. the . pumped from the soap-pans by hand-pumps. 9). employed. such as casks of fatty matters. however. Fig. Fig. 11 and 12). /L ^ "I^Z. 8. troUies are used for conveying materials. and various broad shovels and iron " shoots " (Fig. the " swimmer " (Fig.

Barring Apparatus. is pumped out or drawn off into tanks ready for use. 14. 12. the operation can be readily removed to a part of the The adjacent ground where it will be out of the way. take their stand at the machine. 15). after subsidence of the carbonate of lime. 14)back of stout timber projects several feet . b. the upright back.waste resulting from Fig.above the A grooved table a. Pig. soda and slaked lime employed in the production of caustic soda are. provided with a length of brass or steel wire looped at each end. operations connected with a soap-works is that This is generally conducted in of making the caustic leys.APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES. boiled together by means of steam. —The ordinary apparatus employed for cutting soap into bars consists of a wooden machine running upon wheels (Fig. and are kept in position by Pig. and at the same time most disagreeable. which. 13. being drawn . a building at a convenient distance from the boiling room. 23 One of the most important. Two men. and first mark the width of the bars by means of the toothed gauging stick (Fig. and in such a situation that the lime. with the necessary addition of water.. upon which the slabs of soap are piled. and the resulting ley.

One of the men now removes his handle from the loop. however. The bars of soap are then removed. This machine consists of strong wooden framework with wrought-iron fittings. The wire is then placed in the notches made by the gauge. and passes a wooden handle through the loop. Bars of soap are usually about 14^ inches long by 2\ inches thick. and 2§- inches in width. is a very time-saving one when in good In some order. and a fresh batch of slabs placed upon the machine. and is then steadily drawn downward until it sinks into the groove beneath. factories cutting machines are used which will cut into bars a considerable number of slabs at one time. evenly downwards. the same operation being repeated until the entire number of slabs are cut. Although this machine is capable of cutting a great number of bars by a single movement. 15. and a series of steel wires fixed at equal distances. and this frequently causes delay while the broken wires are being replaced. and the other draws the wire through the groove and returns the end of the Tifire to his mate.24 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. marks each slab as a guide for the cutting wire. Each man now takes one end of the wire. . The machine. VWW\AAAAAAAAAAAA/W\AA/v\/WWWW\/ Kg. the wires are very liable to break.

III. Tlie Alkalies.— CHAPTER MATERIALB Oil. to ' materials commanded attention and. tree. or virgin salad-oil. Recovered Grease. These are distinguished by not congealing at the same temperature as olive-oil. Sulphate of Soda. Tallow. the employment of other than the ordinary soap ciples of saponification began. and margarine. which is fluid. until. It is the latter variety which is more commonly employed in soap-making. and 28 per cent. China Clay. Oleine or Tallow Oil. elaine. Bone-grease. —^From the period when the prin- be understood by soapmakers. the manufacturers gradually added to their list of fatty. any material that will form soap is worked up in some way or other. margarine. — — — — — — — — — — — — — The Fats and Oils. or oleine. Kitchen-stuff. are (about) 72 per cent. as we have shown. Margarine is not a true chemical compound. : England. Olive-oil. Fish-oils. Silicate of Soda. Caustic Soda. aided by the investigations of chemists. Olive-oil is frequently adulterated with poppy and other oils. however. This oil is expressed from the fruit of the oliveand Gomes into the market in three different conditions the finest.— Olive-oil. Horse-grease.— Palm-oil— Cocoa-nut Castor-oil.— Lard. Eesin. or saponifiable. an inferior kind obtained by greater pressure of the berries with the aid of boiling water. elaine. and a third quality obtained by boiling the residuum with water. When 38° Fahr. Potash. USJED IN SOAP-MAKING. but is a The proportions mixture of stearine and palmitine. and also by retaining . The Fats and Oils. olive-oil it is lowered to the temperature of begins to congeal. and at 20° it separates into two distinct substances. formed the basis of continental soaps prior to the art being introduced into . a solid pearly substance. at the present time. matters.

shortly after. The rendering of tallow is accomplished in various ways by first reducing the suet to small pieces. the whole being briskly stirred in. best material of its kind. Tallow is chiefly obtained from the fat of sheep and oxen. but if 12 per cent. or the fat of hogs. as it was termed.26 air. are also largely employed in soap-making. diluted with one quart of water. in 1836. is poured into the tub." tallow is generally considered the. this floats on the surface for several days. and a small quantity of bichromate of potash. for the operations of the taUow-melter. According to TJre it is composed of 62 parts of oleine and 38 parts of stearine in 100 parts. the consolidation is slower and less firm. followed. about one pound of nitric acid. and. which consists in adding to the fat. which is stated to be used more extensively . or by the method patented by the late Mr. as it is technically called that is. is extensively used. in the manufacture of soaps. THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. South American. it was found that candles made from the tallow. to which a little nitric acid is added. by about two ounces of alcohol. or " town. thus treated. when shaken up. or cocoa-nut may be thus recognised when mixed with olive-oil. Fats or greases of various kinds. When this process was first introduced. more readily than pure olive-oil. The object of the process was to destroy the tissues surrounding the fat. which steam alone did not accomplish. and its fasing point is 81° Fahr. and then passing a current of steam through it by means of perforated piping. of any other oil be present. other than tallow. of foreign oil be mixed with it. the taUow being first rendered.ussian. Palm-oil. In those days candles were frequently stored for several months before being considered fit for lighting purposes. London. dilute sulphuric acid. in later years. especially by the French. rapeseed. sesame. separated from the membranous matter with which it is associated in the form of suet. When the lumps of fat are nearly dissolved. Charles Watt. required no storing. Lard. Oils of poppy. I£ 5 per cent. Australian taUows enter the market — : in large quantities. but E. while in the steaming tub.

It is extensively used in soap-making especially for the inferior kinds of soap. Castor-oil is supposed to contain three fatty — — namely. It is solid at ordinary temperatures. but is always used in combination with other fatty matters for acids. but more especially in the north of England. as it comes into this country is of a deep orangered colour. a solid fatty mass is produced. Like palm-oil. By exposure to the aiiit turns rancid and loses its characteristic red colour. which is caAeA. is obtained from the fruit of Elais guineaensis. melanococca. but fuses. impart an offensive smeU. and 70 parts of a fluid.MATERIALS USED IN SOAP-MAKING. according to Dr.trees growing on the west coast ofAfrica. It is obtained largely from the East and West Indies. and also from North America. and will bear a large admixture of water. which it would be more correct to term butter than an oil. in combiaation with silicate of soda and other substances. dissolve Castorin this spirit when mixed with other fixed oils. . Although not soluble alone in alcohol it will. due to the mode of its extraction from the fruit from which no doubt the colouring matter is derived. oil is capable of forming soap with caustic alkalies. 27 by English soap-makers than any other fatty material. from the seeds of Ricinus communis and R. ricin-oleic. with hyponitrous acid. at 117-5 Fahr. and yet form:. and elaiodic acids. EuropcBa. since the oil itself is nearly colourless. palmine. species of palm. This oil is very extensively used in the manufacture of artificial mottled soaps. The process of bleaching palm-oil by chromic acid will be fully described in a future chapter. is composed of about 30 parts of a solid substance called palmitine. Cocoa-nut Oil is derived from the fruit of Cocos nudfera. is also used as a soap material. All soaps made with even a small percentage of cocoa-nut ofl.a hard soap. elaiim or oleine. it is solid at ordinary temperatures. The oU. or melts. Castor-oil. to the skin after washing with it. where enormous quantities of it are consumed annually. margaritic. When treated this purpose. and E. and of a buttery consistence. Pereira. and is a pure white. This valuable vegetable fatty matter.

the grease consisting of several fatty acids. making may be mentioned the the other vegetable fixed oils used in soapoils of heinpseed. which act powerfully upon the carbonated alkali. Besides the ordinary fats and oils. or yellow resin being preferred for this purpose. in order that the latter may be used alone for candle-making. beech. was first employed as a soap material in England. cotton-seed. is a useful material. and contains a considerable proportion of stearine. certain fatty matters called greases are much used by soap-makers. but after its separation from the more solid particles. is available as a soap material. a brown colour.. which has been separated from stearine by pressure. sure. the pale. rind. which renders it well suited to the manufacture of a curd soap such as the London mottled soap. sesamum. or Tallow-oil. Horse-grease.28 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING.nut. When melted. or potash soaps. bones. although not an abundant article. in combination with tallow. efiervescence takes place. from the disengagement of carbonic acid. and mixed * This grease often contains oils which cannot he saponified. Besin. Recovered grease. in combination with stronger fats. Fish-oils are chiefly used in the manufacture of soft. Bone-grease is supplied by bone-boilers. and is largely used by the London soap-makers for this purpose. . or Yorkshire fat. as prepared by the " stuff-melterSj" is a very useful material for mottled soaps. Oleine. and of a sticky consistence. Kitchen-stuff. of disagreeable odour. colza.* "When neutralised. It is extensively used in the manufacture of yellow soaps. poppy. which does not exist in the darker varieties. fibrin. it Among by pres- forms an uniform fatty mass of good consistency. rapeseed. or Colopliony. and forms a useful soap material for mottled soaps. and a strong solution of carbonate of soda added to it. is obtained from It is of the suds and washing waters of the fulling mills. as gristle. linseed. etc. Being the produce of kitchen waste it contains many di£Ferent kinds of fatty matter. Yellow resin generally contains a little water. etc.

obtained a patent. Brittany and Iformandy in France. soap-makers were accustomed to purchase their alkali under the name of soda ask. other improved processes are fast taking the place of Leblanc's process. in the preparation of hard soaps. for making caustic soda . As we have said. which involves not only considerable trouble and delay in its preparation. Spain. but also an accumulation of lime-waste. Caustic Soda is now supplied to soap-makers at a reasonable price. which usually contains a/bout 50 to 52 per cent. Berger Spence. The author. For a lengthened period. The Alkalies used in the saponification of the various fatty substances employed in soap manufacture are soda and potash. obtained by burning a great variety of seaweeds on the shores of Scotland. The soda supplied to soap-makers is an impure carbonate of that alkali. the former being used. and eventually entirely. besides other impurities. consequently they prefer purchasing this . of soda. also being caiisticised. first into sulphate of soda by treating it with sulphuric acid.MATERIALS USED IN SOAP-MAKING. And now. of common salt. introduced his invaluable process for converting sea-salt. and other countries . the exact percentage being determined by processes to be explained hereafter. When Leblanc. in a caustic state. in April. soap was formerly made from barilla. usually contains from 2 to 3 per cent. and indeed up to the present time. and afterwards into carbonate of soda by calcining with fine coal and chalk. important article to making their own caustic soda. a crude carbonate of soda obtained by the calcination of certain plants which were fovmd on the coasts of France. Ireland. the recovered grease is useful in the manufacture of the cheaper kinds of Windsor and other scented soaps. 1882. the employment of barillas and kelps gradually. J. in conjunction with Mr. it was also made from kelp. which is not always easy to get rid of in large cities and towns. 29 witli other soaps. ceased. is used for |making soft soaps. however. Soda ash. and the latter. after enjoying a long period of unbounded success.

30 THE ART OF SOAr-MAKlNG. is in the form of a thick. translucent mass. many other patents have been obtained for the manufacture and employment of silicate of soda. Since that period. It is next ground in a mill. with 11 parts of clean sand or powdered quartz. viscid. Silicate of Soda. the latter mixture forming silicate of potash. who obtained a patent for his invention as far back as 1838. and then boiled in water containing alkali potash or soda. as the case may be. Sheridan. however. The solution thus obtained is evaporated until it indicates 59 by Baum^'s areometer. 9 parts of soda ash of 50 per cent. previously rendered caustic by boiling with quicklune and water. forming a cheapened compound readily marketable and since the silicate of soda possesses considerable detergent properties. After perfect combination of the alkali with the silicious matter. by the decomposition of common salt by electricity. In this condition it is ready for mixing with so'aps. however. When dissolved in hot water it forms a solution which unites with certain kinds of soap very readily. in a reverberatory furnace. or Soluble Glass. but the soluble glass is generally supplied to soap-makers in the form of a . and afterwards quenched with water. as supplied to the trade. is used in the manufacture of soft American potash is. which flows very slowly from the casks in which it is stored It is preafter the heads or bungs have been removed. all more or less based upon Sheridan's invention. The introduction and method of preparation of this interesting article into soap is due to Mr. Silicate of soda (or soluble glass) is now commonly made by calcining together.. pared by boiling ground flints (silica) in a strong solution of caustic soda. for hard soaps or equal parts of pearlash (previously dried) and sand for soft soaps. even beyond the present extremely low prices. its admixture with genuine or pure soap gives an advantage to the consumer which few soap adulterants can boast. and by this process it is expected that the cost of making this important article of commerce will be greatly reduced. or hydrometer. Potash. it is cast into moulds. — . chiefly used for this soaps. purpose.

is also extensiyely used in combination with soaps of the cheaper krad. or Kaolin. while reducing its percentage of fatty material. the mixture producing a soap of considerable hardness. is sometimes used as an adulterant in the manufacture of some of the cheaper soaps. Sulphate of Soda.MATERIALS USED IN SOAP-MAKING. viscid mass. or Glauber's Salt. which they reduce with hot water to any required strength. China clay. . 31 ttick.

can be drawn off into vessels placed beneath. and No. IV. 3 is twice lixiviated. and No. 1.— . and into No. which he believes would be the most durable cock should be fitted near apparatus for this purpose. 2 to be strengthened. 1 has four compartments . made of wrought-iron The Ley Tanks are large vessels plates riveted together . into which the fresh alkali and lime are introduced . the ley is pumped into No. 2. The arrangement of ley tanks in a Marseilles soapworks false A is as follows No. From No 3. into No. 4 the fourth ley. with a perforated bottom. and therefore containing weaker liquor. collecting in the lower part of the vessel between the diaphragm and the bottom. 2 once. 4. because it receives the water directly. Dussauce recommends large tuns lined with sheet lead. No. 2 to No. CAUSTIC LETS. 2 is termed the avanqaire. 3 is the small avanqaire. and through it the clear ley. Near the vat should be a pump with its spout arranged for a supply of water. Upon the lime paste in No. water is poured the ley thus obtained is poured upon the lime paste of No. and in like manner from No. which has been taken from No. 3 the moderately exhausted or spent leys are thrown. CHAPTER The Ley Tanks. —Method of Preparing the Leys. The receiver under No. 1 the third ley. it being one step in advance . in some factories they are constructed of brickwork lined with cement. Into No. 4 is called the water vat. which is so weak as to be . 1 is called the fresh vat. : being two steps in advance. No. No. which has been removed from No. 3. the bottom of each tun. 3.

of soda ash. each. say five measures of 112 lbs. in which case the water is poured upon the contents of No. and worked together with the first runnings in the soap-pan is an excellent ley. is emptied out of the window near which it stands. After standing about fifteen or sixteen hours. This ley is very weak. and again run down. when exhausted. until it begins to slake or fall. and the weakest ley upon No. 3 comes in this case upon No. is thrown upon No. RoUox. to be run down as before. the fifth layer with lime as before. The ley discharged from No. and the vat again filled with water. Method of Preparing the leys This operation is thus directed by Messrs. and from thence the ley is pumped into tanks situated near the soap-pans. because this has become in its turn the fresh vat. run dry. 2. 33 used for lixiviation instead of water. and caustic after infiltraThis is called the first tion through the beds of lime. 4. covered with water. As soon as the ley ceases to run. the fourth layer with the same quantity of soda ash. 1 is now avangaire to No. into which the fresh soda and quicklime are put. 1. it is to be turned over into another vat. the vat is to be stanched by this is to filling it with water or weak ley of a former vat be done gradually. D . Charles Tennant and Co. the plug is to be tightened. 4. and works After the vat is freer and better than if used separately.. so as to allow the ley to run ofi" or trickle clear. The lime vat No. runnings. 2. is to be laid equally over the bottom of the vat.CAUSTIC LEYS. Glasgow " A layer of fresh burnt lime. a very cleanly and convenient arrangement. and after standing a sufficient time. . the plug is to be gently loosened. and the last layer with the same quantity — : of alkali. the next layer with four measures of lime slaked as before. This layer is then to be covered immediately with 6 cwt. and after being run through it. In some large factories the ley tanks are placed in a building apart from the soapery. This is the second runnings. the extensive alkali manufacturers of St. 3. No. " After standing two hours. and a few gallons of water to be thrown upon the lime.

the steam is turned on and . may be taken from the first vat to stanch with. it being at all times desirable to have a sufficient supply of strong caustic ley. a few drops of hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) are added to a small quantity of the ley. third running out of the vat with a pump or syphon. and not separate. being used instead of As fill up the strong or first set vats. adopted. but it is preferable to have them of the same size. and when the soda and lime with the water have been put into the tank or vat. to stanch or .' as it is termed. A In making caustic -soda by steam boiling. and seldom worked in the soap-pan. A ' process. and about ten to twelve parts of water to each part of soda. soda ash is not all equally soluble. if not generally. " Should the ley in the course of the process of boiling the soap ' close. it is sometimes necessary to turn the contents of the vat over a second time in order to obtain all the free alkali but experience and care are the only sure guides.34 -THE is ART OF SOAP-MAKING. fifty pounds of fresh slaked lime are required for each one hundred pounds of soda. In this case the ley must be returned to the lime again and again. with the materials. Boiling the lime and soda ash is a method frequently. a small quantity of common salt thrown with care into the boiling soap will effect a separation . and if efi'ervescence takes place it is a sure indication that uncausticised carbonate of soda is present. The receivers for the ley are generally much smaller vats. if necessary. simple method of ascertaining if there be any carbonate of soda remaining in the ley is to pour a little of the ley into clear lime-water." In order to ascertain whether the soda has been properly and fully causticised. until it is perfectly caustic. . when if the mixture assumes a milky appearance (from the formation of carbonate of Hme) it is proof that uncausticised carbonate of soda is present. It is usual to slake the lime with hot water. but this The ley may be taken is always to be avoided if possible. and indeed there is no doubt that it is a surer method of rendering alkalies caustic than by a cold water.

the last runnings being used instead of water in future keeping the soda and lime in close contact with each other. . so that the carbonate of lime which is formed may The ley is then drawn off and the lime washed subside. Caustic potash. and the contents of the vat allowed to repose. The agitation produced by the boiling greatly aids the rapidity of the causticising process. for employment in the manufacture of soft soaps. is prepared in the same way as caustic soda. except that eighty parts of lime to each hundred of potash must be used. the steam is turned off. several times with fresh water. "When the boiling has been sufficient. the 35 mixture allowed to boil for several hours.CAUSTIC LEYS. which is ascertained from time to time by the tests before referred to.

to soften). great care is exercised as to the strength of the leys. MANUFACTURE OF SARD SOAPS. As formerly made. emollient (from emollier. — Pare Olive-oil Soap. from its manufacture in France having been first practised in that city. It is made from pure olive oil and caustic soda free from coloured impurities. as the oils of hempseed. render the soap less disagreeably hard. It is unquestionably the best is hard and when made from pure known soap. and which are due to certain impurities in the alkali. this soap was exceedingly hard and brittle. but the introduction of other ingredients. and also the proportions to be applied to a given quantity of olive oil. —French Formulae for Soaps. and is almost entirely free from odour. and poppy. Marseilles Soap. Castile or Olive-oil Soap. After a series of . —London mottled Soap. — Composition of Pure Olive-oil Soap. has a pleasing mottled or marbled appearance with red and grey veins permeating its substance throughout. La the manufacture of Marseilles — soap for commercial purposes. — Marseilles Soap. soaps. plasters and and also in pills. —White Curd Soap. Pnre Olive-oil Soap. which is also called Marseilles soap. — Notes on Mottling. Castile or Olive-oil Soap considered the type of all materials is white. The commercial article. is used in cerates. or produced artificially by the introduction of a little sulphate of iron (green copperas) in the process of manufacture. French marbled Soap.— CHAPTER Y. for example. which becomes decomposed and converted into red oxide (peroxide) of iron. or White Castile Soap. pharmacy in the preparation of liniments. linseed. while at the same time reducing the cost of manufacture.

when an additional quantity of ley must be at once applied. whereby the ley becomes stronger it is therefore necessary. The boiling must be kept up for eighteen or twenty hours. or other circumstance. filling it to the extent of about one-third of its capacity. of oil are added at one time with constant stirring. if. or other solid fat) the strength of ley should be about 8° or 9° B. If from miscalculation. Heat is then applied by fire or steam. The requisite quantity of ley (in the First operation. 37 made at Marseilles. but the temperature soon rises again. considerable evaporation takes place. and more oil must be added by degrees. 1. lard. and when the liquor comes to a boil. it was found that the following were the proper proportions of caustic soda and oil for making this kind of soap. For a thin oil (or one containing a low percentage of solid matter) the ley is reduced by water until a Baume's hydrometer floating in it marks 10° to 11° (degrees). this excess will show itself upon the surface. and the mass again boils with considerable frothing. proportions above given) is to be first run into the pan. In a very short time a thick mass of a pasty consistence is formed by the reaction of the hot caustic alkali upon the oil. and this amount of ley represents about 15-50 of solid caustic soda the utmost amount that must be applied to each 100 lbs. to add weak ley from time to time. of course. Each 100 lbs. as the case may be. This addition will.— MANUFACTURE OF HARD careful experiments. the strength of the ley employed in the first operation of boiling must be regulated accordingly. varies in the proportion of solid matter (margarine) which it contains. an excess of oil has been added. since the paste is not soluble in strong — . instead of forming into a thickish paste the mixture is very thin. however. For an oil containing a much larger percentage of solid matter (as lard oil.600 lbs. SOAPS. During the boiling. . On the other hand. of the oil used. Since this oil. when the pasty condition becomes thick. of olive oil require fifty-four pounds of caustic soda ley of 36° Baum^ for perfect saponification. this indicates an excess of ley. somewhat cool the mixture.

whereas they require to be intimately associated to effect a perfect chemical union. that the process this cause. matter is lulled. therefore. Should this occur. and other impurities." is effected by throwing into the pan a concentrated solution of common salt. with brisk stirring. or a few shovelfuls of the same. Second operation. The addition of fresh leys is kept up until the whole of the fatty. When it is found. which answers the purpose admirably." or exhausted. To remove this. but common salt. the mass becomes of an uniform soapy consistence. leys are pumped or drawn off. sulphate of soda. Frequently the alkali from which the leys are made contains common salt. is from its cheapness generally employed. the combination in its present' state also contains a large quantity of water in the shape of exhausted or spent ley. or whenever it is found that the ley has lost its causticity. neutralised). however. and a small quantity of strong ley added. many substances may be employed. Every addition of fresh ley is accompanied by constant stirring. each portion being — . with continued boiling and stirring. The process ^f separation. " spent. however. and thus prevent the burning of the saponifying matter. it is is progressing slowly from customary to throw into the pan a quantity of soap scraps to aid the operation. which is generally termed "cutting the pail. it is necessary to use every precaution to prevent the burning of the soap at the sides of the pan. and a small portion pressed between the fingers becomes immediately hard and flaky. which is ascertained by dipping the tip of the finger in the ley and applying it to the tongue. When the soap-pans are heated by fire. which have the effect of retarding the process of saponification by keeping the alkali and fatty matters in a more or less separated state. After four or five changes of ley. the fire must be slackened.38 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. The oil being now completely neutralised with alkali. PreTious to the addition of weak leys. bringing the latter ia contact with the metal of the pan. the ley. which will partially separate the pasty mass from the ley. as it is termed (that is.

as the case may be. or m. The soap-boiler. "When the soap has assumed the form of grains or curds. By continuied boiling the clots assume a granular or grain-like appearance. its uncombined mater is separated from it. the soap separates from the leys (which also hold glycerine in solution) and coagulates in flakes or granular clots. Third operation. the leys are drawn off by means of the cock situated at the lower part of the pan. at the same time. it is known that all the superabundant water that is. 16 is a very convenient vehicle. and at this stage the fire is drawn or the steam turned off. with it and. For conveying the salt. 16. observing its condition can tell in a moment when enough salt has been added. any portions of the fatty ingredients which may not have been thoroughly saponified.— MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. it will. At this period the ley runs clear off the shovel or trowel. This important operation is effected by means of a ley of such strength that it cannot dissolve the made — — — ." If the boiling be continued too long after this stage. undergo perfect conversion into soap. This is termed finishing the soap. leaving the soap in separated lumps upon its surface. and the pan is allowed to repose for a few hours to enable the leys to deposit. in which condition the soap is said to be " boiled to a curd. render the curd so stiff that the vapours arising from the boiling of the liquor beneath will with difficulty make their escape through the mass. When sufficient time has been allowed for this.. 39 allowed to dissolve before the next is added. "When sufficient salt has been thrown in. which are still loosely attached.echanically mixed. the truck shown in Fig. by which process it becomes cleansed from saline or other impurities. by freely using his shoyel it by repeatedly dipping into the boiling mass and Fig. by making the salted leys too concentrated.

with which he scoops up the soap and throws it over the boiling mass. and the soap is allowed to rest for a few hours. when the white soap. soap. which is termed mottling. The ley is now allowed to subside. it must be again treated with weak ley. depends greatly upon the quantity of material operated upon.. At this period the boiling becomes more violent and frothy. When the leys are impure. when it is drawn off as before and fresh ley added. and very gently heated. and is scaly when pressed between the fingers without adhering to them. and from ten to fifteen hours in summer the length of time. and contains from 16 to 25 per cent. of salt is added. of this saline ley must be just sufficient to coagulate or close the soap. being more dense than the fine soap. containing salts of iron and sulphur. until. subsides. and the soap-boiler keeps the pan from boUing over by constantly using his shovel. of water. When the operation is complete the fire is withdrawn. it is absolutely insoluble in strong solutions of caustic alkali. and the soap again suffered to repose. which 8 or 10 per — : The fourth operation. To facilitate this the cover of the pan is lowered. or . the leys retain their causticity when saponification is known to be complete. and not soluble in weak ley. after which the ley is again drawn off. the finishing process is complete. may be ladled into the frames. however. which forms the upper stratum. which is called niger or nigre. to The quantity cent. when the dark-coloured soap. and to prevent it from adhering to the sides of the pan. it assumes a dark shade owing to particles of metallic soap permeating the mass. "While the boiling gently proceeds the soap is constantly stirred. after again boiling. It may be here mentioned that although soap is soluble in very weak leys. The time occupied in this operation is from eight to ten hours in winter. The finished soap is white and firm. it is now gently boiled with a ley of the strength marking 18° or 20° B. All the spent leys having been drawn off the soap.40 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. When this is the case. As soon as the soap yields an odour resembling violets.

41 marbling. The soap is allowed to remain in the pan to cool a little. This being seldom the case with the alkali mq. and alumina) and the saponaceous matter. sulphur. from which the leys have been made. with. if it be desired to add water.nufactured at the present day (excepting the black ash) the desired effect is produced by adding to the soap. By exposure to the air. These being held in suspension by the thick soapy mass form bluish veins in the white ground. the cooling of the soap must not be too rapid or the coloured veins will close too much. After each frame is filled the soap is well crutched to make it homogeneous. so that the coloured soap may become thoroughly difi'used through the mass. an insoluble dark-coloured (ilumino-ferruginous soap being formed. otherwise the darker and heavier soap will sink to the bottom. which is diffused throughout the mass. they give a slatecoloured tint to the soap. The iron salt is first dissolved in weak ley. which is added to render the paste thinnish.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. Too much ley must on no account be added. thus giving the soap a marbled appearance. after it is finished or clarified. black sulphuret of iron. of oil in the soap. the requisite quantity is well crutched in while the soap is still hot. When the alkali. and acquire a reddish hue from the formation of peroxide of iron. Again. the iron salts become oxidised. so that any ley that may remain mechanically mixed w'ith the soap may run off. and thus spoil the " strike " of the soap. is the result of certain reactions wliicli occur between the impurities of the ley (chiefly iron. contains a large quantity of iron and sulphur impurities. The frames are sometimes . "When these impurities exist in considerable quantity. In France ladles after which it is ladled into the frames. with perforated bottoms are employed. By examination it has been found that the fatty acids of the soap exchange bases with the saline impurities. also. the soap becomes mottled without any artificial means. howerer. and without separating it from the niger or nigre. and. four ounces of green copperas (sulphate of iron) for each 100 lbs. and the mixture must be cooled gradually.

greases. at least the finest kinds of marbled France. tallows. and their cut is softer and smoother. which proves that the former retains more water in its composition than the latter. and finer. are also used in the fabrication of marbled soaps but the soap resulting from these difierent combinatioiis of oily and fatty matters. and black garden poppy-oils. mon salt it is . is the most alkaline . " The sodas employed for these soaps are of two kinds one. covered witli sacks in cold weather. sesame. cole. as they contain less stearate of soda than those prepared from olive-oil. Frencli Marbled Soap. The salted sodas are a mixture of soft soda and salt. so that the soap may cool slowlyj upon which much of the beauty of the " strike " or mottle depends. of pure alkali. THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING.. The proportions of salt are from 30 to 40 per cent. it ought to be remarked salt. firmer. cannot be compared to those obtained by the direct saponification of olive-oil. The latter are always denser. They oils are also more unctuous." gives an elaborate description of the manufacture of marbled soaps.— 42 . linseed. they are more detersive and — more advantageous for use. " In certain circumstances salted soda can be substituted by common salt nevertheless. : ' "Besides olive-oil.eir alkalimetric degree is from 18 to 22 per cent. of the weight of soda. etc. Well-prepared . in his admirable "Treatise on the Manufacture of Soap. . whereas the same amount of oil will only produce four pounds four ounces of white soap. called salted soda. is composed of soft soda and common soft soda ought to be free from comemployed to produce the pasting in the first operation. the earth-nut. called soft soda. while being of good quality. from which we give the following — extracts seed. if not the best. It has been ascertained that bhree pounds of olive-oil will yield five pounds of marbled Marseilles soap. Dussauce. we may remark that the mixture of olivewith other oils containing less stearine. the other. as conducted . " However. gives. Th.

"With water. After about twenty-four hours the ley is drawn warm liquid is . After one or two minutes of immersion the lime is quickly taken out and spread on a hard. 5. or saponification 3. layer of straw is placed over the false bottom to prevent the mixture from passing through the perforations and to plug or cork is placed between the aid the filtration. Being entirely deprived of colouring matter and of sulphurets. and dry floor if the lime is of good quality it soon grows warm and falls into powder. 43 that an excess of salt is injurious to the marbling of the soap. Mottling or marbling. saponified paste from the weak lyes it contains. 2. which keep it about two inches from the bottom. A A . after a while. tVo bottoms of the vessel for the convenience of drawing off the ley. " the penetration of the more complete. " The fabrication of marbled soaps requires several distinct operations. The mixture of soda and lime is now covered with water. holding from 125 to 150 gallons. which may be thus summed up 1. each filter being provided with a false bottom pierced with holgs and supported by four little pieces of wood. : — • : Crude soft soda (black ash) at 34° to 38' Recently calcined lime 2. when. masonry or sheet iron. smooth. Preparation of the lyes. Separation of the of' the oils and fatty substances.250 lbs. it lessens the beauty and intensity of the marbling.— MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. it swells and' becomes warm. " Soda ash is not so suitable for the fabrication of marbled soaps as crude soda. 4S0 „ . Pasting. and the lime slaked by immersion in warm water. this poyder is then thoroughly mixed with the soda by means of large The mixture is conveyed to filters made of iron shovels.The soda (if in hard lumps) is first broken or crushed. 4. when it enters in too large a proportion into the preparation of the lyes. Coction (boiling)." In preparing the ley for the first operation the following proportions of soda and lime are given ." says Dussauce. and salted soda must be used whenever it is possible to obtain it.

when is water its strength is usually from 22° to 25° B. which is as follows : Crude soft-soda ash at 33' to 38° salted Boda at 18° to 20° „ Frestlime 3. THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING.. and a perfectly homogeneous mass of a dull white colour is formed." The preparation of salted ley is in all respects similar to the preceding. Boil . Fresh then added. 1. . Earth-nut oil Black garden poppy-oil 900 „ 225 „ 2. At this time the mixture swells up greatly. By this addition the paste. the oils are added by degrees. into which from 125 to 150 gallons of "soft ley. Heat is applied.a few hours. Soon after the oils have been added. when boning commences. The boiling is continued for four or five hours. except as regards its formula. previously dissolved in a few quarts of boiling water.025 „ 900 „ : The pasting operation Olive-oil is thus given —Take 1. and. with constant stirring.125 lbs. and.. add to it one pound of green vitriol (sulphate of iron). assumes instantaneously a greenish colour." at 10° or 12° B. After awhile the foaming ceases. and the boiling again started. with stirring for about ten minutes. which was of a reddish white.376 lbs.265 „ The saponification is effected in a sheet-iron kettle holding about 1. it also acquires more consistency and strength by the evaporation of the water from the ley then add 25 to 30 gallons of ley at 15° or 18° B. are poured. the intensity of which . when the heat must be lowered. is drawn off as before. after many hours. By the ebullition the mixture of the materials becomes more and more intimate .000 gallons. and. the washing being continued so long as caustic alkali be present. a violent agitation takes place with considerable foaming. or the mass would inevitably boil over.— 44 ofiF. when the mix-~ ture has acquired a thicker consistency.

generally occupies about fifteen hours. The pasting operation. if the ley runs off freely from the shovel or trowel. it is known that the separation is complete. it is watered with a sufficient quantity of old and salted ley at 25° to 30°. are added gradually. after being gallons of ley at 17° or 18° B. and the boiling continued for several hours. the iron is decomposed. After a few hours the ley is drawn off. from 25 to 30 gallons of soft ley at 25° B. can be used. is termed. The next operation is called coetion (boiling). which consists of from 175 to 188 This ley. When the saponification is complete. to produce separation. To combine the sulphate of iron with the paste the mixture is well stirred for a few minutes under the action of the soda. 14| lbs.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. of salt are employed. solution at 20°. by which . from bottom to top. paste now separates into clots or curds. with constant stirring. they throw on the soapy mass. stands to stir the mass continually. on which a man. by small quantities at a time. produces the colouring principle of the marbling of the . 45 depends upon the degree of sulphuration of the ley. farming an oxide of iron. which always exists in the leys of crude soda. The soap is then allowed to rest. new salted leys. is used in the operation of mottling. and. and the paste has the required consistence. The separation of the soap is thus conducted. When these leys cannot be had. when the ley slowly subsides. when a perfectly neutral soap is obtained. at 20° to 25°. limpid regenerated leys at 25° to 30° B. To render the action of the leys more thorough upon all the molecules of soap. In order to ensure an intimate combination of the fatty matters with the ley. and also to give a good consistency to the paste. or a To obtain 25 gallons of salt solution of salt at 20° B. provided with a beater or crutch. in such a manner that the ley brought The' to the surface penetrates every portion of the soap. In soap factories. as it. soaps. The chemical union of this oxide with the sulphuret of sodium. passed over an old residuum of soda exhausted by washing with water. a large board is placed over the kettle.

the ley Dussauce says " Some manufacturers for is drawn off. The first application of the salted ley is given after the ley of the last operation has been drawn off. which the alkali is ensured. are put into the pan and heat applied. but before the application of this ley the soap is treated with 88 gallons of cold soft ley at 20° to 25° B. at 25° B. and. and. there is already soft leys are to be preferred. and could not be if salted lyes had been used. and deprives it of all disagreeable odours. in the paste an excess of salt. with stirring so soon as boiling commences. but.46 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. From loo to 115 gallons of salted ley. the complete combination of the oils or fatty matters with It is this operation. which This has the effect of is thoroughly well crutched in. — . as too large a quantity of salt interferes with the useful action of new lyes on the molecules of soap. separating the soap into flakes which float on the ley. The 'leys used in this operation are termed salted leys. Indeed. due to the lyes employed for the separation. used in considerable quantities in the separation. This advantage is not the contribute to this result. while purifying the paste from the excess of salt it contains. being a mixture of soft (not caustic) soda and artificial. besides rendering it more detergent. the first service use salted lyes. in our judgment. determine the incorporation of the oily or fatty substances which had not been combined before.. After stirring for half an hour the cover is lowered to keep in the heat. The boiling is to be continued until : . also. causticised by lime. increases its density. salted sodas. as before described . in about four hours after." The above observations are of considerable value. it is proper and rational to eliminate The soft lyes it from the paste as much as possible. gives hardness and consistency to the soap. have set free some fatty matters imperfectly combined then the soft leys. inasmuch as they guard the soap-maker against falling into a very common error ^that of applying salt before saponification is known to be complete. the lyes of coction.. only one.

gallons of salted ley is now given. and dry. which is generally after black foam or "fob" appears seven or eight hours. and A A furrowed by deep channels. It is usually towards the close of this boil that the operation is complete. 1. The heat is now checked. are added to supply the 'place of the evaporated water and complete the saturation of the soap. The ley. which weaker. on the surface^ which only ceases when the materials are completely saturated with alkali. and 75 galloils of salted ley at 28° or 30° B. it arises from one of two causes. to taste caustic. on the ley in large flakes of a greenish colour it is known that it is ready for the frames. granular. clean. with occasional stirring. boiling with leys at 5° or 6° B. after repose for two hours. 2. The next and last operation is termed mottling. is then added and well stirred in. added. 47 the ley ceases. is clear. the grains of soap being more plastic and viscid. and curd-like lumps. with further boiling for seven or eight hours. of a strength equal to from 25° to 30° B. additioa of the cold leys has cooled the soap too much In or.. is sprinkled — over the surface of the soap with continual stirring. the mass allowed to rest for three or four hours. otherwise the weaker ley would When the soap floats spoil the adhesiveness of the soap. finished by . thus becomes of a somewhat softer consistence. at 8° to 10° E. The is defective. during the first eight or ten hours. and the boiling resumed and kept up for twelve to fifteen hours.. when the soap. which up to this time was in hard. MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. with the above treatment. the foam having disappeared. becomes softer. after second dose of 115 to 125 which the ley is drawn off. If these conditions are not fulfilled the ley must be drawn off. about 5 gallons of ley. Mottling. at 12° to 15° B. and should be slightly caustic to the taste.. The soap having rested for an hour or two. If the condition of the soap. which are gradually introduced. an4 a pure ley.. at 28° to 30°. The operation is now A .. the soap contains an excess of saline matters. About every hour. pure ley. and the soap is now stiff. though coloured. the last ley is drawn off.

2. the intensity of which depends upon the quantity of metallic soaps present in the mass. It is an important point to run the soap into the frames when the proper condition for good mottling has been attained. The temperature of the soap must not be too high. the soap is in the form of hard and separate grains. a piece of canvas is laid over the bottom of the frame with the same object. with gentle boiling and stirring." or workman who superintends this part of the operation. and thus a marbled appearance is obtained. 3. — : leys into the paste . The application of gentle heat to keep the mass in a fluid state . the first case the soap must be heated gently. The principal points to be observed in mottling are . also. Notes on mottling. run off the leys. the beauty of which depends greatly upon the skilful manipulation of the " mottler. and ultimately produce the marbled veins which are characteristic of the soap. so that the heavier metallic soaps (which are the colouring principles of the mottling) may be thoroughly disseminated through the mass of white soap. If the . the entire mass having a bluish-black colour. Continual stirring. and. 3.48 . by thinning the mixture. then the medium. separate from the white soap (which forms the ground or base) in irregular veins of varied colour. 4. Not to add more leys than are necessary. When properly boiled. and lastly the weakest. These metallic soaps. The strongest ley is first introduced.. to prevent the soap from adhering to it sometimes. 2. wiU cause the heavier metallic soaps to sink into the leys. during the cooling of the mass. and when the ley is sufficiently warm. In the second case. THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. If too much weak ley has been applied. this. it is usual to first place a little warm ley at the bottom of each frame. and add fresh pure ley at 10° to 12° B. and the soap will be white instead of being marbled. The introduction of weak The precautions to be observed are : 1. stir well until the proper consistence is obtained. and which are due to the salts of alumina and iron contained in the ley. Before putting the marbled soap into frames. 1.

White tallow 450 . but not so white as the above. and of a viscid consistence.250 .— MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. odourless soap.. It turns slightly yellow by keeping. Olive-oil 450 1. 49 leys be too strong. the proper temperature being between 158° and 166°. the graias are " pliant and elastic. II. Bleached palm-oil Oil of sesame 1. and have a tremulous and gelatinous appearance. they are soft and bulky.250 „ This is considered to form a very good soap.250 „ Produces a very hard soap. III.675 lbs. 225 „ 2. of a fine green colour. the following characteristics win present themselves the flakes of soap are separated from each other. WhitetaUow Earth-nut „ 450 „ 2. and float on the ley . the metallic soaps will not separate properly." The soap must not be put into the frames until it has cooled down a little. Frencli Formnlse for Soaps.350 oil lbs.. and the entire mass will contain less than its full proportion of water. Olive-oil Earth-nut oil Lard 675 lbs. of good quality. thereby entailing a loss to the manufacturer. This produces a white. When ready for the frames. The following formulae represent some of the fatty combinations used in difierent localities in France in the manufacture of soap : — : I. All circumstances being favourable. and superior E . 675 „ 900 „ 2.

