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PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY, CORNELL UNIVERSITY MEDICAL COLLEGE
PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON
PRINTED IN AMERICA
DEDICATED TO MY
. Rules of Saving and Safety Index 43 45 NOTE The major parts of this small volume appeared under articles entitled ''Food in War Time" in the Scientific in Saunders' Monthly and "Calories in Common Life" Medical Climes of Xorth America. Calories in Common Lite 23 III.CONTENTS PAGE I. A Balanxed Diet 7 II.
cheese. This does not sound extravagant. mixed mth beans and oil. but luxury when compared with Italian peasants of southern Italy. As a student 1890 I remember paying three dollars Munich in a month for my in room.es in Europe. 7 . or is made "polenta. olive oil. consisting of and a roll without butter. and thirty-five cents represents for a four-course dinner at a fashionable restaurant.FOOD IN WAR TIME A BALANCED DIET no doubt that under the conditions existing before the war the American people hved in a higher degree of comfort than that enjoyed in Europe. in their dietary. or eggs so for generations." or is Cabbage or the leaves of beets are into corn bread. Meat in the form of fat pork is taken Cornmeal is taken as three or four times a year. cornmeal. tists it the diet of the poorest Two Italian scien- describe how this class of people live mainly on and green stuffs and have done There is no milk. coffee five cents daily for my breakfast. Hard There is times in America have always been better times than the best tim.
so that a good result oil obtained. also present in milk. the green leaves contain mineral matter in considerable quantity and in about the same proportions as they exist in milk. is The quality of the protein in poor. which is present most abundantly in butter-fat. whom two were francs. Little wonder that such people have migrated to America. but when taken with green leaves. commonly known as vitamines. whole milk its and gives to butter-fat and to the fat in dominant nutritive value. corn in the construction of our railways. of children. The annual income was 424 Of this. our subways. but the protein in the leaves supplements is that of corn. Olive when taken alone is a poor fat in a nutritive sense. and our great buildings. Further- more. but it may strike some as aston- ishing that a race so nourished should have become the man power Dr. The green which is leaves likewdse furnish another accessory substance. a substance soluble in water and which is necessary for normal life. three cents per day per adult was spent for food and the remaining three-fifths of a cent was spent for other purposes. Here then cheapest of is the message of economy in diet. or $84. corn the oil all the cereals. McCoUum will tell you that the secret of it all Hes in the green leaves. these furnish that one of the peculiar accessory substances.8 FOOD IN WAR TIME and then eaten with oil boiled in water flavored with garlic or Spanish pepper. One of the families inves- tigated consisted of eight individuals. a vegetable cheaper by .
the This preliminary sketch shows several important If one gives an animal a mixture of purified food-stuffs. so here the growth and reproduction experimental evidence oil is presented that corn and olive may become a sustaining diet when green leaves are a supplementary factor. substitutes butter-fat for purified fat. But if one and adds a water solution of the natural salts of milk. pure protein. It is especially valuable at the present time because corn paratively cheap and plentiful. Again. fundamentals of food and nutrition. is comBut one asks how about pellagra? It must be here is definitely stated that the use of cornmeal not the cause of pellagra. proit. purified salts of milk. the illustration shows how corn may be so supplemented with other food-stuffs as to become extremely valuable in nutrition. One can safely refer to such a diet as a balanced diet. vided the right kind of other foods be taken with . Just as in the case of the modern experimental biological analysis of a balanced ration in which such a ration is is given to rats and its efficiency as a diet tested by its capacity to support normal of the species. would bring disaster which two materials taken together upon the human race. fat. the animal lives and thrives.A BALANCED DIET far 9 than animal fat. pure starch. but if taken with the addition of cabbage or beet-tops they become capable of maintaining mankind from generation to generation. and a mixture of salts like the animal will surely die.
pellagra ofTal is is still not so severe as mth us. The administration fresh milk is naturally indicated. and among the poorer classes in the south. It is a very small sacrifice to eat corn bread at one meal or more a day.10 FOOD IN WAR TIME especially Pellagra occurs in the ''corn belt" of the United States. and pellagra has been the consequence. In Italy. and we can in part substitute it for our wheat and send the latter abroad to spare others from The simplest elements of mand that we do this. Indian corn saved our New England ancestors from starvation. The disease has developed since the introduction in furnishes corn machinery which and wheat completely freed from their outer coverings. all of which are of deficient in vitamines. "Eat corn . where the milling of corn is 1880 of highly perfected milling primitive. The Food Administrator asks us to eat corn bread and save the wheat for export. this contains the accessory ines which are essential to Pellagra is generally beHeved to be produced by a too exclusive use of highly milled corn and wheat flour in association with salt meats and canned goods. patriotism decry. the typical clinical picture of pellagra no longer persists. Therefore let us starvation. The poor in the mill towns of the South lived too exclusively upon a corn diet without admixture of milk or fresh animal food or even of cabbage. Goldberger states that after the addition of milk to the diet of a pellagrin. because the corn not completely removed and food substances or vitamlife.