. are first put into the pan.260 „ This formula makes a good white soap. according to of cocoa-nut Tire's analysis. after which the fire is made up beneath the pan. the impurities in which give the mottled or marbled " strike... although it improves its lathering properties. Soda Fatty acids 9-0 (oleic and margaric) 76 -S 14'6 "Water and colouring matter 100-0 English imitation. and any inferior fatty matter that will prove serviceable. of fatty acids. 675 lbs. Olive-oil Couoa-nut oil : Lard Tallow . Loudon Mottled Soap is generally made from melted kitchen stuff. 1-050.. termed black ash. and the materials brought to a steady boil." as the fatty materials are called." for which The " goods. mth a little colouring matter 10-5 75-2 14-3 100-0 The ordinary commercial Marseilles soap contains from 62 to 65 per cent. The Composition of Pure Olive-oil Soap. is run in. when the first dose of ley. bone grease." IV. is : Fordgn. The leys are made from crude soda ash.. a workman constantly this variety of soap is famed. 22S „ 675 „ 675 . To assist the combination of the fatty substances with the ley. 2. at sp. but the presence oil gives the soap a disagreeable odour. Soda Fatty matters Water. .— so THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. gr. (!) whicli restricts use economy. but " unfortunately its it to that of MarseilleSj has a faint in domestic smell of tallow. cheap tallow.

the soap-boiler adds either water or some weaker leys than were at first employed. (or steam turned off). Should the mass not present these characteristics." as the soapmaker terms it. until the soap (at first granular) becomes homogeneous. and this is then drawn or pumped off. the sapothe next. nified matters separate into grains of soap combined with a definite quantity of water. combine with it. but as yet not containing its The leys. with which . as also. s' with a long iron rake. and from which no liquid separates on cooling. If the full quantity of fatty matters had not been introduced in the first operation. After a while which at first float on the surface of the ley. Stronger leys are now added repeatedly. in this operation. that there is no excess of alkali in the mixture when the soap-pan has become sufficiently filled with the alkaline and fatty ingredients. The mixture is next treated with common salt. which are called full percentage of alkali.the soap is again boiled." consist of salt and glycerine in solution. this stage of the operation the At employed by the soap-boiler and it is thus known that the combination of the fatty matters with the caustic ley is complete. forming a thin creamy emulsion of a perfectly uniform appearance.MANUFACTURE OF HARD stirs tlie ingredients SOAPS. The second operation consists in adding weak ley. " spent leys. or " closed. more oily or fatty matters are Great added. stronger leys. When this is the case. each portion being allowed to dissolve in the ley before adding When sufficient salt has been added. until a perfect emulthe fatty matters. . the soap-boiler now completes the addition of them. the imperfect soap is allowed to rest for a few hours. with occasional stirring. which is thrown into the pan by shovelfuls at a time. sion is obtained. so that the ley may subside. care is taken. and the boiling is continued. with also the addition and should be quite free from The fire being withdrawn alkali. the boiling being taste alkaline —the tongue being the usual — compound test ceases to continued until the leys taste of free caustic alkali. from time" to time.

now again added to separate the soap as before from the ley. towards the close of the operation. for reasons Mottling is comwhich have been already explained. in passing through the pasty mass and ley. after which he holds it perpendicularly till it reaches the ley. which is necessary before it is put into the frames. the dark-coloured ley impregnates the soapy particles in various forms and degrees. When mottled soap is ready for framing. so as to ensure the perfect saponiiication of every atom of fatty material. and the boiUng continued for some hours in contact with the caustic ley.52 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. It is effected in this way the workman breaks the paste in all directions with his rake. owing to the superior density of the dark particles which form the coloured veins of the soap. The dense sulphuretted." or mottling. it is in the form of a thick. until. like the piston of a pump. after long boiling. would not be perfect. When crude sodas. numerous fissures and channels of the soap. when he raises it vertically with a jerk. of more strong ley. interspersed with leys. making it act. gelatinous mass. give it the desired marble-like appearThis operation has also the advantage of cooling ance. the compound Common salt is has acquired a strong alkaline taste. however. on its way to the bottom of the pan. or the " strike. Sometimes a small quantity of a solution of Prussian blue is used for this purpose. Soda which contains sulphurets (as the so-called blackash) is preferred for making mottled soaps. : and in this condition it is ladled out into large pails and . liquor. the soap in some degree. gives it a marbled appearance. thereby producing veins or markings which. the mottling is efiected. are used in the manufacture of mottled soap. when the soap is afterwards cooled. by a mere mechanical mixture of the dark-coloured ley with the soap. monly practised in some London soap-works byintroducing into the nearly finished soap a certain quantity of strong crude soda ley through the rose spout of a watering-can. by doing which he lifts some of the ley and spreads it over the surface In its subsequent descent through the of the paste.

the curd is ladled out of the pan and put into the frames. which are preferably made of wood." as the London tallow melters call it. are used in making curd soap. excepting that the removal of all colouring matter and impurities of. and the fire kindled. about 400 lbs. however. "When finished. olive-oil. 53 put into frames. of The process of saponifitallow or olive-oil are required. being of good quality.000 lbs. or by thinning the soap with a small quantity of ley with gentle boiling. quality of this soap is before stated. from 10 to 14 cwt. all the dark-coloured impurities are removed. or " town tallow. as — . cation is the same as for mottled soap. and thereby enable it to close properly. : White Curd Soap The finest made from pure tallow. since this material retains the heat longer than iron frames. the ends of the bars are liable (from rapidity of cooling at the sides of the frames) to have a plain whitish appearance. instead of being marbled. so that the soap may retain its heat. or mixtures of these in varying proportions. to allow the leys to subside. of potash have to be taken. and then covering the pan and allowing the soap to repose for several hours. Besides tallow. or clean empty sacks. and subside with the leys. The tallow is placed in the kettle (pan). other materials. when cold. in contradistinction to the products imported from Russia and other foreign countries. bleached palm-oil. of In a short time ley of 10° B. By thus washing (as we may say) the soap with ley. of tallow into grain or curd soap. To produce one ton of curd soap. and by the more gradual cooling a is finer marbled appearance obtained. leaving the soap clean.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. from the suet of oxen and sheep. are equally serviceable in the manufacture of this soap. When mottled soap is moulded in cast-iron frames. white. The following is the French system of making tallow curd or grained soap to transform 1. which. and. which should be covered with canvas. English. 400 lbs. the ley must be effected by boiling the soap repeatedly with fresh leys after the removal of each previous dose of ley. as lard. rendered. added. was generally preferred until the introduction of American and Australian tallows.

about 1. and the sample. there are added. has here a double purpose to fulfil. under gradual upheaving. while still hot. which. but a repeated "salting out" should be After each " salting out. By boiling tallow and potash. rated from the soap. and in four or five portions. and the mass appears of a yellowish-brown. The boiling now becomes dense and languid. into the mass and withdrawn. usual frothing. while hot. and impurities. The salt is either thrown into the soap in the dry state. When the mass turns white. and then stopped . The frothing now disappears. ley is still wanting. combination is complete. and runs off the spatula in cohesive. of ley at 16° to 17° B. tlie commencement of tlie boiling. This is known by the yellowbrown mass. It must transform the potash into a soda soap. the "cutting from A of the pan" salt begins. or in solution of about 20° B. has a gelatinous. and the soap boils to a paste. when dipped quietly to boil. with a booming noise." the under ley is sepagiven. appears perfectly clear. except now and When the then. in isolated spots. sulphurous liquor. long. when the materials are not very pure. should now be added. If some of the soap be dropped on glass. the fire is kept but afterwards it should be moderated. the "salting out" is usually performed in three operations. the soap rising The with considerable vigour. greyishwhite appearance. and ebullition occurs all over the pan in patches. The full quantity of salt required for this purpose is not applied at once. ley. does not appear persmall quantity of ley fectly clear.Si THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. without separation of ley. continues What adheres to the spatula. at short intervals. it should be ascertained whether the fat has combined with the ley. translucent strings. until the soap.000 lbs. The ley is now removed from the soap in the usual way. The boiling is continued for an hour longer. and also separate its glycerine. When this period is reached. When the ley and fat are not combined. After the well up. the mixture moves in the kettle to and fro without rising upward. and the latter brought in contact with water and salt. it is known that sufficient salt has been added.

the soap must be again examined to ascertain if the proportions of salt and ley have been sufficient. it possesses the required firmness. of water. the sample retains a cohesive character. burns readily. Although the second liquor and boiling have greatly hardened the soap. froth appears on the surface of the boiling soap. of water. . If enough salt has not been added. 700 lbs. The boiling is then continued for some time. These grains sink. and little gutters formed... it should be examined to see that the "cutting of the pan" has been properly effected. by which the hardness of the soap is perfected. This fault is remedied by adding a few buckets of water. the ley running off. and is solid if. so as to allow any impurities in the mass to settle. to 800 lbs. a fresh ley of salt of 15° B. to 60 lbs. yet this is not sufficient therefore a third boiling. After boiling up. more closely together into globular grains. and the latter In this case more salt must be added. it hardens immediately and if. great flaky froth. of salt dissolved in 700 lbs. the soap appears upon the spatula [trowel] in a separated form. with 50 lbs. and the saline ley again drawn off. after which the mass is allowed to repose as before. or 80 lbs. with 70 lbs. salt be present. MANUFACTURE OF HARD by extinguishing the still SOAPS. on rubbing it. more water must be added. so that it does not run By this operation the soap particles are drawn over. . must be added until the proper condition is reached. is made. The operation of clear boiling and fitting is next pursued. it crumbles. As soon as it boils and froths up. on the other hand. and if the sample spreads or smears. of salt dissolved in it. When the ley has been removed from the pan. or 800 lbs. 55 fire. and a man. are now added. beats down the mass. furnished with a stirrer or beater. If a little portion of the soap be pressed by the thumb in the palm of the hand. to perform which one-half of the kettle is covered with wooden planks. If too much until it boils up in regular lumps of soap. and on the surface of the kettle appears a white To prevent the falling of the mass. and the mass again brought to a boil.

if large and perfectly translucent bubbles rise up. Dussauce. of fat 10 lbs. which removes the glycerine formed. and to prevent it the foam from running over.— S6 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. to 12 lbs. and is beaten with a long iron rod until it subsides. The cutting of the pan follows. For each 100 lbs. with one-fourth of the ley requisite for saponification. In this case much less salt is required than when boiling with potash ley. besides which. the soap is finished. and the The soap entire kettle covered with planks and cloths. that the soap may be finished in one water. is heat now needed. The first ley is applied at the strength of 10° to 12° B. The whole of the fat is placed in the kettle. Soda soaps made by this process have some advantages. in which case further addition of ley. After boiling up. The wooden planks are next removed to allow. as preferred. and care is taken that as little ley as possible enters the frames. The remaining operations are conducted as before described. The kettle is again closely covered. and a few buckets of soap ley are poured into the kettle. The soap is now ready to be put into the frames. principally because it is impossible to remove all the potash . and the fire is therefore extinguished. . and the boiling carried on as usual. and the surplus water. The fire is briskly kept up. violence of the ebullition gradually diminishes. The salt may be applied in the dry state or in solution. is added.. now boils up with considerable frothing. Boiling with soda ley presents this advantage. The addition of this ley is continued until a sample placed on a piece of glass appears perfectly clear. but stead a whistling noise is perceived in the kettle. they are generally very neutral and plastic. One of the planks is removed from time to time. and the soap examined . at 16° to 18° B. one of the planks is removed. the soap to cool. and the boiling resumed. of salt are required. the prevention of overflow being again regulated as before. when. the mixture is examined to ascertain if The its in the proper combination has taken place.

The high price of potash. and a great reduction in the cost of soda. as above described. however.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. 57 It was formerly the practice in England to make tallow soap with potash leys. caused this system to be abandoned in this country. and the soft soap thus produced was converted into hard soap by additions of salt in sufficient quantity to furnish the proper proportions of soda by the reaction of the potash with the neutral salt. .

and exceedingly emollient and agreeable in use. except cocoa-nut oil. if the resin were put into the pan with the first charge of materials. which gives an odour to soap that even the most powerful perfumes overcome but for a time. it is usually introduced into the soap-pans when the other goods. When mixed with fatty matters in various proportions. however. — Continental Method. the rank and frowsy smell of the cocoa-nut oil remains. —Dunn's Meinicke's Process. The peculiar odour of resin is greatly disguised by its combination with fatty matters. or fatty matters. and thus prevent the ley from performing its proper function that of — A • — . have undergone the process of saponification. Since resin will not make a soap of itself. Process.{ — CHAPTER VI. the caustic ley would seize it at once and dissolve it. MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS— Yellow or Eesin Soaps. Possessing no "body " of itself. however. Althougli resin is freely soluble in alkaline leys. when treated with caustic leys. It is seldom. Yellow or Besin Soaps. it forms a series of soaps possessing high detergent power. we might add. and it has been stated that rancid tallow disguises the odour of resin in soap more than any other description of fat or oil. Indeed. and when they have evaporated. that so large a proportion of resin is used in soap. well-made resin soap is no doubt the most pleasant of all soaps for washing the skin. the smallest proportion of sound tallow which it requires to make a hard soap is an equal part. it is not capable of being converted into soap proper by itself.

and when the last charge of leys has been given. with also the addition of caustic ley. after which the leys are drawn or pumped out. is firm and solid. when the operation is After a long rest the leys subside. of very weak leys at 2° B. the ley ceases to be absorbed by the soap. The proportion of resin varies from one-third to one-fourth the weight of tallow. The heat being checked by turning ofi" the steam. This ladle is of considerable and boiling being resumed finished. boiling service of leys at 4° B. is run into the pan.MANUFACTURE OF HARD saponifying the fatty materials. but of course weaker goods will take less. and the process of •purifying the paste is next resorted to. the soap is finished. and the steam again turned on. the soap being well stirred for some time with the rake and the boiling kept up for awhile. is now given. the soap is allowed to rest. who freely uses his shovel when he considers that the combination of the resin with the soap is near completion. and exhibits a good grain or " feather " when cut. and are then drawn ofi". the boiling must be kept up. is now introduced. Por this purpose a quantity of ley at 8° B. after being allowed to cool. While the resin is being shovelled in. 59 It is commonly the the hard soap in the usual way. When a sample of the paste. 11). after the usual boiling. and put aside to be worked up with future batches. whicVi is skimmed off before running the soap into the frames. after which the leys are again final service allowed to settle. and the stirring renewed. and the ley again pumped practice to first make out. SOAPS. the stirring A second and A as before. and when. after which the soap is again allowed to rest. The soap is examined from time to time by the soap-boiler. In small works the soap is ladled out of the pans into large iron pails by means of a ladle having a very long wooden handle (Fig. and it is an advantage to have it previously broken up into small pieces. and a skin forms over the surface of the soap. . the desired quantity of resin is added gradually. whereby all impurities of the resin and other materials are deposited below the surface of the soap.

and should therefore be worked up with other lighter goods in the making of cheaper soaps. while the other rests on the upper edge of the soap frame. and although it possesses all the characteristics of a good soap. several men. Cleansing. about 2. the shoot is shifted to the next. the finished soap is pumped out of the coppers into wrought-iron "pots" (Fig. is unsalable by itself as a commercial article. the pan is brought on. great care is necessary to avoid removing. owing to the rapidity with which the combina- . raised by means of a rope running in a pulley by a second man. and in order to diminish its weight. and so on. being wheeled up to the frames.— 6o size. it is THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. — : TaUow Eesin. 600 „ These being put into the pan. from 150 to 175 gallons of soda ley at 10° to 20° B. and when the frame is full. each carrying his own pail. which forms a stratum between the leys and the pale soap. are emptied into them. This dark brown soap derives its colour from the resin and impurities in the ley. or the soap is pumped into iron or wooden shoots. the dark-coloured compound called niger. The boiling is continued for only about two or three hours. 8) running on wheels. the heat must be checked. are run in. where the application of steam is extensive." as it is termed. dips it into the soap. and guides it to the pail which is rested upon the edge of the pan. constant stirring being applied to prevent the resin from adhering to the bottom and sides of the pan. one end of which is slung on to the pump. while the first holds the handle of the ladle. when full of soap. is going on. and the steam turned When the materials are melted. Another formula for yellow soap is the following . In larger factories. and which are also used for crutching in " liquor " of various kinds these pots. and is carried when full to the soap frames. to a boil. To hasten the operation of filling the frames. with the finer soap. When the mass swells up excessively.000 lbs. When cleansing yellow soaps. are usually occupied when a "cleanse.

and fresh ley run into the pan. The various boilings with fresh leys are continued daily until the soap has acquired the proper consistence. excess of water is present. This oil. six or eight pails of water are added and well stirred in. sticky. This being the case. it is finished. and the boiling If from samples taken from the paste briskly pursued.— MANUFACTURE OF HARD tion of the materials SOAPS. it requires further boiling with fresh ley. The following gives the proportion of goods and ley employed in this process parts of the operation the. an boiling continued. After repose for six hours. and a small quantity about half a pailful of strong brine must be added. The steam the mass is allowed to rest for about six hours. If the soap sample is satisfactory. or nearly so . but £f greasy. and soft. the ley runs off clear. and throw in a few After about two hours.. which is ascertained by the soap-boiler pressing a sample previously cooled between his finger and thumb. the ley is again drawn off. about three hours. when the spent ley is drawn off and fresh ley is then added. — — — is that cii finishing the soap. and the boiling resumed and continued for off. 200 „ 400 „ 175 gallons. in order to give the soap a bright yellow colour. a little raw (that is. more water is to be added. If the soap divides into hard flakes. boil briskly for a short time. Sometimes.powdered) Caustic soda ley at 25° B 800 lbs. . unbleached) palm-oil is added. it will cKng to the shovel or trowel and have a gelatinous texture. 61 being now turned and the alkali is effected. the soap is properly finished. and the If it does not separate from the ley. A : "White tallow Palm-oil . Kesin (.-. is believed to disguise in some degree the natural odour of the resin. and then tiirn off the steam.. When soap has been properly 7?^fe^. while imparting an agreeable odour to the soap. quicker process for making yellow soaps than the fornier is performed in the apparatus known as Papin's digester. One of the most important and delicate Finishing. be drawn off as before. the ley is to pails of cold water. as above. This being done.

the paste is saturated slowly dant white scum. and the stirring continued for twenty-five or thirty white emidsion is thus formed. by boiling. tallow having perfectly combined. which is to be melted by the aid of heat. The paste is now homogeneous and white. and a homogeneous paste is the result. Continue the saponification with leys at 15° to 18° B. but since it presents many interesting features we give the process described by Dussauce in his Treatise. the mixture becomes more intimate and perfect. or of a yellowish tint. These materials are put into the Papin digester. mented. Contmental Metliod ^The French method of making yellow or resin soap in many respects differs from our own system.62 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. At the end of this time the soap is finished.. it is to be saponified with about 75 gallons of fresh caustic (soda) ley at 7" or 8° B. By continuing the boiling. and acquires more consistency by the evaporation of the ley. and is. . before it is added to the hard soap with which it is to be combined. of taUow. after being allowed to cool down a little. It will be observed that by this method the resin is converted into a resinous soap. and boiled for an hour under pressure at the temperature of 252° Fahr. the mixture is to be well All the ley being added. continue to boil gently for a few hours without adding new doses of ley. the boiling becomes manifested by a tumultuous movement in the mass. the ley and minutes. and the paste stirred. After the last addition of ley. Continue to boil gently .000 lbs. and the formation of a very abun- — A The heat must now be moderated. so called. ^Into a pan holding from 625 to 750 First process. which are added in portions of 6 gallons at a time every fifteen minutes for one and a half hour. the heat is to be augstirred. a few pails of cold water or weak ley are thrown into the pan. run into the frames. When the effervescence has ceased. While running in the ley. gallons introduce 1. If these precautions are not sufficient. An hour after the last ley has been added. the foaming diminishes. and soon disappears entirely. When melted.

The object of this boiling is to render the union of the molecules more intimate and complete. the paste thickens and acquires a consistency proportionate to the quality of the tallow. If " leys of coction " cannot be had. 63 and gradually with alkali it becomes denser and firmer. and renders them clear. SOAPS. The stirring is. kept up for half an hour or longer. The saponification is finished by the addition of 25 gallons of new ley at 20° to 25° B. The time of this operation varies from eight to ten hours. but the leys will conThe employment of the former is tain an excess of salt. dissolve from 50 to 60 lbs. of salt in about 75 gallons of new ley at 16° to 18° B. and may then receive stronger leys without fear of the tallow separating from the already saponified mass. The effect will be the same. There would be no danger of separation if too strong leys were used when the paste is imperfectly saturated with alkali. and the mixture stirred for half an hour. however. . the operation is finished.. so that the separation may be perfect throughout the mass. MANUFACTURE OF HARD . By combining with the strong ley. are sufficient to * "leys of coction. 6 gallons at a time. mass is kept constantly stirred. When the quantity of ley added has been sufficient to efiect the separation of the soap. as we should call them. which is added." are passed through the residuum ot soda and lime left in the ley vats. the steam is turned ofi". To prevent this inconvenience. When all the ley is added. Separation is efiected with clear leys of coction * at 20° While the ley is being added gradually. When the separation is complete. to be preferred whenever it is possible to obtain them 75 gallons of such ley at 20° to 25° B... the mass is boiled for a few hours after the addition of the ley. leys are passed repeatedly through filters which are richer in soda. or the same quantity of new ley. and thus acquire additional strength. which is known by the ley freely separating from the soap. which forms into small grains interspersed with ley. after the addition of salt. the to 25° B." or. which The separates any fatty matter they contain. "salted leys. every ten or fifteen minutes. a spontaneous change takes place in the condition of the paste.

and apply When the boiling begins. Fitting is effected by running into the pan 58 gallons of water. are reduced to scales. The soap is then ready to receive its admixture of resinous soap. the ley has lost all its causticity. capable of holding about 375 gallons. effect the separation. and heating. It is known that the soap is separated from the ley when by taking it up with the shovel the ley runs off in a colourless stream. which is prepared as follows Preparation of Resin Soap. The mixture must be well stirred during the whole time to : . which disperses only — when the soap is entirely boiled. and of a strength equal to 27° or 28° B. At the end of this period the pan is uncovered. when pressed between the fingers. of resin. are to be added. the soap is in the form of very hard white grains. and the mass allowed to rest for four or five hours. and the pan is well covered. considerable foaming heat. When the grains of soap are well melted. the operation is finished. it must be kept up imtil all the foam disappears. appears upon the surface of the soap. — . 75 gallons of new ley at 30° B. 75 gallons of fresh soda ley at 30' B. on the other hand. after which the ley is drawn off. The operation being finished. If. the ley is drawn off. 1. after which the whole is allowed to rest for seven or eight hours. and the ley drawn off. the quantity of which will be about 50 or 60 gallons. The steam is now turned off. If after five or six hours' continuous boiling the ley is still caustic. at a time). The ley being drawn off. with constant stirring. every five or six minutes (about 16 to 20 lbs. Apply gentle heat. The steam is now to be turned off. and have the appearance of flat particles separated from the ley. which. pour into the kettle Boiling. After repose for five or six hours.— 64 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. and when the ley begins to boil throw in. to the boiling-point. and the boil kept up for four or five hours longer. 75 gallons of new caustic ley at 24° or 25° B. previously reduced to a fine powder and pa ssed through a coarse sieve.200 lbs. Put into a pan. or the fire drawn.

however. however. the resin soap has a great tendency to expand. but the produce is less.250 lbs. Before doing so. and the resulting compound is perfecijy fluid. by modifying the process. after which the soap is left to cool. The colour. it is free from solid particles. must be kept up to near the boiling-point. and a few pails of cold water thrown into the pan. the boiling-point it is always perfectly clear. a lighter-coloured soap is obtained. introduced into the tallow soap. : . producing a good lather even in sea-water. Since it is liable toagglutinate and form a more or less compact mass. and. of good soap. checked. When kept at near. otherwise the mass will become thick and of a very dark colour. Soap thus made is said to be firm and slightly The alkaline. It is considered a bad plan to keep powdered resin in barrels. and thoroughly incorporated with it by constant stirring. and an excess of heat would cause it to boil over. The second process is as follows Put into the pan 250 gallons of soda ley at 8° or 10° B. so as to free it from pieces of straw. and The soap being now ready. wood. of resin occupies about twohours.— MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS.. It is absolutely necessary to stir the masscontinually.. The saponification of 1. from the proportions of materials given. the heat must be. 65 prevent the resin from " clogging " and adhering to the It is important to moderate the heat. It is better to have the resin reduced to a powder only a short time before using it. which at once has th& desired effect. After being well mixed and run into frames it is sometimes the practice to "crutch" each frame until ^ pellicle (or skin) forms on the surface. like impurities with which it is frequently contaminated. The heat. should be 2.200 lbs. otherwise the resin wiU agglomerate in massesand thus prevent the ley from acting freely upon it. it is necessary to pass the resin soap through a and other coarse sieve. and its colour of a reddish-yeUow. produce. especially in a warm situation. If during the boiling the resin soap rises and threatens to overflow. however. is of a very dark-brown yellow. as sides of the pan.

The steam is now to be turned off and the lid of the pan lowered upon it. when it is known that the soap is finished. When all the soap is in the frames it is to be stirred until cool. until the mixture becomes liquefied. add of white tallow. add 50 gallons of ley at 16° B. and 75 to 100 gallons of ley which will complete the saponification After four or five hours' boiling the ley should stiU be caustic. with leys of coction (old leys) at 20° to 25° B. When all the grains are melted. leaving the pure. every 100 lbs. put into the frames—in the usual way. after boiling for eight or ten hours. and. will have subsided. If.66 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Boil gently for iive or six When perfect combihours. dropped upon a cold surface." the ley is still caustic. — . of yellow resin must be added. which may then be cleansed that is. with constant stirring. should set hard and firm in a few minutes. and again boil.. an addition of clear old leys must be made to aid the separation. however. together with aU impurities. must be continued. After a few hours' rest draw off the ley and continue the boiling with 175 to 200 gallons of soda ley at 25° B. an ounce of anise oil for. nation is effected.000 way as before. Now run into the pan from 100 to 125 gallons of ley at 4°. in the same Apply heat 1. and boil to secure the thickening of the paste. To impart to of the resin. After a repose of twenty-four hours the leys. and stir well for Turn off the steam and separate the soap half an hour. The boiling at 25° to 28° added. forming a nearly homogeneous paste. the operation is finished if the ley does not separate. After the usual repose the ley is run off. as usual. and a homogeneous paste formed. from which the ley.. and the soap forms thin hard scales when pressed between the fingers. separates. from 600 to 800 lbs. finished soap above. small sample. with occasional stirring. lbs. A . Now finish the saponification with 30 or 40 gallons of ley at 20° B. which gives the soap a fine yellow colour. and the grain of the soap is more homogeneous. of soap may be crutched in. when the ley is 'warm. and if it be desired to give the soap a slight perfume.

and then let it rest. it is advisable to stop the blast for a short time. of fresh resin. so that the spent leys may separate and settle. keeping the blast in action the whole time if the fires draw well. until 300 gallons of the above strength have been used. and give a brisk boiling to the contents of the pan. with more ley occasionally. and as soon as the ley is hot and on the boil. When the whole of the resin is melted and completely mixed with the soapy mass. put into the pan 90 gallons of leys of the specific gravity 1"14 made from strong soda ash.|^-inch piping. The circular coil of pipe is supplied with atmospheric air from a cylinder blast Or other suitable forcing apparatus. or nearly so.050 lbs. of grease. the circular coil being connected' with such forcing apparatus by means of a pipe attached thereto. "When the leys are exhausted more ley is gradually added until the grease. while a good brisk fire is kept up. The fire being kindled. 2. oil. say. the blast is set in action. with. sometimes 15 per cent. thus conducted: Into each of the ordinary soap-pans a circular coil of l. This is recommended by the inventor to be performed by steam heat. but if not. the soap is then brought to strength on fresh leys as in the ordinary process of soap-boiling. — — . just far enough from the bottom to allow the . before adding the movement of the stirrer beneath it when it becomes necessary to stir the contents below. and rising up to the top of the pan. perforated with holes. Dunn's Process. to allow the contents of the pan to approach ebullition. is iixed in the well of the pan. The leys being now drawn off. of bleached palm-oil is combined with the tallow. This improves the soap bymaking it lighter in colour. where it is furnished with a stop-cock and union-joint for the purpose of connecting the parts of the pipe within and without the soap-pan. and the whole saponified together. 67 the soap an agreeable odour. in the usual way. and the strength of the leys taken up. the pan is charged.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. so as to bring the materials as near boiling as possible." Then add 550 lbs. a pailful at a time. or fatty matter is " killed. For a clean yellow soap. stop the blast.

it must gradually receive.68 THE ART OP SOAP-MAKING.worm. and this is found troublesome to get rid of. gives off its volatile oil as a distillate. with constant stirring. of tallow or inferior fat. during the boiling. using less ley in proportion to the quantity and strength of the nigre. but if a weaker ley is employed. When a charge is to be worked upon the nigxe. prompt at the above temperature. and in order to promote its .000 lbs. as is weU understood. one or more changes may be made. Meinicke's Process requires that the soap-pan should be furnished with a still-head and cooling. and when the mixture reaches 108° Fahr. which is condensed and saved as a by-product. provided the soapy mass is kept weak and open-grained. of white turpentine are melted in the pan by steam heat with 800 lbs. since the resin is added in the form of white turpentine. of dry soda. and the spent ley pumped or drawn off as usual. and thus decreases the cost of the soap. It is found desirable that " the soap should be kept at what is called " a weak state during the movement of the streams of air through the materials.cient grease present to make the nigre weak. such nigre shoidd be grained. it is well to keep the blast in operation three or four hours after the resin is melted. 800 lbs. takmg care not to turn on the blast until there is 8u£B. and the fresh charge added in the manner before mentioned. Experience proves that it is better not to make a change of ley during the operation of the blast where the ley of the strength before mentioned is used. During the operation of the blast the soap must be kept in what is technically termed an " open or grained statej" and for this purpose salt or brine is to be added when necessary. otherwise the soap is apt to swell up from the air hanging in the grain. The essential oil of turpentine is set free at the same time. requiring long boiling. which. 1. of caustic soda ley containing 30 per The imion of the materials is very cent. If dark-coloured materials are used. the acids of the resin and grease being completely neutralised and converted into liquid melted soap.

otherwise perfect homogeneity of the mixture cannot be obtained. of soda ley at 25° B. of dilute sulphuric acid (1 part acid to 9 parts water) are stirred into the mixture. Yellow. of starch or bran are used to assist the combination of the two When the soap materials are worked by fire soaps.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. while it but its temperature should not be above is stm in the pan 135° to 140° Fahr. even when the ley is made from a carbonated alkali. The acid properties of resin render the combination easy and prompt. * It is well known ttat the addition of salt to water enatles that liquid to attain a higher temperature than 212° F. of alum or sulphate of alumina. the whole being boiled with water until a perfect combination takes place. Moreover. The resin soap is first prepared by stirring 80 lbs. of powdered resin. the steam and vapour of the spirit become united and pass over into the worm. about 2 per cent. the quality of the product is good. The resino-alkaline solution is then to be well stirred into the finished paste. and 1 or more per cent. Practice shows that the greatest excellence in resin soap is not obtained by adding the resin directly to the oil or paste. The best plan is to make the grease and resin soaps separately and then to mix them in proper proportions. and boiling into a perfect solution. the remaining soap is finished in the usual way. instead of steam the boiling should be continued gently until the paste is uniform throughout. of resin may be introduced without materially darkening the colour of the tallow soap. of carbonate of soda. When all the essential oil is distilled over. the hoiling-point of water. . a little at a time. To prevent the resin from becoming precipitated. 69 vaporisation salt brine is added. of resin. .* The head being carefully luted upon the pan and adjusted to the worm. or resin soap. and then the salt is to be added. made from tallow. and the mixture brought to a boil. and then adding from 2 to 4 per cent. In this way 16 per cent.. and are condensed. may be prepared from curd soap by adding to it about 25 per cent.. into 100 lbs.. Sometimes several per cent.

Salt is then added. The usual proportions of palm-oil and resin are 3^ parts of the former to 1 part of the latter. and then to boil until a perfect union takes place. According to Eicliardson and Watt it is better to saponify the resin and tallow separately. and to mix the two soaps in the pan.70 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. . and the soap finished in the ordinary way.

especially when employing large quantities of dark- The niger is boils of soap coloured resin. MANUFACTURE OF SARD SOAPS— {continued. has frequently proved a source of trouble to the soap-maker.— Cocoa-nut Oil Soaps. great care being taken that none of the dark-coloured material is allowed to be drawn off — with it. or density. In the manufacture of yellow or resin soaps. the paste is brought into a thin condition. the materials. The heat is then checked. which is called niger or nigre. Mr. After a few hours' repose the leys are drawn off. Treatment of ITigers. turned his attention to this subject many years ago. —Anderson's Process. however. Anderson. The finished soap is then " cleansed " by pumping it off from the niger into the frames. as before explained. until the mass assumes the form of an emulsion. or "goods. and subsequently obtained a patent. when a darkcoloured substance subsides. The iitilisation of the niger.— CHAPTER Treatment of the "Nigers." are boiled over successive portions of caustic soda ley.). fr6m which we extract the following : . a well-known London soap-maker. and the soap allowed to rest for two or three days. of various degrees of strength. and the process of " fitting " commenced. according to the requirements of the soapmaker. until the last leys still retain their causticity after continued boiling with the fatty matters. —Frencli Cocoa-nut Oil Soaps. To accomplish this. Sturtevant's Process. and the boiling resumed. by adding either very weak leys or water." VII. usually either worked up in subsequent or converted into an inferior quality of yellow soap.

as I find most convenient but in either case. . and treat the goods with successive portions of weak ley or water. eminently adapted for making mottled soap. I stop the operation. I pump out the strong ley.72 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. there separates from it a peculiar substance analogous to the niger of yellow soap. and allow time for the niger to deposit. and boU to a suitable curd. " I find that when curd soap is boiled to strength and subjected to a fitting process. and boil them together until the goods are to ' strength. to which purpose I apply it accordingly. I also find the niger. I repeat the purifying or fitting process one or more times. in which case. after separating the niger. which inay require from twenty-four to thirty-six hours. my process. I now proceed to separate the niger.' and ' ribbon out ' well on the finger but at this stage. tion for cleansing into the frames. I place in the copper the ordiaary materials for making curd soap. I proceed in all respects ia the manner practised commonly by soap-makers up to a certain point that is. which I either pump out from under the purified goods to an adjacent copper. Anderson's Process. with the ordinary leys. I add to the residual partially purified . I obtain a curd soap of better quality than the original charge of goods would yield without this operation. on which the goods have been boiled. This condition being arrived at. and that by removing this niger and boiling the remainder of the goods into. which I remove. I commence the performance of — my . or when from any circumstance an advantage. "When I operate upon a charge of very impure I consider it materials. instead of boiling out the head and finishing as heretofore practised. curd soap. somewhat similar to the fitting process used in making yellow soap. as before. " In carrying out process. or until the soap is found to be in a condi. the ^oods being thus deprived of the niger. and boil them together until they assume the appearance of a fitting yellow copper. or I remove the purified goods from above the niger to an adjacent copper. I add to them the proper finishing ley for curd soap.

I then pump out this ley. and boils until the soap is fit for cleansing. 73 goods a ley of moderate strengtli only (instead of tlie finishing ley for curd soap) and boil. six. is capable of taking up a larger percentage of water and still form a hard soap than any other known fatty material. and then proceeds to finish. therefore Mr. made from this oil. One of the most important additions to the list of fatty matters suitable for soap-making was the vegetable substance called cocoa-nut oil or cocoa butter. After separating the purified soap from the niger. which.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. Anderson takes the niger resulting from four. has the great disadvantage of imparting an exceedingly disagreeable odour to the skin and even to articles cleansed by its agency." He next describes his method of treating the niger. when saponified. and boil to a curd as before. he adds to the latter the ordinary ley used for finishing mottled soap. is not sufficient to make a boil by itself. or framing. fat. as before. bone grease." or other suitable materials. from its extreme whiteness and capability of forming a hard soap. taking care that no ' head ' is formed. however. after which I aUow time for subsidence. as with an ordinary mottled soap. and finishes them in one operation. or vegetable butter. melted " stuff. and even when but a small percentage of this substance is blended with other soap materials. however. moreover. or more boils of soap. Cocoa-nut oil. and the way in which he converts it into mottled soap. as above. Cocoa-uiit Oil Soaps. soon became an acceptable subSoap stitute in some degree for the more costly tallow. its peculiarly offensive odour will rest upon the surface of the skin — — — — — . is more soluble in saline or " hard waters even sea^ water and for this reason it has long been made into a soap called Marine Soap. The quantity of niger obtained from one bpil. add the finishing ley. so as to perform the fitting process. The soap " made from it. Sometimes he adds to the nigers a certain quantity of tallow. for use on board ship. separate the niger. and again treat the goods with weak ley or water until sufficiently diluted.

of olive or other sweet oil. after — : . are first put into the pan. . either as it is imported or refined as above . Cocoa-nut oil does not readily saponify with caustic soda leys. To make a White Cocoa-oil Soap. . with continued boiling. it is always associated with other fatty materials when employed iu the manufacture of soap.. The materials are taken in the following proportions 2. or oil. even in small quantity. soap of almost unusable hardness. 168 lbs. and when the whole quantity has been used. Stnrtevant's Frocess. or palm-oil. and adding to it 6 lbs. graduallv. after which about 84 lbs. many oil. When saponified by itself it does so without difficulty. when hy itself. besides its objectionable odour. except for the very low-priced qualities. it is drawn ofi". of hydrochloric acid to each ton of — oil. tallow. the boiling is kept up for about fifteen minutes. in 1841. care being taken that each portion of ley is well combined with the fatty matters before the next is applied As soon as the whole of the soda ley has been used. About 10 gallons of the soda ley is then added. and when the whole materials are united. of common salt are sprinkled slowly over the mass. or tallow 325 gallons of soda The ley at 24° B. The potash ley is then added. of sulphuric and 12 lbs. and is then ready for the soap-pan. to remove as far as practicable its objectionable odour. of cocoa-nut oil. this operation occupying about a quarter of an hour. but when added to tallow. The boiling is then continued for about half an hour. Soap made from therefore. as the case may be. cocoa-nut oil.072 lbs.74 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. After allowing the oil to rest for a while. for this hours after washing with it. and for this it forms a reason. should never he introduced into toilet or fancy soaps. and 60 gaUons of potash ley at 20° B. and heat applied. One of the earliest processes for making soap with cocoa-nut oil as an ingredient was patented by Sturtevant. the boiling is kept up for about half an hour. It consists in first steaming the oil in a wooden vat. as before. the same quantity of soda ley is added from time to time.

indeed.072 lbs. and. but more especially in this country. of tallow. an equal volume of caustic soda ley at 27° B. and 450 gallons of soda ley at 23° B. process of separation. where it As we have said. . To make Yellow Soap with Cocoa-oil. are employed. and is afterwards glue. cleansed or framed in the usual way. There have been numerous modifications of Sturtevant's process for manufacturing soaps with cocoa-nut oil as an ingredient . Soap made from this oil being soluble in weak leys and saline solutions. therefore. this useful vegetable product is very extensively used by most soap-makers both at home and abroad. When the manufacture of the soap is complete. and it is also the practice to use potash as well as soda leys in making soaps containing cocoa-nut oil. 224 lbs.— MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. or the fire drawiij as the case may be. by the above process. in combination with it. in the manufacture of certain soaps. it has the consistence and tenacity. For the latter combination. in variable proportions. are used with the small boiling until perfect combination takes place. The potash ley is employed with the soda ley only for the finer qualities of soap. palm-oil. of cocoanut oil 112 lbs. and a third of a volume of caustic potash ley at 10° B. of bleached palm-oil: 448 lbs. The proportions of tallow or palm-oil which may be successfully employed with cocoa-nut oil for a genuine should be that is. requires a much larger proportion of salt in the . or " closeness " of melted It is now allowed to cool down. All the fatty matters and the resin are first put into the copper. 112 lbs. these proportions are given: 1. and the whole operation conducted in the same way as already described. however. heat applied as usual. of common salt. or equal parts palm and cocoa-nut oils. unless blended with some other Tallow or fatty material. of resin. — A . or " liquored " soap 60 parts cocoa-nut oil and 40 parts tallow . cocoa-nut oil. not a reduced. of raw palm-oil 336 lbs. does not make a good soap. is employed in enormous quantities. 75 whicli the steam is turned off.

and there is no evidence of causticity. allowed to If it cool. until it tastes slightly caustic. If. does not possess these characteristics. however. until it begins to stiffen. at the end of which time the ley wiU have little weak ley is then added. and free from greasiness. when the pan is to be again heated. causing a separation of the tallow or palm-oil from the cocoa soap. must not be applied when the soap has cooled down to 130° Fahr. it should be wanting in strength. when' in the frames.76 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. after allowing the soap to repose in the pan during the night. quantity of very weak ley is then added. or it will separate from the ley. The crutching. In the latter case. The boiling should be continued for about two hours. until the proper The heat is to be kept up for five condition is obtained. and to well crutch it. so that a perfect and uniform combination may take place. whereby a more homogeneous condition of the soap is secured. the soap is allowed to rest until the following day. It is also considered advisable to allow the soap to cool in the pan until it indicates a temperature of 155° Fahr. and well stirred in until the desired result is obtained. with frequent stirring. A and if necessary more salt. appears clean. the steam is turned off. If too much heat be applied. and become exhausted. the temperature of the mass not being allowed to exceed from 180° to 190° Fahr. dry. mitil a sample. and a little fresh cocoa-nut oil must be added. salt thrown in. When the operation is finished.. a little more ley must be added. with constant stirring. a further dose of ley must be added. Soap containing a large percentage of cocoa-nut oil is . and the same objectionable result will be obtained if there be an excess of salt or ley. whereby the union of the alkali and fatty matters becomes more perfect. Should this not be effectual. and the soap turns out harder and better than if framed at once on the completion of the boiling. before removing it to the frames. the soap will become too thin. warm strong brine must be gradually added. with stirring. or six hours.

until the paste has acquired a caustic taste. 7. Generally the quantity of salt-water used is about the same as that of the ley. and at the same time continuing the ebullition.. Suppose that a soap is to be prepared yielding 500 to 600 per cent. — . and for this purpose a certain quantity is taken from time to time and allowed to cool on a dish. rose. capable of holding in its constitution a very considerable quantity of water. given by Dussauce. introduce 2001bs. In France they make white and tinted soaps from cocoa-nut oil and since their method of manufacture somewhat differs from that adopted in this country. " White and Rose Soaps. adding from time to time small portions of ley at 18° to 20°. but almost the only one French Cocoa-nut Oil Soaps. Melt the oil by a gentle heat. with 4 lbs. and yet form a hard soap . " To' harden the soap and make it produce the quantity named above. add to it salt water (brine) at 18° to 20° in the proportion of 5 gallons every fifteen minutes. and as soon as melted pour in it 50 gallons of new ley of soda ash at 15°. or 6 lbs.MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAPS. is suffered to cool and rest for twelve or fifteen hours. For the above proportions the operation lasts about seven or eight hours. will be read with interest. of oil into a sheet. it is coloured as soon as run into the frames. during which the mixture is constantly kispt in a state of ebullition. It is in this second stage of the operation that the degree of coction (boiling) of the soap must be ascertained. When in this state it 'is a sign that it is entirely saturated. before being run into the frames. and while yet fluid. and at about the same degree. indeed. of — ! . in some soaps we have seen. that of Cochin is the best and the most highly esteemed. the operation is finished. The first operation lasts four hours. the following process. When the operation is finished the steam is turned off. When the sample becomes solid by cooling.iron kettle (pan) of a capacity of from 375 to 400 gallons. and boil the mixture. " If the soap is to be. For these soaps the oil must be very white and concrete . and the soap. water has been not only the chief ingredient.

especially in the northern parts of England. it is important that the paste should be very fluid. for if too cold. is well distrihuted in the mass by stirring." shall have again to refer to the subject of cocoanut oil soaps when treating of reduced or cheapened soaps. vermilion. a part would remain white. which form an important branch of the soap-making industry. To have an uniform colour We . which.78 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING.

and it was also well known that during the process of saponification by the ordinary system of boiling over caustic leys. I mix it with the quantity of alkaline ley which is. It was well known that caustic alkalies would convert into saponaceous matter fats and oils. One of the most ingenious practical attempts to modify the ordinary system of soap-making was that devised by Mr.positive loss in the manufacture. a considerable amount of glycerine was set free.— CHAPTER Hawes's System. "William 'Hawes. say 2 J tons. : . the COLD PEOCEsSj and is thus described by the inventor " I take any given quantity of tallow. a gentleman who had long been connected with the soap trade. Hawes's System. being a substance soluble in water.preferring that made from the strongest and purest alkali. without the application of heat. passed away with the spent or waste leys. and was indeed a member of one of the largest and most enterThe process is well known as prising firms in London. —To prepare a White Soap. and having melted it. causing a direct and . VIII. required to completely saturate the tallow and convert it into soap and such mixing I perform by mechanical means. . " The saponification of the tallow. or other fatty inatter. MAKING SOAP BY THE COLD PROCESS. and which. —Lard Soap ty tlie Cold Process. It had long been the desire of soap-makers to possess some process of saponification less tedious and costly than the ordinary systems of soap-boiling. keeping the temperature as low as possible. I use the ordinary ley of soap-boilers. — . and the apparatus or machinery I employ is hereafter described. —^Making small Quantities of Soap.

may be given to the shaft and connected arms by any of the ordinary methods of communicating mechanical power . The whole apparatus is HHHHH^HHHH Kg. to use a sufficient quantity thereof. 17. 17.8o THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. An oscillating motion. It consists of an upright shaft. or a cylinder may be employed with a shaft c. It is necessary to state that the proportion of alkali varies with the different fats and oils. and from . radiate to the sides of the caldron b b. of tallow. may be ascertained by the absorption or combination of the tallow or fatty matter with the ley. from which arms. and the minute division of the tallow. either permanently or temporarily fixed ia the copper. with the addition of a machine to produce an intimate admixture. or a rotary motion. passing through it horizontally. represented in the drawings ia Pig. care having been taken. This shaft. aaaa. to every 100 lbs. may be of wood or iron. The combination of the fatty matter and ley may be effected in an ordinary boiling caldron. in the first instance. or about 20 gallons of ley of 17" B. The mode of fixing the apparatus and the materials used first will depend upon the nature of the caldron an^ the convenience of the manufacturer.

8r c c c c. The stirring is continued for about three hours. that tVe cylinder should be emptied. when soap-makers are supplied with caustic soda in a solid state. d d. time is allowed for the combination of the tallow and alkali to become perfect. which renders it . by the addition of resin or into mottled soap or white soap. after which it is allowed to stand from one to four days. when a rotary motion will thoroughly incorporate the fatty matter and the ley.ed. and by such means saponification will take place. and the caldron having been previously charged with the tallow. and the contents turned into an ordinary caldron. without evaporation. such as toilet-soap making. however. it is desirable. according to the quantity of the paste. " The size of the cylinder. preparatory to being finished and converted into yellow soap. if tne mass becomes thick sooner. we believe. stand in the way of its extended application. would. and in a short time every particle of the fatty matter wiU.MAKING SOAP BY THE COLD PROCESS. which arms. As the benefit of this pricess arises mainly from the saponification of the ordinary |naterials in a comparatively cold state. Motion being communicated to the machine. . as sbon as the mass thickens. be brought into intimate contact with the alkaline ley. extended much beyond the limits of very small operations. and motion communicated to thelshaft. as is indicated by the mass thickening. Indeed. or less time. By this transfer from the cylinder to the ordinary caldron. then immediately upon its being charged with tallow. the ley is to be gradually added thereto. will be about 6 feet in diameter and 12 feet in length. as at present practised by soap-boilers generally. to some extent. At the present time. and continued from 3 to 4 hours. may radiate. " Should a cyiiider be used. for example. for charging and emptying. by the operation of finishing leys. It must be provided with convenient doors." The adoption of th^ cold process in this country has not. for about 2^ tons of tallow. or until the taUow appears completely saponifi. the ley is run in. the difficulty of obtaining leys sufficiently concentrated. at a temperature just high enough to keep it fluid. and the ley is absorbed.

oil. perhaps. could be advantageously made by this system. must not be higher than 122° Fahr. this should be done while it is in the pan. unnecessary for them to make their leys in the ordinary wa)^. 80 lbs.. of ley at 36° B. gradually. since it is then more difficult to effect a perfect incorporation of the respective materials. and stir well until a complete union of the fatty matters and alkali is effected. Put into a pan. therefore. may be obtained either by evaporating strong new caustic ley prepared in the ordinary way. and would. whereby a more perfect combination is effected. capable of holding about 100 gallons. When the liquid grease has attained the heat of about 120° Fahr.' 82 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. . Although soaps made by this process retain more alkali than those made by the ordinary methods of boiling. should be closely covered so soon as it has been filled with . if carefully prepared. until all the fatty matter is melted. and the soap is then ready for the frame. or by dissolving commercial caustic soda in water until the required strength it is reached. add. 40 lbs. it is certain that good household. time to cool. or laundry soaps. that they should once more take the cold process into consideration. If it is desired to perfume the soap. the ley should have a density of about 36° B. 120 lbs. to add the perfume after the soap is in the frame. and before it has had. a considerable augmentation of temperature takes place. . with occasional stirring.. may be advisable. or bleached palmapply gentle heat. tallow. lard.. when making small quantities of soap. otherwise there wUl be a separation of the ley from the fatty materials. be less suitable for toilet purposes. In order to favour this reaction. The temperature of the ingredients. It is not a good plan. the frames. owing to the chemical reaction of its constituents. If the stirring has been diligently pursued. at the time of adding the alkaH. cocoa-nut oil. To prepare a White Soap. — When its soap made by the cold process has been in the frame for about five hours. the saponification will be complete in about two hours. For making small quantities of Soap by the cold proThis cess.

being a : — is quickly absorbed by the ley. of caustic soda ley. If the paste has a strong caustic taste after two or three hours' rest. and after about two days will be sufficiently cold for cutting. more caustic ley of the same strength are added.. if it has no allcaline taste. 28 lbs. The quantities of materials given should yield about 236 lbs. gradually. additions of ley must be given. at a gentle heat 28 lbs. and melting as before. of soap of a pure white. 112 lbs. of caustic soda ley. until the soap is slightly alkaline. with constant stirring. . are run Then 1. and when these are well incorporated. for toilet purposes. on the other hand. The temperature of the paste must not be allowed to exceed 149° Fahr. 83 the soap.000 lbs. or other suitable implement. it is recommended to add the colouring matter to the fatty materials before the ley is poured in. at 18° B. more oil must be added. Lard Soap by the Cold Process is made by taking. the soap is put into frames in the usual way. say.. owing to the proportion of cocoa-nut oil. at 36° B. oil of sweet almonds. and. has also been employed in the following way 1. MAKING SOAP BY THE COLD PROCESS.300 lbs.. with strong evidence of chemical action. The oil. fatty acid. of oleic acid are into a pan. little by little . but exhibit no greasiness. When a sample of the soap is examined. by which it becomes more thoroughly mixed. In making coloured soaps by the cold process. and stirred in as before.. and considerable foaming. It is then ready for the frame. with constant stirring. After reposing for about twenty-four hours. . and boiled. or red oil. &c. or. Oleic acid. added. The same process has been applied to making soap from beef marrow. of lard. which requires to be subdued by continually breaking the foam with a shovel. are then added gradually. it should feel somewhat unctuous when pressed between the fingers. it lathers very freely.

forms sulphate of lime. — - It will readily be seen. which. ordinary tallow is boiled in wooden vats by high-pressure steam. Morfit. By another process. and so indeed it is and. by which a lime soap is formed. that is. Oleic Acid Soaps. it should be convertible into soap (oleate of soda) by means of a carbonated (not caustic) alkali. and is afterwards subjected to pressure.— SOAP IX. and the restdting mass is afterwards distilled by the aid of steam heated to about 550° Fahr.pursued a long : . This is called sulphuric acid saponification. Soap from Eeoovered Grease. The mixture of fatty acids. by the action of superheated steam alone. while the fatty acids {stearic and oleic) rise to the surface. that as a by-product of the candle factory. is next placed in vessels to cool. Taking advantage of this fact. At the extensive candle works of Price and Company the vegetable fats are decomposed into their constituents. theoretically. many years since. This is transferred to another vessel and treated with dilute sulphuric acid. thus formed. whereby the olieic acid separates and flows into vessels ready to receive it. Oleic Acid. oleic acid must be an abundant soapmaking material..CHAPTER OLEIC ACID. In the manufacture of stearine 'for candles. therefore. Instantaneous Soap. without previous saponification. fatty acids and glycerine.. combining with the lime.— Morfit's System of Soapmaking. for several hours. with slaked lime. Mr. FROM REG OVJSREI) — GREASE. produced by superheated steam. — — — Oleic Acid. Kottula's Soaps. palm and cocoa-nut oils are decomposed by strong sulphuric acid at a temperature of about 350° Fahr. which deposits.

Soap from Recovered Grease. as in ordinary soap-making. including " recovered grease. with other spaps . brown oil. \ 85 experiments with a view to developing a process by which commercial oleic acid." or "sudoil. with constant stirring. but although the chloride of soda had diminished the peculiar odour of the grease to some extent. and red oil resulting from the processes above referred to could be converted into soap without the — — employment of caustic leys. commonly known^ as oleine. The soap was afterwards boiled over a strong salted ley. When — . but some portion of the colouring matter remained unacted upon by the bleaching liquor. involves the escape of carbonic acid. in varying proportions. instead of employing them in the caustic state. even without boiling." Since the treatment of fatty acids with carbonated alkalies.OLEIC ACID—SOAP series of practical FROM RECOVERED GREAS. the saponaceous mass was next treated with a solution of chloride of soda. The powerful bleaching properties of this solution soon afiected the colour of the soap. it was found that only a small percentage of the fatty acid soap could be worked up with soaps of better quality. it may be well to refer to a series of experiments conducted by the author some years ago. and even then a keen nose would recognise its presence. when small doses of a warm solution of soda crystals were added from time to time. and a consequent swelling up of the materials when brought in contact. The processes which he subse- quently introduced included the manufacture of soaps from the fatty acids generally. with the object of converting recovered grease The grease was first melted at a into a marketable soap. which became evident when the chloride ceased to produce anj'' further effect. temperature sufficiently high to liquefy it. and the resulting paste mixed. Morfit's process. ample room must be left in the pan to allow for the great increase in bulk which occurs after repeated additions of alkali. rendering it many degrees paler. until efliervescence no longer occurred on the addition of the soda solution. Before giving a brief description of Mr. with the object of lightening its colour. The fatty acids being now neutralised.

86 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. " it does not. owing chiefly to its odour. and water. This has foritsobject the conversion of the fatty acids of commerce into soap by means of carbonate of soda. consequently the whole of the material used." that is. cheapened by the addition of large quantities of water and other adulterations. or even warm water to bring out : their best effects. Indeed. therefore. The time occupied in making a batch of soap is stated to be two-and-a-half hours. but which. Amongst the advantages which are claimed for the oleic soaps is the following they " cleanse better in cold and hard waters than the highest grade of soap that can be made from neutral fats. after all. or and it Wakefield fat." The fat acids. being already deprived of their glycerine. soap-makers have a great dislike to recovered grease. Thus four boils may be made in one day in each pan. its j)erfumed witli nitro-benzol or cassia ally disguised. do not suffer loss in the same way that neutral fats necessarily do in the process of saponification. contemplate any such degradation. are ultimately obtained in the form of soap. be employed in moderate proportions in some kinds of fancy soaps. for most purposes. Morfit's System of Soap-mating. so that the manufacturer may have a creditable means of securing both profit and success against the dishonest competition of very much inferior soaps as made by the older methods. thereby rendering it unnecessary to keep large stocks of soap on hand. and in two days after the soap is ready for cutting. whereby the inventor produces soap containing defi- — nite proportions of fatty materials. in combination with specific proportions of soda and water. these proportions being determined before the manufacture commences. it is not necessary to use hot. odour was effectu- could." . soda. instead of employing caustic leys. On the contrary. is neither so disagreeable nor so lasting on the skin or linen washed with it as that imparted by cocoa-nut oil soaps. Although soap made by this system can be "run. in its integrity. it is designed to furnish soap of the greatest possible excellence at the lowest possible cost.. As a rule.

at a pressure of from 50 to 60 lbs. The quantity of water must be in the pro- . moving in opposite directions. in the absence of a superheater. as efiectual. but he gives the preference to oleic acid prepared from cotton-seed oil. half atmospheres When the introduction of the superheater is employed. Care should be observed also to stir well for three to five minutes after drawing up the thermometer. The alkali liquor for the above quantity of fat acid is prepared by dissolving in boiling water 190 lbs. and revolving stirrer fixed in strong iron framework. or sets of blades. . of soda ash of 52°. the highest point it must be allowed* A . say 1. with steam-jacket." The alkali is not introduced into the pan until the materials have acquired the temperature . and would be nearly. is then to be run into the pan through a sieve. for breaking the paste as it is carried round the mass by a single wing.of 320° Fahr. before putting them into the pan. to reach. and the heat of the steam raised by superheating. 87 The raw materials employed in Morfit's system include thirty-one varieties of commercial fat acids. This is the least costly arrangement. is materials is effected. to fix a series of toothed blades to the sides of the pan.MORFIT'S SYSTEM. enter its " The charge of red oil or fat acid. The stirrer consists of a vertical wrought-iron spindle fitted with two wings. The soap-pan is made of wrought iron. and just previous to adding the alkali liquor. The usual custom. this is first thoroughly heated by letting steam. however. if not quite. pounds. otherwise the resulting soap paste will not be homogeneous or handsome. When charging the pan. under high-pressure. In carrying out his process he employs superheated steam. is to raise the steam in the boiler to a pressure of five to five and a but this latter should be the extreme. in all those cases where solid fat or resin mixture forms part of the fat stock.. by which a more rapid and complete incorporation of the simpler arrangement. the proportions of raw materials are either weighed or measured accurately but. its tubes must be kept at a violet or bright violet redness.000 jacket.

350 lbs. before being added to the hot material ia the pan. in this country at least. until the The brisk chemical action which is process is complete. which soon assumes a brilliant appearance. as also the most economical. the stirring and heating being contiaued. . homogeneous paste. or. portion to form soda crystals. 900 lbs. doubtless. of tallow is a fair proportion. Instead of employing a solution of soda ash. Oleic acid is extensively used by soap-makers in the ordinary processes of soap-making but it is generally associated with a considerable portion of tallow or other fat containing stearine. of ash are used. . until the paste. soft. 1 gallon of water for every 5 lbs. by which a firmer and harder soap is obtained than with oleic acid alone. 27-50. 65"00 soda. . the mass begins to subside." The paste is now sprinkled over with eight or ten gallons of boiling water. form of soda to apply to this system of saponification. tity of alkali forms a neutral soap from 210 to 226 lbs. and " changes from its spongy state into that of a clear.88 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. . 62-80 per cent. To make soap from oleic acid and tallow. 1. prove the most facile. set up causes a great swelling of the mass. fused in their own water of crystallisation and since this salt of soda has attaiaed a remarkably low price. at first quite soft. 6'7 to 7-50 water. Morfit sometimes uses soda crystals. stirrer is then set in motion a minute or less after the alkali begins to flow. and only from six to twelve minutes' The time allowed to run in the whole of the liquor. The solution of soda must mark 212° F. From 30 to 40 per cent. with the heating. Soon after the last portion of alkali has been run in. to allow for which a curb is fixed above the pan. and is kept up. of ash.' or peels from the walls of the pan and the blades of the stirrer. Mr. Soap thus made consists of in 100 parts oleic acid. the paste is so stifi" and dry that it cuts. regains its stiffness. — — . it would. Later it becomes more consistent and in an hour and fifteen to thirty minutes from the moment that the alkali commenced to fall into the oil. tallow. for stronger soaps. the proportions may be oleic acid. .. . namely This quansay. ' : .

During the boiling. The 89 oleic acid is first run into tlie pan and heated. when 75 gallons of fresh ley at 20° to 28° B. . while. and the tallow begins to assume As soon as this is complete. to ensure perfect combination of the leys with the tallow. As soon as this is effected. the whole is to be brought to a gentle boil until a thick foam appears on the surface tuis foam must be kept under by continual agitation. If necessary.OLEIC ACID SOAPS. In a short time the oil assumes a spongy condition. small quantities of old leys at 22° to 25° are added (about 3 or 4 gallons at a Similar time). the usual pasty condition. when considerable effervescence occurs. a perfect separation must take place. and the soap appear in the form of small grains. The heat is to bo kept up moderately for five or six hours. and the soap allowed to stand for about eight or ten hours.. may be dashed in. but each portion of ley must be allowed . when the steam is to be again turned on. at 22° to 25° B. are introduced. the steam is turned aS. The mixture is then sufiered to rest until the following After a day. When this condition is arrived at the boiling is to be continued for about a couple of hours. At the end of this period the leys are drawn ofi". to check the heat at times. To separate the saponified materials. after which. tallow is first put into the pan. until the grains of soap formed become dissolved. the operation may be hastened by adding a few gallons of fresh ley at about 28° B. and if there is a disposition of the mass to rise above the edge of the pan. are run in. from 12 to 15 gallons of ley at 20° or 25° B. the steam then turned ofi".the grains formed during the saponification of the oil gradually disappear. doses of ley must be added from time to time. and the This operation of saponifying the tallow commenced. and to add the leys cautiously. with continual stirring . and the process oiseparation commenced. with occasional stirring. It is better. rather than to be compelled to resort to the application of fresh leys to subdue the rising of the mass. about 100 gallons of old ley. however. and the whole well stirred. which is determined by frequent examination of small samples taken from the mass during the boiling.

when the ley is drawn off. This ley should be of 27° or 28° B. when the ley is drawn off as usual. the operation is nearly finished.90 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. 2 or 3 gallons of ley should be added about every hour or so. The steam is now turned off. if properly finished. otherwise the uprising of the mass will be so great as to render to The additions of ley must be made to overflow. As in the former operation. should. and the thick skin which forms on the surface of the soap should be driven into the mass by a stirrer. At the completion of the operation the leys should still be caustic to the taste after a boil of eight or ten hours. when. followed by gentle boiling for eight or ten hours. 40 or 50 gallons of the same ley are introduced. After the leys of the last operation have been removed. and the soap allowed to repose until the following day. In the first service about 90 gallons of fresh caustic ley at 24° or 25° are run into the pan. if the soap appears in small grains. During the boiling. but to ensure its perfect completion. repeated small doses of strong leyjnust be added from time to time. The granular soap. form hard and it liable dry scales or flakes. which may be ascertained by dipping the shovel into the mass in the usual way. At the end of this time the leys will be free from causticity. The soap. to make up for the evaporation which takes place. until separation is effected. however. when pressed between the fingers. which is now in the form'of very small grains. and gentle boUing applied for four or five hours. steam turned on. a second service of strong caustic ley is given. from which the ley runs freely. during which the soap acquires more consistency. and by the evaporation of water from the ley the mass decreases in bulk. with brisk stirring for about half an hour. is allowed to repose for eight or ten hours. have its full effect before introducing the next. the cover of the pan lowered upon it. From 60 to 75 gallons of this ley are now run into the pan. and readily powder when rubbed in the palm of the hand. . and the saponification of the soap completed by boiling with two fresh services of leys.

OLEIC ACID SOAPS. which communicates to it the odour of oil of bitter almonds. which is done by drawing ofi' a little of the ley. . in the usual way.. or. The soap is allowed to rest in the pan for at least twelve hours. the boiling must be continued until the ley indicates the above density. water must be added to reduce the strength of the ley. if the ley has a density of more than 18° or 12° B. marking 6° or 7° B. and placing it aside to eool. To insure It is then ready for cleansing. the soap will be too hard. If the ley marks from 16° to 18° B. the pan from 100 to 125 gallons of the ley used in the separaThe pan is again heated. it is crutched in the frames until it has become cool and stiff. The soap being now finished. Sometimes. a small quantity of nitro-benzol may be crutched in with the soap. ' — A . the operation is complete. an uniform condition of the soap.. when the soap begins to boil. when the lid is raised. 18). is that designed by Mr. indeed. or other fatty matters are saponified separately. the tallow. On the other hand. and is in clots or lumps. and afterwards mixed with the oleic soap by crutching in the frames. and become more viscid and elastic. for other systems of saponificaA is the tion. otherwise the soap will be too soft. having lost its granular form. the grains expand. together with all impurities. by which the leys. and tion. the pan is covered up. very convenient steam-jacket pan for making soap by the above process. and the scum carefully removed from the surface. The boiling is allowed to proceed gently. and if it is desired to give a slight perfume to the soap to disguise the characteristic odour of the oleic acid. The strength of the ley is now tested. in making soaps with oleic acid as an ingredient. interspersed with ley. leaving the purified soap above. and occasionally a few pails of water are spread over the surface of the mass. After four or five hours' boiling the soap assumes a more homogeneous condition. If below the former mark. so as to retain the heat as long as possible. In the latter case. gradually and efiectually subside. Morfit (Fig. 91 This is accomplished by running into Fitting the Soap.

These fatty matters do not require caustic alkali for their conversion into soap.anufacture of stearine for candle-making. commercially. or that only a moderate charge of oil should be distillation. or oils ^palm and cocoa-nut are now extensively employed in its manufacture." It has a strong empyreumatic odour. several methods of neutraKsing these fat acids with carbonate of soda. pipe. . since they have already been converted into fat acids.92 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. There are. discharge-pipe for emptying the pan. and is known. "Red oil" is a very useful fatty material for soap-making. by the various processes employed in the m. as in bleaching palm-oil. as before shown. At E is a c is an exit-pipe for condensed steam. as " brown oil. It is usual. interior of a cast-iron pan set in brickwork . IS. to treat these oils with carbonated alkali. d d is the steam supply- Fig. which may be partially removed by passing a current of superheated steam through it. however. When stearine — — is made by sulphuric add saponification and subsequent the oleic acid is of a brown colour. and is rendered steam-tight by proper luting. Formerly. It is necessary that the soap-pan should be capacious. from which the manufacturer may select that which has his preference. therefore. b a cast-iron jacket into whicli the pan fits closely. but the vegetable butters. stearine was obtained only from tallow. and its colour may be considerably improved by treating it with a small quantity of solution of bichromate of potash and muriatic acid.

by steam heat. and for some soaps a larger excess. it must be added after the fatty acid has been brought to a paste with the portion of fused crystals employed. crystallisation in a jacket-pan. effloresced soda may be used in place of a portion of the fused crystals. brisk stirring) very gradually. as in Morfit's system. 93 operated upon at a time. since a profuse effervescence takes place immediately after the alkali and fat acids come in contact. and the fused crystals allowed to flow in gradually. kelp. Oleic Acid Soaps. although a slight excess. Sometimes. . whereby the volume of the materials is greatly Again. until the fuU proportion has been given. or soda crystals are melted in their [own water of Barilla. after which the fused sal-soda is to be run in as described. The desired quantity of oleic acid being run into the pan (which should be a jacketed pan heated by steam). instead of the dried soda crystals. and the mass assumes the condition of a homogeneous If a soap of greater firmness is required. the requisite proportion is to be thrown into the previously heated fat acid. the alkali must be introduced (with increased. In using the dry carbonate of soda. a m. — — . and the stirring continued until the whole of the resin has melted. In making these soaps it is the practice to estimate the exact quantity of soda that will be required to render a given weight of oleic acid neutral. to be preferred to all other varieties of carbonate of soda.OLEIC ACID SOAPS. dried or paste. Or finely-powdered and sifted soda ash may be used for inferior oleic soaps. should be given. are. heat and stirring must be kept up until the effervescence ceases. in their fused or melted state. If resin is to be introduced. from their comparative purity and convenience. however. but there can be no doubt that the ordinary soda crystals of commerce. bicarbonate of soda have also been used to neutralise oleic acid.oderate heat is applied. soda ash is dissolved in the proper equivalent of water to form soda crystals. The dried sal-soda is produced by passing currents of hot air through the crystals until they fall into a powder. with brisk stirring ^which is more The effectually performed by the steam twirl of Morfit.

may sys- Kottula's Soaps. and at the time attracted much attention. concentrated leys. He then prepares a "lime liquor" by adding to any requisite quantity of water as much lime as it will absorb or take up. The following proportions are. fatty matters. it is to be shoTelled into the frames in the usual way. 10 tons fatty matters. 6J tons. To produce a mottled soap he adds a certain quantity of ultramarine. yellow. previously mixed with water. In conducting his process. Sometimes he omits the sal ammoniac. to each cwt. Kottula about twenty-five years ago. fatty matters. : The — lime liquor. of ley. or curd soap. when the soap is ready for cleansing in the usual way. concentrated soda leys and alum. concentrated soda leys. He first boils soda leys until they have acquired the strength of about 30° B. and the whole are then boiled together for half an hour. —A departure from the ordinary tem of soap-making was introduced by Dr. prepared as above. oxide of manganese. and lime liquor may be varied according to the character of soap required. or other soaps. or other suitable pigment. The fatty matters he employs are such as are commonly used by soap-makers. Instantaneous Soap. or be blended with various proportions of other soaps. Kottula adds to ordinary curd. J tons. recommended Ordinary fitted soap. The whole are then boiled in the usual way. and lime liquor are now added to the melted soap in such proportions that the fatty matters will become duly saponified. By a modification of the above process Kottula produces what may be termed an instantaneous soap. and to this lime solution he adds sal ammoniac in the proportion of about half a pound to each cwt. the soap has acquired its When proper consistence. soda leys. of the solution. lime liquor... and that the soap produced may be of the required description. and then adds to them alum. by combining fatty matters with concentrated . 4 — . mottled. made in the ordinary way. however. 4 tons . with the object of producing a cheaper neutral soap than he believes was hitherto produced. The proportions of fatty matter. 91 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. in the proportion of about 3 J lbs.

" which may be coloured. The rationale of this If sal ammoniac is boiled with process is not apparent. with or without resin. or perfumed in the ordinary manner. After resting until quite clear. if needed. by evaporation as before. of sal ammoniac. of alum. and a further portion of alum (about 2 to 2 J lbs. lime-water. .KOTTULA'S SOAPS. of) added. to every cwt. when he purifies them by adding to each cwt. the whole being boiled for half an hour. The mixture is then removed to another vessel. with the addition of 1 5 to If lb. The addition of alum to soda leys efiects merely the formation of sulphate of soda and of aluminate of soda. the whole being boiled for half an hour. mottled. : 95 soda leys and lime liquor as follows He first concentrates the leys. ten tons of fatty matter. — The lime liquor is prepared as before. it is quickly decomposed. until tbey mark 28° B. with stirring until it is dissolved. which. after which the mixture is allowed to settle until it becomes clear. can be procured more cheaply (see page 229).. are said to produce a " superior compact neutral soap. of ley from 4 to 4J lbs. and nine tons of the leys as above prepared (or smaller quantities in the same proportions).

who were both willing and desirous to adopt improvements of a satisfactory nature. with a view to cheapen it. which involved the introduction into soap of any substance other than fats. like a man in possession. — Gossage's — Preparation of Silicate of Soda. of Potassa. and salt (on which latter substance there was also a high duty) was a criminal offence. instead of reaping the advantage of his ingenuity. the addition of any foreign substance to soap. — Silicated Soaps Sheridan's Process. according . and. met with strong opposition from the excise authorities. — Preparation of Silicate — Mixing Silicate of Soda with Soaps. oils. Normandy's Process. until the duty was subsequently abolished. irritation and official interference. any process. patented or otherwise. : to the abolition of the excise duty on soap. Processes. improvements in this direction could not be taken advantage of by the more enterprising firms. Dr. During this period. for cheapening soap by the addition of sulphate of soda. prices of materials and the increasing demand for soaps rendered cheapening processes necessary for the public convenience but. Normandy's process. leys. and regularly locked up each copper when the hour for closing the factory arrived. and since the excise officer was ever on the premises. he was subjected to constant . which has since been subjected to modifications.CHAPTER Normandy's Process. was resisted by the Excise Board and its myrmidons with wondrous pertinacity. X. At this period. CSEAPENEB SOAPS. the high. evasion of the Previous law was not easily managed.

and the stirring continued as before until a perfectly homogeneous mass results. after which the soap is transferred from the boilingcopper. is briefly as The soap being made in the ordinary way. in the proportion of 20 lbs. and carbonate of soda or potash. of carbonate of soda or potash are to be added (or half this quantity). and the whole well stirred until the mass is perfectly homogeneous. and follows transferred to the cleansing copper. The soap is then to be run into the cleansing-copper with constant stirring. of sulphate of soda. 97 to the requirements of tie manufacturer. as we have said. One of the most important advantages of the above process which. — — H . Sometimes it is desirable to dissolve the sulphate and carbonate of soda in water. when the union of the materials is completed by crutching or the liquid salts are introduced by in the ordinary way means of the steam-crutch. when mixed with . are thrown into the hot soap. the sulphate and carbonate of soda are to be put into the " pot. in which case. 3 cwt. when 21 cwt.'' or lower part of the cleansing-copper. may be introduced in the liquid state (that is. of water. is subject to many modifications is t^iat the sulphate of soda. as before. of soap.CHEAPENED SOAPS. soap to be treated is 3 tons. for every 80 lbs. of soap. of each of the two latter) are put into the cleansing-copper and dissolved by heat. and 4 lbs. and then allowed to fuse into a liquid state. until the mixture is complete. while the soap is being transferred. more of sulphate of soda and 3 cwt. It is now commonly the practice to melt the crystals of sulphate of soda (Glauber's Salt). or 2 lbs. sulphate of soda. of the former and 4 lbs. after it has been put into the frames. when the soap is ready for framing in the usual way. fused in : — Supposing the quantity of their water of crystallisation). of the latter for every 80 lbs. of carbonate of soda or of potash. in the proportion of 28 lbs. of each. 2 cwt. or carbonate of soda in a steam-jacketed pan. of carbonate of potash (or ^ cwt. and to ladle the liquid as required into the melted soap. The sulphate of soda. and 1 cwt.

and forms a necessary item in the long list of soap materials. When in this state it . having the appearance of saponified matter " [a viscous condition]. or caUgtic potash leys the proportions being one part by measure of ground calcined flint or quartz to two parts of either caustic alkali. Of all the numerous cheapening substances which have been introduced into pure soaps. since it not only — favours the introduction of a large percentage of water in certain kinds of soap. Sheridan. soap deficient in hardness.gS THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Silicated Soaps: Sheridan's Process. was ready to be mixed with soap. owing to the then existing excise laws. These were boiled together for about eight hours. unsalable. until they became a "homogeneous mass. rendering it not only unsightly but. The merit of applying silicate of soda to soap is due to Mr. however. however. crystallises throughout the mass. with continual stirring. which was done by introducing the " detergent mixture. or soluble glass. who obtained a patent for his process as far back as the year 1835. at which period. is now an extensively-manufactured article of commerce. Indeed. which prevents it from washing away too freely in the hands of the laundress. to some extent. it may be interesting if we give a brief outline of Sheridan's origiual process. and thereby gives it an artificial hardness. the silicate of soda. in excess. He first formed a "detergent mixture." as Sheridan called . it is very liable to effloresce on the surface of the soap. as to resist the When it is employed strongest pressure of the thumb. but it also possesses in itself a high detergent property. through poorness of the materials of which it is composed. marking 28° B." by boiling calcined quartz or flint (previously ground to an almost impalpable powder) or sand. soap may be rendered so hard by employing large quantities of -this salt. or soluble glass may be deemed the most important. Although the silicate of soda. it could not receive that extensive adoption which has fallen to the lot of subsequent processes based upon his original and most ingenious invention. with strong caustic soda.

Sheridan says. " I find that in curd soap equal quantities. but possessing valuable detergent properties. for which the silicate of potash. 99 a pailful at a time. by weight. Gossage. and be obtained at a low cost. In the patent referred to Gfossage says. and this solution . or Potash Soaps. obtained a patent. Respecting the proportions of silicate of soda which may be added to soap.CHEAPENED it. Gossage's Processes. a compound is obtained which is known to chemists as ' soluble glass. recommends small sample batches. was applied. to be made to guide the soap-boiler as to the relative quantities of each which may be blended judiciously to form the quality of soap he may wish to produce. in varying proportions of soap and silicate.. When silica is combined with soda or potash in such proportions thatjthe alkaline matter present is about double the quantity usually contained in glass. namely. thereby enabling me to produce a compound soap the cost of which is greatly reduced. except in the method of preparing the silicates of soda and potash. at the same temperature as the soap. Nearly twenty years after the publication of Sheridan's process. with constant stirring. by boiling it with water. mixture may be used. before referred to. of Widnes. until the desired quantity had been incorporated with the finished The silicate solution must be as nearly as possible soap. The same invention related to the manufacture of soft soaps. independently of the true soap contained in such compound. and the mixture effected by the ordinary method of crutching.mixing with true soap. and from this it was transferred to an ordinary frame. and which will be considered under the head of Soft. SOAPS. which compound shall possess in itself chemically detergent properties. however." He. . " The object of my invention is to provide a soluble compound for . He recommended mixing the soap and silicate of soda in a small pan capable of holding about half a ton.' and when a solution of this compound is prepared. in 1854. Mr. which bears a close resemblance to Sheridan's. — . of each will answer best in yellow soap about one-tenth more of the detergent.

a thick viscous compound is obtained. and is therefore analogous to true soap. and afterwards dissolved by boiling in three or four times its weight of water. and intimately mixed therewith.* which contains alkali in a weak combination with fatty acids." Preparation of Silicate of Soda. much in the same way as that adopted in the production of ordinary He mixes together about equal parts of dry carglass. twelve parts of dry carbonate of potash. The product is — then ground to a fine powder. and therefore ready to enter into other combinations. and one part of coke or charcoal are mixed together. two parts of sand. in which case three parts of this mineral are substituted for two parts of sand. When the thick viscous compound of silica and alkali (above mentioned) is added to true soaps. concentrated (by evaporation of water therefrom). After reposing for a few hours the clear liquor is drawn off and concentrated by evaporation until it assumes a viscid condition suitable for mixing with pure soap. bonate of soda and clean sand. This mixture is melted in the same way as mixtures of sand and alkalies are in glass-making. a compound soap is obtained. and the whole melted and treated as above. possessing valuable detergent properties. and it is to this condition of alkali being weakly combined in both compounds. and only one-half the quantity of alkali is used. which renders it more friable. " Having the appearance^of saponified matter. ground felspar may be used. Preparation of Silicate of Potash. Gossage prepares silicate of soda or silicate of potash by fusion.— In making silicate of potash. as Sheridan said. In place t)f sand. at a low cost. to which is added one part by weight of ground coke or charcoal for each nine parts by weight of carbonate of soda. The melted mass is afterwards poured into cold water. Sulphate of soda or sulphate of potash may be used instead * Or. This thick viscous compound contains alkali in a state of weak combination with silica. which is easily redissolved by the addition of water. that the detergent properties of true soap and the soluble compound of silica and alkali are attributable.loo THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. During the boiling liquid caustic soda is sometimes added." .





of the carbonates of soda or potash in making the " soluble glass," in which case three parts of either sulphate are substituted for two parts of either carbonate, and four times the quantity of coke or charcoal above given. Gossage subsequently found that silicated soaps could be advantageously produced from pure soaps containing a much larger proportion of resin than was usually employed in the manufacture of hard soaps, whereby a very economical and low-priced soap could be produced. In preparing a genuine soap he used not less than one part of resin for each two parts of tallow or oH, or a mixture of both and when th& soap had been fitted, and was ready for cleansing, he introduced the viscous solution of soluble glass in certain proportions, the specific gravity of which should be about 1"500 (water being 1000). "When manufacturing genuine soap, to be afterwards converted into silicated soap, in which a larger proportion of resin than six parts for each ten parts of tallow or oil, or a mixture of each, is used, he prefers to finish the soap as a " stiff curd," in which state the viscous solution of In mixing the soluble glass soluble glass is introduced. with soap, it is recommended that the first portion of the solution should be of the specific gravity of about 1"300, and the remaining portions at increasing specific gravities, until the whole quantity of the silicate solution averages the specific gravity of 1 '500. Mixing Silicate of Soda witli Soaps. For effectually

mixing genuine soaps with silicate of soda, Mr. Gossage employs certain apparatus, the simpler form of which is
represented in the driawing (Fig. 19).

A circular tub,


having the form of an inverted cone, is

with a series of

vertical shaft, b, blades projecting, b b b, inside th^ vessel. also furnished with a series of blades, ccc, is supported by a- footstep, d, fixed at the bottom of the vessel, and by a journal, adapted to a metallic bridge-piece, e, which is fixed over the tub and secured by screw-bolts to its bevelled cog-wheel is adapted to the upright sides. shaft, and a horizontal shaft, also provided with a bevelled cog-wheel, and supported by suitable bearings, is attached




two wheels being
other. so placed that

to the tub, the

they will

work in gear with each
to the horizontal shaft,

A driving pulley is attached
is set


way when

the apparatus

in motion in the usual The required to be used.

Fig. 19.

diameters of the pulleys and wheels are so regulated.^that the upright shaft may make from sixty to eighty revoluspout, j'^ is attached to the lower part tions per minute. of the tub, with a stopper, g, through which the contents of the vessel are run off. " "When I am about to use my improved apparatus,"






says the patentee, " for the production of compound soap, by mixing genuine soap with viscous solution of soluble glass, I ascertain previously the highest temperature at which the mixture of such genuine soap, with the proportion of the viscous solution employed, will become too thick to admit of its flowing from such mixing apparatus. I then prefer to make a preparatory mixing, by means of paddles or crutches, of the genuine soap with the viscous solution employed, in such a tub or vessel as will contain about half a ton of soap, adding the soap and viscous solution at such a temperature as will yield a mixture having a mean temperature about ten degrees higher than the previously ascertained temperature before referred to." The mixture is now introduced into the mixing apparatus, the shaft of which is then set in motion, and when the incorporation of the silicate and soap is complete, the sliding stopper is withdrawn, and the contents of the vessel allowed to flow out, and be conveyed to the frames. During the rotary crutching, or mixing of one batch, further quantities of the soap and silicate are allowed to undergo the preparatory process of mixing as before. Another modification of the former processes consists in mixing the soluble glass, in a viscous state, with soap made by combining fatty matters with leys, containing such a proportion of alkali in solution as will be sufficient to perfect the conversion of the fatty or resinous matters into soap in one operation (as in Kottula's process), without necessitating the removal of exhausted leys, and adding a further quantity of ley to complete the saponification. The following is another process, formerly patented 60 cwt. of palm-oil, or tallow, and by Mr. Grossage 20 cwt. of resin are melted together, or either of the .following formulae may be used if preferred, namely, 30 cwt. palm-oil or tallow, and 30 cwt. of oleic or stearic acid or 30 cwt. of palm-oil or tallow and 30 cwt. of cocoa-nut oil. 30 cwt. of anj' of the above mixtures of fatty or resinous matters, in a melted state, and at a temperature of about 150° Fahr., is added to a mixture consisting of 80 cwt. of solution of silicate of soda at a specific gravity




of l-300°, and 20 cwt. of caustic soda ley of the specific gravity of 1'180°, the mixtiire being also at a temperature of 150° Fahr. The whole are mixed together by

Into an ordinary soap-copper is then put 30 cwt. of the same mixture of fatty, oily, or resinous matters, and 40 cwt. of caustic soda (sp. gr. 1*180) mixed with 20 cwt. of
water, the whole being boiled together until saponification is complete. The former mixture of fatty matters, silicate of soda, and soda leys is then added to the above, and the whole again boiled together, when 3 cwt. of common salt are to be added. The boiling is to be continued ui^til the mass is reduced to about ten tons, when it is to be cleansed as usual.




CHEAPENEB SOAPS— {continued).
Process. Guppy's Process. Thomas's Process. Potato-flour China Clay. Douglas's Improvements. Fuller's Earth in Soap. Soap. Davis's Process.

In making
solution of

silicated soaps, the strength or density of the

soluble glass is regulated by soap-makers according to the quality of soap they desire to produce, and the nature of the " goods " employed in the manufacture some materials forming a perfectly hard soap with a very large admixture of the silicate. It must be borne in mind, however, that whenever soluble glass is employed, and in however small a proportion, the insoluble base, silica, becomes separated in washing, leaving a deposit, more or less, upon the surface of the skin or linen cleansed by it. Moreover, although silicated soaps possess good detergent properties, they are not agreeable for toilet purposes, since they are very apt to impart an unpleasant roughness to the skin soon after using them. Dunn's Process. The object bf this process is to combine silicates of soda or potash with soap, under pressure, whereby a more perfect union is stated to be effected, and the same method is said to be applicable to ordinary soaps. For yellow soap Mr. Dunn takes the materials in the usual proportions, say, tallow 7, palm-oil 3, resin 3 parts, and caustic soda leys at 21° B. from 140 to 150 gallons. These are placed in a steam boiler (Fig. 20), which is furnished with a man-hole, safety-valve, and all other appendages of such an apparatus, with a thermometer dipping into a chamber of mercury. At A is a feed-pipe, and at B a

20. and the process is complete. then heated as before.. The steam pressure should be equal to from 50 to 70 lbs. Dunn prepares his silicate of soda or potash also under pressure. by placing in the boiler crushed flint or quartz and caustic soda or potash.. Guppy. when the contents of the boiler are discharged into the paii c. and after about three or four hours the silicate is to be discharged by the exit-pipe. in the proportion of 1 cwt. the boiler is heated until the pressure at the safety-valve is sufficient to enable the temperature in the boiler to rise gradually up to 310° Fahr. of silica to 100 gallons of ley at 21° B. and is then ready for mixing with soap in any required proportions. which were injected from a reservoir into the boiler — . An improvement was made in the above process by Mr. who employed stronger leys. Guppy's Process. at which point it is allowed to remain for about an hour.io6 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. from which the finished soap passes to the receiving-pan at c. under a pressure. until the temperature of the boiler indicates 310° Fahr. The fire being kindled. discharge-pipe. to the square inch. and the whole is Fig.

This modification of the former process is said to be more economical and quicker in its results. surrounded by a jacket. The sulphates or carbonates may.. Samples are taken from time to time by means of a small cock fixed for the purpose. The silicate and carbonate of either alkali may be either mixed before adding them to the soap. with man-hole and lid for charging. the proportions of soap andthesalts being regulated according to thequality of soap to be produced. Guppy's proportions of materials are for every 24 lbs. It is preferable to use the soap as taken out of the pan at a temperature of from 170° to 200° Fahr. 2 cwt. . or both in combination. and a vertical shaft working in a steam-tight stuffing box with arms attached. Soap. sulphate of soda crystals. carbonate of soda. and then adds the silicate in solution at a specific gravity of about 1-600. be uged in solution. . soda crystals. 15 cwt.. To combine the soap with the salts. are put into the boiler and beated to 300° F. when the saponification is complete. or they may be introduced separately. 4 cwt. Thomas's Process. of tallow are tben introduced by means of a force-pump. . however. and tbe heat continued for two hours at from 300° to 310° Fahr. 10 pints of caustic soda ley at 17° B. 107 gradually by means of a force-pump. and the vessel is fitted with a steam-tight cover. Soap.CHEAPENED SOAPS. a closed vessel is employed. In some of the processes we have described sulphate of soda. and silicate of soda or potash have been employed as cheapening materials for soap. 1 cwt. however. 6 cwt. silicate of soda (specific gravity 1-600). and with vertical blades attached to — — : — . 12 cwt. but the patentee usually introduces the sulphate or carbonate of soda in crystals. silicate of soda (specific gravity I'SOO). silicate of soda or potash is used conjointly with sulphate or carbonate of soda or potash in combination with soap. extending to within half an inch of the sides. of tallow. . Afterwards about 30 pints of ley at 25° B. II. to every 24 lbs. The following proportions are said to yield good results sulphate of I. by which a supposed advantage is gained over their separate use. By this process.

is to be added to melted soap. through a passage or cock. but the soap-maker should determine this by making small samples with different — : — . This is best done by placing the soap in a half. and is conveyed to the frames in which it is crutched for a time. a pailful at a time. of a solution of alum. and the soap when finished is drawn off or blown out. For •making hard soaps the soda leys are to be used. in the same proportion as before. and the whole well incorporated by stirring. at the lower •part of the vessel. of potato-flour used. to prevent it from adhering to the sides of the pan. but not higher. while still hot." is now to be heated at a temperature of from 170° to 190? Fahr. of soda or potash leys at 22° B. or into the vessel itself. for every ISj lbs. To every 12§ lbs.ton pan. 40 lbs. being now ready.ART OF SOAP-MAKING. The soap is first introduced through the manhole and the shaft set in motion when the salts are added. namely. when the detergent mixture. free from sediment. Sheridan) conceived the idea of blending with pure soap certain proportions of potato-flour. To this mixture is added. as is usual with soaps of this kind. and the rotary motion continued until perfect combination is effected. and the whole mixed together into a homogeneous mass.. The quantity of the detergent mixture which is to be added to the soap may vary from one-fifth to one-third by weight . the arms. which is best done by steam in a jacket-pan. which is called the "detergent mixture. The above mixture. If the mass becomes too stiff the temperature is raised by turning on the steam to the jacket. of the flour used 37 lbs. The ingenious inventor of silicated soaps (Mr. when it is in the proper condition for cleansing. It is necessary that the detergent mixture and soap should be as nearly the same temperature as possible. so that" no lumps may remain. are added.lo8 THE . Potato-flour in Soap. in the same way that curd soap is crutched.. is to be added. The mixture. and well crutched in. During the heating the mixture is to be constantly stirred. which he Equal parts by carried into effect in the following way weight of potato-flour and cold water are mixed thoroughly. for from three to five hours.

Puller's Earth Soap. .' frames. whose success in the manufacture of soap depends upon their reputation. . China Clay (Kaolin) in Soap. soapmakers...i even the. . added to melted spap is regulated by the requirements of the manufacturer-^the-iutmost extent being 50 per cent. long before soap was known. is kaolin. detergent mixture. CHEAPENED SOAPS. After well crutching.i.1 Douglas's " impro-ffenients " in the . . . into the ordinary.^rThe introduction into 6oaps of solid ingredients which possess no detergent properties. . the character of a mere adulterant than other argillaceous (or. . this substance was employed as a cleansing mediuna. . neither should this system of adulteration he encouraged by.any. however (as they certainly do in the present age of adulteration). the soap and.. mixture land allowing them to must yield to the demand. the mixture . earth is undoubtedly the Moreover. The -clay is placed in . the .. encourage cheap. heated by steam or otherwise. of the mass. the most approved substance. in themselves. If the public rezY^. 'for lonesty. and worked up into a paste with water. most scrupnlo. Variety of clay with. the clay being in the proportion of about 25 per cent. ... soap .Heat being applied. . To this is then added a saturated solution of salt in the proportion of about one-twentieth part of the whole. 109 proportions of the detergent. its combinabest.. tion with soap partakes less some districts in Cornwall. It is nearly twenty years since the author introduced into the market a combination of soap and fuller's earth. thet mineral substance known as fuller's".clayey) isubstances. . or China clay (a silicate of alumina. cannot be ^commended. being in itself a detergent.-^Of all the solid matters.a yessel. The proportion of the above mixture. \ . however. Persons of peculiar fancy use these argillace9us soaps for toilet purposes.nanufacture of soap consists in combining i.of clay and water is effected by constant stirring.)^ which abounds extensively in. Indeed. soap is put.:. which have been mechanically combined with soap. . and worthless goods in preference to genuine articlea.. of the clay. .

and finally. should be considered the active ingredient. it should be sifted through a fine gauze-wire sieve. a small quantity of hot water may be added. and not the former. In this condition it is easily reduced to a powder. in order that the latter. of preparing it is given below. When the lumps have thus become saturated. until the full quantity has been introduced. that they are more When friable. at a moderate heat. and the earthy powder spread over the surface. which occurs in large lumps. if necessary. after a certain quantity has been worked in. To mix the fuller's earth with soap (resin soap by preference). when it will assume the form of a fine. peculiarity in this. the lumps are placed on a flat slab. which is ascertained when an excess of water ceases to be absorbed. the mass will become considerably stiffened. and first dried in an oven. with a ledge round it. if for a toilet soap. that the dried clay dried is highly absorbent. Bearing in mind. but not impalpable powder. and are then sprinkled with water until they cease to absorb that liquid. so that it will It is a freely slaken when again moistened with water. . the latter should be put into a steam jacketpan. and other clays. and then moistened. the object being merely to expel the moisture with which it is associated. but in case there may be any lumps present. until all the water is expelled. it failed to command an extensive sale. It is now to be dried at a very gentle heat. any desired perfume added. with constant crutching. to make up for the water expelled from the soap by evaporation. a little at a time. The fuller's earth should be of the best commercial quality. therefore. and thereby render the crutching both laborious and difficult. after being dried. but it should be stated that the object was to introduce into the soap the utmost amount of the detersive earth that could be mechanically mixed with THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. In this way . the clay becomes very soft and pasty to the touch. under the title of Fuller's Earth Soap but although it met with considerable approbation as an agreeable toilet" The method soap. however. the fuller's earth is thoroughly baked. or taken up by the dried earth.

of fuller's earth. — — : — . of calcined soda or pearlIncorash. This soap is said to be useful for general washing purposes at sea. of soap. If it is desirable to omit the fuller's earth in the above formula. or one part to two parts of soap. the prosoap. of "soap. Another method of blending fuller's earth and other substances with soap. and 112 lbs. of dried pipe-clay. 96 lbs. of dried pipe-clay. of calcined soda are used in the above process. is most agreeable. and 36 lbs. 28 lbs. and calcined alkali. whereby a very useful compound is formed which. take 50 lbs. in a melted state. pearlash. 112 lbs. or soda. is that proposed by Mr.CHEAPENED SOAPS. and in this condition they are to be incorporated with the soap. and sifted as finely as possible. slaked 'or dried. as quickly as possible before the pasty mass cools. Tor soap to be used for washing white linen in fresh water. portions are to be 112 lbs. specially serviceable as a nursery soap. when not perfumed. dried pipe-clay. Davis. 56 lbs. The proportions are To every 126 lbs. and for washing white linen in salt water. porate the whole by stirring or crutching. Davis's Process. . are introduced. as a skin soap. all in powder. 120 lbs. it iii is possible to introduce at least one-third of fuller's earth. is employed it is first calcined and then ground up with the fuller's earth and clay until intimately mixed. When pearlash. . or calcined soda. in which pipe-clay. and is.