and the diminution of the use of butter and cream. yea and in time of dearth many with bread made eyther of beanes. In Germany before the war 15 per cent. tables. of the milk supply of that country was used for the production of cream. The substitution of foods is no new thing. Another point in war economy is the use of whole milk in greater quantity. peason* or otes. 3. . fifty human years ago ''The gentilitie commonly pro\'ide themselves sufficiently of wheat for their ovrn. or of altogether and some acomes among." between those days and ours is that the and the "poore neighbours" are now asked to unite in reducing the consumption of wheat and to do this for the safety and welfare of all mankind.4 per cent. The consequent difference A "gentilitie" * An obsolete plural of pease. the home of La- The L^nited States Department of Agriculture has is estimated that only 6. Cream is bought only by the wealthy. of our corn crop and of this. We find that an EngUsh contemporary author thus described the food habits of the EngHsh people during the ''golden days of Good Queen Bess. but in sufficient volume to largely reduce the amount of whole milk available. is consumed by the farmers and their families." three hundred and used for food.6 per cent.: A BALANCED DIET fayette I" 11 bread and save the wheat for France. whylest their household and poore neighbours in some shires are forced to content themselves with rye or barleie.
yet to-day absence of butter from the table is held to be indicative of direst poverty. the question is But when we approach the subject a more serious of the dietary of the poorer one. so as to be almost prohibitive to those with slender incomes. vegetable-oil margarine. or in other vege- oils. But at the present time beef itself is expensive. and more recently Halliburton. have pointed out that oleomargarine as prepared from beef-fat contains the fat-soluble growth-promoting is accessory substance or vitamine which butter-fat. a Swiss pro- fessor. Halliburton and results of their Drummond summarize follows: work as In ordinary times the consumption of beef dripping. and the opportunities of obtaining dripping are therefore minimized. cabbage or beet-tops oil. without possible prejudice to health. or even. or cottonseed cocoanut peanut butter. At the same time the three important foods for children already enumerated (milk. not even when there was no jam in the house. eggs) have risen in cost. oil one may oil. himself an expert in nutrition. . complains that whereas in his youth children were never given butter on their bread for breakfast.12 FOOD IN WAR TIME milk supply was distinctly to the restriction of the detriment of the health of the peasant farmers of Bavaria. take fat in the forms of olive oil. butter. If one takes a pint of whole milk daily. Osborne and Mendel. as we have corn table seen. in its stead. oils present in but which is not contained in vegetable the practical or in lard. Regarding the use of butter. which is considerable among the poor. would to a large extent supply the lacking properties of a classes.
I have often wondered why it quart bottle of a fancy brand of milk in should cost about as was that a New York of much as a quart of vin ordinaire on the streets of Paris. margarine and the taxes enhancing operation in in morals now in many of our states. and the unknown but invaluable accessory substances. and certainly for cooking purposes is just as valuable. are without warrant or common sense and should be entirely abolished in times like these. This latter factor is greatly to be It regretted. water. protein. entirely upon an inferior brand of margarine. is of such prime importance that each family should have this admirable food that I have suggested that no family of five should ever buy meat until they have bought three quarts of milk. A well-made brand of oleomargarine is much more palatable than butter of the second grade. fat. The legal restrictions placed upon the its sale of oleocost. destitute of the growth-promoting would be truer economy even for the poor to purchase smaller quantities of an oleo-oil margarine if accessory substance. Whole milk contains everything necessary for growth and maintenance. salts.A BALANCED DIET The vegetable-oil margarines is 13 still remain comparatively cheap. The insistence by scientific men upon the prime importance of milk has probably had something to do with its rapid enhancement in price. It they cannot afford the luxury of real butter. milk-sugar. so far as fat is may concerned. these infants run the risk of being fed. and a quart bottle cream as . and the danger that unless measures are taken to insure a proper milk supply for infants at a reasonable charge.