The object of the process. and at the same time to increase the detersive action of the soap. a solution of carbonate of soda either soda crystals or soda asb being used. — — — Chloridised Sanitary Soap. — . The material employed was chloride of soda. The object of passing the chloride * Otherwise chlorinated lime. was to impart to ordinary household and toilet soaps. The solution of soda is to be placed in a clean tub or cask (a steamed oil cask will do). Take of chloride of lime 28 lbs. and bleaching properties. upon which a fine wire-gauze sieve is to be rested. — — To make the Disinfecting Mixtv/re. then dissolve 32 lbs. hy Lunge's Method. DISINFECTING SOAP. wbich was prepared by mixing chloride of lime * (bleaching powder) worked up into a thin paste with cold water. and carbonate of lime as an insoluble precipitate. of soda crystals in 18 gallons of bot water. Lime Soap. The double decomposition which takes place when the two substances (chloride of lime and soda) are brought in contact. for which the author obtained a patent in 1865. to Combined Soap. deodorising. and mix into a thin paste or " cream " with about 10 gallons of cold water. with. resiJts in the formation of chloride of soda in solution. disinfecting.CHAPTER XII. Two strips of wood are then laid across the upper rim of the vessel. The chloride mixture is now to be ladled into the sieve. Pearlash added Chloridised Sanitary Soap. and as each ladleful is introduced the contents of the vessel are to be briskly stirred. Bleaching Soap in the Pan. and a crutch placed in it for stirring. according to convenience.

the chlorinated soap has an in a great degree. This is. 113 througli a sieve is to keep back unmixed lumps. the mixture is to be added a pailful at a time. the mottle or " strike. with constant stirring. It will be observed that. The proportion of soap for one frame being put into the frame. neither do they present any inconvenience when the soap is used for laundry or other purposes. the impalpable particles of carbonate of lime are not perceptible. fragments of wood. the decomposition also enters the soap. The "When this soap is prepared from ordinary London grey mottled soap.DISINFECTING SOAP. while preserving. however. exceedingly agreeable odour as compared with ordinary mottled soaps. and its incorporation with the true soap satisfactorily accomplished. when the decomposition is complete. the carbonate of lime resulting from. and this might naturally appear objectionable. best kind of soap for converting into the " sanitary soap " is a stiff curd. When nearly all the chloride has been added. It is also important that the soap should not be of a higher temperature than 130° to 150° F. and well crutched by one. the chloride will have diminished their disagreeable odour Indeed. care being taken to clear the . and otlier impurities. which." will be considerably improved and if the original soap has been made from rank and coarse goods. from which the leys have been allowed to draia as much as possible. After crutching. . or by preference two men. in adding the above mixture to soap. . to some extent. otherwise dark patches of the original soap wiU appear when the mass is cold.soap from the sides and ends of the frame. readily avoided by adopting the precaution suggested. It is but fight to mention therefore that when the mixture is properly prepared. by several hours' repose in the soap-pan.. the soap is allowed to cool as usual. the mass thickens and in a few moments after it becomes more fluid. the bleaching property ofthe chloride of soda will manifest itself by the superior colour of the soap. and the mixture is ready for use. and is then cut into bars in the ordinary way. otherwise separation may occur. while.

a solution of silicate of soda (glass liquor) may be used. as usual. becomes remarkably soft and glossy. 20 lbs. An important application of the chloride of soda is in bleaching soap made from the darkest nigers. Chloride of lime worked up into a thin paste or cream. several 60 lb. pailfuls being a fair proportion for a half-ton frame. . were agreeably surprised to find their excoriated hands assume the normal condition after using the chloridised soap for a short time. silicate of soda. and is specially available for soaps containing a large percentage of cocoa-nut oil and even after being heavily " run " or liquored with silicate solution. It should be mentioned that the chloride has the effect of considerably bardening soaps free from resin. linen and floor-boards washed with it become remarkably white with comparatively little labour. and the proportions of the chlorinated mixture may be regulated according to the nature of the soap. as before described. In this case. of the Barnes Soap Works. which." . When the chloridised soap has been well prepared. John Cowan. Instead of employing carbonate of soda in preparing the chloride of soda. dissolved in warm water until it marks about 18° Twaddell. which facts have been demonstrated by repeated and extensive trials. after using it. its very superior cleansing and bleaching powers render it infinitely more economical to the user. Indeed it is a fact that this compound soap imparts a most agreeable smoothness to the skin. thp following proportions may be taken. from four to six 60 lb. which may be effected by introducing certain proportions of the . as before 20 lbs.. on the other hand. for which suggestion the author was indebted to his friend Mr. until beginning to " set. Soap of this kind however should be crutched. It has been found in large laundries that women whose hands had suffered much from using mottled soap containing caustic ley in its interstices.114 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. pails of the chloride mixture may be added with advantage. These materials are to be mixed and used in the same manner as before.

The chloride solution is prepared in the same way as described in the first formula. about 56 gallons more cold water are added and the mixture well stirred. with one or two honourable exceptions it has been used without licence. in order to facilitate the deposit of the carbonate of lime. the remaining chloride. in order to wash out.^ When soap is made from — ^ dark-coloured goods. a quantity of fresh water should be added with brisk stirring. or even three times the quantity of water should be applied. in future batches.p.coloured fatty matter forms a part. 1^5 chloride. curd and hydrated soaps combined. when the clear liquor (which has a slightly greenish tint) may be drawn ofi' as required. of pearlash to 3 tons of soap is said to be sufficient. say. 28 gallons of water for each 28 lbs. or from materials in which a certain quantity of dark. though a much larger proportion may be used for some soaps.— DISINFECTING SOAP. of soda crystals used. as far as practicable. Fearlash added to Combined Soap. until the colour of the soap is evidently and sufficiently improved. the proportion varying according to the excess of spent leys contained in such combined s6a. of chloride of lime and 32 lbs. Bleaching Soap in the Pan. a considerable improvement in the colour of the batch may be made by adding a moderate quantity of solution of chloride of soda after the first operation of saponification is complete. but twice. and as much of it spread over the boiling contents of the pan by means of a ladle or swimmer as may be found necessary to bleach or decolour the saponified mass. After the materials have been mixed with. ' — — . When all the liquor has been drawn off the residual carbonate of lime. as in making ordinary leys. About 1 cwt. With a view to neutralise the spent leys (salts) contained in combined soaps that is. and the weaker liquor thus obtained may be used in place of water. as in Blake and MaxwelPs process. or other such combinations Kottula introduces a certain quantity of pearlash. after which it is allowed to repose for a few hours. Although the process has been extensively adopted in various parts of the United Kingdom.

" In this way.m6 the art of soap-makjng. even in salt water. and therefore a tolerably pure carbonated alkali should be When used. If the soda employed does not contain suflBcient salt. a sufficient quantity of sea salt is to be added to promote the —A A separation. cocoa-nut or palm-oil is saponified by this process. and a " granulated " carbonate of lime will deposit. when the hard insoluble lime soap will be decomposed. without previously extracting the pure fat or make a good oil. the quantity of lime should be equal to about onefifth of the weight of the fatty matter. and slaked lime equal to 12 per cent. The soap thus prepared is stated to be very soluble. when the latter may be drawn off from the bottom of the pan. and the boiling and stirring continued. by Lunge's Method. of the weight of fatty matter. Lime Soap. flat-bottomed pan is preferred for making this soap'. To this is added double the quantity of water. The whole is to be boiled and stirred (with an " agitator " by preference). . certain quantity of water and commercial carbonate of soda (the latter . into whicli is introduced any given quantity of fatty matter. when an insoluble hard lime soap and a solution of glycerine are produced.being slightly in excess of the quantity of lime used) are next added. or impure oils." the inventor says. " it is possible to soap from fatty matters with membranes. leaving a soluble soda soap floating in flakes on the surface of the liquid.

Messrs. process consists in agitating the saponifiable materials with caustic or carbonated alkalies in solution in water in a closed vessel. and heat applied to produce a pressure of 220 to 280 lbs. Increased quantity 4. and producing an instantaneous combination of the fatty acids with the base of the suppose a quantity of fatty matter alkaline solution. in such a manner as to cause a thorough mixing of the fats with the alkaline solution. enclosed in a vessel with a solution of carbonate of soda in water. The following description of the process is given in Dussauce's Treatise. in which agitation of the materials performs the preliminary stage of the operation. Improvement in quality 3. —Mr. — Gluten ia Soap.. There have been several attempts to produce saponification by other than the ordinary means. We . and a temperature of 350° to "400° F. .. a combination between the fatty acids and the soda of the solution will take place only at the upper surface of the solution when in contact with the under surface : Bennett and — . Economy in labour . "Their. 5. Saving of the glycerine. SAPONIFICATION UNDER PRESSURE. Saving in fuel . Rogers's Process. per square inch. while under heat and pressure. 6. The use of cheaper materials 7. Hawes. Bennett and Gibbs of New York obtained a patent in 1865 for a mechanical process which is said to possess the following advantages 1. including the " cold process " of Mr. CHAPTER Bennett and Gibts's Process. Saponification of all the grease 8. Cribbs's Process. —New Process of Saponification. which enters into the soap. Rapidity of manufacture 2. XIII. before described.

so as to admit of the insertion of a revolving (Fig. thus. a a a through a stuffing-box c for the convenience of applying' to the pulley h power to revolve the shaft. while under heat and pressure. floats. On the shaft are fastened arms g g'with floats or stirrers//. 21). the whole wUl be instantly converted into a homogeneous and even It is advisable to use no more water than quality of soap. and is about the full size of the inner diameter of the Fig. or agitators on one side of the shaft when revolved carrying the fat down into the alkali. the heavy ley occupying the lower -part of the vessel. which should be as long as the The bearings of this shaft should be in cylinder itself. is wanted in the soap. soap. thoroughly mixing the whole. " If we now agitate in such a manner as to stir together and thoroughly mix the contents of the vessel. and soap will only be produced where the fat and alkali unite. and either or both ends worked shaft. and heated in any convenient manner. . One or both heads of the cylinder is made so as to be conveniently removable. even.ii8 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. plain " The inventors use a boiler or cylinder similar to a cylinder steam-boiler resting horizontally. and good quality of . the centre of the cylinder. of the grease. while the agitators on the other side carry the alkali up into the fat. extending nearly to the sides of the cylinder the arms. and causing the conversion of the whole contents of the vessel instantly into a uniform. cylinder. 21.

"The safety valve on the outlet pipe d may be so loaded as to allow an escape of soap at a pressure of -250 to 270 lbs. and which is intended to be used only when it is desired to draw off the whole contents of the vessel. By this process the soap is made in less than one hour from the time the ingredients are introduced into the boiler. of soda tallow. At the opposite end of the cylinder is an opening i for the insertion of a supply pipe at the fire end is also an opening I for the insertion of a second outlet pipe. (English) at 48° . in order to prevent undue pressure by the liberation of the carbonic acid when combination of the fatty acids with the alkali takes place. if the fire "At safety valves." The proportions : given carbonate lard. moulding (framing) and cutting processes in ordinary use. if this degree is reached in five minutes. and a quantity of ley and oil may be pumped in at the opposite end.. but a uniform and thorough saponification is obtained at the instant that -the heat and pressure arrive at the required degree. the soap is made. If any of the liquids be allowed to escape before the temperature reaches 325° to 376°. They also use a mercury bath k of about foui inches in length of gas-pipe. and thus a continual stream of soap is kept up as long as the feeding is continued. one . they should be returned to the cylinder. 119 end of the cylinder are placed twq e on the top of the cylinder. it is necessary to allow some carbonic acid to escape by one of the safety valves. of carbonate of soda will. thie other d on an outlet pipe inserted in the head of the cylinder. The product obtained by the above 100 lbs. it is saidi make a neutral soap for soft water. the agitation being kept up. lbs.. and which is screwed intd the boiler or cylinder in any convenient place for the insertion of the thermometer bulb. The product may then be prepared for market by cooling. 27 . oil. carbonate of soda is used. When the machinery is first put in operation. be the time long or short .. or employed by the inventors are thus water.SAPONIFICATION UNDER PRESSURE. 100 lbs.

W. is process 200 lbs. is preferred in carrying out this part of the process. namely. to the square inch by :means of a forcepump driven by steam. without requiring the use of so much potash as in the ordinary procesess. instead of the high temperature adopted in the above and similar systems. The fatty matter is placed in a jacketed retort. ^M\ Berghart has patented a process by which animal or vegetable fats or oils are distilled into caustic or carbonated leys of soda or potash. Atmospheric air alone. The materials are mixed in a tank heated by steam. The Mr. When the oil or fat begins to volatilise. of soap for every 100 lbs. inasmuch as the soap can be made in from fifteen to By twenty-five minutes. W. — . and subjected to a pressure of about 400 lbs. It shoiild be observed that in both processes given carbonate of soda is used instead of caustic soda. New Process of Sapomficatiou. when it is run into frames. soap is made under pressure at a larc temperature. or in combination with superheated steam. and the product is said to be both firm and translucent. or in a retort otherwise heated to a temperature which will volatilise the oil or fat without charring it. which are condensed in proper receivers. Rogers of Lancaster. G. and the mass thus prepared is run into an iron cylinder capable of holding one or more tons.MAKING. moreover. this system any of the usual combinations of fatty — By matters may be employed. G. The mass is kept in this cylinder until saponification is complete. process is stated to be applicable to making any kind of soap.120 THE ART OF SOAP. By another process. including soft soap. N. thus enabling inferior goods to be employed in the manufacture. which also renders the employment of common salt unnecessary. which is prepared with the same rapidity as any other. Y. with complete saponification: this plan.. the materials become bleached. air or carbonic acid gas is blown into the retort. heated by high-pressure steam. Rogers's Process. by which the inventor states there is a saving of time. which carries over the fatty acids. that of Mr. of grease employed.

If necessary. and thus time is saved in the operation. When the fatty matters. air. which communicates directly with the outlet pipe of the retort. the vapour of the fatty acids is passed direct into caustic or carbonate leys of soda or potash. in which case the vapours are allowed to pass into a cham. The steam is used principally to prevent the charring of the matters. deposits the solid fatty acids in the ordinary The current tlie into way.^ERGHART'S PROCESS. and is afterwards treated td separate any refat from the colouring matter. or steam and air. and when advisable it is blown direct into the melted fat. for instance. the ordinary process of " salting " is not required. The air has an important effect in aiding the chemical reaction. By the employment of the high temperature. 121 of. contain alizarine or other colouring matters^ the fatty acids pass over from the retort. to avoid too high a temperature in the distillation. which is thus recovered. when they pass into a chamber. the strength of which depends upon the nature If a slight excess of alkali of the fatty matter employed.of carrying over the fatty acids in a more or less finely divided state. and in the making of the soap to assist in the boiling of the same. In making soap by this process.ber containing water. is used. The fatty acids are blown into the leys until the alkali is nearly or about neutralised. as a printer's grease. the fatty acids may be mashed before being treated with ley. It is therefore important.. is sometimes blown space above the liquid fatty matter in the retort. in passing through them. which are fitted with partitions in such a way that the current.. or series of chambers. apart from its use as a vehicle to carry over the fatty acids. The current of air has the eflfect . while the alizarine or other colouring matter remains in the retort. the fatty maining . The inventor prefers to employ hot air and superheated steam in combination to carry over the fatty acids into the ley. when alizarine or other colour is present. The ley is by preference contained in a closed tank.. by which the soap becomes boiled during its formation.

is added as the alkali will take up after digesting for some hours. as much bran. It must be borne in mind that nitrogenous matters. —This making a — source. This is now strained through a fine sieve or coarse cloth. are apt to any other undergo decomposition on treatment with caustic alkali. acids are separated from the glyceryl compounds without the aid of sulphuric acid or of saponification. which is afterwards to be mixed with soap to the extent of about ten per cent. patented by Lorberg. The solution of gluten is thus made-: In a solution of caustic alkali (soda or potassa) at about 28° B. or gluten derived from Glnteu in Soap. such as gluten.122 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. It is said to impart increased emoUiency to the soap. solution of gluten in caustic alkali. when it is ready to be added to the soap in the proportion given. when a clear homogeneous mass is obtained. consists in process. .

VAEIOUS PROCESSUS. to 20 lbs. In the meantime a second pan is charged with cocoa-nut oil. In ttis process caustic potash is added to caustic soda in the manufacture of soaps. tallow. In making yellow soap by this process. and. when nearly cool. or a solution of potash. for every 100 lbs. — Bernadet's Proceaa. 2 parts of tallow or palm-oil and 1 part of resin are melted together. for every 100 lbs. Now water. It is said that soap thus made has a " beautifully mottled appearance. Villart'a Process. — Soaps Process. when boiling. — . when the soap thus formed is to be put into frames as usual. — Villacrose's Process. when it becomes so thick that the ley cannot separate from it it is then ladled into the frames. and. The Soap is allowed to remain in the frames from three to six days. —Lutntarton's 'Process. in the proportion of 10 lbs. of soap. and the two soaps boiled together until sufficiently hard. so that the ley may settle. — Crevel's Process. . For making mottled soap. The soap is then allowed to remain in the pan from three to six hours. The mass is then well stirred for five or ten minutes. and a ley composed of 3 parts caustic soda and 1 part potash added. bone fat." lathers freely. and in the course of a day will become solid.Symons's Disinfecting made from Animal Eefuse. and has a smooth surface. the soap (previously cut into small pieces) is added to it and allowed to . or bleached palmoil is boiled with ley and converted into a hard soap. —Mr.— CHAPTER Kiirten's XIV. of solution of soda and 40 lbs. Knrteu's Process. is put into the soap-pan. of the mixture 90 lbs. of solution of caustic potash are added. and when the mass is turning into soap the former soap is added to it. — Cutting Soap.

common salt. — to this subject. and possess disinfecting properties in a higher degree than carbolic acid. and the whole well boiled. it is said. Its solutions are " strongly antiseptic. 10 parts.. alum. Some of these processes are given in Dussauce's Treatise. when. being very aromatic. in solutions of alkalies. quicklime. however. and indeed all parts of animals except the bone.— 124 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Although it is well known that caustic alkalies will saponify animal tissues. which is soluble in water. membraneous matters. 1 part. when dissolved." Soaps made from Animal Befnse. brine is thick. from which we make a few extracts : " Bernadet's Frocess. the ingredients being mixed in the following proportions: Sub. and dissolving and warming up the soap a second time without boiling it. &c. creosote. On the Continent. and the product will be "a hard soap of very fine character has no disagreeable smell. common salt. being mixed with water. forming compounds which are soluble in water. and many processes devised for utilizing slaughterers' oflFal and butchers' waste as soap material. Its advantages over carbolic acid. —The intestines are deposited in . some attention has been devoted dissolve.carbonate of soda. The novelty of — . 10 parts. 1 part. but without boiling. they will become perfectly saponified. are that it has no unpleasant taste or odour. and alum." Mr. These. this source of soap-making material has not been much explored in this country. are added to the fatty matters. to If it is not sufficiently hard be added until it becomes quite this process consists " in the use of caustic potash. quicklime. and can consequently be used for toilet or ordinary washing purposes.." Lnmliartoii's Process consists in saponifying fatt)' matters by boiling them with an alkaline mixture composed of carbonate of soda. &c. Symons's Disinfecting Soap consists in adding to ordinary soaps the disinfecting and deodorising substance known as thymol or thymic acid. The soap produced by this process contains all the glycerine. and its weaker solutions do not act cauterisingly but coolingly.

that is from 20° to 30°. " 3.white colour. The substances are placed in wooden tubs capable of holding about 300 or 400 lbs. the first of a greenish. 12 gallons of ley at 4° prepared as follows This ley marks 15°. suets). If required to be whitened. "2. but with occasional stirring. 6 lbs. with a sufficient quantity of water. &c. and a very slightlycoloured grey soap is obtained. and having a disagreeable odour the second is similar to the above. 12 parts . lime. When the saponification (by maceration) has been effected.— VARIOUS PROCESSES. dissolved. 1 lb. 1 lb. . and this is then poured on the lime.' . " Villart's common salt is added to produce Process has for its object the conversion of animal matters in general into soap. properly The prosaponified and mixed with the 'animal soap. and water. The lime is first slaked and the soda ash dissolved in water. not very firm. : " — Soda ash. and the mixture then poured over the animal substances. From these two kinds of soap are obtained. the animal substances are washed in tubs. result. but more especially the residuum of meat. water. but with the addition of resin and tallow. . Solution. the animal substances are placed in a pan. to remove the lime attached to them. . After sufficient exposure to the air. The ley is then heated until entire saponification takes place. intestines. cess is divided into four operations : Maceration. 10 parts composed as follows is poured over them soda ash. and for every pound of them add 1. a solution of chloride of soda (see page 112) is poured into the pan.. after which separation. has always succeeded however. weaker or stronger leys may be used. 100 parts. which operation is easy. the whole being allowed to remain in this condition for some time. scrapings of tallows (query. 125 caustic ley to prevent decomposition until they are to be used. and gives a good : — . " The animal matters being completely from the lime. after which they are exposed to the action of the air. with stirring. when a ley Lime. Washing. the solution is to be poured off and the solu- .

25 gallons of the second ley for every 2 lbs. 50 lbs. "4. and when saponification is completed the soap is framed as usual. 100 lbs. which soon becomes saponified. macerate it in alkaline liquor for several days put the macerated substance into a pan. 10 lbs. to be heated again. . of the soap first obtained. becomes hard. The pan caustic soda. The heat must be gentle at first. immediately introduce the animal substances and stir well. the soda is . tallow. take resin. when the former soap is to be added. — — : — 200 lbs. meats. In this process animal subTake animal substances. when warm. . 2. care being taken not to employ too strong a ley. for which purpose tallow and resin are added in proportions varying from 2 to 100 per cent. liquor. . on cooling. then add the 40 lbs. Coction. little by little. of tallow (with a little water if necessary). Melt in boiling water the greases. during the boiling." Crevel's Process. and. 200 lbs. is first to be heated. for treating 500 lbs. and continue to boil until. melted tallow. stances are saponified as follows . press. the second ley above given. The object of this operation is to give the soap a consistency which will render it salable as a commercial article. of substance. and the temperature gradually raised to 167° F. and boil until perfect liquefaction takes The mass is then place. When the mixture has acquired the proper alkaline strength the heat is slackened and the mass allowed to cool. on cooling. During the melting the mass must be stirred until it thickens. and alkali added gradually. tlon again boiled. . adding. . when it is run into frames. and may be cut in about ' : two days after. or other parts of animals. the small quantity of water it contains being sufficient to dissolve it. From 10 to 15 per cent. Villacrose's Process. No. to avoid too much swelling. when it must be allowed to cool. to be thrown in. of resin should be added to the above. 40 lbs. and keep the residuum triturate and grind the residuum.' Now. it has the appearance of a firm paste. in Thus.126 THE ART -OF SOAP-MAKING. These are to be boiled until perfectly saponified. and the boiling continued until the paste.

the first man then pulls the wire by its two wooden handles steadily until the first slab is This top slab is cast aside to b^ used up with other cut. workman then takes the cutting wire (Fig. cut. 2). and the soap is framed as is cold enough to be detached from the iron frame (Fig. 24). to be afterwards cut into bars in the manner before described. 14). and the operation usual. and throws the loop over the block of Kg. the two upper notches . and the sides and ends are removed and placed aside The sides and ends of the block of soap are. When all the soap is cut. 22 it is then marked at each corner by means of the gauging stick (Fig. —^When the soap . 15).VARIOUS PROCESSES. waste in future batches. 23. the bolts are A Fig. Fig. 22. who fits the wire into Cutting Soap. 23). 24. soap. the slabs are removed one by one and placed on the barring machine (Fig. Fig. . Fig. first scraped all over with the scraper. when the wire is taken in hand by a second workman (see drawing. is complete.

will yield from 6 to 7 parts of potash soap. by means of fresh lime. Potash leys cannot be separated from the soap. and more or less transparent. Freparation of the Fotasli ley. instead of assuming a hard. Moreover. MANUFACTimE OF SOFT SOAPS. solid consistence. ^The pearlash of commerce. potash soaps always contain a large percentage of water." Eeain in Soft Soaps. Scotch Soft Soap. as for example in the dressing of woollen textile fabrics. and the former is converted into caustic potash. therefore the leys employed wholly enter into the composition of the Much care is therefore necessary to avoid introducsoap. are ordinarily used for this purpose. lioudon "Crown Soap. since these soaps are employed in many useful arts. ing too great an excess of the alkali. in the same way as in preparing soda ley^.CHAPTER XV. treated with caustic potash ley. as in the ordinary method of purifying soda soaps .Con- — — — — tinental Methods. It is usually the practice to pre- — . . still it is an important branch of the manufacture. or American potash (caustic potash). Preparation of the Potash Ley. and it is a characteristic of all soaps made with this alkali that. as is the case with soaps made from soda. — Although the production of soft soaps is far less extensive than of those commonly known as hard soaps. they are always soft. will generally yield about 6 parts of soda soap. ^The Fatty Materials employed. the same proportion of fatty matter. tenacious. The alkali employed in the manufacture of soft soaps is potash. more in a state of mechanical mixture than in chemical combination and while 3 parts of fatty matter .

fire is withdrawn and the mixture. from 450 to 500 gallons of water are put into an iron-pan. should stand at from 20° to 25° B. while boiling. is then poured in. after which it is allowed to rest until the lime has again deposited. but care is taken that each portion is dissolved before adding the next. when the clear ley. the weight of lime being determined by that of the potash used. and the pan well stirred for a short time. an equal quantity of water is poured on to the lime. and the boiling should be continued for several hours. a third ley is obtained at about 6° to 8° B. and brought to a boil. The clear ley is next run off into an iron tank or cistern. When all the clear ley is drawn off. and the solution of the alkali is accelerated by continual stirring. To causticise the above solution of carbonate of potash. This ley. by mixing it with a moderate quantity of water. as usual. The lime must first be slaked with water. and so on. and the pan again stirred as before.— MANUFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS. the weaker of which is employed in the first operation of pasting. and after about twelve hours' repose. of fresh lime must be taken. allowed to rest. The potash is then added. or preliminary stage of saponification. While the lime is being introduced. On the Continent potash leys are prepared as follows If the potash is in the form of hard lumps. Further washings of the lime may then A K . marks from 20° to 22° B. when the. which must be kept closed to prevent the absorption of carbonicacid from the air. and the hydrate of lime thus formed is to be gradually added to the hot solution of potash it is. called the second ley (marking from 12° to 16° B. however. until the whole quantity is dissolved . these are first crushed on a hard stone by means of an iron " punner. a little at a time. which is called ^e first. The boiling is kept up until the solution. or strong ley." : and if 300 or 400 gallons of ley are required. considered preferable to make the lime into milk of lime. so that the carbonate of lime may gradually subside. the mixture is to be kept well stirred. 129 pare leys of two or three different degrees of strength.) is third dose of water to be drawn off into a separate tank. from 60 to 70 per cent.

&c. and moderate heat applied until the oils have become thoroughly liquefied. hempseed. when the third ley. with stirring. until the lime is perfectly freed from the alkali. and small quantities of tallow are also employed in the manufacture. during which time the added alkali will become gradually absorbed. Some manufacturers employ variable proportions of soda with their potash leys. As soon as the paste assumes a moderate degree of consistency. until a perfect combination of the alkali and fatty matters is efi'ected. coleseed. palm-oil. additions of the second ley. and cod are chiefly used . marking from 6° to 8° B. which is determined by the mass assuming a perfectly homogeneous condition. is run in gradually. latter washings may be used in lieu of water in subsequent operations. the vegetable oils are olive. The mixture is then gently brought to a boil.I30 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. In making Soft Soap. be given. seal. — . those of the whale. poppy. Of the animal oils. are to be made gradually. that is a few gallons at a time every quarter of an hour or so.. . by which the soft soaps made with them acquire a firmer consistence than when caustic potash alone is used. When this is the case the soda may be dissolved with the potash in the first instance. rapeseed. and this is kept up. at about 12° to 15° B. or instead of using pure water in dissolving fresh quantities of potash when preparing other and these batches of ley. The Fatty XCaterials employed. there being no unoombined oil on the surface or ley at the bottom of the pan. besides which an advantage is gained by using a proportion of the cheaper alkali. but the latter is only used to give the soap a granular or fig-like appearance.. These are the animal and vegetable oils. but when a larger proportion than 15 per cent. for several hours. continuing to do this with constant boiling for a few hours. the selected oils are first put into the pan. Sometimes oleic acid. linseed. of soda is used. the proportion of soda to that of potash being from 12 to 20 per cent. with continual stirring. the resulting soap will not be so transparent as ordinary soft soaps. colza.

during which a considerable frothing occurs. and when this quantity has attained a temperature about equal to that of boiling water. is stringy. The soap is now to be treated with the first or strong ley. the soap being. the weak ley is added gradually. finished by_ adding the necessary quantity of the strongest ley. The additions of stronger leys are then made. in the usual way adopted by soap-boilers . but this eventually subsides when the operation is getting near completion. in order that their actual condition may be ascertained. an addition of strong ley must be made. small samples should be set aside to cool. after which fresh oil is introduced. and the boiling kept up until the proper consistence is reached. as before described. as before. Boiling. 131 During the boiling a considerable amount of fob or foam is formed. and if it does not possess a sufficiently alkaline taste. the soap acquires a greater degree of stiffness. if saponification is complete a narrow opaque fringe appears round the outer edge of the sample. added. and samples should be taken occasionally and examined by pressing between the finger and thumb. when tried between the fingers. Some manufacturers introduce a portion only of the oils into the pan in the first instance. and consequent evaporation of the water from the leys. and when the proper consistence is nearly arrived at.MAN. great care is taken that the ebullition is very gentle at first. the mass would speedily boil over. at 22° to 25° B. and so on. when the soap is said to be to strength when this appearance is not present it — . . then more weak ley. If this caution were not observed. and the mass becomes limpid and transparent. By continued boiling. If the soap.UFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS. in small quantities at a time at short intervals. the boiling must be continued. When examining samples of the soap.. until the entire charge of fatty matter is introduced into the pan. In boiling soft soaps. owing to the powerful action exerted by the chemical union of the alkali and fatty matter. and the boiling is gently kept up until the mass has acquired the proper pasty consistence of the first operation.

and. each from the above quantity of materials. Heat being applied to the bottom pan. 132 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. of such alkaline strength that one gallon contains 6. we may infer that the ley has been too strong. and I believe it to be true. but is prevented' from boiling over by being beaten down on the surface. with 250 gallons of ley from American potash. Manufactures. it is important that the further evaporation of water from the ley should be checked not only by turning off the steam. * " Dictionary of Arts. and 4 cwt. is said to want strength . saponify the fats.700 grains of potash per gallon. . "We should now introduce about 42 gallons of a stronger ley. amounting in quantity to 100 firkins of 64 lbs. of tallow. interspersed with the figged granulations of stearate of potash. the proper quality of soap will be obtained. that it is a more difficult and delicate operation to make a fine soft soap of glassy transparency. are put into the soap-pan. as the case may be and when this period has arrived. the opaque fringe first appears and then vanishes. Should it soon subside into a doughy-looking paste.according to Ure. It is generally supposed. than to make a hard soap of any kind. and in determining the exact time when the fire should be drawn or the steam turned off." There can be no doubt whatever that considerable judgment and caution must be exercised in the boiling of soft soaps. the mixture froths up very much as it approaches the boiling temperature. to been added in the whole.* the following " 273 gallons of whale process is that generally adopted or cod oil. Its proper consistence is that of a thin glue.. it is said to haveya&e strength. and indicates that the saponification is incomplete." . by introducing into the soap-copper a sufficient —A : — . and Mines. and after a short interval an additional 42 gallons and thus successively. or if. but.600 grains of real potash. within the iron curb or crib which surmounts the caldron. from my own numerous experiments upon the subject.. considerable quantity of soft soap is made in Scotland. if convenient. equivalent to 8. till nearly 600 such gallons have After suitable boiling. Scotcli Soft Soap.

MANUFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS. and the mass again brought to a boil. 133 quantity of cold soap to reduce the temperature of the mass. . at first excessive. boiling. and the whole brought to a boil. sperm-oil 80 gallons. after which the mass is allowed to rest for about two hours. If the sample tried by the trowel is stringy. the heat being continued until the soap appears to be about half made. At the end of this time the steam is again turned on. About 400 gallons of ley being prepared. London " Crown Soap " of the best quality is made from tallow. and the caustic potash leys are generally employed in two different degrees of strength. and caustic potash ley 135 94 gallons of the ley and the tallow are first put gallons. and the steam turned on. and 19 gallons of ley added. and when the tallow is melted the oil is to be introduced. !9^ gallons of ley are then added. a third of this quantity is first put into the pan. and eventually subsides. into the pan. this shows an excess of ley. second quality of Crown Soap is made from taUow 286 lbs. with renewed an^d finally the remaining 9 gallons of ley are introduced. Additional quantities of ley are added from time to time until the frothing. when the tallow and lard are added and the steam turned on when the fats are melted the olive-oil is run in. : •. the boiling continued until the soap is complete. and the boiling is continued until samples taken from the pan exhibit the proper consistence. and the boiling continued gently. each. and olive-oil. and olive-oil 70 gallons. after which the steam is to be turned off and the contents of the pan allowed to rest for about two hours. Towards the end of the operation brisk boiling should be given. begins to moderate.. and the strongest from 25° to 30° B. and finally moderated and repeated samples should be taken until the soap is found to be perfected. more ley must be added. lard. the weakest from 8°. when a moderate quantity of oil must be added. The proportions of materials employed for 18 barrels of soap are tallow and lard 62 lbs. A . and. when the steam is again turned on. and about 20 gallons more ley added. but if it appears whitish and clotted.

when in a liquid state. — 600 lbs. After separating the ley. tallow. add a certain quantity of the paste to the soap. To prepare this colour. In making soft soaps resin is sometimes introduced to the extent of 5 or 10 per cent. the soap is drawn off into barrels open at one end. If. its natural colour is a brownish-yellow. 800 lbs. fication is finished. oleic acid. with continual stirring. the soap is to be green. To colour the soap. and.134 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. bj"^ by good stirring. whereby it saponifies with the other ingredients or fatty matters. and pass it through a fine sieve. coleseed-oil. If this colour is required the heat is stopped ofi". the soap is well boiled. the addition of oleic acid. this shade is given to it by adding a small quantity of indigo. as follows " When the soap is nearly done. pierced with holes like a skimmer. sometimes. and incorporate tract the attention of manufacturers. The method adopted for introducing resin into this soap at Liege is. or other animal fats. This caldron is then immersed to threequarters of its height in the boiling soap. Kesiu in Soft Soaps. with. and. Coutiuental Methods.. on the contrary. and when. These materials are first put into the pan and heated gently. The following formula is given for a soft soap of good quality: Linseed-oil.. 75 gallons of caustic potash ley at 6° to 8° B. are added gradually. and . and the resinous soap passes through the holes of the caldron and combines intimately with the mass of the soap in the kettle. The resin is generally introduced into the pan in the form of a fine powder." In Belgium and Holland soft soaps are made from vegetable oils. according to Dussauce. The pan is then brought to a boil. after resting a few hours. of the weight of the fatty materials used. macerate for a few hours indigo of good quality in boiling ley. In contact with the excess of ley contained in the soap the resin' saponifies. rub it in a mortar. the quantity of resin required to be added is deposited in a large sbeet-iron caldron. in the earliest part of the operation. This arrangement deserves to at- — — : — When the saponia well-managed evaporation. 200 lbs.

.. are frequently of a green colour. which are mostly made from vegetable oils. by the usual sample tests. is then introduced a little at a time. marking 22° to 25° B. while the Continental soaps. care being taken to avoid the boiling over of the pan when the chemical action is at its most vigorous point. the soap will become clear and of a glutinous consistence. whether the green colour is derived from materials used in the manufacture.. the boiling being continued until the saponification is complete. must be added at moderate intervals. A stronger ley. when doses of from 10 to 12 gallons of ley. are of a brown colour. As soon as the usual frothing subsides. as before described. Ordinary English and Scotch soft soaps. 135 up for several hours. being made chiefly from fish oils. the soap is known to be finished. mark- ing from 12° to 15° B.MANUFACTURE OF SOFT this is kept SOAPS. Savon vert is the title given to these soaps. or from the artificial admixture of indigo. The boiling is then to be kept up until.

Belgian Soap.. Itl. and is employed in scouring -woollen textile fabrics. a half-hard soap is largely produced for the use of cloth manufacturers. second. and the boiling is kept up until the paste separates from the ley when tried by the shovel 775 . . another third 24°. 20°. Tallow . —M. and these represent the first. after which the second strength of ley is added gradually. The entire quantity of ley should be introduced within two hours. and 30° Baume. MANUFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS— {continued). ... and the remainder 30° B. itTo. lbs. The caustic ley is used at three different degrees of strength. Soft Soap. namely.— CHAPTER XVI. 225 225 lbs. 300 „ 150 „ 600 „ 600 „ 600 „ The quantity of ley requisite for 600 lbs. : — No. II. . —Fulling Soap. Belgian Soap. according to either formula. and third leys used in the preparation of this soap. Tallow.. Colza-oil I. Loch's cess. of fatty materials. Tallow-oil 70 „ .. Cocoa-nut oil ISO „ Cocoa-nut oil 150 „ Cocoa-nut oil. 18°. an essential feature in soaps employed for this purpose. —Russian Soft Soap... The two firstnamed fatty matters are put into the pan with the weakest ley. . will be from 750 to lbs. 380 lbs. 150 Bleached palmoil . This soap contains an excess of alkali (potash).. and these are boiled together. The fatty materials are divided into three groups. .. — Jacobson's Pro—Soap for Silks and Printed Goods. followed by the strongest ley. Tallow. as follows No. One third of this quantity must mark 18°... .. In Belgium. — Gentele's Process.

After the necessary boiling. Jacobsou's Process. and while these are undergoing the process of boiling the remainder of the ley is allowed to flow slowly into the pan from a cistern situated above that vessel. 5 gallons. crystals of soda are used . Gentele for making soft soap with one-fifth part of soda mixed with the potash ley. hempseed-oil. after which it is to be transferred to shallow frames. ley is added to the oils or fatty matters in the pan. and a sufficient quantity of ley added to render the soap caustic. and one part pearlash (a carbonate of potash). 137 : in the usual way. . The soap is then allowed to repose.750 lbs. About 12 cwt. Geutele's Frocess. the saliae impurities contained in the potash are removed. and. 3. Russian Soft Soap. when the deposited ley is to be withdrawn. In Russia a soft soap is made from a ley composed of three parts Russian or American potash. tallow. By preference. fatty materials recommended for this process are red oil. The inventor prepares a very useful household soap by mixing oleic acid with soda or potash —A free from chloride of sodium or other The — ley in the following proportions Distilled oleine : 2 gallons.— MANUFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS.'40 lbs. process was suggested by M. when the soap has acquired the proper consistence. By the separation of the ley which takes place in the above process. and when this condition is reached the fire is withdrawn and the soap allowed to cool down. Boiling must be continued until the soap is sufficiently firm. . While pouring the hot water into the pan (in which the oleine is first placed) constant stirring is kept up. and the cocoanut oil in a melted state is then introduced. . and it is important that the leys should be saline impurities. and the until ley then added gradually with continued agitation. the fire is withdrawn and the soap left — in the pan to cool. 1 Ley Hot water gallon. the One half of the solution or ley being brought to 10° B. 100 lbs. of soap should result from the proportions giv6n.

the soap is perfectly white and ready for use. but at the same time it must not contain such an excess of alkali as to affect injuriously the more delicate colours of the dyed wool. would interfere with the process of saponification. The economy of the process is also stated to be an important feature in this method of preparing a soft soap.. The soap used by cloth manufacturers for fulling or cleansing woollen cloth requires to be rather more alkaline than ordinary household soaps. to whose indefatigable industrial chemistry manufacturers were indebted for much valuable information. The inventor says that adulteration is impossible. The late Professor Crace-Calvert. white olive-oil soap is used on the Continent. since other substances.— 138 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the mass has assumed the appearance of a thick yellowish paste without granules. saponified by potash ley. and the soap may be finished with a stronger ley from 25° to 28°. Some manufacturers employ a mixture of oleic acid — — . After twenty-four hours' rest. The advantages claimed for this process are the rapidity and ease with which the soap is made and its extreme simplicity. Patty matter lOO'O Soda "Water 69-23 6-77 34-00 100-00 For bleaching raw silk. of Manchester. Oleic acid. if introduced. Soap for Silks aud Printed Goods. is a very suitable fatty material for making soft soap. suggested the following formula for soap to produce the highest brightening effect upon the various shades of colour — exertions in : For Madder JPurpUs. The first potash ley should have a strength equal to about 20° B. Fulling Soap. Patty matter Soda 60-4 5-6 34-0 Water For Madder Finka.

and 2*2 lbs. are dissolved 9 lbs. but It is largely used in getting up the as a separate agent. sal ammoniac. of soapwort {Saponaria officinalis) are boiled in 22 gallons of water. cotton-mills. "particularly applicable for manufacturers of woollen goods. of pure turpentine are mixed up with 220 lbs. of fixed oils until thick bubbles rise. soap wort. It is then allowed to cool. pipeclay. and finally. 9 lbs. . of sal. are dissolved 62 lbs. of binoxalate of potash. of slaked lime. bleaching and scouring works. of the soap. at the time of packing for transport. &c. which are coated well inside and outside with silicate of soda. and the soap assumes the required flocculent condition 13 lbs. not in combination with soap. In 13 gallons of this decoction. also while hot. of resin and 13 lbs. The packing for transport is by preference efiected in well-closed wooden cases.MANUFACTURE OF SOFT SOAPS. finest quality of white worsted goods. — . This solution is then poured slowly into the first-named decoction. Panama this process is not easily intelligible. M. but it is generally used. of the soap. of borax. binoxalate of potash (salt of sorrel). of Iceland moss (previously boiled down and passed through a sieve). which is then passed through a sieve. and turpentine. 139 (brown oil) soap. and a sheet of vegetable parchment should be placed over the soap before putting on the lid. 6 "6 lbs. ammoniac and 2*2 lbs. in the proportion of nine parts of the former to six parts of the latter. Locli's Soft Soap In addition to the usual fattymatters the inventor introduces borax. and the mixture is boiled until the ley is found to be sufficiently caustic. The use of sal ammoniac and of binoxalate of potash in Again. while hot. of potash." To make 220 lbs. This mixture is then allowed to boil slowly until thick bubbles rise and all the ingredients have thoroughly combined. and mottled soap. bark [Quillaza saponaria) is far preferable to soapwort. The whole is again passed through a sieve. whereby he professes to produce a cheap and economical soap. and then boiled gently with 66 lbs. 26 lbs. and in the remaining 9 gallons.

it is more generally carried on as a separate trade. Several sound casks (rum puncheons answer admirably). ^In either of the latter cases. apparatus. the Soap. Apparatus for Be-meltiiit. MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY SOAPS. having their heads removed. and tinted by the fancy soap-maker. and is re-melted. Machine for Slicing the Soap. we may as well show how the manufacture can be conducted upon a moderate scale. Mining Colouring Matters and Perfumes. Stamping the Soap. It has the advantage of being cheap in construction and economical in use. 25). it wiU be necessary to direct attention to the apparatus employed and the methods of applying them. are to be well coopered. Ee-melting the Soap. The pans for this purpose may be made from wrought copper. or is attached to the business of the perfumer. Cutting the Soap. simple form of 2J cwt. Into each of these a galvanized- — A • . so as to be water-tight. the soap from which the toilet soaps are produced is generally furnished by the larger soap-makers. — — — Although the manufacture of toilet soaps occasionally forms part of the soap-makers' business. Before explaining the system of manufacture. Amiaxatus for Ee-melting the Soap. fitted into an iron steam-tight jacket. and in doing so. perfumed. the size being regulated according to the probable requirements of the manufacThese pans should be capable of containing from turer. to half a ton of melted soap.— CHAPTER XVII. which the author has employed for this and other purposes. is shown in the woodcut (Fig.

or by any To allow the escape of conother convenient means. but. wooden cover is hard to enable the vessels to be used. which should then be trimmed neatly with the In a day or two the luting will be sufficiently trowel. and the ends of these pipes are bent A so as to allow them to enter the casks through holes drilled about half-way down. D D D. when it will become imbedded in the Fig. and which are carefully secured in their position by calking with tow. 25. cement. a somewhat thinner paste of cement is spread upon the former layer. the flange is to be well luted with cement. 141 iron copper or pan. When this has set quite hard. in order to prevent the escape of steam. a. and flush with its extreme edge. by which these pans are to be heated. The horizontal iron pipe. and is supported by its flanga upon the upper edge of the cask . and the pan then carefully lowered into its place.MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY SOAPS. This ma}' readily be done by first spreading' with a trowel a stiff paste of Portland cement inside the rim of the tub. . is placed. each of which is furnished with a shut-off cock. b. provided for each pan. conduces the steam to the vertical pipes c c c.

The dotted lines at a show the position of the • A Fig. and from thence to escape through the The taps should then be perforations at the bottom. is furnished with a stop-cock. in order to allow any water which may have remained in the pipes to flow into the tubs. a. will hold about 2 cwt. d is an exit-pipe for the escape of condensed water and waste steam. 26. c. half turned.142 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the taps are first opened full. a halfinch hole is drilled at the bottom of each cask. nXacliiue for Slicing the Soap. 27. which is in the form of bars about — . and the steam moderately turned on at first. of soap each. After a while the taps may be turned nearly full on. Kg. b. otherwise the pans would be liable to When become lifted by the pressure of the steam. and as a vent for exhausted steam. when the steam will issue from the water-holes at the lower part of the casks. convenient form of steam-jacket pan is given in Fig. For small experimental operations the copper jacket-pan represented in Fig. The pans. to allow the condensed water to escape freely. pan in the jacket The supply-pipe. densed water. and these must always be kept perfectly free. Previous to remelting the soap. immediatelyabove the iron hoop. required for use. 27 is a very convenient vessel. 26.

c. There are many forms of apparatus for this purpose. in use. a. in Fig. 28.MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY SOAPS. soap bars may be cut into thin shavings with sufficient rapidity to feed several such melting^pans as those described. This consists of a wooden bench supported by strong framework. Beneath the cutter or planing-machine is a broad and deep drawer for receiving the shavings of soap. attached to the centre of which is an iron shaft. For more extensive operations. simple contrivance. it is necessary to cut the soap into thin slices. to set the machine in motion. 29 is much used. dd. a bar of soap is pushed lengthwise towards the blade and beyond it. The machine is fixed on a wooden frame. and furnished with a blade of steel fixed angularly in a slit cut diagonally out of the flat surface of the bench. one of the simplest being represented in Fig. by which the operation of melting is considerably hastened. at one end of which is a handle.^] is placed to . At e is an inclined plane of wood. upon which the soap. when a thin slice is cut off and By this falls through the slit into the drawer beneath. the machine shown This consists of a cutter. and the arrangement is like that of an inverted carpenter's plane. and by a quick workman. The blade is adjusted so as to project a little distance above the board. 28. When Fig. 143 14 inches long by 2J inches square.

wooden box. so quick is the Re-melting the operation. the wooden covers should be placed over the pans. and these should not be raised until sufficient time has been allowed for the pans to become well heated. If now. and Kg. a few more slices of soap may be introduced. in order . when it is replaced by another. the first blade removes a shaving. that in an hour two cVt. As fast as the soap melts it will sink to the bottom of the pan and. and so on until the entire bar is cut. the soap appears to have fairly commenced to melt. The soap to be re-melted for — conversion into toilet soap should be pure " unliquored soap.144 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the. the soap from becoming dry on the unmelted surfaces. The bar or shavings as they fell from the machiae. is allowed the handle to touch the cutter being now turned. otherwise those surfaces " which may have become hardened by long keeping will be troublesome to liquefy. being placed on the inclined plane. and of recent manufacture. and the pan again covered. Soap. After putting in the first few slices of soap. 29. on raising the lid. otherwise it will. after a short time. when the steam is to be turned on. soap will begin To prevent^ to melt where it is in contact with the pan. e. by chilling the melted soap. it is a good plan to sprinkle it with water. form a conglomerate mass which will not readily liquefy. After a short time fresh quantities o£ soap may be put into the pan gradually. of soap may be reduced to shavings by this useful machine. slab of soap. and a few of these are first placed round the interior of the pan and in contact with it. and care must be taken to avoid adding an excess of the cold soap. The bars of soap are first reduced to thin slices by the planiag-machine (Fig. and. 28). A blade. will be If these precautions are observed there . and is immediately followed by the second . receives the be cut into shaTings. no difficulty in the re-melting. g.

"When perfumes are used without colouring matters.MANUFACTURE OF TOILEl OR FANCY to assist tte is SOAPS. it will be necessary to evaporate a portion of the combined water to allow for the addition of the essential oils or perfumes which are to be blended with it. may be worked up together with a spatula. when these are incorporated with the mass. to a colouring matter may be added. 30). and the mixture ^--s^S^^^^^ then poured into the soap and thoroughly incorporated by continual crutchOr the ing or stirring. and various metallic oxides have to be mixed with the melted soap. able. a certain amount of evaporation of their combined water must be allowed to take place during the re-melting but this must not be carried too far. Again. and fresh batches of sliced soap added gradually. Since toilet soaps are required to be somewhat firmer and harder than ordinary household soaps. gentle stirring may be applied. By this method the colouring matters a^d essential oils may be very perfectly and uniformly blended with the soap paste. until the mass is perfectly homogeneous and free from unmelted lumps. red-lead. The heat must be kept up. as vermilion. until the pan is sufficiently full. yellowochre. they — ^ . The proportions of colouring matter and essential oils to be added to the melted soap being weighed and measured. When dry colouring matters. otherwise. mixing Colouring Matters and Perfumes. the remainder of the colour being introduced in Ijhe same way. portion of the melted soap dipped out of the bulk by a small ladle (Fig. it may become unmanage. care must be taken not to allow the paste to become too stiff. little at a time. otherwise the soap will be liable to crack during the subsequent pressing or stamping operations. and when tnis is well mixed it should be poured into the pan and stirred in. with occasional stirring with a small wooden crutch. 145 mingling of the melting soap with that which already liquefied.

the blade of the machine being so adjusted as to remove only a small portion from the edges.machine. Stamping the Soap. 12) . with rounded corners. such as is shown in Fig. workman. small samples should be taken to determine if it be of the proper consistence to set hard and firm without being brittle. The corners are next trimmed with a knife. for scented soaps. so that the surface may be free from stickiness before they are stamped. taking a This is generally done as follows cake in his hand. the cakes which have been cut from the bars require to be trimmed before they imdergo the process of stamping. Cutting the Soap. are first moulded in a lever press (Fig. it is When the soap is sufiBciently cold cut into slabs and bars proportionate to the size required for the tablets. which gives them the — — : A . The condition of the soap when ready for the frames is that of a thick pasty mass. and must be transferred to the frames by means of the short-handled ladle (Fig. As the tablets of toilet soaps are generally of an oblong form. It is now ready for the frames. The soap being perfumed and coloured. with stirring. or two to the pound. after being trimmed and dried as described. The bars are next divided into cakes or blocks. 31). The soap should also be well covered with cloths. 30). and when the frame is full the soap should be pressed or patted down. until the requisite proportion has been added. six. which. The cakes. which generally run eight. the width of which is regulated according to the size and weight of the tablets. and each cake is weighed from time to time during the trimming. or swimmer (Fig. 28. or are placed in a drying-room.146 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. passes each sharp edge of the cake over the blade of a planing. four. are much smaller than those employed for household soaps. sliould be slowly poured into the pan. until it approaches the required weight for the tablet. The cakes thus prepared are next put aside to dry. so as to prevent any hollows or cavities being formed through the irregular distribution of the soap in the frame. so that the cooling may be very gradual.

32. after which he removes it and replaces it by another cake. which " maybe of the form given in Fig. 14? desired form. and then brings the lever down with considerable force. 32.The cakes are finally stamped in a second press. to which the lever c and the piston d (to which the upper half of the mould is connected) are attached . „^ Fig. and then jerks it upwards. If necessary.MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY SOAPS. after which they are slightly scraped all over.halves of the ^" mould. so as to separate the two. and a little alcohol is sometimes rubbed over them to impart brilliancy to their surface. to which the press is firmly attached by bolts and screws b is a castiron pillar. he gives the cake several blows. e is the lower half of the mould. t3. a a is a strong woodea table. The cakes thus stamped are again set aside until their surface is perfectly dry. . In applying this press the workman places the cake of soap upon the lower half-mould. which is called a " fly .

and raise the movable rod d after each stroke of the press. by means of a screw. are adapted by screws to the horizontal bar below. the engraved stamp which is to impress the soap. The fly. into which the. is surmounted by two heavy balls. supported upon a strong wooden table. This -useful press is. upper half-mould is secured by a screw c is the lower half-mould. _/y. and which is connected to the movable rod d. . and. h h. e e. gg. i i. being removed. or screw press. and are then ready for wrapping up. .148 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. like the former. a a represents the frame of the press h the screw. is replaced by another. which latter must be secured to the floor by bolts or screws. After stamping the tablets they are carefuUy trimmed at the edges. furnished at its lower end with a socket. by which means the stamped tablet is set free. . In the upper half-mould is fixed. The upright wroughtiron rods. These rods pass beneath the cast-iron or brass matrix.

is very fragrant and emollient. 2J . The steam is then to be turned off. fine made from best tallow powder 60 lbs.— Savon au Bouquet. The vermilion is to be first well mixed with the soap. —Vanilla Soap. — Musk [Soap. 5 „ . —Almond-oil Soap. —Savon a la CanneUe. — Cinnamon Soap. — "Windsor Soap. great care being taken to ensure perfect incorporation. Bose Soap. 5 „ of each and cinnamon.. and is indeed one of the finest of toilet soaps. MANUFACTURE OF TOILET SOAPS— {oontimed. and when the soap has cooled a little the following perfumes are to be added in about the proportions given : Essential oil of rose „ . may be made from either of the following formulae. 15 >. XVIII. — Brown Windsor JSoap. the soap being previously well melted. „ 5 „ Soap prepared from the above formula has a delicate rose colour. —Bitter Almond Soap. 10 ozs.. as before described :— I. of each 2 6 oza. —Marshmallow Soap.) — Orange-flower Soap. —Violet Windsor Soap. „ „ bergamot . II. or Savon k la Bose. White curd soap. —Benzoin | Soap. Olive-oil soap 40 „ Vermilion in 3 ozB. White curd soap Vermilion Oil of rose neroli Oils of cloves 100 lbs. oils of 'oil of cinnamon and bergamot cloves.— CHAPTER EoBe Soap.

Colour with Brown ochre. White curd soap Palm-oil soap 60 40 lbs. White curd Boap Palm-oil soap 60 Iba. of cloves.... . 15 „ Ciuuainou Soap. .ISO THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Oil of caraway . . OU of cinnamon „ . of yellow ochre and perfume with 14 ozs. and of the paste) with Oil of caraway Oils of lavender perfumed (for every 1. l^lb.. or Savon d'Amandes Am&res.. of each 6 lbs.. or Spanish brown 8 ozs. . olive-oil is —This famous toilet soap. 20 ozs. of each 9 . . of each 7 ozs. Perfume with Oils of musk and bergamot. sassafras 2^ „ bergamot 2^„ I Mnsk Soap. .. as prepared generally made from is tallow nine parts and one part. pale roses. Or.. .000 lbs. of soap. . Bitter Almond Soap. White curd soap Oil of bitter abnonds 100 lbs. 40 Colour with 2 lbs. „ thyme 5 „ . » 1\„ .. 10 . . for each 100 lbs. 40 „ Orange-flower Soap. bergamot cloves 5 ozs. White curd soap Pahu-oil soap 60 lbs. and rosemary. in London. Colour with Yellow-green pigment 16 ozs. Minium (red-lead) 2| „ Perfume with Oil of Portugal „ ambergris 15 ozs. Powder and gilliflower. Windsor Soap.

it is transferred to another pan. 2j . 17 parts and the perfume employed is essence of Portugal. of each. Jiwenty-four hours or less the soap will be caol enough to It must not be allowed to remain until quite cold.ble Po wdered cassia is a useful brown colour to toilet substance for giving an soap. soaps are best made direct from the fatty acids. and the perfumes are then added.. either with. This consists in saponifying the fatty matter. or (J-lt. At the end of this time an additional five parts of ley are given. fragr. with constant stirring for an hour or so. 50 parts palm-oil. for the same quantity of soap. but it must be added . which is generally a mixture of hog's lard and tallow. "When the ley has deposited. agree:9. also made from lard in the same way oils of caraway. with carbonate{t. and spermaceti. 151 10 ozs. to which is added ten parts by weight of caustic soda ley at 36° B.. „ bergamot Oils of lavender and rosemary. as oli\ /-oil soap. Twenty parts of the fatty matters are taken. to which a little oil of cloves is added. In about after which the soap is ladled into the frame. Oil of caraway SOAPS. Brown Windsor Soap is prepared as above. S . and coloured In making this soap some perfumers have adopted a system of making what is called an instantaneous soap. Morfit. the heat of the mass not being allowed to exceed 150° F. 33 parts . These instantaneous it ^511 become too hard for cutting. gives an agreeable ..^ soda. and the paste become perfectly homogeneous and of the proper consistence. when five parts more ley are introduced. and the agitation continued. and the perfumes are added so soon as the soap has lavendw-. modified by the perfumes. and these being put into a small jacket-pan. with strong ley. and rosemary Win^ gjbr Soap is — — acquired the proper degree of firmness. as recommended by Mr..mce to the soap. The well-known violet odour of the palm-oil. steam heat is applied until the mass assumes a fluid condition. burnt sugar (caramel) or umher. MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY Or. Violet Windsor Soap is made from lard.

moulds. consistency is such as that it can be run into china nfoulds. and well crutched or stirred into the melted soap. then take 12 parts for 25 partsfof oil.. Savon au Bouquet. and thyme. . adding to it one-third of its -Jm o^it of slacked lime. 1J . if placed in a room the temperature of which is from 71° to . Colour the paste with Tellow ochre 2 lbs. i 13 ozs. And perfume with 14 ozs. according to Dussauce. filter. Perfume with Oil of bergamot „ neroli Oils of clove. Oil of cinnamon sassafras and bergamot. The sod^ :i3 dissolved in water... introduce the ley into a jar. concentrate the ley by evaporationwe^til it marks 36° B.). 4 . and since it is sold at a high price. of each . foUows. but the soap may be pr€pared ashes. being careful to stir the mixture until it has t'he apIn two or three dsWs its pearance of a soft grease. a little at a time. prepared in France as. 107°. White curd soap Palm-oil soap (Cinnamon Soap. the materials must be of the best and purest qualitj-. and aftMlJg^ral hours. "The oil of sweet almonds must be perfectly fresh. of each Colour with Brown ochre 22 lbs...) 60 lbs. Almond-oil Soap is. sassafras. This soap is prepared from the — following : White curd soap Oliye-oil soap 60 40 lbs. Ij oz. Savon a la Cannelle. In about one month it can be taken froia the The temperature of the ley must be from kO° to 59° (104° to 140° Fahr. and gradually incorpoitate the oil.— IS2 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. and the carbonate of soda chemically pure. 25 . stir from time to time. more rapidly by placing the mixture on warm and .

" Uarshmallow Soap. "White curd soap Tincture of vamlla 40 lbs. Colour with Yellow oclire Orange mineral 4 ozs. 153 adding a little warm water to the ley. .. j 64 ozs. 10 . of each 40 Its. 2 ozs. with a sweet taste and odour. or be left as a white soap if desired. so as to prevent its concentration. The soap must be in the form of a very stiff paste. White curd soap and palm-oil soap.. This soap is very white.— MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY SOAPS.. 4 „ 1 J oz. 2 . Gamboge Perfume with Oil of lavender „ . thyme lavender cinnamon cloves 4 „ 1^ oz.. 3 „ „ This soap may be coloured rose with vermilion... lemon neroli . .. 3 . 2 . Vanilla Soap. Brown ochre may be used as the colouring agent.. „ „ .. vertena mint. the following Oil of Portugal 6 ozs. Or. It becomes very hard. 2 „ 2 j drms. . Benzoiu Soap. : I 10 ozs. White curd soap Tincture of benzoin 40 lbs... OU of rose Colour with Burnt sienna 7 ozs. otherwise the tincture of benzoin will render it rather soft.

. ^Ambergris Soap. 29. Marbled Savonnettes. Cutting the soap into shavings is performed by a machine such as is shown in Fig. The various operations are arranged under the following heads : 1 — — Cutting the soap into shavings. Eose-leaf Soap. through which they are allowed to pass several times. until a perfectly homogeneous paste is formed. Savonnettea or Washballs. Savonnettea au Miel. Grinding the soap. Savonnettes of Sweet Herts. 5. Savonnettes of Neroli. Balling the soap. 6. Formulae for French Toilet Soaps. Floating Savonnettes. CHAPTEE XIX. as before described. and the mixture is then added gradually to the shavings.Sand Balls.. la VaniUe. Savon de Crimee. Pounding the soap in a mortar. Pressing. Vanilla Soap. Stamping. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — French System of making Toilet Soaps. Instead of preparing toilet soaps from re-melted soap. 4. Savon de Guimauve. Glycerine Soap. The perfumed shavings are next placed in a grinding-machine. a system is adopted on the Continent by which these soaps are made by a series of mechanical operations which we will 'endeavour to describe as briefly as possible. 7. Savon de Palme. MANUFACTURE OF TOILET SOAPS— {cmtinued). The proper proportion of essential oils and colouring matter (except when the soap is required to be white) are first mixed in a separate vessel. 3. Savonnettes of Camphor. Savonnettes h. Violet WashbaUs. with a little alcohol. and the shavings are placed in a lead-lined wooden box. Mixing the essential oils and colours with the soap. 2. with continual stirring. Savon aux Flours d'ltalie.^Lettuce Soap. Honey Savonnettes. Savon a la MarSchale. French System of making Toilet Soaps. Violet Soap.— . Lemon Soap. Orange Soap. Elder-flower Soap.

to form an oblong square and round the angles by striking them gently on the marble. by means of a wooden pestle. lest it should become too dry for the subsequent operation of hailing. the balls or cakes of soap are made about 25 per cent. traversed in their length by small rods of wood. leave it on the marble. the ball being on the marble. it will be difficult to work well. "The small cakes being shaped as indicated. For this purpose.— MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY SOAPS. it must be worked quickly and without interruption. Nevertheless. cylinder must not be larger than the model (mould?). If any unforeseen circumstance requires a suspension of the work. weight. This. so as to form a ball. and form for the pressing and stamping machines are thus given by Dussauce " Weigh as many pieces of 4^ ounces as you want of cakes of 3J ounces . a space of about . 155 The soap is next pounded in a marble mortar. as the cylindrical shape is not that which the soap ought to have. Once begun. which is made round on the marble slab. knead with the hands each little mass of soap. The directions for making the soap into cakes of the proper size. cover the pounded soap with a damp cloth and keep it in a cool place. heavier than the finished tablets. in such a way that each frame These frames presents as many empty spaces as full ones. strike the cylinder on all its sides on the marble to square it that is." In arranging the soap cakes as above. the object of which is to convert the soap into auniform mass. which is performed somewhat as follows: The soap is placed on one end of a table on which is a marble slab. . and in order that an allowance may be made for the reduction of weight which the soap has to undergo in the process of drying. and give it a cylindrical shape by rolling it with the flat of the hand. are arranged on shelves. If the soap is too — : — — dry. dispose them on trays or frames of white wood. The ball being obtained. by eighteen wide they. at a distance of five or six inches from each other. have a length of twenty-seven inches. give it a rotary movement with the right hand. Only a fewpoimds (about ten or twelve) of soap are pounded at a time.




is allowed between each, so that the air mayround them, and thus facilitate their drying on the surface. It is important that the drying should be In about a week the surface of the as rapid as possible. cakes will have become hardened, and ready for pressing. This is done by means of a lever press. Fig. 31, which merely gives to these cakes the preliminary form of the mould. To apply the press, one of the cakes is placed on the lower half of the mould, and the lever is then forced downwards and then raised, when the cake is removed and another substituted for it, and so on, until all the cakes The edges of the cakes are then have been struck. trimmed, after, which they are again set aside to dry, and when sufficiently so they are removed from the dryingroom, and the hardened skin which has formed upon the surface is carefully removed by means of a sharp knife, with which the cakes are dexterously scraped by the workman. It is said that a good workman can scrape forty dozen of cakes in a day. When the cakes have been scraped they are moistened with alcohol, to improve the smoothness of their surface.

To accomplish


the fingers of the right hand are

dipped in alcohol, and this is spread quickly over the cake, which is then rolled in both hands, by which it becomes moistened all over in a few moments. The cakes are again dried for about twenty-four hours, after which they are ready for the final stamping, which is effected in the fly or screw press, by which an active man can mould 1,500 cakes of soap per day. In the above process there is a loss of about 14 or 15 per cent, of water during the several drying operations, but this is allowed for in the operation of balling, in which the cakes are made heavier than the resulting finished soap is required to be. The scrapings of the cakes are afterwards worked up in future batchefs of the same kind
of soap.

Fonanlse for Frencli Toilet Soaps. The following are some of the formulae for toilet soaps adopted by the

French makers






Savon de Gnimanve.
tallov soap Falm-oil soap

(Marslimallow Soap.)
10 Its. 10 ,,

Colour with
Tellow oclire Orange mineral
1 oz.



5 dxms.

Perfume with OU of lavender
mint caraway lemon Oils of rosemary and thyme, of each
„ „ „

IJ oz.

I „ | „
S drms. 2J

Savon aux Fleurs
tallo-w soap


Perfume with on of citronella

1^ oz.

verbena mint

| „


2^ dims.

Colour with Brown ochre



Savon de Crim^e.
White curd soap



16 lbs. i „

Colour with
2^ drms.


ochre Ivory black


| „

Perfume with
Oils of thyme, mint, of lavender cloves „ Tincture of benzoin

and rosemary, of each


1 oz.


2^ drms. l| drm.
I5 oz.

Savon de Palme.
Palm soap HaU-palm soap

10 lbs. 10 ,,

Perfume with
Oil of bergamot cloves ,, Oils of cinnamon and lavender, of each


ozs. oz.




Violet Soap.

Yellow cocoa-nut Palm-oU

20 Ib^ 20 „
10 „

Soda ley at 36°


26 „



4 „

To ^hich

are added the following perfumes

OU of lemon
rhodium „ thyme „ Tincture of musk

4 ozs.

2 „ 2 „

Colour with cadmium yellow.

Vanilla Soap.
Lard, with vanilla Cocoa-hutter Palm-oil
Caustic ley, 36°



30 10 10 26 2


2 „

Perfume with
Tincture of vanilla , musk „ amhergris „
Oil of rose



2 „ 2 „



prepared by adding the vanilla to the lard (1 oz. to the lb.), keeping it at a moderate heat for some days, then straining, &c. Bose-Leaf Soap.

Lard with vanilla

Bose pomade


White wax
ley, 36°

20 lbs. 20 „ 10 „


2 „

Potash ley, 30° B Gum tragacanth

20 „ 12 „
8 „

Perfume with
Oil of roses

„ „

geranium rhodium bergamot cinnamon

2 ozs. 2 „
1 oz.

2 ozs.



Colour with aniline (fast red) a light pink.

Savon \
la Mar^chale.
Lard, with musk amberette „ Pomade (aux fleurs)



10 Its. 10 „





10 „
1 lb.

"White wax Gum tragaoanth
Caustic ley, 36°


2 lbs. 2 „ 28 „

Saponify carefully and colour with a

caramel (burnt

liettnce Soap.
Lard, with lettuce


20 lbs. 10 „
5 5 10 26 3

Castor-oil , Palm-oU (bleached) Caustic ley, 36° B


Gum tragacanth
Perfume with
Oil of bergamot

6 ozs.


2 „
1 oz^

valerian cloves


Colour light green. The lard with lettuce is made by melting the lard with its own weight of lettuce-leaves, keeping it at the meltingpoint about 90° F. ^for some hours, or until the leaves have parted with their colour and their juice. Then steam off for use. Ambergris Soap.

Grease perfumed with ambergris and musk Jasmine pomade Bose


25 lbs. 10 „

Gum tragacanth
Caustic soda ley, 33°


3 ozs.



Colour light brown with caramel. This soap is made of select materials by the cold process, and after being made is allowed a few days to dry The musk and ambergris have to be before melting. added to the grease some weeks before, frequently melting




Half-palm soap

Elder-flower Soap.

Perfume with
Oil of bergamot
8 oza.


cloves cassia

2 „ 2 „
1 02-

„ „




i d

Colour light green. Lemon. Soap.
White soap
50 lbs. 2 „



Oil of lemon


4 ozs. 2 „ 2 „
1 oz.

Colour light yellow with cadmium yelloW. Orange Soap.
Wbite soap

50 lbs.

Perfume with
Oil of orange-peel
8 ozs.





2 ozs.

Colour dark yellow with naphthaline yellow. Glycerine Soap.
Tallow (mutton)

44 44 22
22 27



Glycerine (pure)
Caustic ley, 40° B Alcohol, 96°

„ „


„ 48-4 „ 9-9 „

Melt the grease at 104° F., and add the alkali by slow degrees, keeping the heat low to prevent evaporation, and When the ley has become absorbed, after stir constantly. three or four hours' stirring add the alcohol, which should be warmed stir till it becomes clear, then add the glycerine, and when mixed, the water and perfume turn into
; ;

and sometimes sand. sale. oil OUve-oil Cotton-seed oil . Fine powdered orris Cut the soap into fine shavings and m. M . they are usually pre- 4 Its. add the orris powder.'. 2 „ 1 lb. adding a small quantity of water. Tallow Savounettes.— MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY SOAPS. i6i the frame.. Cristiani. the farina and incorporate it well by stirring.. or Washballs. By turning the glass and ball of soap in every direction the rounded form is soon given when dry. Then add Lastly.elt over a hot water-bath. Violet Washballs. to render it more smooth — and even. The same author gives the following formulae for preparing white Castile soap. Lard Palm-nut 3. 40 parts. * A brass tool is commonly used for this purpose. " they are formed into spherical balls by taking a mass of the prepared soap in the left hand. „ Palm-oil (bleached) Sesame-oil „ „ . . Palm-oil soap Farina (starch) . These may be made from any of the milder toilet soaps. This soap." Washballs are sometimes made with the addition of powdered starch or farina.. or from the subjoined formulae. the surface is scraped. is a very superior one. and a conical drinking-glass with rather thin edges * in the right. with or without olive-oil : 1..'. Beasley. . 30 30 40 50 20 30 „ . Olive-oil Grotmd suet Tallow 2. The spherical form is given by pressing the soap in moulds. and mix well. or by first forming them into balls with the hand. if carefuUy made. and when quite dry and hard turning them in a lathe. '. pouring slowly. 30 „ 30 „ 30 30 40 Olive-oil „ . Having but a comparatively limited pared in small quantities.. TaUow-oil 4. — . According to Mr.

with a little water. Savonnettes of Melted curd soap Orris powder Orange powder Oil of . 12 drms.'. White ctrrd soap little 3 lbs. . Knest yello-w soap . sage. myrtle...'. and wormwood. Honey Savounettes. and then add the following 4 q^s. Oil of rosemary 1 oz. and then add the following mixture of essential oUs: Oils of — „ .'. 1 oz. and then added to ITeroli. . „ Savounettes of Camphor. rose. Melt and then add Oil of Terbena.. and then add 4 ozs.'..'. 1 oz. \ „ 2 ozs. of each 4 ozs. lavender. Palm-oil Boap J lb.- 7 Its. of white curd soap. the liquid soap. of each fennel 4 ozs. \ „ Savounettes of Sweet Herbs. or ginger-grass . Melt. and ambergris. Savonnettes a la Vanille. and marjoram. of each thyme. of each mint.!!!!!! Tinctures of musk and amber.'. mixture : Tincture of ranilla Balsam . geranium.— — l62 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. "White curd soap 12 Its. Melt. 1 lb.neroli Essences of musk 3 ozs. with the addition of a Spermaceti water. Tincture of cinnamon Oil of cloves !!!]!'. wUd thyme.'. Melt 12 lbs. lemon and bergamot. 2 „ Camphor (cut small) These are first to be melted together.. 12 lbs.. of each 2 d^s. of Tola I'eru \ . 4 " 2 I02.

marbled soap may be carefully put into a frame while hot. and add to it a sufficient quantity of ultramarine. taking care to mix the colour as little as possible. roll the cakes of soap in a mixture of yellow ochre and powder blue. Rose-water 2 ozs. roll the pieces of soap in powder blue. very pleasing and real marbled appearance may be given to soaps in this way Melt in one vessel any required quantity of white curd soap. "White curd soap (melted) 1 lb. and roll these in powdered bole or rouge. and stir round and round in one direction only until the coloured soap has formed a series of circular veins in the mass. Allow 1!he soap to cool. should be added to the white soap before the coloured : A soap is introduced. Floating Savonnettes may be made by adding a little water to any of the perfumed soaps in a melted state. to stain the soap. previously warmed. 2 „ Add the honey to the melted soap. 1 Honey Essential oil of „ any kind rec[nired •. Care must be taken to do this slowly. and . and then treat them as above. and these marbled lumps may then be fashioned into balls or If preferred. By varying the colour of the powder savonnettes of any shade or colour may be produced. vermilion. For — — green. but this must be done cautiously. so as not to mix the The required perfumes colour with the white ground. then add the rosewater. so that the coloured soap may merely streak the white soap. then press them strongly with the hands into halls. when it may be scooped out in small lumps with a half-round and bright trowel.MANUFACTURE OF TOILET OR FANCY lows: SOAPS. Savonnettes an Miel (Honey Savonnettes). When thoroughly melted put a small quantity of the soap in a separate vessel. Now add the coloured to the white soap. the tablets according to requirement. and lastly the perfume. 163 Marbled Savonnettes. cut white curd soap into small squares. These may be formed as folFor red. or any other colour (previously mixed with a little water). adding a little water. For blue.

however. so as to mix or beat air into the soap. Sand-Balls are made by incorporating with melted and perfumed soap certaia proportions of fine river sand. Sometimes finely-powdered pumice is substituted for the sand. should be passed through a fine sieve before using.l64 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. . About one-third sand to two-thirds soap is a fair proportion. briskly stirring the mass. The sand. This agitation should be kept up until the mass is at least doubled in volume.

or Almond Cream. marking 36° B. Now take 20 lbs. and the mass assume the form of a paste. Another 5 lbs. When the lard is about half melted. however. SOFT TOILET SOAPS. is first prepared. : — —A . when it requires to be beaten lightly.CHAPTER XX. or Soap. —Transparent Soap. of clarified hog's lard. of the same ley must now be added and the mixture stirred. by weight. and the fatty matter generally used is good hog's lard. since it invariably leaves a disagreable odour on the skin after washing a serious objection in — toilet soaps. Almond Cream. when. alkaline base of these soaps is The potash. ITaples Soap. and place this in a small copper jacket-pan or other convenient vessel. —Essence de Savon Corinthe.. This latter oil. is prepared as follows potash ley. and apply gentle heat. Naples Soap. though sometimes cocoa-nut oil is introduced to promote the lathering properties of the soap. —Essence of Soap. —Shaving Paste. paration.. when the graniiles and oil will disappear. by which time the mass will becc ne a stiff paste. but free from lumps. ll^lie heat should then be withdrawn. —Essence de Savon Vienne. This elegant prewhich has been much used as a shaving soap. soap granules ^^JLhave deposited at the bottom of the pan. should he used sparingly. —White Soft ToHet —Powdered Soaps. of the potash ley. add 5 lbs. The heat and occasional stirring must be kept up for about four hours. stirring continually with a wooden stirrer. after an hour or so. and continue the agitation and also the same degree of temperature. while a layer of unsaponified fat will float on the surface. — French Method.

so that tte cooling lOW. — must now be added. Creme Ambroisie is perfumed with liquid storax and benzoin. steam is to be turned off. the of water. and if necessary. are then added gradually. may the soap is to be put into a marble pounded with a wooden pestle. . To convert this into pearl soap it is pounded in a marble mortar. the heat must be lowered. other fragrant substances are occasionally employed. after which it is put into stone jars for future use. hence it is sometimes called fearl soap. from \\ to 2 drachms of oil of bitter almonds being added for each pound of soap. 50 lbs. For example. with constant stirring. and the paste allowed to cool down. 30 lbs. and the heat of the mass is to be kept at from 140° to 158°. When the soap is required to be of a delicate rose colour.ed over.OAP-MAKING. of cocoa-nut oil are placed in a steam-jacket pan. a few pounds at a time. of potash ley at 36° B. from 15 to 30 grains of vermilion to each pound of soap must be added. and well incorporated by the pestle and mortar. French Method. if a tendency to separation of the fatty matter is exhibited. of potash ley 'marking 20° or 21° B. and melted . White Soft Toilet Soap. . as they are called.— Cristii ni gives the following . by the evaporation of the water from the ley . which generally occupies about four hours. preparation is usually perfumed with oil of bitter -imonds hence it is also called almond cream. Fifty pounds of hog's lard and 10 lbs. and care must be taken to keep the heat below the boiling-point When the paste has become quite stifi'. . by which parated particles become united. which has a beautiful iUstre. a little stronger ley added until saponification is complete. and a perugeneous paste formed. with continual stirring. After a while the mass thickens. To finish the operation. and Creme de Cacao Mousseuse with oil of as a cacao. Although the oil of bitter almonds is principally used perfume for these soap creams..

the temperature being kept at from 140° to . pour eight hours. has not that bright nacreous (pearly) appearance required for the toilet. and may be also used to purify tallow and greases. Under the influence of heat and stirring the aqueous part of the ley evaporates and the mixture acquires a thicker consistency. heated by steam. of potash ley at 20° or 21° B.SOFT T0ILE2' SOAPS. as obtained by the saponification of fatty matters by potash. — 150° F. To obtain a perfect soap. because at that temperature concentrated leys have little affinity for fatty substances. will retain The engraving Fig. This is produced especially where the temperature of the mixture is raised near the boiling-point. gallons. 167 directions for making a white soft toilet soap: Melt in a sheet-iron kettle. Many perfumers prepare this soap in iron kettles with a double bottom. of ooeoa-oil. At this point turn off the steam.. kettle is of tinned copper. in which it is kept for use. Soft it into large stone jars. This effect may also^ be produced by the insufficiency of alkali in the mixture. 26 represents a jacket whiteness. add ^0 lbs. and as much as possible between 140° and 150° F. To obtain it in this state it is ground in a marble mortar and aromatised with oil of its which are preferable. . stirring. of a capacity of about 50. and in the other by pouring into the kettle a portion of strong ley necessary to complete the saponification. and be careful to keep the mixture very uniform by continual Keep the temperature below the boiling-point. because in them the soap bitter almonds. add 10 lbs. When the fatty matters are entirely melted. of white fat and 13 lbs. . This or kettle with a double bottom. Sometimes it happens that a part of the fatty matter separates.^ In the first case the homogeneity is re-established by moderating the action of the heat. The saponification is finished when the paste has acquired a very thick consistency. The first stage of the operation lasts about four hours. Stir all the timej so. heated by steam some juse silver to aid the saponification. 50 lbs. of potash ley at 16° B. soap. The operation lasts in all from seven to "When the soap is Entirely cooled down.





perfectly dry, by trituration with a pestle and mortar, but the operation is generally confined to cosmetic soaps for shaving or other toilet purposes. The soap, being previously perfumed in the usual way, is cut into thin shavings, and these are laid upon sheets of paper and placed in the drying-room, or dried in any

Powdered Soaps. powder, when


hard soaps


be reduced to a

convenient way. As soon as the shavings become brittle they are in a condition for powdering. Small quantities at a time should be carefully reduced to a powder in a mortar, and the powder afterwards passed through a fine sieve, the fine powder being placed in a jar and kept well covered. All coarser particles retained, by the sieve should then be pulverised and sifted as before, until the entire quantity is reduced to a powder fine enough to pass through the sieve. Although it is better to colour the soap in the ordinary way before powdering it, the colouring matter may, if preferred, be introduced into the mortar when the soap is about half reduced to powder, and then worked up with For rose-colour, the soap until thoroughly incorporated. about one drachm of vermilion to each pound of soap should be used. For yellow, from one to two drachms of finely-powdered gamboge. Other shades of colour, however, may be given if desired. Powdered soaps, named after their respective perfumes, are much esteemed as shaving soaps by the fastidious and perhaps the so-called rose soap, perfumed with oil of rose and tinted by vermilio.n, may be considered one of the most delicate preparations, provided that it has been piade from a good white tallow soap free from cocoa-nut oil. Shaving Paste. This popular cosmetic may be prepared in various ways, but the following formulae may be taken as representing tbe mode of manufacture 1. Take jSTaples soap, 1 lb. Castile or Marseilles soap, \ lb.; honey,



i lb. essence of ambergris, oils of cassia and nutmeg, of each 20 to 30 drops. Mix these ingredients well together in a mortar, adding a little rose-water, until a perfectly homogeneous paste is formed. 2. Take of white or virgin




wax, spermaceti, and almond oil, of each 2 ozs.; melt o\a?r a water-bath, and then add 3 ozs. of Windsor soap previously worked up into a paste with a little rose-water. Mix all well together and place in a jar, which should be kept well covered. 3. White soft soap, 12 ounces spermaceti and olive-oil, of each 1| oz. Melt these ingredients all together, and stir until the mass is nearly cold perfume with any essential oil, or a mixture of perfumes, according to taste. Essence of Soap. Under this title various preparations are made but they are all solutions of soap in warm alcohol, with, generally, the addition of a small quantity of potash. Soaps made from vegetable oils are preferred, because they remain clear and liquid when cold, whereas those prepared from animal fats become solid in cooling. Dussauce gives the following formula for preparing this soap
; ;





Marseilles soap

6j ozs.

Aloohol at 85°


6 drms.

Cut the soap into fine shavings, and put them into a bottle holding about half-a- gallon (a "Winchester" bottle would suit admirably) add the alcohol and potash, and

heat gently, without boUing, over a water-bath ; stir with a glass rod. When the solution is complete, take it out very sweet of the water-bath, and add the essences. perfume may be given to this preparation by adding to


Oil of


Ij drm. 2j drms.

colour yellow, add 2 J drachms of safiron. This essence continues limpid at the ordinary temperature. To use it, pour a little into half a tumbler of water,


and stir quickly. Essence de Savon Vienne.
White soap
Carbonate of potash Alcohol at 95° Lavender-water
3 ozs.


18 ozs. 6 ,

Digest and




Dry white soap Alcohol at 80° Potash
Essential oil
10 ozs. 1 quart.

Essence de Savon Coriuthe.

2 ozs.

a few drops.

Digest as before.

Any perfumed toilet soap may be conTerted into an "essence," but doubtless the white Castile soap would form the most elegant preparationj besides being the most

Transparent Soap.
soluble in

— Soap, when perfectly dry,
and advantage




taken of this chemical fact in the manufacture of Transparent Soap perhaps the most elegant form which this substance is capable of assuming. To prepare transparent soap, either tallow, almond, or soft soaps may be used, but in either case the soap must be rendered perfectly free from water. The soap is first cut into thin slices or shavings, and these are then dried over a water-bath, or by hot air. Equal parts by weight of the dried soap and rectified spirit are put into a still, heated by a water-bath. Only moderate heat is applied, otherwise the spirit would pass over without dissolving the It is Sometimes the practice to powder the soap in soap. a mortar after drying before treating it with the spirit, by which it becomes more readily dissolved. If it is desired to colour the soapj any colouring matter soluble in alcohol may be employed, and it is best to colour the spirit before adding it to the soap. When the soap is completely dissolved, it is allowed to rest for an hour or more, according to the quantity, after which the clear and transparent liquid is put into the frames, in which it will solidify on cooling. When cold the soap is cut into pieces of any required size, and these are moulded in the same way as other toilet soaps. The soap does not, however, acquire its characteristic transparency until after it has been exposed to dry air for a considerable time. To colour the soap red, a strong tincture of archil may be used, and for yellow turmeric may be




employed. Any of the aniline colours, however, may be used for tinting the transparent soap, and are, indeed, well
suited to this purpose. Resin soaps are considered very suitable for making these soaps, and the presence of a fair proportion of resin undoubtedly favours the transparency and beauty of the substance. Although transparent soaps are exceedingly pleasing to the eye, they do not- possess the active detergent powers of ordinary soaps.




H. Marat's Sulphur Soap.
Mercurial Soap. Medicinal Soft Soap.— Antimonial Soap. Carbolic Acid Soap. Medicated Tar Soap. Tootli Soap. Liquid Glycerine Soap. Bordhardt's Herb Soap. Arsenical Soap. Soap for Washing Dogs. Turpentine Soap. Tar Soap. Black Soap. Various Substances introduced into Manufactured Soaps.

— —


different substances have been introduced into soap for the relief or cure of cutaneous affections and for other purposes, amongst which may be mentioned the following Sir H. Marsh's Snlplmr Soap. White soap 2 ozs. and sublimed sulphur ^ oz. are triturated in a mortar, with 1 or 2 fluid drachms of rectified spirit, until a smooth paste is formed. The spirit should be first coloured strongly with alkanet root. few drops of otto of roses are added to give the soap an agreeable


is made from powdered Castile soap corrosive sublimate 1 drachm, dissolved in rectified spirit 1 fluid oz. These ingredients are to be thoroughly mixed in a Wedgwood mortar.

Mercurial Soap



Medicinal Soft Soap is made from pure olive-oil saponimade from pure potash. The ley is added gradually and cautiously to the oil during the boiling, and the greatest care taken to avoid an excess of alkali. When the mass' assumes a transparent and gelafied with a caustic ley

tinous appearance, the addition of ley is stopped. The boiling is continued until the soap has acquired the proper consistence.

Indeed. 4 is It Glycerine Soap thus made : Oleic acid Cocoa-nut oil (best) Potash ley 35° B Glycerine 187 lbs. 1 oz. or. It is then put into a frame. and when cold is cut into squares and moulded in the same way as ordinary fancy soaps. Antimouial Soap. As a powerful antiseptic. It should have a greyish-white colour. 33 „ H* . Dissolve the sulphuret in the potash and add to the soap then triturate in a mortar until a stiff paste is formed. 1 lb. About 2 per cent. solution of caustic potassa 6 drachms. Crace-Calvert had developed its manufacture upon an extensive scale that its usefulness could be fully taken advantage of. of carbolic acid is added to soap in a melted state. however. and thoroughly incorporated by crutching. 173 —Pure Castile soap (white) in powder . carbolic acid had long been known.. Carbolic soap may be prepared from the following — : Half-palm soap Starch Carbolic acid. TaUow soap (finely sifted) Pumice powder Prepared chalk Starch Lig. it may be formed into bars of the ordinary size. 1 oz. has been very extensive. Since then. in crystals 20 Its. 40° B 20 10 5 15 lbs. which has taken the name of Carbolic Soap. Medicated Tar Soap. — . • • • 1" » . Tooth. „ „ „ lbs. „ 2 ozs. golden sulphur et of antimony 2 drachms. this article has now become a necessary and useful article of commerce. but it was not until the late Dr. 1 J oz.— MEDICATED SOAPS. OE of lavender cloves. and its incorporation with soap. Cocoa-nut oil TaUow Juniper tar Soda ley. its employment as a disinfectant and deodoriser has become universal.iiid 20 5 2 lb. for more extensive use.. Soap. lbs. Carbolic Acid Soap.

adding a little water. of each equal parts place these in a mortar (previously warmed). tar is added. with pestle and mortar. is a coarse kind of soft soap. 1 part. is made from soap cut into shavings. Black Soap. powdered camphor. iodine. It is prepared by the following formula White soap. Ij oz. Olive-oil Boap Palm-oU soap Dextrine 30 Its. . Tlie ingredients are saponified at a gentle heat. arsenious acid. bottle. Tar Soap tar. and keep them ia a well-stoppered : — . Soap for Washing Dog's and other animals is sometimes made by mixing Btockholm tar (wood tar) with melted The tar should first be dissolved ia pyroxylic soap.. carbonate of soda. sufficient alcohol at 95° added to make the soap Bordhardt's Herb Soap. made from fish oils and caustic potash sometimes Besides the substances above named. until a homogeneous mass is formed put it into a paper mould. a small quantity of water being added during the mixing. \\ „ 1 „ 1 . Turpentine Soap. 12 ozs. „ magnolia peppermint 1 „ Colour blue. 2 parts. is prepared as : — . | oz. of each 4 ozs.. or Starkey's Soap. and after a few days cut the soap iato slices. the whole being intimately mixed in a mortar. Arsenical Soap is used by bird and animal stufPers to preserve the skins from the attacks of insects. . and triturate them together. . The whole of these ingredients are worked up into a paste. . spirit (wood naphtha). 2 parts and liquor of potassa. and lime slacked by air. A follows Take of "Venice turpentine. or Farrier's Soap. 174 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. 20 „ 2 „ Perfume with Oil of rosemary „ lavender „ „ „ thyme sage 2 ozs. and carbonate of potash. oil of turpentine. and clear.

Castor-oil soap. fiiiely powdered borax. of Irish moss dissolved in a suitable quantity of water and strained. 5 per cent. and many other chemical substances have been employed for making what are sometimes termed skin soaps. Camphor ice soap. Turpenti)ie soap. Irish moss soap. The wax is added to the amount of 10 per cent. 2 per cent. * " Technical Treatise on Soap and Caudles. carl)olio acid. Groton-oil soap. Creosote soap. 10 per cent. but they are all prepared much in the same way as above indicated. Borax toilet soap. of camphor added to cold cream soap would be very suitable. 2 per cent. 2 per cent. of tannic acid. Disinfectant soap. The following percentages of foreign substances which are added to manufactured soaps are thus given by — Cristiani*: Tannin soap. Petroleum soap. of oil of turpentine.— MEDICATED SOAPS. Oatmeal soap. 5 per cent. It has some good and useful properties. IFax soap. of creosote. 20 per cent. 3 to 5 per cent. of castor-oil with Other fats. 10 to 20 per cent. 10 per cent. of wax added to soap. Benzoic soap. Cornmeal soap. of benzoic acid. of oatmeal. 20 per cent. 2 per cent. 3 per cent. 6 per cent. of maize-flour. to the Paraffin soap. Bran soap. 10 per cent. of iodine. 5 per cent. 10 to 20 per cent. creosote." . Various Substances introduced into Manufactured Soaps. of croton-oil. of bran. Iodine soap. 175 bromine. Salicylic soap. of salicylic acid. about 2 per cent. of thymol. Thymol soap. Mercurial soap. fats before saponification. of petroleum-oil added to the other fata before saponification. 2 per cent. of mercurial ointment.

Combine 1.500°. — . Schaxr's Liquid Soap. — — — Levat's — — Process. and if necessary. or palmitine or any vegetable or animal stearine or margarine. Maxking Soaps. Lortury's Process. 1. Tardani's Process. Borax Soap. of course. at the temperature of 212° F. Jeyes's Process. that such patent is in full force. Bankmann's Process. Soap. Half-resin cess. Jennings's Processes. Sawdust in Soap. as free from olein as possible. Hampel's Shaving Soap. bear the brand of absurdity " on Apakt from The following abstracts from a few the very face of it. — — — — — — — — — — the ordinary." modifications. BesBon and Eemy's Process. innumerable patents have been taken out from time to time for various "improvements. in which case he will naturally obtain a copy of the specification. of stearic or margaric acids. or additions. Petroleum Soap Bastet's ProMackay and Seller's Process. the merits of which may easily be determined by a small trial when the new process does not. Cleaver's Terebene Soap.'^ of the patent specifications will enable the reader to form his own judgment as to whether any of the processes described in brief will be worth a further acquaintance. put himself in communication with the patentee. if we may say so. and no separation visible when tried with the "When the mass has cooled down to shovel or trowel. or. provided. stir constantly until an intimate combination is obtained. —Violet's Palm-oil — : Soap. Varicas's Process. Bichford's Process. Marriott's Process.— Camphor and Ammonia Soaps.000 lbs..— CHAPTER XXII. recognised soaps. MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES. Jeuuings's Processes. Payne's Process. with a solution of bicarbonate of potassa or soda of a specific gravity of about 1. which is too frequently the case. Lewis's Process.

. To this compound as is well understood by soap-boilers. These matters being boiled together till the resin and alkali are dissolved. per cent. and well mixed by stirring until perfectly combined. N . the compound is to be added to the dissolved soap. or as m. If the soap is to be colourless. no resin must be employed. these are to be added gradually. and 1 lb.third of its weight of water. The separation is now effected by using common salt or sulphate of soda as usual. and the whole of the mattet's are to be boiled till the workman on taking a sample finds that the soap is hard and smooth. until perfect saponification is produced.MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES. per cent. of the quantity of soap) is dissolvpd with about 6 per cent. say from about 2 to 4 per cent. For this purpose the resin (at the rate of 25 per cent. of tbe strongest solution of caustic potassa. then add a strong solution of caustic potassa or soda. White curd soap is dissolved in about one. and a larger dose of liquid ammonia and caustic alkali must be used according to the dryness of the stearine to be operated upon. In order to prevent the resin precipitating. Dissolve 15 to 18 per cent. 2. to which is added colophony (black resin).uch as will give the solution a specific gravity of or about 1. and alum. of the tallow or oil and resin in the mixture. of liquid ammonia of about '880°. and then allowed to stand from two to four hours. of carbonate of soda of commerce to the resin employed.800° when boiling hot. 177 about 60° F. using about a like weight of water as there is of the resin. The whole compound is to be boiled up. The dose of caustic alkali will much depend upon the purity of the stearine or margarine employed. a quantity of dilute sulphuric acid is introduced and stirred into the The strength of each solution of acid above mixture. Mix these perfectly with the stearic or margaric acids and carbonated alkali. using more or less of the alum according as the resin is less or more pure. of resin by boiling it with a solution of carbonate of potassa and soda in equal parts. add 1 lb. is to be added a quantity of sulphate of alumina (common alum) with a view to improve the colour. carbonate of soda.