fit only for philosophic contemplation. both of body and mind. is the alluring prospect held out by the following dietary: Graham bread Potatoes 2 Vegetable fat ^ 1 Apples pound pounds pound \}4 pounds 1 Milk pint This bread-potato-fruit diet gives a very excellent wholesome nutrition. it is . Everything should be done for the increased supply to conserve our herds of of whole milk cows and incidentally for the manufacture of cheese and of milk powder or of condensed milk. the roast beef of For. the peasants' comparative immunity to indigestion. and a pint of milk. If one takes milk with other foods. kidney and liver disease. Thus Hindhede advocates as ideal a diet consisting of bread. The potatoes which has a highly solvent power acid. in real Old England. Far be it life.14 FOOD IN WAR' TIME as a quart of much much good champagne in Paris. as well as an absolute immunity to gout. potatoes. and. meat may be dispensed with. fruit. is Despite denial it it appears to me that milk not sold as cheaply as ought to be. or some other famed equivalent. therefore. Splendid health. a good supply of these tubers is needed by the nation. To most Americans the dietary factors basis of yield an alkaline ash over uric valuable here de- scribed will appear to be merely attenuated hypotheses. that makes its appeal.
During the last three days) of the experiment severe m. Thomas lived for twenty-four days on a diet of starch and cream.echanical work was performed and the total food intake for the latter period amounted to 770 pounds of potatoes and 48 pounds of margarine.A BALANCED DIET from that 15 me is to disparage the feast following a hunt is. What could be more simple than stocking the cellar ^^'ith coal. The increase in mental power due to change in diet has always seemed to me to be a figment of the imagination and not susceptible of demonstration. potatoes. The rule was to eat only when hungry and then months (ninety-five the potatoes could be taken at the rate of an ounce a minute. But meat their is meat desirable? The Italian experimenters believed that the addition of four or eight ounces of to the dietaries of some of their subjects increased physical and also their mental powers. during a period of nearly three hundred days. The question of is meat necessary? The description the Italian dietary answers this in the negative. An individual partook of a diet of between four and one-half and nine pounds of potatoes daily. and a tub . remarkable experiment on the effect of a A diet has been reported by Hindhede. of the wild boar or other feasts famed in song and story. and he found potato mental and muscular power unchanged. during four days of w^hich time the very small quantity of three ounces of his meat was taken daily. but not the question. with some vegetable margarine.
alcohol. salts Graham bread. pepper. coffee. vegetarianism is no new thing. nuts. leanest of men. w^as to reduce the weight through lowering the intake of food.16 of margarine! plexities of FOOD IN WAR TIME Who then would worry about the comlife? modern Of course. sauces. and pure water. The ''Graham System" of dieting suffered from withering criticism He published in 1837 a little book enat the time. and excluding meat. soldiers and athletes may be main- . but the health of diet appears to many followers of the have been benefited. to gross casses of animals up as they and promiscuous feeding on the dead carit is and to the untiring pursuit of wealth. raise his voice per- haps wholly vain for a single individual to ject of this kind. and mustard." Graham in 1829 began the advocacy of moderation in the use of a diet consisting of vegetables. fruits." He says in this volume: of our countr>' are entirely given But while the people are at present. professional men. and cipal of him my father wrote in 1861. first effect of this diet. ''long lanky Sylvester Vegetable Graham." bearing on its cover the scriptural quotation "Bread strengtheneth man's heart. The salads. Its prinexponent was Sylvester Graham. "Bread and Bread Making. tea. which largely eliminated the flavors. titled. on a sub- The well-known work when the protein intake of that of is Chittenden has shown that reduced by one half or less which the average American appetite suggests. It so happens that he was the brother of my great grandmother.
A fasting man may have The popular idea of the necessity of meat for a laboring man may be a strong can eat more meat than a weak one. Not only is the taking of meat without beneficial relation to the capacity for muscular work. The principle involves meat its it very sparingly. and to this extent its use is warranted. or less than that. taking half a piece where one would have formerly been taken. the people of Upon such a Germany are now eating living to-day. 17 One all of Yale's champion intercollegiate athletes won diet. in fact.A BALANCED DIET tained in the best physical condition. an exclusive meat diet is results in the sensation that work is being accomplished with difficulty. work. the events living of the year in which he was entered while on a reduced protein or Chittenden diet. will No other food-stuff It is accomplish so great an increase. The proposition is evidently epitomized in the statement: absurd. The muscles are active when hard labor muscles do not need meat for the is done. hence meat man makes a man strong. and using flavor. but the performance of their considerable power. but. as great an increase as 55 per cent. having been observed in a resting man. it only for The wing of a chicken has httle meat on and yet if eaten together with vegetables it gives the meal a different quality than it would have had without it. especially worthy of note that this increase in the heat production. . it When meat metabolized stimulates the body to a higher heat production.