This soap is called " Orangine. Hampel's Shaving —Cleaned Soap is which assumes the appearance of soft butter. an infusion of lichen is added." — and process as follows: made by his patented olein 6'6 per cent. is used is 1 part by weight of sulphuric acid to 9 parts by weight of water. of which about 2 per cent. in respect to the weight of tallow or oil and resin in the which mixture is to be employed. The fatty matters are first heated to expel the alcohol left in them after the process of distillation. when 12*5 per cent. then 5*4 per cent. soap is of the proper granular consistence. is dissolved with lemon juice. and to add to the emoUiency of the soap by the employment of lichen.— 178 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Violet's Palm-oil Soap. and the stirring continued. cleansed. and they are then heated with a weak soda ley. after being separated from the ley. and framed as usual. when a perfectly smooth paste is formed. at the temperature of 203°. 6 — „ Water Lichen 34 2 „ „ 100 lbs. When the soap separates and the grain has the proper consistence. of palm-oil are melted. \2\ ozs. is first mixed thoroughly with 13 per cent. and the mass. is agitated untH it becomes cold and is easily liquefied. 12 gallons of hot water are then added.. The soap consists of: Fatty matters Soda 58 parts. The object of this process is to utilise the waste or residual oily products resulting from the distillation of essential oils. of boiling . after which stronger leys are used to complete the saponification. of soda ley at 25° is added. of hot water . of best white soap and 50 per cent. of nitric acid are added. and after being 'separated from the water is saponified with a weak ley at 8° B. with Tigorous stirring for about a quarter of an hour . The compound is then to be fitted. levat's Process. after which the oil is allowed to rest. and the grained soap. followed by stronger The boiling is kept up until the leys of 10° and 15°. The oil is then well washed seyeral times to free it from the acid.

Marriott's Process. The sawdust may. 179 All these ingredients are to be well mixed and finally 12"5 per cent. Sawdust in Soap. Waller forms a washing or cleansing compound by adding to melted soap certain. of spirit at 90° is to be added and well incorporated with the mass. the above compound of the silicate and farinaceous substance is added in the proportion of about one part by weight to These materials are three parts of the soap. For making " a washing or cleansing compound. When the process is finished. be introduced during the process of manufacture in thesame way that other ingredients are added to soap. The soap is manufactured from oleic acid in the usual way. and allowed to rest for a while. ready for use. and well mixing the whole togetherby stirring or crutching. dextrine. which is added to the soap in its melted state. and is then together.MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES. say about one part of resin to about ten parts of soap." the inventor mixes with common yellow or any fancy or toilet soap about an equal proportion of very finelj'^-powdered pumice.incorporated or. — — — as usual. when used forwashing or cleansing purposes. more or less.mixed by crutching and stirring. thoroughlj'. after which it is to be filtered. if preferred. in the proportion of about one part flour to ten or twelve parts of the silicate. of the pumice at the same time. Lewis mixes potato flour. Lewis's Process. The powdered pumice is tobe thoroughly incorporated with the soap. with the addition of a small quantity of resin. ]VErs. Mr. The compound is then to be covered. Mr. This compound combines the detergent qualities of the eoap with the frictional action. and then the whole is transferred to the frames . water are added. . and while the soap remains hot and in a fit condition for running into the cooling frames. or other suitable farinaceous substances with a viscous solution of soluble glass or solution of silicate of soda or silicate of potash. so as to be equally distributed throughout. quantities of sawdust. thus preventing injury to the finest fabrics. the soap lubricates the particles of the powdered pumice and modifies its abrasive action.

The carbonate of ammonia is added in the proportion of from one to five parts by weight to every 100 parts of soap. and also glycerine to the extent In adding borax it is dissolved in as small of 5 per cent. Rowbottom produces "borax dry soap. meter. hard or soft soap in any desired quantity according to the use to which it is to be applied. Por household or laundry purposes he uses by preference a soap made of oleic acid mixed with common tallow or animal grease and resin if necessary. The solution of silicate of soda should have a specific gravity of about 170° by Twaddell's hydro. The camphor may be used without the carbonate of ammonia. Borax Soap. first dissolved in camphine or rectified oil of turpentine. or other substance used in the manufacture of dry or powder soaps*. The addition of camphor to the soap is said to give it valuable disinfecting properties. Camphor and Ammonia Soaps. In addition to the camphor solution and carbonate of ammonia. the patentees prefer to add of borax about 10 per cent. and incorporates the same. to the soap. or soap powder " by adding borax to the usual carbonated or silicated ash or alkali. The carbonate of ammonia is first reduced to a fine powder. the former being previously melted.i8o THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. or he dissolves by heat any ordinary soft soap in the borax solution. and the solution is . For borax soft soaps he adds a solution of borax to the ingredients usually employed for making ordinary soft soaps before or during the manufacture. he adds a certain proportion of French chalk to give firmness to the soap. and the latter without the former. a quantity of water as is practicable. The solution of camphor is added to the or in alcohol. Cooper and Smith introduce these substances into ordinary hard or soft The camphor is soap. Messrs. or they may both be added to the — same soap. after which the mass is allowed to cool in the usual manner. —Mr. and this is well incorporated with the soap by stirring. whle carbonate of ammonia increases the detergent power of the soap.

The borax may either be added in solution or in fine powder. Proportions about 7 lbs. is to facilitate the removal of dirt during the process of washing. are now united by gradually pouring the former into the latter. . consists in Mackay and — introducing the chlorate. in such manner that the oxidizing agent is not then dissolved in such soap base. The patentees' process Seller's Process. and the mass kept well stirred. of soap. mixing with soap. of tar is added to soft soap in addition to the other ingredients. and then equal parts of animal fatty matter and mineral oil are placed in separate vessels. i8l added to melted hard soap. and with or without borax and glycerine. of the combined weight of the fatty matter and mineral oil employed. boracic acid sufficient to dissolve the alkali is used the mineral oil is heated to a temperature of about 90° F. in order to effect a the acidified alkali is then gradually perfect combination . Caustic ley at 36° B. In making soft soap for ships' use 2 per cent. during its manufacture. The combined weight of the fatty matter and the mineral oil being taken as a standard. is placed in a suitable vessel.. with constant stirring or agitation. Petroleum Soap: Bastet's Process. the tar being first dissolved in pyroxylic spirit. which. and while in this condition a quantity of boracic acid is dissolved therein.MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES. or just before it is allowed to cool. of chlorate to 113 lbs. In treating soft soap the camphor and ammonia may be added either singly or conjointly. with that acid used as before. The partially acidified animal fatty matter and the mineral oil being heated in separate vessels. the animal fatty matter is melted by steam heat." chlorate of potash is sifted into or mixed with the soap " on the point of its setting. added. will give off oxygen. chlorate of potash " or any other substance which. will make up one-half per cent. in proThe cess of solution in water. but preserved therein more The object of or less in contact with the soaps treated. and : — . or other oxidizing agent.

Tardani's Frocess. and perfuming — The soap is afterwards pulverised. of a form corresponding to that requiredin the pieces. together with double the quantity of water and a proportion of quicklime previously slaked by a quantity of water equal to 12 per cent. at once becomes disintegrated. This will produce an insoluble hard lime soap and a solution of glycerine. as in making shaving powder. process of converting the mineral oil into a solid completed by gradually adding the ordinary or unresult. the soap is boiled by superheated steam. the conversion into a saponaceous compound is complete. This consists in forming a soap paste of any ordinary ingredients. and the powder thus obtained is agglomerated by pressure in small moulds of special form. Liquefaction is accomplished by a jet of steam to thoroughly deoxidise the saponified matter and disintegrate the compound. of the weight The whole must be boiled and mixed by of the oil or fat. This form is in section plano-concave. as it consists of agglomerated powder. the latter of which may be separated by opening the top of the perforated pipe connected with as desired. When the entire mass is found to be granulated. — — . and can be crushed by the finger with a very slight pressure applied to the flat side. an effect which cannot be obtained from an equal-sized piece of ordinary toilet soap without much friction. After the use of steam for this purpose. ^Any convenient quantity of oil or suet or other fatty matter is taken. The soap is finished by the free use of steam. constructed in the form of a truncated cone. Besson and Bemy's Process. that is to say. The is acidified alkali in sufficient quantities to effect this keeping up the agitation as before.i82 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. means of an agitator a mechanical one by preference. While animal fatty matter only has been mentioned. or a mixture of animal and vegetable fatty matters. the same results can be reached by the use of vegetable fatty matter. and forms a good lather in water. The crushed piece. so that the middle portion is comparatively thin. and placed in a flatbottomed boiler of iron.

MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES. About 6. equal in amount to about 2 per cent. or abou. If cocoa-nut oil or palm-oil are to be saponified. more especially if sea-salt has been added. added gradually while the soap is hot and is thoroughly "crutched" into the body. is produced as follows For a cheap laundry soap is taken prime tallow or equivalent fat. After having washed the lime soap a little and closed the top. a certain quantity of water is added to the soap. These soaps being very soluble. by Higgins's process.000 lbs. In this way it is said to be possible to make good soap. of the whole mass. using fatty matter with membranes and very impure oils without incurring the expense of extracting the pure fat or oil. a quantity of lime equivalent to the fifth of their weight can be used. which is saponified as usual with caustic soda of. of caustic soda at a strength of 30° is used for the whole. The heat is applied only round the boiler.. is added. while a soluble soda soap or potash soap (where potash is used to form a soft soap) is produced. the hard insoluble lime soap will be decomposed^ and the lime precipitated in the form of a granular carbonate. and also a quantity of commercial carbonate of soda equivalent to and rather in excess of the quantity of lime used. of clear resin is added and saponified in the usual manner. The mass solidifies into a hard and useful soap. When the ingredients are well mixed and the mixture boiled. and while the compound is in a hot fluid state before framing.000 lbs. Half-resin Soap.t 3 per cent. After the first or "grease" charge an equal quantity.. the This is substance in either case being in a melted state. which floats in the shape of flakes on the top of the water. of stearine. having in its composition equal portions of : — .000 lbs. it is necessary to use tolerably pure carbonates of the alkali. say. Upon the completion of the saponifying process. a quantity of crystallised stearic acid of commerce. which is then "framed" in the usual manner. 30° strength. 183 the bottom of the boiler. even in salt water. 10. 10. viz. This is the reason why the shape of the truncated cone is preferred for the boiler and its bottom flat.

which causes them to dissolve to a greater extent than is required for the strictly detersive purposes. The hydrated or carbonate solution is used in about the proportion of 7 per cent. the lime in either case being precipitated in a more or less insoluble condition. and instead of decomposing the lime soap with acids. besides being also cheaper. The soap to be treated is put . This soap is said to preserve its quality and hardness better than ordinary resin soaps. Mr. under pressure. the inventor employs for its decomposition strong caustic soda or potash leys. number of frames are placed one above another. Baukmann's Process has for its object to furnish soap in the form of thin perforated sheets or tablets. TBx. and also possesses the advantage that while in most laundry soaps a large portion is wasted because of their extreme solubility. and are securely fastened together in such a manner that the joints are water-tight. of the fatty acid. Payne's Process consists in treating fatty or and subjecting the same. these proportions being varied within certain limits in all cases care must be taken that the alkali shall be sufficient to coinbine with or saturate the whole of the fatty acid. resinous and fatty matter. G. The decomposition of the lime soap by means of the hydrate or carbonate of soda will result in the production of a soda soap. the aqueous solution of glycerine is withdrawn. does not become unduly dry and brittle. The soaps obtained by this process may be finished in a soap-copper in the ordinary manner. instead of only one-third or one-fourth. and where the hydrate or carbonate of potash is used for such decomposition the product will be potash soap. as in the ordinary process of making stearine. oily matters After the decomposition of the fatty or oily matter in the autoclave. as usual. A . so that a single piece may be torn off for each washing of the hands or face.1 84 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. in an autoclave with lime and water. or a solution of carbonate of soda or potash. the soap produced by the above process is said to last longer. of the alkaline base to from 60 or 70 per cent.

Mr. the whole process of soap-making is said to be materially hastened. or other medicinal material. or any similar crystallisable hydrocarbon into the ordinary ingredients of soap." says the inventor. " The practice now. the inventor first extracts the glycerine from fats in their neutral state by the direct action of steam and water.MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES. naphthaline. into these frames. 185 and tlie sides or sections are capable of being removed so as to leave the soap projecting. The result is a comparatively slow saponification. If desired. and the resulting soaps are of superior — — ' . should be about 3 inches long by 2 inches broad. and in various proportions. and -perforated crosswise so as to form four tablets. Thin shavings are planed from the block of soap by a cutter passing along the surface. and the shavings or sheets are then subjected to the action of a roller which compresses and smooths them. To effect this. Then a perforator divides each shaving Each sheet or sheet into correspondingly small pieces. and to save all the glycerine. to prepare fats for instant saponification. according to the use to which it may be intended to apply the soap. Jeyes's Process. tar. is carried off The object of this invention is in the waste ley and lost. About one dozen of such sheets may be arranged in a packet in form of a pocket-book. Either of the above salts is added to and mixed with the ordinary ingredients of soap at any convenient period during the manufacture before solidification. Varicas's Process. looking to the preliminary decomposition of the same. and all the glycerine which does not remain in the soap mechanically suspended. W.. " is to saponify fats with alkalies without any previous treatment of the fat. The inventor introduces anthracine salt. Besides the important advantage of saving all the glycerine. under a pressure of about 150 lbs. The packet wiU then contain the material for forty-eight separate washings. whereby a soap stock is produced susceptible of immediate saponification when combined with an alkaline ley. m. the soap may be impregnated with carbolic acid. The sheets have then about the thickness and portability of postagestamps.

The soap is known as terebene soap. „ 44 „ 56 „ 73 ^^ 52 „ 26 „ 4 5 10 Eussian potash. torbnry's Process consists in adding a solution of gluten in caustic alkali to soap. of soap. after of starch are first boiled which the following Lingeed Sal amiaomac Soda ash (52° to 54°) Pearl asli (American) 53 8 lbs. of water and 4 together for a few minutes. Mr. The terebene is introduced into the soap in its liquid state. : however. Cleaver's Terebeue Soap. and thoroughly incorporated by stirring. soap : — — cosmetics. when it is strained through a fine sieve or coarse cloth. Scharr's I^iqnid Soap. are said to give good results For toilet soap 4^ pints of terebene are added to 112 lbs. The solution of gluten is thus obtained To a solution of caustic potassa of about 20° B. of soap. This solution is added to the soap to the extent of 10 per cent.— 1 86 — THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. be varied at will. than soaps made by ordinary methods. For making this soap the following complicated formula is given for one ton of the — compound: Twelve cwt. &c. whereby a disinfectant and antiseptic soap is produced. all things being equal. After some hours' digestion the mass becomes clear and homogeneous. as much bran or gluten obtained from any other source is added as it will take up. Cleaver combines with soap while in a melted state the substance known as terebene. Resin Oleine Borax Spirit of turpentine Liquid anunonia . The following proportions. he adds 6 pints of terebene to 112 lbs. ingredients are introduced : lbs. This substance is also combined with toilet creams. — quality. by which the emoUiency of the is said to be considerably increased. The soap may be perfumed if desirable. more or less. which may. The gluten may be added to any kind of soap after the process of saponification is complete. For household or laundry -soap.

Dunn suggested marking soaps. Bichford introduces powdered French chalk tite. The solid or third portion is put into a cask (which is provided with a tap near the bottom) and upon it is poured about 40 to 44 gallons of boiling water. and when dry the impression is filled in with plastic soap of a different colour by means of a spatula or if the impression is fine and small. (stea- or soapstone) into soap. 100 lbs. when the compound is ready for use. is passed through a sieve. 270 lbs. by means of a spatula. : — . when the clear portion is run out by the tap into a suitable receiver. The steam is now turned off. after being boiled. 4 per cent. or other similar material in this way The soap is first stamped in the usual manner. Marking Soaps. is recommended. and brought to the boiling-point by the injection of steam. coloured soap.— MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES. as is too frequently the case with " improvements " in soap. vessel. Mr. 187 The ingredients are placed in a vat or other suitahle and boiled by injection of stdam for two hours. It is then allowed to rest until it becomes clear. of the powder. employing froni 4 to about 7 per cent. The soap which had previously cooled down is now introduced and well mixed by stirring. of soft soap and 20 lbs of American pearlash are added. according to the purpose for which the soap is to be used. It wUl be seen. The liquid. water. and 152 lbs. which is thoroughly incorporated by stirring. Sheridan the original inventor of silicated soaps patented a process for combining potato flour. potash leys. Mr. As far back as 1838 Mr. 16 lbs. and soda or potash leys (preferring the latter alkali) in the following proportions ^potato flour. to separate the solid portion it is then cooled down to between 90° and 122° F. . that the same idea has been often patented — — : — . with stirring.. with which a little of the powder is spread over the impressed surface. with dry powdered and coloured soap. . and for toilet soaps 5 per cent. For a nursery soap. water. since. .

. Preparation of the Test-Acid. POTASH. and with comparative ease and simplicity. which floated in it . ALKALIMETRY. but also the means by which the precise value of the various ingredients employed in the art may be determined with absolute certainty. Testing Commercial Pearlashes. he then added more water gradually until the piece of soap sank. and the more water that was required to efiect this object. this was followed by Descroizelles' important invention of the alkalimeter. and then putting into the solution a lump of Dutch soap. Normandy's Method. by the aid of which tolerably accurate results could be obtained. The science of chemistry.CHAPTEE XXIII. rescued the art of soap-making from the empiricism imd ignorance which ruled its operations until little more than forty years since. as we have shown. CAUSTIC ALKALI Mohr's Alkalimeter. Sampling Alkalies. METHODS OF DETERMINING TSE PERCENTAGE OF REAL ALKALI IN COMMERCIAL SODA ASH. which. To determine the Percentage of real or anhydrous Alkali. The first adoption of a system for estimating the relative value of alkalies by chemical agency was made by the celebrated Trench chemist Vauquelin . AND —The — — — — — It must be obvious that in a manufacture which consumes vast quantities of materials of variable quality. has shown not only the principles of saponification. It is needless to say that a test of this kind would be all but worthless. Assay. the richer in alkali was the ash supposed to be. It was the custom formerly for the soap-boiler to estimate the strength of his alkali by first pouring a quart of water on a pound of the ash. some means of estimating the actual value should be at the command of the consumer.

This great chemist discovered that all substances combine in definite proportions or equivalents . it is only necessary to have exactly soda). The eqidvalent number of hydrogen. To understand the methods of determining the percentage of real alkali in a commercial sample it may be necessary to refer briefly to the laws of chemical combination defined by the atomic theory of Dr. 31 grains of pure anhydrous soda. There are two principal methods of analyzing or assaying alkalies by means of the test-acid. Dalton.onohydrated acid (the strongest oil of vitriol) 49 therefore. 1 part by weight of hydrogen combines with 8 parts of oxygen to form water. the first of which is mlumetric. thus sulphur 16. which holds. or "standard solution" is applied by means of a glass vessel termed an alkalimeter. Dr. and the second In the former. Again. . exactly 1. which.000 grains. is 1. will show. equals anhydrous sulphuric acid 40. we are indebted for the employment of a test-acid that represents the absolute amount of alkali in a given cqmniercial sample of soda or potash. or 40 grains of hydrate of soda (caustic This being so. For example. which are again subdivided There are several forms of the burette or into tenths. or burette. the absolute percentage present in the sample. by the proportion of dilute acid used to saturate the alkali. alkalimeter. all more or less admirable for their ingenious .000 grains of water to form a test-acid. up to The scale is or zero mark. Andrew TJre. To our own countryman. or m. whether in the form of carbonate or of caustic alkali. when employed to neutralise an alkaline solution. forty grains by weight of pure sulphuric acid will neutralise exactly 63 grains of dried carbonate of soda. 40 is the equivalent or combining number of this acid. that of oxygen 8. for example. 40 grains of real sulphuric acid in 1. the test-acid gravimetric. and it cannot be made to unite with alkalis or other bases in any other proportion. 3 equivalents of oxygen combine with 1 equivalent of sulphur (16) to form sulphuric acid. oxygen 24. or by measure. its graduated into 100 divisions. and that of water 9.: ALKALIMETRY. or by weight. 189 however. therefore.

construction. when the alkaline solution is near the point of saturation.* glass stop-cocks. toI. or Mohr's burette. without encumbering the hands. '"^ is7 Kg.igo THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Mohr thus describes the conSEohr's AUEalimeter. i. will be well suited to the soap-maker's laboratory. 33. but for the ordinary purposes of alkali testing Sink's burette. p. which remains absolutely air and water tight for an indefinite period. which may be opened and regulated at will by the * The Chemist. struction and use of his very useful and ingenious " I have succeeded in substituting for exapparatus. 158. — New Series. 33. .. an arrangement which may be pensive constructed by any person with ease. 34. Fig. The simplicity of the former at once commends it. but the latter has the advantage of enabling the operator to add the test-liquor drop by drop. Fig.

19 pressure of the fingers.1 ALKALIMETR Y. for when the pressure-cock is released it closes The volumetric operation may be interrupted at of itself. small piece of glass tube. graduated into 0"2 or O'l cubic centimetres. and whicli costs almost nothing. this is done sitting. shake it. and in repeating an ex. The pressure-cock has the advantage of not leaking. pleasure. The quantity of liquid used may be read ofi' at any moment. so as to let the air escape froin the spout. When the zero point with test-liquor. which I call a pressure-cock. and furnished with knobs. the cock opened for an instant. bringing the eye level with the zero point. and the test-liquor is allowed to flow beaker Both hands are set into it by gently pressing the cock. forms the spout. it is filled above ' ^ . so as to fit into the india-rubber tube. stand. or do whatever else may be required. as uniform as possible. so that when both ends are pressed the clamp is opened. at liberty. and a single drop or a continuous current of liquid may be allowed to escape at pleasure. if evaporation is prevented. and at the same moment the liquid remains at zero. and continues to do so for weeks. The measuring tube is a straight glass cylinder b. and the This is done by level of the solution is then adjusted. in order to heat the liquid. "The measure fastened at furnished with the pressure-cock is upon an appropriate any required height. while the filling of the measure is done standing. and somewhat contracted at its lower end. The test measure being now normally filled. are bent laterally at right angles in opposite directions. 34). inserted below the pressure-cock. which is closed by a clamp of brass wire (Fig. the experiment may be commenced . which can be placed used. It consists of a small piece of vulcanised india-rubber tube. " The weighed sample of alkali is first placed in a ' glass. The ends of this clamp. and applying a gentle pressure to the cock until the liquid has sunk so low that the inferior curve of the liquid touches the graduation like the circle of a tangent the cock is then closed. for it closes of itself when the pressure of the fingers is A removed.

000 grains of distilled water is emplo5'ed." When alkalies are analyzed gravimetrically a specific gravity-bottle (Fig. 1.. periment the limit of the quantity used before may be aproached so near that the further addition of liquid may be made drop by drop. If the acid is of the proper strength it should exactly saturate 53 grains of pure carbonate of soda previously calcined at a red heat. that is.000 grains of the test. or 31 grains of pure anhydrous To prepare the anhydrous carbonate of soda. J92 THE ART OF SOAP. The test-acid to be used volumetricalli/. 35) capable of holding exactly 1. place soda.— " . since there is necessarily a certain amount of trouble involved in its preIt may be readily made by mixing 1 part of paration.liquor contains exactly 40 grains of real sulphuric acid. when filled with teat-liquor. The alkalimeter is now to be charged with the test-acid to the level of zero. 33. and dissolve in about 2 ounces of distilled water in a beaker-glass. a few crystals of carbonate of soda in a Berlin porcelain crucible. Preparation of the Test-acid or Standard Solntiou. and it should h^ faintly tinged with litmus. which will give it a pinkish hue.. concentrated sulphuric acid with 11 or 12 parts of distilled mater. the mixture being effected in a " Winchester bottle. Fig. The acid solution must be adjusted or brought to the proper strength after it has cooled down to 60° F. when the vessel may be set aside to cool. the test-liquor it is advisable to prepare a quantity sufficient for many operations.MAKING. and (if Mohr's burette be used) the beaker containing the alkaline solution is to be placed upon the When making . with the alkalimeter. has a specific gravity of 1*032 at 60° F. and this. and heat this over a spirit-lamp or Bunsen buirner when all the water of crystallisation is expelled continue the calcination until the mass is at a bright red heat. Ifow carefully weigh out 53 grains of the calcined carbonate. which holds rather over half a gallon.000 grains hy measure contain exactly 40 grains of real or anhydrous sulphuric acid. and 1. weighs (exclusive of the tare of the bottle) exactly i'033 grains.

make further additions of the test-liquor from time to time. xmtil 1. 193 stand immediately beneath the exit-tube. it is important merce is . If any test-liquor remain in the burette this indicates that there is an excess of acid in the test-liquor consequently more distilled water must be added to the bulk. The ordinary soda ash of comusually packed in wooSen casks and in order to secure a fair average sample from a large number of these casks. in order to prevent mistakes. when the saturation is finished. and allow a portion of the liquor to flow into the beaker. Should the whole contents of the burette in the first trial be used before saturation is complete. when. or has a violet or reddish hue. if the spot touched assumes a. until a drop of the solution applied with the rod reddens the litmus-paper. and a 53-grain solution of carbonate of soda treated as before. on the contrary. a little more sulphuric acid must be put into the Winchester or test-acid bottle. when it suddenly changes to pink or onion-red colour. the end of the glass rod should be applied to a strip of blue litmus-paper. one or two drops at a time. which may represent one consignment. Sampling Alkalies. the burette emptied and refilled with the reduced liquor. the paper is unchanged. when the acid must be added with greater caution." and should be kept closed with its glass . if. the saturation is complete . and before the final change from purple to piak or onion-red. When the solution approaches saturation it acquires a purplish tint (due to the litmus with which the acid is tinged). which it retains until the point of saturation is reached. When the effervescence which is immediately set up subsides. After each addition of the acid the solution should be stirred with a thin glass rod.000 grains of the acid liquor exactly neutralise the solution. colour. A stopper. Now press the nobs of the pressure-cock.ALKALIMETRY. — . and another 53 grains of anhydrous carbonate treated as before. until the effervescence becomes sluggish. very little practice will enable the operator to adjust his test-liquor with perfect accuracy. add the test-liquor. with continued stirring. the bottle should be labled "Testracid.

then crush the larger lumps. the alkalimeter must first be filled with the test-acid exactly to the line or zero of the scale . being careful to add the washings to the alkaline solution in the beaker. as near the centre of eacli cask as' possible. as drawn from the cask. Each sample should be numbered and marked with the brand which cGstinguishes each cask. It is important. from as many of the casks as time will permit. and reduce the whole to a coarse powder as quickly as possible. To ensure perfect accuracy every particle of the washings must be added to the contents of the beaker-glass in which the assay is to be made. and securely cork it. Each sample. Now carefully weigh out 100 grains. then pour the clear %Mor'into a beaker-glass. should be at once placed in a wide-mouthed bottle furnished with a wellfitting cork. and gently heat it. This washing must be performed several times. to pour off the last drop of the liquor. by which the process is rendered more complete and with less water than when this precaution is not observed. The soapmaker who tests or assays his own alkali should always be careful to employ a person of known intelligence and integrity to procure samples for him. after each washing. ^^^ wash the sediment several times with FiK 36.— To perfoum. so as to prevent absorption of moisture from the atmosphere. shaking occasionally to assist solution of the alkali. first empty the contents of the bottle upon a piece of dry paper. and at once return the remainder to the bottle. 36). "When about to analyze any given sample. or until the last washing-liquor produces no effect upon yellow turmeric-paper.the assay. to take small samples. and the washing must be continued. After a few minutes set the flask aside to enable the insoluble matter to subside. small quantities of distilled water. Pour into the flask about half an ounce of distilled water. The Assay. and put them into a small flask (Fig. So long as the washings give a brown tint to this test-paper the presence of alkali is assured.194 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the acid must then be allowed to' .

would be 100 :' 47:: 45X2 . of alkali. of course. when 100 grains (or some aliquot part thereof) are taken for trial. term of the proportion may be multiplied by the denomiThis.' the percentage as before . when 100 grains are taken for assay. or 1 per cent. &o..— — ALKALIMETRY. 25. 42'3og these easy calculations may be simplified. so that the acid liquor may drain from the interior of the glass into the bulk of the fluid. " In commercial assays. attending the use of test-acids corresponding to equivalents is that. nator of ih. having taken 90 alkalimeter divisions of testacid to neutralise it. "When the neutralisation is complete. and not the least. It is commonly the practice to warm the alkaline solution so as to expel the carbonic acid which is GTolved and absorbed by the solution during the process of saturation. as the case may be. by means of the simple 'Rule "of Three. or the number of grains of the test-acid consumed by the common ' Rule of Proportion. of pur6 potassa. igS flow gradually into the alkaline solution ( which should be constantly stirred with a glass rod) until the liquid assumes a purple tint. and the quantity of testacid used is then determined by reading off the number of divisions which have been exhausted. would contain : A 100 : 47 ". the percentage result is obtained from the number of alkalimeter divisions.' Thus critdq sample of potash. in the case of 50 grains (repeating the above example). but even . the tesult must. which it retains until the exact point of saturation is reached. 34) represents x^th part. the alkalimeter is allowed to repose for a few moments.(^oo :. or nearly 42^ per cent. or 20 grains are tested. " One of the advantages. as is shown below. be Or the third double. quadrupled. Every alkalimeter division of Mohr's burette (Fig.e fraction representing the aliquot part.. 42-30 If only 50. when it suddenly changes to pink.

000 grains of dilute sul. Repeating the last example this will be 33 : 69 : : 35 : 73-iss or nearly 73j per cent. with a sample of 33 grains of pearlash. . Normanby. quantUy of alkali found. 69 Carbonate of potassa (anhydrous) 3^ 31 Soda (anhydrous) 1-033) s 40 Hydrate of soda (pure caustic soda) 1. number of groins have been submitted taHng 35 Thus. g ^ Normandjr's Metliod. The same applies to all the alkaline bases and their carbonates.000 grains (water-grain S 53 Carbonate of soda (anhydrous) measure) sp. The following table shows the equivaUnt or combining proportions of alkalies with 40 grains of real (that is. This would be = 33 : 47 : : 35 : 49-85g or nearly 50 per cent. By A. By substituting the equivalent of the dry carbonate of potassa (69) for that of 'pure potassa' used above. $. gr. Cooley.—— 196 — O-F — — THE ART may be SOAP-MAKING." A.pS phuric acid (sp.—Dr." Lockwood and Co. anhydrous) sulphuric acid : grs 47 Potassa (anhydrous) 40 giaiiis of anhydrous sul66 Hydrate of potassa (pure caustic phuric acid potash) 1. the quEintity of that article corresponding to the same weight of the pure alkali may be at once found. Tc&jgM of the sample tested (in grains) bears the same relation to the equivalent meiffkt of the alkali under examination. l^ormandy gives the following method of assaying commercial soda and potash* : * " Commercial Handbook of Chemical Analysis. that the 7mmJ>eT of alkalimeter divisions or of the grains of test-acid consumed do to the percentage of alkali sought. of pure potassa. 1-032 •^ 143 Crystallised carbonate of soda. alkalimeter divisions or 360 grains (every 10 grains being 1§) of test-acid for neutralisation. gr. J. whether 100 or any other For the to trial.

in 1. The solution is well mixed together. " Example. — The number of divisions of the burette that have been required to effect this must be deducted from the quantity of acid originally used. the clear filtrate is made up [with distilled water] to exactly 10. dried. the solution made blue by a few drops of litmus water. transferred to a beaker. "When cool it is again weighed the loss indicates the amount of moisture. a sufficient quantity of acid may be added to render the acid very decidedly red. and then the normal caustic alkali* added drop by drop until the liquid changes suddenly to . tilled water. to be certain of the accuracy of the analysis. and from it 1. Should any insoluble residue remain it is filtered off. besides * Tho normal caustic alkali solution is prepared by dissolving exactly 66 grains of hydrate of potassa (pure caustic potash). — : 1-000 : 850 :. 53 : x X 45. and weighed.000 grain measures are taken.000 water-grain measures of disThe solution is applied from a buiotte. By this backward or residual method very sharp results may be obtained. in which it is dissolved. = . After being dried it should be gently ignited in a porcelain or platinum crucible. however.— ALKALIMETRY. . or 40 grains of hydrate of soda (pure caustic soda). and allowed to cool without exposure to the air. to avoid aU ambiguity arising from the carbonic acid. 197 " Commercial Soda. In order. and then tested with the normal acid [or standard test-acid] until the neutral point is reached the process may be repeated several times.000 grain measures. Five hundred grains are weighed out from the thoroughly powdered and mixed sample. if necessary. heated nearly to boiling. It is then washed into a beaker. " The soda ash of commerce contains generally. Suppose 850 burette divisions of the normal acid have been required. the following calculation gives the amount of real carbonated alkali in the sample violet-blue. the amount of carbonate of sodium in 53 grains of the sample.

sulphur. the fused mass is dissolved in boiling water. or hyposulphites are present. 470 grains contain 40 grains of real sulphuric acid. however. sulphites. since each equivalent of hyposulphite would be converted into two equivalents of sulphate. sulphites. and Welter. igS THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. to add some chromate of : usual to employ a separate test-acid for this purpose. neutralising a certain quantity of the testacid. and hyposulphites are converted into sulphates-." The chlorate of potash is first pulverised. The test-acid for potash should have a specific gravity of I'OTO to 1'071 . Of this solution 1. but when sulphurets. and then 5 or 6 grains are intimately mixed with each 100 grains of the sample. in order to overcome this source of inaccuracy. by which the sulphurets..000 grain measures (or 100 burette divisions) exactly neutralise 113 grains of pure anhydrous carbonate of soda. of chlorate of potassium. in the examination of soda. insoluble substances. however.Lussac. When cold. do not interfere with the accuracy of the result) . and the assay then conducted in the same way as before described. as recommended by Gay . or exactly 100 grains it is Testing Commercial Fearlashes same way as samples of soda. the soda ash contains any hyposulphites this method must not be adopted. but is performed in the . If. at the expense of the alkali or its carbonate present in the sample. Fresenius and Will. would render the estimation seriously inaccurate wherefore it is absolutely necessary in such cases to trans- form these substances into sulphates by calcining a given quantity of the sample with 5 or 6 per cent. and which would render the assay seriously inaccurate. these substances. a greater or less quantity of chloride of sodium (common salt). and water. " It is always advisable to make it a Fresenius says rule. MM. which are removed by filtering. and the mixture is fusfed in a platinum crucible. filtered and washed. and of sulphate of sodium (which. recommend the addition of a small quantity of yellow chromate of potash to the alkaline solution.

. It may sometimes be convenient to employ a normal sulphuric acid. Each grain represents '315 grains of real or anhydrous soda . by mere and soda. and weighed. washed. "as the equivalent of carbonate of potassium is 69. M. the necessity for testing soda and potashes is greatly diminished.000 grain measures of which shall be equivalent to precisely 100 grains of the anhydrous caustic alkali." : A . For this purpose it is obvious that different standard acids will be required for soda and for potassa. as also caustic potash. Barres" solution of will recommends the following method barium is added in excess to a solution of the chloride of sample under examination.000 grain measures shall saturate exactly 171 grains of pure carbonate of sodium. the weight of the sample to be operated upon to make in solution 10. if Normandy's method be adopted. dried.000 grain measures will be 690. gives the exact percentage of the sample of potash under examination. This last precipitate is separated on a filter. moreover. Since.Or. of pure potassa. . and the filtrate and the reashings placed in a deep glass tube a stream of carbonic acid gas is then passed through the mixed liquor until it ceases to occasion a precipitate of carbonate of baryta. and the whole is filtered the precipitate of carbonate of baryta left on the filter is washed with a little water. The advantage of the standard above described is its equivalency both to potassa inspection." There are many other methods of determining the percentage of real alkali in the commercial products than those referred to. and that for potassa must be precisely equivalent to 146"8 grains of pure carbonate of potassium. off. 199 The number of measures consumed read from tbe burette scale.ALKALIMETRY. but to enter into this subject more fully would involve more space than the limits of this work would permit. or '477 grains of anhydrous potassa. 1. To determine the percentage of real or anhydrous alkali in a sample of caustic soda or potash. That for soda must be of such a strength that 1. . soap-makers are now supplied with caustic soda.

" Add the first portions of the test-acid very : gradually to the sample.200 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the Toeight or measure of the test-liquor expended shows the quantity of pure caustic alkali under treatment (nearly). carefully observing the effect." . The result depends upon the fact that little or no carbonic acid gas is expelled from the liquid on the addition of the test-acid until the caustic portion is very nearly TJre says netdralised. When the effervescence at length commences.

or over an oil-bath heated to 350° F. in order that he may determine the cost of manufacture and estimate his profit. 62 t Ure gives the follo'wing analysis of London curd soap 100. 6 water. take a fair sample. the sample should be taken from the interior of the har. II. then add a little muriatic A — : * If the soap has dried on the surface. alkali. until the shavings are quite free from water. — D'Aroet's Method. from time to time.. and in Castile or olive-oil soap about 14 or 16 per cent. = — . and put them into a small porcelain capsule. which. I. The ultimate loss in weight indicates the percentage of free or uncombined water.f The loss in yellow or resin soap would be about 45 per cent. shavings. and water ia each boil of soap when finished and ready for sale. say from a recently cut bar of soap. To estimate the fat acids. should not exceed 35 per cent. Soap Assay. —Eiohardson and Watt'a Method. dissolve 100 grains of the soap to be examined in 4 or 5 ounces of boiling distilled water in a porcelain capsule. or until they cease to lose weight by continued heating.greatest importance to tlie soap-maker that he should be able to estimate the exact proportions of fatty matter.* Cut this into thin slices or and weigh 100 grains. which is then to be placed over a water-bath kept boiling. 42 : . soda. It is of the . — Eampel's Method..— CHAPTER XXIV. Fat. METHODS OF ANALYZING OR ASSAYING SOAPS. in which condition they are The shavings should be weighed exceedingly brittle. in the case of curd and mottled soap. simple method of assaying a sample of soap is the following Soap Assay. To estimate the percentage of mater. .

when the residuum. and place it upon a piece of white blotting-paper and thoroughly dry it. as silicate of soda or china clay for example. run off all the water. and then weighing the residuum. it indicates that saponification has not been complete. taking care not to allow any particles of the combined fatty matter and wax to remain in the capsule. This may be effected roughly by simply volatilising all the fatty matter by heat. chalk. with the aid make a . and then apply heat until the whole is well melted . place them in a porcelain crucible and apply heat either over a clear fire or a Bunsen burner until all the fatty matter has burnt off. remove the cake carefully. when quite cold. however. which wiU float on the surface. After carefully weighing. combining with the soda. plaster. and. Having weighed out 100 grains of the soap. has been adulterated with earthy matters. will set free the fat acids. &c. fecula. Now hole in the cake of fatty matter. on weighing. again set aside to cool. To ascertain the percentage of alkali.. and allow the liquid to escape into another vessel. and stir gently. oily matter floats on the surface. and deducting the 100 grains of wax.and proceed as before. dextrine. and the quantity of this acid used will give the exact percentage of alkali present in the soap. which is carbonated alkali. pumice-stone. III. If the soap. gelatine. silica. ochre. To hasten the solidification of the fat acids. will show. set the vessel aside to cool. washing the cake several times until no trace of acid remains in the last water when tested by litmus paper. If. salt. add 100 grains of white wax and a little water. the percentage of alkali in the sample. Finally.202 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING.000 grains of boiling water. the proportion of real alkali must be determined by the alkalimetric test before described. acid. when the soap is first dissolved in boiling water. the solution is then neutralised with test-acid. 100 grains of the soap being dissolved in about 2. " If the soap contain clay.. the result will show the proportion of fat acids in the sample of soap under examination. dissolve 100 grains of the suspected soap in alcohol . The acid.

the clear solution should be poured oflF. however. and white or yellow soap less still. by first saturating an aqueous solution of the soap with a solution of tartaric acid the fatty acids which float on the surface may. or a combination of both. The drier the soap the more transparent it is. after which it should be carefully dried and weighed. after a sample of soap has been dissolved in hot water and allowed to rest for awhile a film of fatty matter appears on the surface (and which makes a greasy stain upon paper). and is mxich cheaper ." Normandy. * Good methylated than alcohol. when a porcelain capsule. All soap to which earthy or silicious matter has been added is opaque instead of being transparent on the edges. and heated gently over a water-bath. By applying a thermometer. Soft soaps ai-e assayed in the same way as hard soaps. There is no better test for insoluble impurities than dissolving a given weight say 100 grains of soap in alcohol. and therefore involves a little extra caution. Again. if the fatty acids have been separated by dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid. 203 of gentle heat the alcohol will dissolve the soap and leave all these impurities in an insoluble state. entirely soluble in water.* After the insoluble matters have subsided. the fusing point will give some idea of the nature of the fatty material. therefore. and the residual matter washed several times with alcohol. be transferred . as to whether the soap was made from tallow or oils. as is the case with all genuine fitted soap. but the manipulation is somewhat more troublesome. —A of the fat has not been saponified. Good mottled soap should not leave more than 1 per cent. To determine the nature of the fatty matters which have been used in the manufacture of soap is a difficult and sometimes a very laborious task.— METHODS OF ANALYZING OR ASSAYING SOAPS. If. properly-made soap is Unsaponified Fatti/ Matter. if a little bo rubbed in the palm of the hand the odour will frequently indicate the nature of the fatty material. An approximate result may be obtained. of insoluble matter. Bpirit answers equally well. that portion — — .

for they can contain neither insoluble nor inert substances. if the soap has been manufactured by liquefaction. and heat it with about ten times its weight of alcohol. Bampel's Uethod of Assaying Soaps. and 1 or 2 per cent. and weighed after drjdng.e.204 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the difference in weight giving the proportion of water. Its weight indicates the quantity of insoluble substances in the soap. by the limpidity of the solution. The soap in thia shavings is submitted to a temperature of 212° F. and the introduction of foreign substances would prevent its formation. When the proportion of water and insoluble matter has been ascertained. The solution is soon completed if there is no insoluble impurity . Liquefied soaps do not require further analysis. on the contrary. of water. If the solution is muddy.-^l. Since pure soap is entirely soluble in alcoliol. examined by ordinary chemical tests. 4. of insoluble matter. and. manufactured according to the Marseilles method. any insoluble colouring matter which may have been introduced into the soap may readily be separated. always produce muddy solutions. Indeed. the quantity of water is determined by the usual process. 5. an excess of water would precipitate the marbling. and may be done in as little time and with as much precision as that of alkalies. or other liquefied soaps mixed with resin. it is certain that the soap contains 6 . 3. There is no necessity for analyzing marbled soap. if desirable. a deposit is left. the process is simple and easy. this effect is due to the presence of resin. if. Introduce into a small test-tube a few grains of soap. it is to be well washed several times with alcohol. To ascertain the presence and quantity of insoluble substances contained in soap. the operator has approximately determined the value of the soap. for it cannot be adulterated. if the soap has given 30 or 34 per cent. Unicoloured. 2. manufactured by saponification and evaporation. For the white or unicoloured soaps. i. One drachm dissolved in 2 ounces of hot water indicates. The soap is weighed before and after drying. The analysis of soaps does not present any more difficulty. white.

A cake is thus obtained . 6. the weight of the wax used being deducted from the gross . To ascertain the value of the soap as to the proportions of fatty acids and base 18 : recommended A given weight of soap in solution is decomposed by an acid the fatty acids float on the surface of the liquid.METHODS OF ANALYZING OR ASSAYING SOAPS. is weighed. If. In either case it is useless to determine the proportions of fatty and inert substances that the soap contains. The alkalimetric assay is not necessary. By burning a small quantity of soap and assaying the residuum in the same manner as by the alkalimetric process. or the insoluble matter 2 per cent. the proportion of water exceeds 35 per cent. it is a certain proof that the soap has been adulterated. By — . from 1 to 2^ drachms of pure and dried white wax are then added. of fatty acids. and the whole boiled until the wax is melted. D'Arcet's Method. After cooling.. when the mixture is decomposed by the normal test-acid as in the ordinary alkalimetric process. as in the soap. of alkali. and it is easy to collect them and determine . D'Arcet's system may be adopted. but instead of having the soda in a caustic state. indeed. If preferred. it exists in the form of a carbonate. when cold and dried.which. — it contains the following their weight. on the contrary. and 60 per cent. which are the constant proportions of the marbled and pure white liquefied soaps. the weight of the fatty acids is determined by deducting the weight of wax -used. the residuum obtained contains all the fixed principles of the Boap. they are mixed with a known weight of white wax (previously dried) which hastens their solidification. 205 per cent. which consists in dissolving 3^ drachms of soap in 2 ounces of hot water . To obtain the proportion of afisali. the real quantity of alkali is and inert substances determined at the same time. when soap is burned.. wei^fht of the cake. and the real quantity of the alkali is determined by the alkalimetric test. When they do not collect easily. all the soda becomes transformed into carbonate. calcine a given weight of the soap in an iron iadle .

the proportion of water must be largej than that of the alcohol. The alcohol is expelled from the filtrate by evaporation. and is then dissolved in alcohol (100 grains require 3 ounces of alcohol). boiling water is added to it . on the other hand. imdissolved. resin. the addition of white wax may not be necessary. since the fatty acids will set into a hard cake. &c. The difference in weight from that of the acids before the treatment by alcohol gives the proportion of resin contained in the soap. The filtrate now only contains the fat soap and resin soap if any. it indicates that liquid vegetable oils have been employed in the manufacture. dextrine. and free fat enter into solution. acids by cooUng. The soap. starch. To determine the quantity of resin in soap. and must be treated by : — A : — — . leaving the miaeral constituents. The cake of fatty acids is divided into small equal pieces certain quantity is dissolved in five or and well dried. glue. and. Dussauce suggests the following One ounce of soap is decomposed by an excess of sulphuric acid. When the solution is made. submitting the fatty acids to pressure. on the other hand. dried and weighed. When the soap under examination has been made from materials rich in stearine. the separated acids solidify slowly. odour. becomes milky After the solidification of the fatty if resin is present. &c. and heated to boiling' over a water-bath. Kichardson and Watt's System. and the fatty acids float on the surface of the liquor. the cake is divided again into pieces. the solid and liquid acids may be recognised by their consistency. which becomes limpid if the soap does not contain resin. These are collected on a filter. The fatty acids obtained after cooling are washed with slightly acidulated water. six times its weight of alcohol at 90°. and when cold form a soft cake. An immediate separation takes place..206 ^ THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. They give the following plan for analyzing soap The soap is dried over a water-bath at 212° F. Addition of water then sets free any resin or uncombined fat. When. dried and weighed. The liquid is filtered and the residue washed with alcohol.

after being thoroughly washed in alcohol. for mottled and even less for yellow soap. not exceeding 1 per cent. In genuine soap this insoluble matter is of very small amount. dried The weight expresses the in vacuo. . and aeam weighed. the solution of the sulphates filtered from the fat acids is concentrated and treated with tartaric acid and dichloride of platinum in the usual way. At the same time that the soap solution is decomposed. alcohol will dissolve out all the fat acid. and these are collected on a weighed filter. To determine whether the base of the soap is soda or potash. Cold joint amount of fat and resin acids in the soap.METHODS OF ANALYZING OR ASSAYING SOAPS. 207 the alkalimctric test to determine the amount of potash or soda in combination with the fat acids. and the filter dried in vacuo and weighed as before. The filter containing the matter insoluble in alcohol is dried and weighed. gives approximately the amount of resin in the soap. the fat and resin acids rise to the surface. together with a small proportion of the resin from the filter. washed with hot water.

for it was invariably found that. —Bleaching : Palm -nil Dunn's Method. The most important of all saponifiable materials possessing a colour natural to itself is palm-oil . — Eecovery of the Chrome. it was subjected to the oxidising influence of the air. modify. with Chromate of Lime. into the soap-pan. that the useAilness of this oil as a soap material could be fully enjoyed. though modified. In the early part of the present century many attempts were made to destroy. and numerous other processes (including of course chlorine) were devised to render it serviceable as a partial substitute for tallow . but it was not imtil the year 1836. nitric acid was found to change the colour from red to yellow . C. except for special purposes. but its deep orange-red colour. —Justice's Method. Bleaohiag Palm-oil "Watt's CJhrome Process. which changed the red to a brown tint . and therefore affected the idtimate . A VERT necessary branch of the soap-maker's art is that of decolouring or bleaching oils or other fatty matters previous to their introduction^ with other and superior goods. By all the previous processes. which greatly reduced its objectionable redness. PURIFYING ANB BLEACHING OILS ANB FATS. was neither removed nor actually destroyed. in contact with caustic alkali. the colouring matter of the oil. —Purifying Oils. Watt introduced his now well-known process for bleaching palm-oil by means of chromic acid. or in some degree to reduce the intensity of the red colour of this oil. when Mr. It was subjected to a high temperature. would render it comparatively valueless as a soap-making material if there were no means of depriving it of its characteristic colour.— CHAPTER XXV. the colour more or less returned.

as white as the finest English tallow. The process is conducted as follows : Bleaching Falm-oil Watt's Chrome Process. One ton of raw palm-oil melted by steam heat and allowed to settle is placed in a wooden tub or vat. The importance of this process at a time when palm-oil was worth about £32 per ton and tallow about £56 can readily be imagined. and the stirring vigourously kept up. with brisk stirring. is drawn ofi' by a plugged opening at the bottom of the vessel. . A hereafter. and the bleached oil is then ready for the soap-copper. is carefully preserved. The green liquor. the mixture will be quite colourless if the operation has been current of steam or a few pails properly conducted. or even lower in hot weather 28 lbs. In a few moments the oil assumes a dark brown colour. and may be treated for the recovery of the chrome by a process which will be described . By the " chrome process." as it is called. . In about twelve after which the oil is allowed to repose.— PURIFYING AND BLEACHING OILS AND FATS.ter are now introduced. of boiling wa." however. 209 colour of the soap. and is stirred with : — a wooden crutch until it has a temperature of about 120° F. hours the " green liquor. it was eventually adopted by all soap-makers in every part of the Kingdom. when the operation is complete. which in a few minutes changes first to a dark green and then quickly to a lighter green. of hydrochloric acid are then added. of bichromate of potassa are then dissolved in boiling water and the solution poured into the vat and the stirring continued 60 lbs. of the bleached oil be treated with a drop of soda ley. the rapid changes of colour appeaf very remarkable. the colouring matter of the oil was entirely removed and the oil rendered. and when the last stage is reached (which is sometimes the case within five minutes after the acid has been introduced) the oil upon the palette If now a drop or two will be perfectly free from colour. and although some years elapsed before the trade fully recognised its importance. with slight foaming. which contains oxide of chromium in solution. If small samples are taken from time to time and placed upon a piece of glass or porcelain.

with continual stirring. previously dissolved in cold water. wise the oxide of chromium will be precipitated. of sulphuric The acid and 60 lbs. is placed in a quantity of slaked lime is worked wooden vat or tub. and which is rich in oxide of chromium. and the salt. Instead of using hydrochloric acid. it will pay to save it from the gutter. after which the liquid is transferred to another vessel. small quantities of which are added cautiously. an excess not only extravagant but unnecessary. owing to the greatly reduced price of bichromate of potassa. of bichromate to the ton. or even in moderate quantities.. of common salt may be used. may be described as follows The "green liquor" resulting from the bleaching of palmoil. and when this latter stands at a higher point than we have indicated the bleached oil is liable to assume a brown or " foxy " colour. 40 lbs. In bleaching palm-oil by the above process it is of great importance that the temperature of the oil should not be above 120° F.— 210 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. have been known to use as much as 40 lbs. — : A . to the green liquor. sulphuric acid is diluted with about twice its bulk of water. until the supernatant liquor is colourless. jun. otherchloric acid is saturated. of such paramount importance as it was formerly.. The author has most successfully bleached palm-oil when it has been almost at the point of congealing. until all the free sulphuric or hydroISo excess must be added. process. When the saturation of the acid is complete the vessel is allowed to rest for an hour or two. which was originated by Mr. Recovery of the Chrome Although the recovery of the most costly ingredient employed in the process of bleaching palm-oil with chromic acid is not now. in bleaching palm-oil by the above given. Charles "Watt. is mixed with the solution of bichromate of potassa in the proportion Some persons. up with water into what is termed milk of lime. since the chemical action which takes place after the introduction of the bichromate and acid greatly augments the temperature of the oil. there will be little difficulty in showing that even now. The process. where this salt is used extensively. and milk of lime again added and well stirred in.

product heoomes deoompoaed and useless. this operation of washing being continued until the clear liquor is tasteless. and when the whole has been introduced 60 lbs. is spread over an iron plate. when the heat is graduallyincreased. after being well drained. and there allowed to remain until cold. After ahout twelve hours' repose. It is advisable in practice to shift from the centre of the plate those portions which are sufficiently roasted* and to replace them with the finished material may those' which are less done be shovelled into an iron box or barrow. with a furnace tire beneath to the depth of about two inches. after a further repose. is again run off'. in which case.PURIFYING AND BLEACHING OILS AND FATS. when it may be put into a cask until required for use. in order to ensure uniformity and to prevent over-heating (which must be strictly avoided) the substance should be constantly turned over by means of a trowel or shovel. and the deposit. and the mass will break up into irregular cakes. and well crutched or stirred in . When these have become roasted about half through they must be turned over one by one. The fire being kindled. of hydrochloric acid are added. sary to say that the green liquor resulting from this opera- A * It is. — G^Tlbs. Be- . a cherry-red heat the^rey mass will gradually assume a yellow colour nearest the plate. which. It will generally be found that the lumps will fall into a coarse powder. yond this point the very important that tlie heat should he only of a dull red. water may now be introduced with brisk agitation. the whole of the liquor is run off. a long-handled trowel being a most convenient tool for the purpose. and the stirring continued until the usual reaction takes place few buckets of hot and the oil is completely bleached. and the roasting continued until the whole assumes the yellow tint of chromate of lime. When the plate acquires. About . and the It is hardly necesusual time then allowed for settling. of the chromate of lime prepared as above are sprinkled into a vat containing a ton of melted palm-oil. which is a mixture of oxide of chromium and lime. 2U After a few hours' rest the clear liquor is run off and fresh water added. the paste is first allowed to dry. Bleacliingf Falm-oil with Chromate of Lime.

The oU is then to be well washed with boiling water. All fixed vegetable oils and also fats may be purified and decoloured by means of chromic acid. and the boiling continued for half an hour longer. of sulphuric acid diluted as before and after steam has been blown through the oil for a short time 1 lb. In the purifying of fish and other oils chloride of lime. and then allowed to rest until all the liquid matters have subsided. 4 lbs. . and thus facilitate the subsidence of the green liquor. sets the chromic acid free. About — — . Fish oils may be purified by first boiling tbem with a weak caustic soda ley about half a pound of the alkali dissolved ia half a gallon of warm water to each ton of oil. of bichromate of potassa dissolved in hot water is first introduced. but in order to remove the traces of green oxide of chromium which are apt to remain in fatty matters containing a considerable amount of stearine. being attacked by the acid. tion may be treated as before. and the operation of bleaching commenced. has frequently been employed. Melted kitchen-stuff and other rank fatty matters may be greatly improved. Purifying Oils. it is advisable to well wash the bleached fat by the free use of steam or by means of boiling water. half a pound of sulphuric acid diluted with six times its weight of water is then added. with the addition of dilute sulphuric acid.212 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. and the chrome again recovered. and this is immediately followed by adding 2 lbs. by judicious treatment with small quantities of bichromate and any mineral acid. This being well stirred into the oil. made into a thin creamy mass. the whole being boiled by steam for about a quarter of an hour. when the alkali. of nitric acid diluted with 1 quart of water is introduced. After about an hour's rest the liquid is run off from the bottom of the vat. and the vessel in which the operations have been conducted should be well covered with sacking so as to retain the heat as long as possible. but the operation is more effective when a solution of bichromate of potassa and either dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid are mixed during the process. both in smell and colour.

while in a melted state.PURIFYING AND BLEACHING OILS AND FATS.. after which the oil was washed by steam or hot water and afterwards filtered. after which the dilute acid is introduced. Dunn's nXethod. when it is allowed to rest for some hours. of sulphuric acid diluted with twenty times its weight of water are about the right proportions. Steam is then blown in or hot water applied to thoroughly wash the oil. of the chloride and IJ per cent. vessel suited to the. Justice's method of purifying and bleaching oils and fats consists in mixing with these substances. therefore. or a mixture of salt and sulphate of copper (both in solution). or is allowed to clarify by resting for a few hours. Mr. to remove these impurities by first heating the oil and then allowing it to rest for several hours. and is heated until it is The temperature required of course perfectly liquid. and then separating the earth from the oil or fat by allowing it to The fatty matter to be purified is placed in any subside. 213 1 per cent. but it is simply sufficient that the material to be treated be brought to the liquid state. When the fat is thoroughly melted a quantity . or tannic acid. Dunn purified these oils by heating them with steam to a temperature of from 180° to 200° F. Solutions of tan. Palm and other oils frequently contain foreign matter the presence of which is likely to retard the chemical action of the bleaching agent it is better. and the whole well agitated for some time. may subside. and then forcing a stream of hot air through the -oil. The oil is first gently heated. purpose. is another method of purifying fish oil which has been frequently adopted. the chloride of lime is then added and well stirred in. and the agitation kept up until a sample exhibits a satisfactory appearance. so that these matters — . followed by chloride of lime and dilute sulphuric acid have also been used in purifying fish oils. pulverised dry fuller's-earth. The oil is afterwards filtered through fresh charcoal. varies with the different kinds of oil or fat. The clear oil is then run ofi" into a proper receptacle. A strong solution of common salt.

is ready for use. fuUers'-earth being now at the bottom of the vessel. spread over its surface and mixed vrithit by agitation. by weight of the fat or oil to be treated. say from 1 to 15 per cent. after the clear portion has been drawn off. The amount of fuller'searth to be used varies with the different kinds of fats and oils. may be put into boiling water. freed from impurities and colouring matter. is .earth. residuum. where it can be recovered. consisting of fuller's-earth mixed with oil. The after which the fuUer's-earth is allowed to subside. but The in other respects unchanged. the only apparatus required being an ordinary vessel of suitable capacity in which to warm the oil or fat. of finely-powdered fuller's. or an equivalent of clay. the oil or fat.214 THE ART OF SOAP-MAmNG. The refuse may then be thrown away or utilised in any desired manner. and if desired one or more settling tanks. which separates the oil or fat from the earth and permits it to rise to the top. No stills or machinery are needed.

to the soap-maker's waste leys. but as these patents are of recent date they cannot. the following abstracts will prove interesting. — O'FarreU'B —Thomas and Fuller's Process. sons have devised various methods for its extraction. be worked without the consent of the respective patentees. and that no practical effort should have been made to recover this valuable product from the exhausted leys.). RJECOVERT OF TBE GLYCERINE FROM WASTE OR SPENT LEYS: Young's Process. —Versmann's Process. Of the several patents which have been obtained for recovering glycerine from spent leys. however. —Payne's Process. Process. Benjamin Young's Process consists in first putting the waste ley into capacious evaporating-pans or other suitable vessels.'s Method. and Co. Mr. It had always been a source of regret that the enormouB quantity of glycerine formed during the process of saponification should have been ruthlessly wasted. namelj-. in about the proportion of two gallons of the diluted sulphuric acid to every forty gallons of the . which were known to contain large quantities of this important substance and to save the gutter certain ingenious perit from its usual fate — — . The free and carbonated alkalies (soda or potassa) are next neutralised by adding a solution of sulphuric acid in about the following proportions. — Benno. through which superheated or ordinary steam is passed. one part of water and one part of the sulphuric acid of commerce (68° B. —Allan's Process. —Lawson and Sulmau's Process. provided with coils of pipe made of any suitable metal. Japp6. naturally turned attention. — Clolus's Method.CHAPTER XXVI. of course. The high price of glycerine.

and it is further concentrated by evaporation until upon cooling it assumes the consistency of a syrup or paste. By this means the greater portion of the salts of soda. If any resin or fat is contained in the waste liquor it is admissible to add a slight excess of the dilute the resin or fat by strainacid. which is then set in motion and caused to rotate rapidly on its axis. and glycerine. which consists of a mixture of chlorides and sidphates of soda and potassa. potassa. The addition of the solution to the ley is continued until it ceases to precipitate any albuminous or gelatinous matter. and adds this to the spent ley after being neutralised by the acid. George Payne's Process. The solution of sulphuric acid is added to the waste soap-liquor in its original biilk. This solution should contain about one part by weight of tannin or tannic acid to about ten parts by weight of water. and the waste liquor is concentrated to about one-tenth of the original volume. Superheated or ordinary steam is then passed through the coils of pipe connecting with the evaporating-pans. Mr. He prefers to use sulphuric. hydrochloric. or nitric acid.216 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. sulphate and carbonate The entire contents of the evapoof lime. The inventor takes the — spent ley resulting from the manufacture of soap and saturates any free alkali present with an acid. rating vessels are then placed in a centrifugal machine. after it has been evaporated to about one-tenth of its original volume. A small quantity of carbonate of lime is then added to the strained Hquor. and lime are retained in the interior of the centrifugal machine. . the glycerine being thrown off by the rapid rotation of the machine. and to remove the same ing the concentrated liquor through cloth or any other suitable material made into bags or otherwise. such as is used for causing the separation of sugar from molasses. or when it is reduced to about one half that bulk by evaporation. — — these are separated by distillation. waste soap-liquor. As the glycerine thus obtained holds a certain quantity of salts in solution. He then takes a solution of tannin or tannic acid. thereby causing the removal of the glycerine.

RECOVERY OF THE GLYCERINE. as experience shows that heat facilitates the formation and separation of the precipitate. which is a mixture of glycerine and spent ley. By this process a concentrated solution of glycerine is obtained containing about 10 per cent. For this purpose heated air. The inventor sometimes commences by passing carbonic acid gas through the original soap ley. is next heated to expel the water. is separated by liquid filtration. may readily be removed by filtration or other convenient means." Versmann's Process. The object of this invention is the recovery of glycerine from soap leys. thereby concentrating the mixture and removing from the same a large quantity of the salts. superheated steam. The precipitate 217 which is thus formed settle. after which carbonic acid gas is passed through it until the whole of the carbonate and caustic soda is converted into bicarbonate of soda. it must be neutralised by the addition of milk of limo. which being much less soluble in glycerine than either the carbonate of soda or caustic soda. of salt. The solution should be warmed. the direct heat of the fire may be employed. The concentrated solution is then allowed to cool. large percentage of these salts is separated by simply boiling down the soap ley and raking out the salts as they become insoluble. or consists chiefly of . thereby separating large quantities of the salts. but he finds it more convenient to first reduce the bulk of the liquid by boiling down. or is allowed to The remaining raw or impure glycerine and chloride of sodium. The inventor says that " the glycerine obtained by this process may be more easily refined by distillation than that obtained by any known process. and caustic soda. and the glycerine may be separated by distillation and refined in the usual way. and its more or less complete separation from chloride of sodium. and then treating the liquid with carbonic acid. The clear liquor. which will crystallise out during the process of evaporation. The liquid from which the bicarbonate of soda has been — A . In some instances the solution may be found to be slightly acid if so. carbonate of soda.

when the spent ley obtained from this fresh portion or second charge is evaporated. is then boiled with an excels of fat or fatty acids. and the ley obtained is — evaporated as before. but it still retains sensible quantities of chloride of sodium and other salts. The process is repeated until the quantity of glycerine present in the solution is sufficiently concentrated to be economically separated.2i8 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. the resulting liquor. By this process nearly all the salts are separated from the glycerine. and removes all salts which may be in suspension in the liquor. the inventor proceeds to evaporate the solution till as much salt as possible crystallises out. and this saturated solution is used for the purpose of separating the glycerine from a fresh portion or second charge of soap. or the glycerine may be separated by distillation in vacuo. either hot or cold. which is strongly impregnated with glycerine. the presence of which may act injuriously in the subse- quent applications of the glycerine to certain purposes. till a saturated aqueous solution of common salt is obtained. when it will be ready for the market as crude glycerine. The solution is then filtered and sub- — . These salts are separated by submitting the liquor." such as is used in the separation of saline compounds from solutions of beet-root sugar. and this is again returned to the soap-copper for the purpose of separating the glycerine from a third charge. But as the latter becomes diluted with water it may be concentrated by evaporation. is removed very rich in glycerine. OTarrell's Process. Having by this means obtained the maximum amount of glycerine in the minimum volume of spent soap leys. to the process of " Osmose. when the glycerine is dissolved out from the residue by means of methylated spirit or other suitable liquid. which readily combines with the soda salts. Thomas and Fuller's Process. The spent or partially spent leys are first evaporated until nearly all the salts are deposited." in an apparatus known as the " Osmogene. The spent leys are evaporated immediately they are drawn off from the soap-pan by fire heat or dry steam applied by any suitable apparatus.

and allowing the solution to cool. Lawson and Salman's Process consists in first evaporating the leys to a density of from 1'14 to 1'16. The salt liquor being thus concentrated. Allan's Process. after which a salt of chromium sesquioxide is added. and thus a The removal . If preferred. chloride of lime. may readily be removed by skimming or otherwise for further use. is suspension. and then fat or fat acid may be added to remove the soda and such salts as may be in The method described above. to which the heat is applied. or crude pyroligneous acid. 219 jeoted to distillation to recover the glycerine. he evaporates to nearly " salting point " before adding any of the substances mentioned above. stirring thoroughly. the residual soapy matters remaining in solution are rendered insoluble. The liquor is then distilled in a glycerine retort heated by superheated steam from within. The inventor first neutralises the spent leys with any mineral acid with agitation. Or the spent leys may be treated with quick-lime to convert the carbonate of soda into caustic soda. he adds a solution of alum. however. and after filtration boiled to concentration.RECOVERY OF THE GLYCERINE. and provided with an exit pipe at the bottom. which carries off the precipitated salt as it accumulates. and. After settling. After settling he draws off the clear liquor and evaporates it to a concentrated condition in pans (to which the heat is only applied at the sides). chromium salt added will depend upon the percentage of albuminous matter existing in the ley. rising to the surface. or in shallow pans with sloping bottoms. using simply concentrated leys and a fat acid as the more effectual means of clearing the liquor of salts. The albuminous matters thus rendered insoluble by the addition of the salt are precipitated — and removed. To remove the albuminous matters remaining in the liquor it is first heated. which is capable of tanning The quantity of the or rendering albumen insoluble. and allows the precipitate to deposit. preferred. of these matters at this stage prevents their decomposition by further evaporation.

220 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. "We now treat the Kquor with a small excess of calcium carbonate (say. which can be again used in the manufacture of soap. but for the above quantity of ley we should say about half a pound of bichromate of potash added to a mixture of three-quarters of a pound of sulphuric acid in 2 lbs. The chromic oxide contained in the resulting -precipitate can be recovered for another operaThe retion in any suitable and well-known manner. This precipitates the whole of the chromic salts. is reduced to a salt of chromium sesquioxide capable of removing the albuminous matters as above. for example. purer and more concentrated glycerine of better colour The alkalinity of the liquor is than usual is obtained. but this must depend entirely on the strength and colour of the ley. to 20 lbs. say. at the same time neutralised by a suitable acid. sultant liquor obtained by removing the precipitate by subsidence or filtration will be found clear and almost colourless. to every 100 gallons of ley. and add this mixture in the proportion of 5 lbs. M. and neutralises any slight proportion of acid remaining. by the oxidation and destruction of the colouring matters. we add a proportion of free chromic acid to the waste liquor. For a ley such as the above we may add the bleaching liquor in the proportion of. Victor ClolTis's Method.e. 1 to 2 gallons "cream of whiting " to 100 gallons of ley). When treating highly-coloured leys. is to iise the waste liquor resulting from the bleaching of tallow or other fats or oils (chrome liquor ?). the tanning of the albuminous matters and the neutralisation of the alkalinity. It is then concentrated by further evaporation. ^To effect a separation of — . The crude glycerine finally obtained is of greater purity and better colour than usual. of water. 1 to 3 gallons for every 100 gallons of original ley . " very convenient method of A effecting our invention. The inventors remark. which. so as to obtain these i. according to circumstances. and maintain at a boiling temperature for a short time. which causes the gradual separation of the salt. two results." The quantity of chromic acid will necessarily vary.

as the latter is very slightly To eliminate the water soluble in anhydroiis glycerine. A treated. gradually eliminates the last traces of water in the glycerine. and may be distilled. The air so heated. at about 32° B. The evaporation is arrested when the liquid has arrived at a density of about 32° B. when cold. highly concentrated turglycerine mixed with salt crystals is obtained. bine is used for eliminating the salt. For this purpose he evaporates the ley and introduces into it carbonic acid. contains only a very small quantity of seaThe inventor also salt in solution. and especially to extract the glycerine from spent leys. so "When the as to convert the caustic soda into carbonate. .RECOVERY OF THE GLYCERINE. As the final result. and washed. which is systematically washed. is poured into any suitable vessel and hot air is blown into it. as the evaporation proceeds. but would be more expensive. and salt is constantly precipitated. with hydrochloric acid. the salt is precipitated and is removed. At this point the glycerine contained in the ley still contains considerable quantities of salt in solution. glycerine. when he introduces an excess of carbonic acid. whereby bicarbonate of soda is formed. adopts another method when he desires to obtain the car- The two bonated or caustic salts of soda in the condition of carbonates. evaporation in vacuo might also be effected. which is only slightly soluble. nearly pure state. the greater part of which is eliminated by the following treatment that is to say. the glycerine liquid. subjected to the action of a turIn most cases this salt is sea-salt in a bine. By degrees. instead of transforming them into chlorides by means of hydrochloric acid. or heated by the glycerine itself. 221 the various bodies for commercial purposes. liquor indicates about 25°. he allows the ley to cool. The solids are precipitated and collected. the inventor first saturates the ley.. the neutral clear liquid is evaporated in any suitable heating apparatus. thus purified by one or the other of these processes. The greater especially in a glycerine solution of salt. or the liquid is otherwise heated and cold air blown into it. and the water used for the washiag is again .

and can be further purified in the usual manner. but employ in lieu thereof an : — — alkaline sulphate. The alkaline sulphates. bine is treated as before. If it is desired to obtain glycerine more free from salt.222 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. The liquid remaining after the crystallisation is glycerine containing a slight proportion of impurities. According to this process the inventors do not use common salt for separating the soap from the ley. In the process of neutralising the spent ley the hydric-sodic sulphate is transformed into sulphate of soda by the caustic soda contained in the spent ley. act upon the soapy liquor in the same manner as common salt. is also separated. as for instance by distillation. Japp^. first neutralised by the addition of hydric-sodic sulphate it is then filtered and ultimately evaporated. which has been introduced for the purpose of separating the soap from the ley. especially the sulphate of soda. The glycerine liquid which leaves the turbine. and Co. . and is thus recovered as a bye-product. the operation is performed ^The glycerine concentrated by air blown into as follows it. When the liquid is evaporated the sulphate of soda separates in crystals. being almost insoluble in an excess of hydrochloric acid. and is. The spent ley obtained in eliminating the soap by means of sulphate of sodium has an alkaline reaction. and is eliminated by means of a turbine.'s SEethod. is part precipitated and is eliminated by means of a turThe bicarbonate is transformed into carbonate by calcination. or in vacuo. therefore. will be precipitated in fine crystals. is treated with hydrochloric acid added in excess. Benno. . The excess of hydrochloric acid then contained in the glycerine is eliminated either by blowing air into the same or by an excess of oxide of lead. but there will be no difficulty in subsequently separating such sulphate from the glycerine. either in a gaseous state or as a liquid. . and if properly purified can be used again for eliminating soap from the ley. Sea-salt. The sulphate of soda.

" In executing an order for soap for milling. London Soap-Powder. &c. Borax Soap-Powder. Kiirten makes tlie following interesting observations on the preparation of soaps to be used' for milling and other similar purposes. — — — — — — Soap to be nsed in Cloth. else they would loose the elasticity which is indispensable to them. * " Art of Manufacturing Soap. Cloth Manufactories. which only require to be washed. if the ley is too strong in the soap. for it is proved by experience that a cloth which is really good. great care is indispensably necessary in giving the ley its proper proportion of strength. Manufactories." By Philip Kiirten. the stuffs are scoured too much. When the cloth is scoured or milled it is a rule to use soap of a quality corresponding with that of the stuffs. . and also a greasy — who may not be matter is communicated to them which in every case is very injurious on the other hand. Scouring Balls. Borax Soft Soap. must be milled a longer time than a zephyr or light stuff for pantaloons. DBesden Palm Soap.— CHAPTER XXVII. and which is called stout cloth. . and retain always a dry stiffness which should be specially avoided. for if the ley be too weak the stuffs cannot be properly cleansed. Ox-gall Soap. the maker should direct his attention to ascertain whether the process of milling was according to the ancient manner by By the first stocks or the new method by cylinders. for the use of the above-mentioned establishments. Soap to be used in. Altenburge's Eesin Soap. MIBGELLANEOUB SOAPS. White Cocoa-nut Oil Soap.* which will assist in guiding the soap-maker fully acquainted with the requirements " In preparing all soaps intended of the cloth-scourers.

from which it is afterwards separated. and the sample shows a sufficient firmness when cool. the duty of perties of the water used. "We have then a soap. in that manufacturer's own opinion. therefore. then some olein soap genuine soap. or whitened palm-oil with an addition of cocoa-nut oil. leaves a sharpish taste on the tongue. This kind of soap is made either of tallow or cocoa-nut oil. not only the different qualities of cloth and the method employed in their manufacture should be taken into consideration. method the milling requires longer time and the employment of a soap which does not dissolve too quickly. it is true.— 224 ^^^ ^^^ OP SOAP-MAKING. with an addiin a word. is the best adapted for his purpose and for the quality of We will for that reason more fully describe his material.* which is added till the soap shows a strong grain and bears a good pressure of the hand. Although the manufacturers of cloth will not easily decide on using any other sort of soap. . whilst by the latter method a soap is wanted which does not congeal too quickly. "Hard and Unsalted Soap for Milling Cloths of Superior quality. Among the soaps which do not dissolve quickly we reckon those which are prepared from tallow or palm-oil with soda ley. and when the ley. but also the different proIt is. Kiirten is in error in recommending soda soaps for these purposes. for milling — : * Mr. however. It is. as we have already observed. the preparation of the different sorts of soap. A soap which dissolves the quickest is that which has been boiled from olive-oil. because it does not yet possess a sufficient scouring . because. the tion of tallow. every soap-boiler to supply each manufacturer with the kind of soap which. yet the soap-boiler should not be led away by the opinion that every maker of the same artide can make use of the same sort of soap. true that green or brown . and in the following manner The palm-oil or the tallow should be boiled into a firmgrained soap with a caustic soda ley. soap always dissolves quickest nevertheless it is not fit heavy cloth with the stocks. but it is not fit for milling. because on that account they do not thicken sufficiently. which still remains imsalted in the soap.

"When the soap is not yet separated from the ley. in order to saponify cocoa-nut oil a caustic ley of soda of 38° or 30° The ley is added till the soap has acquired a is required. or. which is more advisable. which is mixed with the soap when cold in small quantities. and. and for that reason the unsalted ley which remains in the soap must be got rid of. be added till the taste returns. generally used in America in preference to . boiler. To give the soap the necessary power glue." White Cocoa-nut quick way: Oil Soap. 225 quality. when tried. . "When it is desired to obtain a larger produce. and be afterwards poured into the frame. of cocoa-nut oil must be added. and not unsalted but in this case care must be taken that the soap is not brought to a higher degree of heat than 25° Reaumur (152°). of >this soap. when in a state of solution. but without any ley. therefore will not cleanse the cloth from its dirt. good firmness. then the soap must be allowed to boil for half an hour to if not. and continued till The soap the soap on the spatula separates from the ley. superior quality and to diminish the ley. and the soap poured into the frame in the state of paste. lowing directions for —To prepare is making this soap in a simple * The term " kettle " soap-pan or copper. a taste rather strong of As soon as this is foufld. although with the conviction that the quality will not be so good. 200 lbs.MISCELLANEOUS SOAPS. and grease. of palm-oil or tallow used for this soap lbs. ley remains on the tongue. otherwise the soap from the cocoa-nut oil would stick to the bottom of the 25 . to effect that purpose some salt must be used. — Cristiani gives the fol- and 100 lbs. a ascertain whether the same taste yet remains little more ley musl. to effect that purpose an addition of cocoa-nut oil is requisite. and the soap poured again into the boiler. will remain some hours in the boiler to cool. instead of a ley at 28° or 30° for the saturation of the cocoa-nut oil. and then made to When it is intended to make a soap of a boil afresh. introduce into a kettle* holding from 200 to 250 gallons. For every 100 lbs. one 22° to 24° must be used.

Make by the cold process. it may be combined with the saponified mass by adding 10 lbs. Cocoa-nut oil Palm-oil (crude) Eesin Soda ley. to 12 lbs. . Cocoa-nut oil Resin Soda ley. of soap are obtained. which was at first in the form of grains. afterwards add 200 lbs. When properly made. Alteubnrge's Besin Soap. 28° 220 220 Its. homogeneous. before framing. softens and becomes liquid. Under the influence of the heat the material. of cocoa-nut oil soap or. heat the kettle. From the quantities given from 396 to 400 lbs. The heat is then withdrawn. 1.: 880 „ 353 „ Melt together the fats and saponify the resin separately. . a certain quantity of oil swims on the surface of the paste. By the above process the soap is very white. according to the quantity of water added.". when the mixture begins to boil. of of pure white cocoa-mit oil All being colourless and perfectly limpid ley at 30°. Contiaue the heat gently and gradually until the combination of the oil and alkali is efiected. 28» 3. and cut with a salt ley of 24° B..'. After five or six days the soap is firm enough to cut. taking care to add the resin soap before it becomes too thick to stir. ready. the soap has the appearance of a fluid. Dresden Palm Soap. stop off the heat. The operation lasts about one hour. and the soap transferred to the frames as usual. It is useless to boil it If.. After stirring a few minutes the homogeneity of the soap is reestablished and the combination perfected.. B 297. and syrupj' paste of an amber-white colour.520 Its. and run the soap into the frames. and may be employed for toilet uses. .100 „ '. 226 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. and to accelerate the combination of the substances stir weU from time to time. which generally takes place when the ebullition begins. the same result may be obtained by adding from 2 to 2\ gallons of pure water. does not contain any excess of alkali or oil. ..

White curd soap Pearlash Oil of juniper 33 lbs. evaporating until of proper consistency. „ „ „ ley is added to the melted grease and heated till it forms a clear liquid or is combined. as their excess of alkali neutralises the lime. 6 parts. 6 „ 6 . The ox-gall is prepared by boiling it with 10 to 12 parts of wood spirit and straining. . Ox-gall Soap. 3 „ 3 „ together. and they are spread out to dry and then ground into a coarse powder. The soda Borax Soap-powder. Curd soap in powder Soda ash Silicate of soda Borax. Each ingredient together by sifting. and is usually sold in quart cans.. crude S parts.— MISCELLANEOUS SOAPS. Mix Borax Soft Soap. 227 White curd soap 2 parts. Sconring-Balls. solid translucent paste. 10° B B B Solution of horax. 1 These ingredients are combined as well as possible without any water. The soap is cut into shavings and melted in the ox-gall at a moderate heat. having previously added a little water to the soap and pearlash to dissolve them by a moderate heat . White Soda fats ley. 3 „ 2 1 „ part. : 3 1J „ „ . 10° 100 100 60 IS Ihs. Gristiani. 2 ozs.. 1| part. They are adapted for hard waters. when the potash It should be a semiley and borax solution are added. add the oil of juniper and mould into balls. Purified ox-gall 1 part. 15° Potash ley. Thus in an infinite degree can the variety of soap-powders be multiplied. Yellow soap Soda crystals Pearlash Sulphate of soda Palm-oil is thoroughly dried and all mixed London Soap-powder.

The Oleometer. ^Adulteration of Commercial SUioate of Soda Soaps for CalicoFulling Soaps. Table showing the Quantity of Caustic Soda in Leys of different Densities (Water 1000). Potash in Caustic Ley. delicate areometer or hydrometer. is thus described by Mr. TwaddeU's Hydrometer. Potato-flour in Soft Soap. Analyses of Soft Soaps. JeUifying. Half-palm Soap. Fusing and Congesting Points ot Fats and Oils. Table showing the Specific Gravity corresponding with Baume's Hydrometer (Liquids denser than Water). where they are allowed to remain until the surface is sufficiently indurated. ^Table of the Mechanical Power of Steam. The soap hars (which require careful handling !) are gently deposited in the strong brine. By this method the soap assumes a virtue which it does not possess. Comparative French and English Thermometer Scales. Aluminate of Soda. Boiling-points of some Volatile Oils. AND TABLES. betermination of Eesin in Soap. Tahle showing the Percentage of Anhydrous Caustic in" Caustic Ley. — : — "A . Boilingpoints of Caustic Alkaline Leys. Cheap Almond Soap. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Kiirten's Table. Soda Soft Soap. after which they are qvdckly rinsed and then submitted to the drying-room for a short time. Table showing the Specific Gravity corresponding with the Degrees of Baumfe's Hydrometer (Liquids lighter than Water). The •Oleometer. so Cooley weighted and graduated as to adapt itself to the densities As the difiierences of the specific of the leading fixed oils. for ascertaining the density of fixed oils. This very useful instrument. state that Under this attractive Leading we may some very competitive soap-makers have occaof artificially — sionally adopted a plan hardening the surface of soap containing an infinitesimal proportion of fatty matter by soaking it for a few hours in a strong solution of common salt. Table of Essential Oils.— CHAPTEE USJEFUL N0TJE8 Pickling Soap. XXYIII.Detection of Kesin in Soap. — — — — — PicMiug Soap. Saponification of Neutral Fatty Bodies ty Soap. Causticising Soda. Table showing the Percentage of Soda printers..

Actual Temperature. and the oleometer indicates 60°. 2-5 Difference. . and at 50 in pure olive-oil. Indication of the oleometer The difference 2-5x2= Eeal density 45"0 5-0 50-0 The oil is therefore" presumed to be pure. Difference. and from cryolite. to render more susceptible the ball of the instrument is pro- portionately large and the tube or stem very narrow. The last is done by deducting 2 from the indication of the instrument for each degree of the thermometer above the normal temperature of the instrument. by plunging the glass cylinder containing it into either hot or cold water.— USEFUL NOTES AND TABLES. to . The oil must therefore be brought to this normal temperature before testing it. The standard temperature of the instruments made in this country is now 60° those m^de on the Continent 54*5° F. as the case may be or a correction of the observed density must be made. and it floats at or zero in pure poppy oil at 38 or 38 j in pure almond oil. The scale of the oleometer in general use (Gobby's) is divided into 50 degrees. Thus suppose the temperature of the oil at the time of the experiment is 60° F. a double fluoride employ manufacprepared from bauxite. 54'5 5-5 Normal temperature. . It has been proposed — this salt as a substitute for caustic soda in the ture of soap. : then 60"0° Actual temperature. and adding 2 for every degree below it. Indication of the oleometer The difference 5-5X2= Eeal density 61'0 11-0 60'0 Suppose the temperature observed at the time of the experiment is 52° and the oleometer indicates 45°. — 229 it gravities of these substances are inconsiderable. then 54'5 52'0 Normal Temperature. Alnmiuate of Soda. . an aluminate of Aluminate of soda is iron.

and is . a powerful reaction takes place with violent evolution of nitrous vapours. We — : — .— 230 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. If an excess of lime is used. . when an insoluble fluoride of calcium is formed and the alumina becomes dissolved in the excess of caustic soda. For making soap from aluminate of soda. When cold. the alumina will be precipitated. with soda and the oxide of iron is separated by lixiviation. the composition of which is alumina. of fatty acids and resin is removed and washed several times with warm water. 43 soda ash employed. The heat is withdrawn till the violence of the action subsides. which 300 grains of is said to give very satisfactory results soap cut into small pieces are introduced into a capsule and covered with concentrated hydrochloric acid. To determine the Qnantity of Besin in Soaps. 40 water and impurities from the soda. This cake containing the fatty acids and the resin is carefully weighed. Bauxite is calcined of sodium and aluminum. Sutherland recommends the following process. but the combination is effected at the lowest temperature at which they can be intimately mixed. Cryolite (powdered) is mixed with six equivalents of lime and boiled with water. 100 grains of the mixture are placed in a capsule and covered with strong nitric acid and the temperature raised to the boiling-point. the resulting liquors being evaporated until a dry commercial aluminate of soda is obtained. . Mr. understand that soap is made in the United States to a considerable extent from aluminate of soda. and these should not be heated to a greater extent than is just necessary to liquefy them. the contents are gently boiled till the soap is dissolved and entirely decomposed 4 ounces of hot water are added. and the capsule is set aside to cool. After cooling it is dried and gently remelted. and kept for a few minutes at 212° to evaporate all traces of water. The materials are not boiled in the usual way. the cake whereby an aluminate of soda is formed. 9. ash. leaving caustic soda alone in solution. about equal parts of lard and tallow are preferred.

avoiding excess. utilised for the determination of the fatty acids. C. Hence. This process be also used to determine resin in bees' -wax. when cold. and may — One portion of this powder is dries in stove at 100°. . After standing for 24 to 48 hours the ethereal liquid is decanted. It is heated at 80°. Small portions of nitric acid are successively added till no further distinctly appreciable quantity of nitrous acid is given off. melting it in a further quantity of nitric acid. in making the calculation a proportionate addition must be made to the fatty acid before dividing its weight by that of the resin indicated. The :whole is well shaken up and left to settle. The resin soap is entirely dissolved. as fats on being decomposed lose about 4J per cent. to obtain the exact relative proportions between fat and resin originally put into the soap-pan. The fatty acids are now allowed to cool. of their original weight. to dissolve the soap of the fatty acids and of resin. and allowed to cool again while well stoppered. Mr. The alcoholic liquid. and are removed from the acid solution strongly The cake is then washed by coloured by terebic acid. Detection of Besin in Soap. When cold it is dried and melted at a gentle heat till acid fumes The resulting cake is the pure fatty cease to be given off. the latter being indicated by the It will be observed that a correction must be made loss.USEFUL NOTES AND TABLES. and another portion is put into a very dry bottle. He then treats it with a caustic soda ley of the specific gravity of Tl diluted with 6 volumes of water. and from 5 to 6 per cent. Barford decomposes the soap with hydrochloric acid. This method is based upon the slight solubility of a soda soap of the fatty acids in the above mixture of alcohol and ether. and washes the mass thus obtained with water. of absolute alcohol are added for every gramme of soap. 231 again applied to maintain a gentle ebullition for a few minutes. and the residue is treated with hydrochloric acid. acid freed from resin. grinds up the residue. whilst the soap of the fatty acids is deposited almost entirely. is mixed with 5 times its volume of ether. He then evaporates it to dryness over a water-bath.

. In the year 1838 Sheridan (the original inventor of silicated soap) obtained a patep.oil and tallow 47 water 45 100. The following analyses may be useful as showing the composition of several well-made Cheap Almond Soap.— C/re. and must therefore be used in moderation. The proportions were potato flour. 100 lbs. oils 100. water 46-5 100. oil 44-0. Another well-made soap Potash 9 -1. How many times has the same process been. consisted of potash 11-5 -|. : Scotch soft soap Potash 8 -|.— 232 — THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Juncmann proposes to make a soap by dissolving 28 parts of soda ash in 100 parts of molasses. It is largely used in some parts of England for scenting cheap tablet soaps. nii/ro-benzol — soft soaps : tallow 45 soap of London make Potash 8'5 -f oil and Ure. semi-hard soap from Verviers. It is exceedingly powerful as a perfume. Belgian soft or green soap Potash 7 -f oil 36 -h water Good soft : + : = : 57 = 100. and stirring in 100 parts of oleic acid. for fulling cloth. impart the odour of bitter has been much employed. Analyses of Soft Soaps. 16 lbs. called savon iconomique. —To almonds to soap.— Ure.water 38-33. water. Fotato Flour in Soft Soap.oil and fat 34 water 57 100. Thenard gives the composition of soft soap as Potash 9-6. water 46-5 in 100 parts. 48. M. 270 lbs.— C/re. An olive-oil (Gallipoli) soft soap from Scotland consisted 'of potash with a good deal of carbonic acid 10. . potash leys.fat (solid) 62 water 26-5 100. water 42 rapeseed oil from Scotland consisted of potash 10 oil 61-66 -I. In small quantities it has also been employed to disguise the disagreeable odour of cocoa-nut oil.— Z7re.t for making soft soap with potato flour. with slight modifications. re-patented " Liquored soaps " are such as have water (with or without silicate of soda) added to them after removal from + = : + = = A + + A = — : ! .

233 Watered. which was maintained for several hours at a temperature corresponding to a pressure of 5 to 6 atmospheres. the condition being that of subjecting the lime. wbren well solution of commercial soap. matter .of olive oil. In one word. furnished a completely acidified fatty. water above the precipitate was evaporated. I prepared a lime soap by double decompositioiijjjllf^ pouring a solution of chloride of calcium into an aq^jreous The precipitate. and especially suet. made a series of important experiments on the saponification of fatty matters. when boiled in water acidulated^ ^ith hydrochloric acid. or " run " soaps are those which have water or weak leys added and mixed with the soap in the soap-pan. the reaction showed all the characters of the ordinary decomposition of the neu- \ \ . The vessel was kept for nearly three hour^ ii ^^ oil The bath at a temperature of from 311° to 329° \F. It appeared to me interesting to subject to an attentive examination a saponification performed with so small a quantity of a base as one twenty-fourth part of the acidified fatty matter. he subsequently reduced the proportion to 4 per cent. The operation was performed in a metallic boiler.. was introduced into a small Papin's digester. Saponification of STeutral Fatty Bodies by Soaps: By M. and fatty matter to an elevated temperature. in which he demonstrated that a much smaller percentage of lime than was ordinarily employed would effect the complete saponification of the fatty matter. for it was directly and entirely soluble in alcohol and the alkalies. an^ left a syrupy residue presenting all the properties of glycsrine. with nearly its own weight of water and 40 per cen^. It is easy to understand the economy of an operation which enables us to diminish to one half the quantity of sulphuric acid necessary for' the decomposition of the lime soap. One of the oldest and most skilful candle-makers in France. Having reduced the percentage of lime from 15 to 8 or 9 per cent. of the fatty matter operated upon. Pelouze. The precipitate. M. water. — washed. de Milly.USEFUL NOTES the pan. J. by lime. AND TABLES.

and medicine have already drawn great advanand which will. Sapomfication of Neutral Fatty Matters by Soaps. at a temperature of from 311° and 329° F. accord with this explanation. after the reaction. The temperature and operation were the same. Another experiment was made by mixing Marseilles soap with its weight of water and one quarter of its weight of olive-oil. be much increased.234 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. The difference in hardness of the new lime soap being set aside (it was not so hard). . Chevreul. Acids separated from it a fatty substance likewise entirely : soluble in cold alcohol and alkaline solutions. manufactures. Thence result fatty acids and free glycerih*a which is nearly pure. ascertained that at the temperature of 329° F. which has just been described.. that soaps are as capable as alkalies of decomposing fatty bodies into glycerine and fatty acids . had all the properties of an acid soap it was soluble in cold alcohol and in an aqueous solution of potassa or soda. it will thus be understood why I have given to this note the apparently paradoxical title. relative to "the action of water on soaps. assigned by M. In the new reactions of which we speak it will be understood that water. decomposes a neutral soap into an acid soap and very basic soap. To decompose them it is necessary that the mixture of fatty matters and water should attain and be maintained for a long time at the temperature of 428° F. moreover. Berthelot for this latter saponification. The matter. tages. the saponification is performed by the action of superheated steam at a stni highe^ temperature. The observations of M. house manufactures immense quantities of stearine candles. In England. water does not act on oils. and whence arts. by tlie tral fatty matters free alkalies. probably. I have. and that the latter acts in a secondary manner on a fresh quantity of fatty matter in the same manner that a free alkali would do. where Price's. It results from the double experiment. one might have supposed that the saponification had been performed with caustic lime.