Its consumption by all classes . as it is cannot be utilized in the execution of mechanical work. due to the work he performing. known. but if this flavor could undoubtedly be as weU obtained the present consumption of meat were cut in two. the American farmer in little the hot weather can eat meat. When the organism of a laborer at is work in a hot environment called is upon is to eliminate extra heat. is due to the desire for strong With the increased distribution of wealth. Taylor. taking meat even in large excess is not harmful. habits. It It is a question of habit. Indulgence in meat flavor. According to an oral statement by \. but w4th the present reduced supply of meat one must adopt would be highly desirable if the grain new now fed to fatten beef w^ere given to maintain herds of milch cows. the demand for meat grows. dynamic action of protein. E. but it represents luxury and waste. this is the equivalent of the reduced it is it. derived from any large Hence.18 FOOD IN WAR TIME specific due to the called. which v/ould correspond to a dietary containing about 45 grams of protein. As a So far as is matter of fact. protein dietary of Chittenden. he must also eliminate the quota of heat which ingestion of meat. the results of many thousand urinary analyses in Germany during the second year of the war showed about 7 grams of nitrogen excreted. and reported that no ill effects is can be attributed to it The flavor of meat such that lends itself to the easy preparation of a palatable meal.
pork. It would save food on for milk production fed if steers were eaten as veal and not up into beef cattle. British people The have suffered no hardship in the recent reduction of their meat ration. If all heifers were developed into milch cows and no cow capable of giving milk in quantity were slaughtered. which is evidently a than at present. A suitable tax all steers over a year old would accomplish this result. something for the protection of the . the form of pork. fodder to produce veal than to produce pork. however. According to these figures beef should cost in the market twice what veal costs. more Milk. A that British it Commission has reported to Parliamxent takes three times as it much fodder to produce beef as value. and veal have long been the estabUshed protein- containing foods of nations on the continent of Europe. It is 19 in all prosperous countries prior well. and yet the butcher charges nearly the same for the two. would increase the dairy business. It need of the times. but It there is every reason why it should be expensive. the country would be placed on a much better basis might make beef expensive. does to produce milk or pork of the same food Since cows eat chiefly hay and grass and pigs eat grain the cost of the production of a unit value of milk is much less than the cost of the same value in It takes only fifty per cent. to remember that its its use has been excessive and unnecessary. and price can be cut by wholesale voluntary abstinence.A BALANCED DIET had vastly increased to the war.
about 18 per cent. and the hke. on the other hand. . such com stalks. the foremost authority on animal Roast pig. but nevertheless. The task of the stock feeder must be to utilize through his inedible products of the farm skill and knowledge the as hay. in beef and mut.5 per cent. the farmer who feeds bread grains to his is stock burning up 75 to 97 per cent. of them in order to produce for us a small residue of roast pig. gluten feed. In other words. make at least a fraction of will them In so doing he be really adding to the food supply and will be rendering a great public service. 160. utilizing "Roast Pig. ." Science. and factory.20 FOOD IN WAR TIME For it must be remembered that cow during a single year will give in the form of milk as much protein and two and a half times the number of calories as are contained in her welfare of mankind. possible to pay too and while a proposal to restrict rather than to promote meat production in the present crisis may appear both irrational and unpatriotic it may nevertheless be in the interest of true food economy. 1917. bran. to those who like it. ton. . and so is diminishing the total stock of human food. in milk and only about 3. high a price for it. It may be roughly estimated that about 24 per cent. xlvi. is not only a delicacy but a it is valuable article of diet. a well-nourished own body. straw. This was \\Titten before the publication of the following words of nutrition:^ Armsby. . brewers' and distillers' grains. of the energ>' of grain is recovered for human consimiption in pork. . and to available for man's use. Rather than seek to stimulate live stock husbandry the ideal should be to adjust it to the hmits set by the available supply of forage crops and by-product feeding 1 stuffs while. .
. is by no means the essential that we have been wont to suppose and partial deprivation of it is not inconsistent with high bodily efi&cienc}^ Certainly no patriotic citizen would wish to insist on his customary allowance of roast pig at the cost of the food supply of his brothers in the trenches. therefore. If it is desirable to restrict or prohibit the production of alcohol from grain or potatoes on the ground that involves a waste of food value. the of the same reason calls for restriction burning-up of these materials to produce roast pig. This means.A BALANCED DIET these to the greatest practicable extent. as well as on account of the importance of milk to infants and invalids. however. a limited meat supply. the high in swine and danger of paying too economy of food production b}^ the dairy cow deserves careful is consideration. . save some of what would otherwise be a total loss. Cattle and sheep. on the other hand. At any rate. Meat. although of course the large labor requirement a counterbalancing factor. because beyond that weight the cost of the quantity of feed required to maintain the animal is out of proportion to the gain in food value of the pig. can utilize products which man can not use and save some of their potential value as human food. The hog food. a pig weighing 150 pounds a maximal econofnic hog. although less efficient as converters. The United States Department of Agriculture has estimated that a pig that has reached the weight of 150 pounds should be slaughtered. because in this 21 way we . . it is clear that at the present time enthusiastic live stock but ill-considered "booming" of production may do it more harm than good. call One might. From this point of view. of course. To some of us this may seem a hardship. is the great competitor of man for the higher grades of husbandry as ordinarily conducted we are in much for our roast pig.