000. of soap is boiled by steam heat in 80 gallons of water. When thoroughly dissolved. For this purpose 1 cwt. Soap-makers frequently test the jellifying property of their soaps in this way After having carefully weighed 1 ounce of soap. : 20 Tw. "When the elements of water alone cause the decomposition of neutral fatty bodies into fatty acids and glycerine. sets into a jelly when cold.000. They lead us to look forward to fresh developments in this class of numerous and important substances. cold water is added to make up 170 gallons in all. In cloth factories. may be explained in an analogous manner. and large laundries also. the character of soap is determined by its congealing or jellifying properties. At the end of twelve hours or so the solution of soap will have set into a jelly if the soap has been of good quality. and these are placed in a porcelain capsule 7^ ounces of water (by measure) are then added.— USEFUL NOTES AND TABLES. Twaddell's hydrometer is used in England for liquids heavier than water. If the soap is of good quality it should gelatinise in half an hour. adding 1. : — . Its degrees are converted into specific gravities by multiplying them by 5. after being dissolved in a certain quantity of water. and the solution of soap is then set aside to cool. constantly stirring with a glass rod until the soap is all dissolved. Cold water is then added to make up 16 ounces. Chevreul's works on fatty bodies. = 20 X 5--H 1000 = 1100 1000 . Jellifying is a term applied to soap which. It must be admitted that the saponification of suet by means of 4 per cent. The observations of which I have been giving a summary find a simple interpretation in M. which served as a foundation for my work. we may expect that science and industry will multiply and vary the phenomena of saponification. of its weight of lime presents several distinct phases in which a basic or neutral soap is formed at first and is'then changed into a relatively acid soap. and Thus dividing the sum by 1. Milly. this is cut up into thin shavings. 235 The experiment of M. and the whole gently boiled over a spirit-lamp.



Twaddell's figures advance 5° in each number, thus
1000 specific gravity 1005 „ 1010 „ 1015 „ 1020 „

No. „
„ „





so on.

Cansticising Soda. Mr. Parnell's plan for causticising soda liquor under pressure appears to have proved verysuccessful in practice

saving in


and to have effected a considerable The operation is conducted in horizontal

cylinders about 7 feet in diameter and 30 feet long, provided with a revolving shaft or agitator and " cages " for holding the lime. Each charge is about 400 cubic feet of soda liquor, and takes about three and a half to four hours to causticise under a pressure of from 50 to 60 lbs. to the square inch. It is stated that 90 or 92 per cent, of the soda is causticised by this method, and the caustic liquor comes out up to 32° Twaddell. The " mud " contains from 3 to 4 per cent, of free lime. Each ton of 70 per cent, caustic soda requires 15 or 16 per cent, of lime. One apparatus turns out about 70 tons weekly. The patentee says " 1. I treat the alkaline carbonates, or alkaline carbonates mixed with caustic lime, under a pressure greater than the ordinary atmospheric pressure, so as to obtain a sufficiently high temperature to cause the alkaline carbonate and the caustic lime to react upon each other. Thus it is possible, under pressure of 50 lbs. per square inch, to efiiect the reaction with a solution of 1*200 specific gravity or over. 2. I agitate, the mixed alkaline carbonates and lime during treatment in the manner above described in order to facilitate the reaction and hasten its completion. 3. After the reaction has taken place I maintain the pressure upon the products, and keep the temperature constant until I have separated the caustic soda or potassa, or both, from the carbonate of lime produced, in order that the reaction may not be reversed by a reduction of temperature taking place whilst the caustic alkalies and the carbonate of lime are in contact. Soda Soft Soap may be made from a mixture of soda





and potash leys, but the leys must be quite free from salt. Tie proportions recommended are Soda ley, 1 part

potash ley, 4 parts hempseed-oil, 3,750


oleic acid,




tallow, 50 lbs.


said to

make a good


Half-palm Soap lowing formulae
Wiite tallow
Palm-oil Cocoa-nut


made from

either of the fol550 lbs. 400 „ 450 ,, 200 ,,

Yellow resin

900 Its. 400 „ 200 „ 100 „




Palm-oil Cocoa-nut oU Cotton-seed oil

700 300 200 400

„ „

The following
prove useful


recommended by
Palm-oil Cocoa-nut




200" „ 20 „


450 lbs. 50 „


Palm-oil Coooa-nut

Palm-oil Eesin

500 „ 300 „ 200 „

Clarified resin

550 150 60 50


Adulteration of Commercial Silicate of Soda. The sample in question gave on analysis, according to M. F. Jean
Soda combined
with. sUica

Carbonate of soda Soda soap

Perric oxide, alumina, and traces of lime Alkaline chloride and sulphates

8'54 6'36 2-00 21-40 0-74

Matter not determined, and


of silicate of soda contained, therefore, 2 per cent, of anhydrous soap, but as such a solution
* " Art of Manufacturing Soap," &o.

The sample

By Adolphe




forms a jelly on cooling, tKe object of its introductioi^ was evidently to thicken the silicate, giving it the appear; ance of a very concentrated product, and to prevent its strength being taken with the hydrometer. Soaps for Calico-printers. The soap used by calico-' printers for clearing alizarine work must be very neutral, the alkali being not only kept down in quantity, but its thorough combination with the fatty acids secured by very careful boiling. The superiority of the madder purples for which the firm of Hoyle and Sons were long famous was due to their practice of re-melting the best soaps procurable with an additional quantity of palm-oil. Fulling Soaps. For use in woollen manufacture a genuine potash oil-soap has been found in practice superior to all others. Resin gives harshness to the fibre of wool, so must not therefore on any account be used. Soda also injures the suppleness of the wool, so in discarding it The the manufacturer follows the teachings of Nature. natural lubricant of wool, called mint, is a kind of potash SiKcates also must soap, containing a bare trace of soda. not be used if present they are decomposed in the pro-


and deposit free silica, which grates on the fibre and injures its lustre. To prevent the boiling-over of the Copper, a piece of machinery called a "fan" is used at some soap-works. This consists of a revolving paddle furnished with blades which touch the top of the boiling matter. Small jacket-pans may be made from the alloy of aluminium and bismuth of the Crown Aluminium Company, instead of silver, which possesses the advantage of being cheaper, harder, and less fusible than the more
cess of fulling, &c.,

costly metal.





Tablb showino the Peboentaob or Soda in a Oaubtio Let, at the Tempbuatuke op 60° Fahrenheit, and the. Quantity op Mixed Fats whioh mat be baponipied by this Ley. Tiinnermann.




Taslb showing the Pekcentage op Anstdrous Caustic Potash A Let at 60° Fahs., and the Quantity of Mixed Fats which KAT BE SAPONIFIED BT XT. Tunnermann.


English. 01 Centigrade65 Cent.USEFUL NOTES AND TABLES. or P. 70 . Comparative Frbnoh and Enghsh Theemombtbr Scales French. 01 Fahrenheit. 241 — [continmS). or 0. equals 149 Pahr.

Degrees. Specific Gkavitt correspondino with the Deosees of Bauii£'s Htdsometee. Table showing the.242 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. . Liquids lighter tlian "Water.

USEFUL NOTES AND TABLES. Table of Essential Oils Name. . 243 — (continued).

WITH Palm-oil. KTJRTEN'S TABLE Showing the Composition and Pboduct of Soap by thb Cols PboCKSS PBOM OONOENTEATED LeT AND ]yllXT0BE OP CoOOA-NDT On. and Tallow. .244 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Soap. Labd.

24s \S BoiLiNO Points of Caustic Alkaline Lets. Alkaline Ley. .USEFUL NOTES AND TABLES.

. Fiessoies. Tablb op the Mbchanicai.6 ^46 THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. Powek of Steam.

230 palmitic. fatty. 190 Mohr's. boiling-points to prepare. 41 silicate of. 177 and camphor soaps. 124 Acids. 158 Animal oil. 241 Anhydrous soda. oil of. 8 175 Alkalimeter. 189 Aniline. 203 terebic. nitrous. 152 hydrochloric. 244 chromic. 176. 8 Adulterations of commercial soda. 219 Alumino-ferruginous soap. 41 Allan's process for recovery of glycerine. 9. 92 nitric. 9 leys. 241 Ache. 94 109 Alumina. 190 Alkalimetry. or parsley. Almonds. 175 tartaric. 10 sulphuric. 128 Ammonia. oil of. 69 8 Aluminate of soda. 188 Alkaline ley. 130 soap. 159 American potash. 9 Alizarine. 175 stearic. Analysing or assaying soaps. 72 Angelica. 27 Alkanet root. 33 of. 174 benzoic. 27 salicylic. 180 Analyses of soft soaps. 27 cocinic. carbonic. A BSINTHE. 203 hyponitrous. 27 muriatic. 226 Alum. 159 oU of. -c*- oil of. bitter oil of. 159 Ambergris. oleic.INDEX. 8 elaiodic. 241 Anthracene salt. 124 Anise. 237 Albumen. 231 silicate of 44 193 samples of. 219 Alcohol. Alkalies. 231 test. 172 Almond cream. 8 margaritic. fast red. liquid. 229 soap. 69. 125 tissues. 28 caustic. 241 Acid. 2@ 230 sulphate of. 188 Sink's. 29 219 Amberette^ lard with. 166 Altenburge's resin soap. 165 oil soap. ricinic. 121 Alkali. 150 soap. 10 carbonated. 189 thymic. 175 boracic. oil of. 185 of . 27 margaric. 201 Anderson's process for treatment nigers. 8 pyroligneous. 181 carbolic. arsenious. 29 tannic. 124.

toilet soap. Bink's alkalimeter. 162 Balling. 238. tincture of. pACAO. wash. f using-point of. 227 soft soap. 139 Antlinonial soap. 229 Beech-nut oil. 29. 174 Bran. 166 yellow. 189 " Bink'e. 26. 174 Arsenjous acid. 224 to "strength. Prussian. 157 oil. 242 Bernardet's process. 93 Bichford's process. 98 soda. 175 soap. 28.248 INDEX. 175 soap. 175 Brown ochre. and Co. 92 potassa. 53 BADIANE. 242 Belgian soap. cocoa. 241 Balm mint. to prevent. 190 Binoxalate of potash. 81 200 Camphine. 23 Baryta. 150 Burette. 153 Butter. 201 Assays. 41 soda. ISO Windsor soap. 111 Calcium carbonate. 115 Blue. 190 Mohr's. 167 resin. 158 Cajeput. 172. 123 grease. 180 . 153 Benzole. 181 206 soaps. 182 Bicarbonate of potassa. 162 and ammonia soaps. Cadmium Calcined 98 quartz. 174 Ash. 184 227 175 Barilla. 199 Bauxite. Balsam Tolu. 56. 163 Bone-fat. 139 Spanish. 173 Antimony. 243 points of some volatile oils. 180 scouring. Japp£. 187 Bichromate of potash. 195 Australian tallow. 209 palm-oil with chromate of lime." 72 Bole. 150 Black ash. oil of. golden sulphniet of. 83 Bees'-wax. carbonate of. 49 Bitter Bleaching. 227 soap-powder. 139 164 soap. 69. 149. 124 Besson and Remy's process. commercial. 93 Barium. Assaying alkalies. 140 Archil. 201 alkalies. 194 B'Arcefs method. oil of. re- ^ oil of. 175 Bromine. 44 ivory. 162 Borax. oil of. 220 Caldron. 180 Camphor. 242 Beef marrow. 205 Bampel's method. points of caustic alkaline leys. 73 Benzoic acid. 204 Bichardson and Wattes met' o 211 powder. 194 Watfs chrome process. 177 soap. 2. 208. 26. 16 barring. 228 Arsenical soap. 176 soda. essential oil of. Assay. nitro. 85. 28 Boracic acid. 93 almond soaps. 64 over. 222 Bergamot. 242 of Peru. 170 Areometer. of soap. 117 Benno. 29. 85 soap from. 86 Bennett and Cribbs's process. sand. ISO almonds. 52 Boiling. 23 for re-melting the soap. 41 garden poppy oil. chloride of.. 231 Bordhardt's herb soap. 190 Burnt sienna.'s method of covering glycerine. oil of. 175 Benzoin soap."242 flint. 136 soft or green soap. 161 Bankmann's process. 153 tincture of. 199 Barring apparatus. 173 Apparatus and appliances. 174 Bleached palm-oil. 156 Balls. black. 112 soap in the pan.

ground. Chamomile. Camphor. boiling-points of. 242 Cocinic acid. 242 Cascarilla. 239 Composition of pure olive-oil soap. Cerates. 186 Clolus's method of recovering glycerine. 29 oil of. 50 Cheap almond soap. 111 Cleansing. 130 Combined soaps. 124. recovery of. 198 Chloride of barium. 86 powdered. oil of. > 220 Cloth manufacture. 8 Cocoa butter. 172 Cotton-seed oil. 133 soft ley. 105 pipe. 112. 244 ley. 100 •Cold process (Hawes's). almond. green. 180 prepared. oil of. Cedar wood. oil of. 27 oil soap. 112 Chlorinated soap. 71. 195 Charcoal. 211 Chrome. 82 121 lime. 208 . 210 sesquioxide of. 150. 166 Creme' ambroisie. 60 Cleaver's process. 13 soda. 242 46 Coleseed French. 12 Carbonic acid. 85.INDEX. 10 Comparative French and English thermometer scales. 231 Cheapened soaps. 23 potash. 75. 73. 27. 36. strong. 29 Causticising soda. 165 of whiting. 242 Commercial assays. 151 Carbolic acid. ISO tincture of. 173 42. I t 249 of. 32. 199 lime. 242 powder of. 233 potassa. 36 Chalk. 175 Corrosive sublimate. 73 nut oil. 7 clay. 62 Continental soaps. 173 Chromic oxide. 124 Crevel's process. 237 1 ' Carbonate of batyta. 175 Cassia. 75 soaps. 27. 157. leys. 17 Copperas. 79 soap. 31. 113 Chromate of lime. oil of. 92 leys. 135 Cooling worm. 105 Chervil. 242 Clay. 130 Colophony. 28 Carbonated alkali. 28. 242 soap. Clarified resin. soap used in. 8. 149. 166 de cacao mousseuse. 3 theory. 74. 126 China potassium. 100 soda. 8 Caraway. 8. 121 of potassa. 96. 166 Creosote. 242 Chevreul's discovery. 242 Castile soap. oil of. 162 175 Caramel. 223 Cloves. 75 Cocos nucifeira. 27 Coction. 115 oil. 199 lime. oil of. 31. 162 Citronella. 242 Common Cherry laurel. 236 63 Coke. 12 soda. ground. essential oil of. 210 Chromic acid. 28 Cream. essential oil of. 28. 197 salt. 109 Chlorate of potash. 220 Chromium. 28. 68 Copper or soap-pan. 175 soap. 151 Caostic alkali. savonnettes ice soap. 43 leys of. soap. 114 sodium. 219 Cinnamon. 181 Continental method of making yellow soap. 220 Creams. 112 potassium. 41 Coriander. oxide of. 100 soda. 9. oil of. 242 Corn-meal soap. 177 Colza oil. 105 in soap. 150 Cochlearia. 208 bleaching palm-oil with. 161 Castor-oil. China. 149. 13 Chloridised sanitary soap. 44 alkaline leys. oil of. 77 oU.

39 white. 146 into shavings. 226 Dry white soap. 16. 154 toilet soaps. 218 soda. 205 Davis's process. oil of. 112 soap. 87 hogs'. 135 tallow. oil of. 26 101 Cutting machine. 16. 242 oils. 112. 161 Farriers' soap. 109 Dresden palm soap. 242 Curb. 27 wooden. 129 soap patent. 86 Yorkshire.250 Crisp mint. 229 Crystals. 11 savonnettes. table of. 242 of rose. oU of. 27 Elais guineaensis. 1C9 Essential oil of bergamot. 140 Farina. 49 melanococca. 105 of marking soaps'." 38 242 Fatt^' acids. 39. 34 French chiQk. 162. 19 soap. 238 Fusing and congealing points of fats and oils. 17 iron. 19 iron. 241 English soft soap. 213 process. 8. 180 cocoa-nut oil soaps. Wakefield. 8 Dill. Justice's method of puri- fying. 19 Free alkali. 237 Finishing the soap. 98 Floating soaps. 189 -L' Dammara resin. 27 Elaiodic acid. oil of. 61 Fitting. 160 Elecampane. 47 Frames. 20 Crutches. Fat acid. 43 soft soda. 242 Ferric oxide. 242 . 100 Fennel. 154 Fresh vat. 93 Elaine. 241 Disinfecting mixture. Cumin. oil of. 170 Dunn's method of purifying oils. 149. 64." FANCY soaps. ground. 170 de savon Vienne. of cloves. 24 soap. 55. 109 Fulling soap. 232 " Cratehed 20 Crntching-pot. 169 marbled soaps. potato. 213 fusing and congealing points of. 209 Essence de savon Corinthe. calcined. 43 Cratch. 202 41 TVALTON'S theory. 138. 149. 242 175 soap. 42 system of making toilet soaps. 174 Diachylon plaster. 242 Douglas's Improvements. 61 First ley. 127. Croton Essence of soap. black. 53 stiff. 149. 175 oil. 123 horses'. 25. FeciiJa. 77 formulse for soaps. 232 Detergent mixture. spindle. 20 cinnamon. 16. 11 Flour. 242 D'Arcet's method of assaying. 187 Felspar. steam. 26 242 132 Curd soap. 20 EARTH-NUT oil. 212 Fitted soaps. 88 174 bone. 21 Crysolite. 28. 213 Dunn's method. « Cutting the pan. 14. 42 Effloresced soda. 241 oil of oil oil 2^ Ether. 187 Foam or fob. 27 Elder-flower soap. 20 in. 16. 156 and oils. 28 Fats. 124 Dittany. 8. 163 FIoccuIk. 242 Crude glycerine. 91 Flint. soda. 111 Descroizelle's invention of the alkalimeter. 188 Detection of resin in soap. 32 Fuller's earth soap. 160. oil of. 2 Fish-oils. 71 the soap. 149. INDEX. gelatinous. 98 Dextrine.

222 moss. 79 Kurten's table. 242 Hogs' Gelatinous floccalffi. 134 Honey. 8 powder 242 of. 137 Geranium. 178 Hand pumps. 99 Grain. 242 tar. 235 Hyponitrous acid. 26. -L'. 37. Baum^'s. 114 soluble. 218 & Co. 216 recovery of. 8 Gossage's processes. 175 Iron curb. 41 pumps. 69 Green copperas. fusing-point of. 17. 150 162 Horses' fat. 243v T ADLES. JACKET-PANS. Glass liquor. 8. 227 Gamboge. 106 EAOLIN. 213 109 Gum tragacanth. lemon. 16 Hempseed 28.'s. 162 Horse-grease. 218 Versmann's. Hydrochloric acid. Japp6. 26 lard. 220 crude. 36. soap. oil of. 139 Indigo. 215 Glyceryl. 242 30 Glauber's salt. 242 Hydrate of potassa. 31. 153 Gauging stick. 44 Ground charcoal. 10 Golden sulphuret of antimony. soap. 240 Twaddell's. 41 Ivory black. 100 horse. oxide of. 183 -'-'Hampel's shaving soap. 174 soap. 137 Jasmine pomade. 160 Fuller's. 25. 'J Gall. 178 Juniper. 176. 10. oil of. 28 OH. 41 vitriol. 24 251 n ALANGAL. 17 Lawson and Sulman's. 159 . 217 Young's process. 203 Hydrometer. 58. 218 215 Payne's. oil of. ox. 31 Gluten. oil of. 238 " Jacobson's process. 27 Hyssop. 100 felspar. 28 Kottula's soaps. 14 Allan's. 189 Grease. 93 Kettle. 28 Thomas and peroxide of. suet. 151 Holland soft soap. 83 with amberette. 94 soaps. 51 salts of. oil of. 183 oil. Lard. 242 Gentsle's process. 19 oxide. 169 Jeyes's process. 134 Instantaneous soap. 28 soap.INDEX. 224 Hawes's system (cold process). fat. Guppy's 158 process. 22 Hard waste. 71 or unsalled soaps for milling cloth. 46 sulphate of. 124 Iodine. 185 Jennings's processes. 29. oil of. CIolus's. 11 Gravimetric assaying. 11 Genista. bone. 175 Irish moss soap. 25. 41 sulphuret of. 132 frames. 28 TTALF-resin soap. TCELAND J- 219 Benno. 225 Kitchen-stuff. 16 rake. 7. 94 Intestines^ soap made from. 29. 161 soap by cold process. 196 soda. hogs'. Kelp. 122 Glycerine. 122 in soap. Ginger grass. 157 Gilliflower. 157 28 recovered. 189 oil of. 100 coke. 176 Juice. 130 Higgins's process. 173 Justice's 161 bleaching method of purifying and oils and fats. 173 Goose-fat. 163 savonnettes. 219 O'Farrell's. 45 pans.

159 soap. 112 chromate of. 8 Litmus. lard with. 153 Miscellaneous processes. 38. 40 Methods of analysing and assaying soaps. 121 of coction. 130 Liquid ammonia. 50 soap. 178 Lewis's process. 73 Marjoram. 63 potash. 205 of preparing leys. caustic. 175 Making oleic soaps. 178 oil of. 46 potassa. 176. 129 tank^ 16. margarate of. 223 Bastetfs process. 36. 58. 136 of toilet soaps. 172 tar soap. 227 tallow. 129 Mineral. 182 Bichford's process.252 INDEX. lime. orange. 8 Margaric acid. oil of. 204 Litharge. 22 Lichen. 181 Besson and Bemy's process. 19. barring. lettnce. 23 Liniments. membranous. 128. Tennant h Co. oil of. 215 waste. 159 Mint. 187 . beef. 129 slaked. 37 44 strong. 159 Levafs process. 23 cutting. 71 of soft soaps. 160 juice. 33 soap. 26 water. alkaline. 93 Manganese. 1S8 Laundry soaps. 84 waste. 8 red. 8 Margarine. 33 carbonate of. 32 Leys. MACHINE. 219 Lead.242 soap. 178 Liebig's researches. 94 Liquored soaps. 105 bath. 177 glycerine soap. 36 Linseed oil. 232 liquor. 83 Marseilles soap. Laid with 159 London " Crown mottled. 9 caustic. oxide of. 32.'a. 124 46 soda. 173 soaps. 203. residuum of. 23 chloride of. 10 Lime. 125 Medicated soaps. Marine soap. 169 Lumbarton'a process. 201 D'Arcet's. 147 Magnolia. 124 Mercurial ointment. 94 Manufacture of hard soaps. 84. 33 soft.. 208 94 of. 3 Lemon grass. Margarate. 173 Medicinal soft soap. 128 salted. 174 Maize flour. 116 sulphate of. 8 oxide of. 82 150. 33 spent. sulphur soap. 242 process for re- soap-powder. 142 for stamping soap. 119 I milk Metallic soap. 171 Marshmallow soap. oil of. Schar^s. 153 Materials used in soap-making. 23. 124 Lawson and Salman's covering glycerine. 163 9 cold soft. Sir H. 36 Marsh's. 25. 153. 179 Ley. 160 Lettuce. 10' of lead. 175 Mercury. 24 for slicing soap. 68 Membranous matters. 116 „ Lunge's method of making. 8. 197 Richardson and Watt's. Lavender. oil of. 242 Marrow. 172. 175 soap." 133 raniUa. oil of. 28. 206 Methylated spirit. 13 soda. 186 Liquor. 25 Matters. 218 Milk of lime. Meat. 172 Meinicke's process. 33 Rampel's. 162. 8. 145 Leblanc's process for making soda. 153 Minium. 140 Marble savonnettes.

130 raw palm. 28 black garden poppy. 40 Nigers. 26. 150. 124 Tardani's process. 16 system of soap-making. 47 notes on. 161 turpentine. 165 Naphthaline vellow. 50 Mottling. 75 red. 160 Neroli. 157 O'Farrell's process for recovering' glycerine. Irish. 178 Higgins's process. 130 yellow cocoa-nut.. 233 New process of saponification. 180 Scharr's process. 161 petroleum. 150 process. 162 Nutmeg oil. 184 Eowbottom's process. Marriott's process. 26. 68 vegetable. 178 Waller's process. 28. 218 Oil. oil of. 139 soap. 26 palm-nut.. 139 Mohr's alkalimeter. 28 hempseed. 228 Normandy's method of assaying. almond. 25. 196 angelica. 166 . 242 whale. 120 Niger. 71 Nitric acid. oil of. 181 Marriott's. and tables. 202 brown. 179 Lorbury's process. 86 Moss. 175 poppy. 176 Jeyes's process. oil of. Loch's soft soap. 130 rapeseed. 28. 179 Mugwort. 133 taUow. 241 of ache or parsley. 241 of ambergris. 8. 182 Varicas's process. 26 Sunn's process. INDEX. 186 Macltay and Sellers's process. 130 sesame. 27 cocoa-nut. oil of. 150 tincture of. 162. 179 M. 42 NAPLES soap. 96 of cacao. 130 olive. 8 linseed. 241 Muriatic acid. 242 Mottled soap."242 savonnettes of. 242 animal. 84 castor. Iceland. 242 OATMEAL soap. process. 242 beechnuts. 242 bitter almonds. 49 brown. 88. 241 badiane. 241 anise. 158 Mustard. treatment of. 186 Symons's process. 185 Violefs process. 27. 185 Levat's process. 92 Musk soap. 25. Cleaver's process. 130 colza. 28. 160 Myrtle. 48 Mrs. fish. 48 useful. 25. 27 25. 125 Motherwort. 130 coleseed. 130 lieechnut. saponification of. oil of. 86 Nitrous acid. 183 Jennings's processes. 150 of of of of of of of 232 Neutral soap. 8. 26. 44 bleached palm. 179 Payne's process. 157 yellow. 190 Molasses. 186 Cooper and Smith's process. 8. 130 Notes on mottling. or Nigrp.28 croton. 180 Nut. 242 bergamot. 130 volatile. 175 Ochre. palm. 175 earth-nut. Mrs. 8. 241 balm mint. 83 seal. 162 Neutral fatty bodies. 75 cod. 28 sperm. 178 Lewis's process. 161 sesamum. 130 cotton-seed. 8. 130 palm. 232 Morfit's steam series. 187 Hampel's process.. 242 Mutton tallow. 130 horse. oil. oil. 158 of absinthe. 8. 243 walnut. 42. 8. 178 Nitro-benzol. cocoa.

241 of fennel. 162 of neroli. 242 of citronella. 242 of sassafras. 209 Palm soap. 160 Orangine. 153 of motherwort. 218 Otto of roses. fish. 241 of dittany. 8. 233 Paraffin soap. 45 lead. 242 of nutmeg. 158. 242 of cheny laurel. 157 of ginger. 242 of saffron. 242 of juniper. 8 of marjoram. 8. congealing-points essential. 242 of turpentine. 242 of genista. 153 of wild thyme. 212. 238 . 198 Pearl soap. 168 Pasting. 242 of chamomile. 242 of rue. 242 Oils and fats. 242 of orange-peel. 129 Payne's process. 242 of mugwort. chromic. 242 of cinnamon. 152 of tansy. soap. 7. 242 of valerian. 227 Oxide. 166 Pennyroyal. 242 of rosemary. 242 of ginger grass. 149. 162 soap. 241 of mustard. 32 shaving.254 Oil of cajeput. flower soap. 160 of magnolia. 25 of. 62. 178 Pans. 216 Pearlash. Oil of yarrow. 178 Origin of soap-making. 94 Oxidising agent. 17 Papin's digester. by C. 242 of geranium. 27 Palmitic acid. 242 of myrtle. oil of. 242 of coriander. 242 of lemon grass. 10 iron. 160 of pennyroyal. oil of. 242 of lavender. table of. 242 of sweet almonds. Watt's process. 242 of serpolet. 1 Orris root. 84 process for recovery of glycerine. 28 Oleometer. 242 of sage. 228 130 Orange mineral. 242 of cascarilla. vegetable. 84 Oleic acid. testing. 26. 242 of savin. 241 of rhodium. 149. 237 of of of of of chromium. 242 of peppermint. 242 of thyme. 174 INDEX. 150 powder. 139 Paris toilet soaps. 242 of mint. 162 of wormwood. 242 of cumin. 242 of elecampane. 181 PALE soap. 242 . lime. 162 of hyssop. 8. 220 ferric. 60 Palmine. 172 Ox-gall soap. 210 glyceryl. 242 of rose. 242 of galangal. 242 of dill. 16 jacket. 213 Oleate of soda. 7 Palm-oil. 242 of Portugal. 242 of cedar-wood. 150. 152. 111 Pearlashes. of cochlearia. 242 of pimento. 157 Violefs. 156 Paste. 50 soaps. 175 Parchment. 162 manganese. 242 of verbena. 161 Osmogene. 242 Peppermint. 25. 8 Falmitine. 242 of crisp mint. iron. 93 Oleine. 157 of cloves. 243 242 212 2^ purifying. 242 of cherril. 153 Olive-oil. 130 bleaching. 162. 242 of caraway.

chlorate chloride. oil of. 175 soap. crutching. orris-root. 164 Pumps. 187 in soap. 28 Portugal. 220 Allan's. 162 Petroleum oil. 13 silicate of. 174 Eussian.INDEX. Peru. ley. 227 orange. 69 soap. 26. 41 of. 215 Prussian blue. 223. 13 Potato-flour. 36 Purifying and bleaching fats and Thomas and oils. 100 chlorate of. cold. 21 Powder. 30 soap. 130 12 96 of. 223. 58 Eapeseed oil. 58 preparation of. 132 Potassa. 128 bichromate. 83 Ee-melting the soap. 111 Plaster. 215 219 Benno. 108 198 in soft soap. junior's. 219 Pyroxylic spirit. 16 Punner. 151 158 resin. 13 of resin in soap. 62 Eogera's process. 100 test-acid or standard solution. 176 bichromate of. 228 Pigment. 159 Preparation of silicate of potash. 181 ley. 237 Dammara. 30 American. and Ololus's. 11 Platinum. 242 in soap.'s. 175 Bastet's process. 150 of pale roses. 8. 99 stearate of. 128 Pyroligneous acid. 69 soap. 28 black. 227 London soap. 52 Pumice. 177 clarified. 28 Becovery of chrome. 242 222 Pipeclay. oil of. O'Farrell's. 213 of. 36 Plastic soap. 220 carbonated. process. C. 28 Eesinous soap. 230 calcined. 134 yellow. 33 potash ley. 33 bicarbonate of. 145 oil. to determine. 64 silicate of soda. 192 Prepared chalk. 25. 139 carbonate. 30. 64 soft soap. 92 binoxalate. 144 Eendered tallow. Potassium. 173 Process. 162 of cloves. 8 . 232 Pot. bleaching. 100 QUANTITY Quartz. 181 Pickling soap. Co. diohloride Pomade. 12 caustic. 112 borax soap. iron. 210 glycerine. 100 Eaw palm-oil. 241 Potash. 204 Kancid tallow. 75 Kecovered grease. 8. 172 Bed lead. 186 silicate of. 219 218 Payne's. 98 Quicklime. 168 Preparation of soda ley. yellow green. Lawson and Sulman's. Plasters. 120 . 216 of. preparation 128 leys. 218 Versmann's. 215 Eectified spirit. Fuller's. 128 soaps. 158 207 Poppy oil. 100 resin soap. balsam 255 Peroxide of iron. diachylon. 232 powdered. 217 Young's. 129 Pure olive-oil soap. 79 Processes for the recovery of glycerine. 53 Eesin. rose. Japp6. detection of. 150 of gilliflower. EAMPEL'S method of assaying soaps. Watt. 150 Powdered cassia. Pimento. 13.

oil of. 28 Sesquioxide. 186 soft soap. 237 Silicated soaps. Salad-oil. 162 of sweet herbs. 242 242 Savon a la cannelle. 168 soap. 27 Kicinus communis. 94 Salicylic acid. chromium. 153 Silica. 164 Root. oil of. 98 preparation of. 201 animal. 175 Saline ley. 169 vert. 111 soaps. 41 ambergris^ 159 ammonia and camphor.256 Rose. Hampel's. 233 under pressure. 100 of soda. 93 Salt. 30. 152 alumino-ferruginous. 105 Silicate of alumina. 152 a la MarSchale. essential oil of. 10 Glauber's. alkanet. 163 Rue. 172 orris. 112 Saponaria officinalis. oil of. 157 de Vienne. 27 River-sand. 139 truck. 172 powder Bhodium. 23. 135 Savonnettes or Washballs. 163 Rosemary. 163 marble. 157 d'amandes ameres. 162 Sawdust in soap. 231 Scouring balls. oil of. virgin. oil of. 33 Seed. 39 Salted leys. oil. 159 a la rose. Savin. 179 Scented soaps. 175 soap. Sheridan's process. 166 de palme. 125 antimonial. 186 Scotch soft soap. 242 Sesame oil. 98 Gossages processes. 120 of neutralfatty bodies by soap. oil of. 33 second. 180 analysing. Bicinic acid. 130 Second ley. essence de. 26. 43 Serpolet. 77. 31 of sorrel. cotton. 152 fleurs d'ltalie. 33 Russian potash. 173 apparatus for re-melting. 28 Semi-hard soap. 161 Sesamum oil. 161 a la vanille. 170 de Crimie. 23 Sienna. 162 of neroli. 242 Runnings. 117 Saponifying. 25 Sal ammoniac. 163 of camphor. 33 Sliced soap. 149 au bouquet. 175 Slaked lime. 30. 158 242 soap. almond-oil. of. 146 Soap. 149 water. 148 Seal oil. 140 . 193 Sand-balls. 231 Separation. 178 Shoots. 100 preparation of. 140 Scharr's process. 103 Skin soap. first. oil of. 164 164 Sanitary soap. 163 floating. 109 of potash. burnt. Saponification explained. oil of. 219 Shaving paste. essence de. 40 sulphur. 139 river. oil of. 26 169 242 242 SAFFRON. 101. 162 au miel.. 46 soda. 227 Screw press. 9 Sassafras. 137 tallow. 242 150 158 Eoses. 219 Salts of iron. 150 de Corinthe. 40 Sampling alkalies. 129 runnings. 100 adulteration of. otto of. anthracine. INDEX. 7 new process of. Savon aux . 157 de gnimauve. 8age. 42 Salting point. 149 leaf soap. 158 Rouge. 40 Sal soda. 99. 185 common.

73 36 175 cheap almondj 231 cheapened. 146 disinfecting. 113 cinnamon. 82 instantaneous. 169 factory. 175 cutting. 257 arsenical. 161 or olive oil. 83 laundry. 88. 178 Marseilles. 88 oatmeal. 150 black. 122 glvcerine. . 160 lettuce. 14 frames. 62 rose. 170 elder-flower. 50 109 fulling. 150 cocoa-nut oil. 96. 175 Bastet's process." 133 mottled.INDEX. 112 chlorinated. 174 bleaching in the pan. 237 hard. 172 metallic. chloridised sanitary. 108 ap- formulae for. 58. 135 copper or pan. 227 powdered. 173 liquored. 58 Altenburge's. 19 French marbled. Symons's. 13. 165 neutral. 228 potash. 128 potato-flour in. 174 assay. 17 paraffin. 175 brown oil. 77. pans. 180 soft. 82 assaying. household. 124 Dresden palm. 172 mercurial. 50 grey mottled. 112 36 marshmallow. 17 corn-meal. 226 preparation of. toilet. 94 iodine. 186 glycerine. 201 Belgian. 160 essence of. 175 Irish moss. 226 Violet's. 175 oleic acid. 227 175 lemon. 181 pickling. 48 mottled. 175 first. 36 composition re-melting. 157 Dresden. 133 Continental. 105 Castor-oil. pearl. 175 lard. 75 London " crown. 227 palm. 173 marine. 168 pure olive-oil. soft. 201 Soap. 49 powder. 158 of. 151 camphor. 8. manufacture Eussian 71 salicylic. 64 resinous. 226 dry white. half-resin. 149 rose-leaf. 8. 144 resin. 174 fitted. 85. 175 benzoin. 173 medicinal soft. 159 lime. 175 creams. 116 Iiquid. its apparatus and pliances. 142 Windsor. 73 cold. 150 Naples. 166 croton oil. 140 farriers'. 16 fancy. Castile. 150 ox-gall. half-palm. 136 soft. the 2 166 petroleum. 36. London. 138 gluten in. 113 Bordhardt's herb. patent. 153 medicated tar. 115 Iborax. 139 machine for slicing. 42 fuller's earth. 180 ice. 175 carbolic acid. 93 orange. 153 bitter almond. 160 orange-flower."Schar?s. 160 183 of. 174 bran. 1?7. 231 benzoic. by cold process. or green. 8. 50 musk. 137 175 . by Lunge's method.

" 29. analysis of. 136 166 of. 96. Sodium. 124. 1T5 soda. 36. 134 INDEX. 137 Scotch. 84 sal. 175 93 of. 222 anhvdrous. 172 M. 31. Cleaver's. 8. 174 from recovered grease. 29 causticising. 101 preparation of. Loch's. 53 tannin. or resin. 115 French cocoa-nut oil. 189 oleate of. 43 88 effloresced. Hampd's. 146 soft. camphor and ammonia. 151 yellow. 94 made from animal refuse. Bel^um. 53 soft. 225 curd. 84. 236 chloride of. 189 ash. 186 thymol. Windsor. 172 potash. toilet. 187 medicated. 8. saponification of neutral fatty bodies by. 101. 9. 1 Soapstone. • manufacture of. 114 crude. 224 used in cloth manufactories. 178 wax. 128. soft. resin in. S borax. crystals. 223 vanilla. 128 soft. 134 232 Bussian. 180 cheapened. 179 Scotch soft. aluminate of. 146 silicated. 233 scented. 132 soap. 136 French system of making. toilet. toilet. 175 white and rose. sulphur. Sir H. 43 (yeUow). 227 English. 7 sulphate of. Soaps. 105 stearate of. 135 medicinal. 139 Soda. 135 44 combined. 28. 2. Marsh's. resin in. 227 ley. 187 Soapwort. chloride Soft borax. 156 yellow. 8. 112. Soft soaps. Loch's. 85 Soaps. 82 mi^ng with soaps. 165 French formulae for. analyses 231 . 1TB silicated. 237 soaps. manufacture of. 150 brown. 111 carbonate of. 8. 174 unsalted. 98 soda. 71 Kottula's. of. 93 hydrate of. transparent. 77 hard. terebene. 172 M. soft. 100 128 42 96 13 238 for washing dogs. 139 potato-flour in. to make with cocoa-nut oil. manufacture of. 128 medicinal. 158 A^olers palm-oil. 124 marking. 132 236 166 stamping. 139 potato-flour in. 172 tallow. 149. 85. 42 silicate of. 58 for silks and printed goods. 25 toilet. adulteration of. 166 to prepare. 77 cocoa-nut oil. calcined. 79 materials used in. bicarbonate 93 93 140 tooth. 132 shaving. 158 violet Windsor. 98. 153. 98 soft. 151 caustic. 30. 96. 93 salted. 175 174 origin of. 9. 137 Scotch. 140. 173 toilet. English. 170 turpentine. 138. 58.258 Soap> sawdust in. tar. 154 [154 toilet. 103 skin. 231 232 Russian. 128. 75 Soap-making by cold process.

French and English. 259 Kiirten's. 49 Tank. 209 Stearic acid. 72 Strong caustic ley. 82. 69. 159 Spirit. 172 Sublimed sulphur. 175 Tannin. 83 soap. Soft soaps. methylated. 216 soap. 175 soap. 26 17 Steaming tub. 124 Syphon. 187 Stick. 241. 26 mutton. ley. 175 Tansy. 161 Steam crutch. 28 Sturtevant's process. 172 sublimed. Cleaver's. 38. 124. 218 Thomas's process. 242 Thymic acid. 203 Terebene. 174 Tardani's process. 129 Thomas and Fuller's process for re- Swimmer. lb7 Thyme. 242 Tar." boiling to. 124 Thymol. 26 Australian. 172 Sulphuret of iron.7 ' INDEX. burnty 151 Sulphate of alumina. L 243 134 166 Soluble glass. of fusing and congealing points of fats and oils. 231 Test-acid. 186 Terebic acid. 136 rpABLE. 98 Sorrel. 172 Sud oil. oil of. manufacture lesin in. 238 showing the quantity of caustic soda in leys of different densities. ground. 129 Stuff. 186 soap. 84 of soda. 26 " town. of. • 40 H. 146 Starch. gauging. 241 Tables. 172 salts. 133 Spermaceti. 31. 139 South American tallow. 203. 96 Sulphur. toilet. 189 acid or standard solution." 26 white. 28 Suet. 26. 175 Tincture of archil. 150 Specific gravity bottle. 227 rectified. 177 of iron. 45 Sulphuric acid. 20 series. 101 68 Stirrer. preparation of. 26 Sweet almonds. Stiff curd. 132 of soda. 41 sodium. Stamping the soap. 192 Testing commercial pearlashes. 245 172 wood. 240. Morfit's. 41 of lime. 160 rancid. 170 . oil of. 239 Third ley. 173 soap. 218 Sperm-oil. 16 Stockholm tar. 24 Still-head. 182 Tartaric acid. Stearates. corrosive. 151. 218 pyroxylic. 198 comparative Thermometer scales. Marsh's. 22 Symons's disinfecting soap. 32 Tannic acid. salt of. 10 English. 26 South American. Spanish brown. juniper. 128. kitchen. 8. 246 of showing percentage anhvdrous caustic potash in ley. 174 " Strength. 85 Suds of fulling miUs. 242 of essential oils. oil of. 34 covering glycerine. 174 medicated. Tables showing specific gravity corresponding with the degrees of Baum^'s hydrometer. Sir London. 74 Sublimate. 240. 58 Kussian. 161 Sugar. 10 Stearine. 228 Tallow. 242 of the mechanical power of 241 Spent leys. 26 Stearate of potash. 173 Stockholm. 7 Steatite. 192 tables. useful notes and. 239 showing percentage of soda in caustic ley. 174 steam. 19.

158 soap. 22 leys. 139 Venice turpentine. 209 sanitary soap. 145 Versmann's process for glycerine. 39 Unsalted soap. oil of. balsam of. 158 of vanilla. 161 violet. LONDON. 173 Town tallow. 158 cocoa-nut oil. 130 wax. 158 ' bees'. . 163 Vermilion. 170 Turpentine. 158 Yorkshire fat. 53. 215 lime. 151 soap. 227 Wooden frames. French. cream of. 188 Vegetable oils. oil of. 235 23. 123 ' tallow soap. 224 Unsaponified fatty matter. 153. 82. VIRTDE AND CO. boiling-points of. 160 ochre. 22 Vauquelin's system of estimating the value of alkalies. yellow. 169 rose. 36. 243 Volumetric analysis. 145 or resin soap. 130 White cocoa-nut oil soap. 160 soft. 242 Vanilla. 203 Useful notes and tables. toilet soap. 126 Villart's process. to make. 174 white. oil of. 19 Wormwood. 25 Vitriol. 153 Tissues. 210 Wax. 174 Verbena. French system of making. f ormulie for. 75 recovering green pigment. 162 Windsor soap. 109 process for bleaching palm-oil. S. 68 implements. 162 soap. green. or recovered grease. 49 yALERIAN. 68 Venice. oil of. 185 Various processes. 242 Washballs. 151 Violefs palm-oil soap. 153 of cinnamon. recovery of glycerine from. 230 Toilet soap. 86 '^' Walnut-oil. 110 soaps. 161 Windsor soap. 162 parchment. Waste leys. yellow. 154 soft soaps. LIMITED. 163 Watt's fuller's earth soap. 158 Whale-oil. 162 of musk. 149. 28 turmeric. 158 tincture of. 170 violet soap. 58 resin. 166 tallow. 150 naphthaline. 1 12 process for recovering chrome. 158 soap. 189 WAKEFIELD fat. 165 Tolu. 94 Umber. 175 white. 124 INDEX. animal. 150 Wood spirit. 217 Villacrose's process. Volatile oils. cadmium. 154 soaps. 220 Wild thyme. 170 Turmeric. 44 YARROW. 140. 28 Ypung's process for recovering glycerine. lard with. 242 ULTRAMARINE.' 260 Tincture of benzoin. 161 To determine the quantity of resin in soap. 242 Yellow. 125 Violet soap. 153 Varicas's process. 158 Whiting. 26 Transparent soap. 23 Water. 74 curd soap. CITY BOAD. 77. 228 soap. lavender. 225 Uncombined cocoa-nut oil soap. 178 Virgin salad-oil. 157 turpentine. oil of. oil of. 228. fuller's earth. 158 washballs. 68 Twaddell's hydrometer.. 215 I'RINTED BY J. 154 manufacture of. 162 Tooth soap.