not only upon a sufficient supply of food from a mechanistic standpoint. into the composition of the when they are being built is is up in the is and this energy. for the food offered must be acceptable to the palate of the individual. it must contain water. . set free in the animal body and all used as the source of the body. such as protein and mineral salts. power behind in the the physical actix^ities of The energy can form all be recovered as heat and measured According to the principles of 23 of calories. therefore. and must contain certain accessory food substances known as food hormones or "\dtamins. when questioned regarding the use of corn bread in France. inci- adequate material for repair of parts. but also upon the reasonable wornout the diet satisfaction of the sense of appetite. A member of the French Scientific Commission which visited the United States in the summer of 1917. replied "on ne peut pas changer des habitudes. But this is not all. Heat from the sun enters food substances plants.II CALORIES IN COMMON LIFE A person is properly nourished who receives adequate energy in the form of carbohydrate and fat (and dentally protein). which latent in the food. These dual funda- mentals of proper nutrition should be ever borne in mind." Also." The proper nutrition of an individual depends.
so that he in comfortably on a bed complete muscular relaxation. fat. and sugar which have been oxidized by this oxygen. say. Now.24 FOOD IN WAR TIME is the law of the conservation of energy. and before his break- fast. 156 pounds in the box of lies such an apparatus. one puts a man weighing. one can calculate the exact amounts of protein. in certain types of disease this normal. there any variation though of course the weight of the man makes at the tity of a difference in his requirement for energy. if one calculates how much heat ought to have been set free from the oxidation carbohydrate. This measurement represents the basal metabol- ism of a man at complete rest. is Only from If. an apparatus called a calorimeter or a measurer of calories. heat structible. or the quantity of heat necessary to raise a liter of water from 0° to 1° for Centigrade. the quanif oxygen which he absorbs measured and cer- tain other chemical analyses be carried out. it of these quantities of protein fat and is discovered that the heat which ought to have been produced is exactly that quantity which was measured as having been produced by the man. is A calorie the measure of a unit of heat. ties are at their The basal metabolism as measured by 70 calories per hour in the case of this individual represents the sum of . Apparatus has been invented measurw^hich If ing the heat production of a is man. when his oxidative activilowest ebb. is is same time the subject in the box. is not de- The understanding of the value of a calorie indispensable for the comprehension of nutrition. one finds that he produces 70 calories an hour.
The question in the world to-day cient quantity of food-fuel is whether or not a is available to support the is human family. The energy for the human machine and the materials . Any extraneous muscular movements are carried out in virtue of an increased oxidation of materials and the heat production rises above the level of the basal effort. that constant level which may be body temperature (4) to at so characteristic that a slight variation signifies illness. Furthermore. in a circle through the blood-vessels. metabol- ism with increased muscular For a long time the power for the maintenance of the human machine seen in cases is can be furnished by of its own body fat. fat. but usually the power is derived great suffi- instead from the food-fuel which taken. as is prolonged fasting. and maintain in the living state the numerous tissues of the body.CALORIES IN the fuel needed heart. the protein body cells and the salts of the bones and other tissues are in a constant state of wearing down. of motion. (3) to maintain the is (2) to maintain the purified in muscles of respiration that the blood the lungs. Phenomena of life are phenomena These motions are maintained at the expense of chemical energy liberated in the oxidative breakdown of carbohydrate. and this paper is written with that end in view. COMMON of a LIFE 25 — (1) to maintain the beating of the which every minute man's life moves the blood or one-twentieth part of the weight of the body. The question of calories not an academic one. structure of the and protein. but an intensely practical one. Science strives to express itself in mathematic terms.
mouse. is which take place under the influence total quantity of heat The produced by the body a measure It is of the intensity of the oxidation of carbohy- drate. The proposition has appeared so improbable as to call forth much antagonism.26 FOOD IN WAR TIME taken in the form of food. DuBois deserves the credit of having established this relationship for man beyond to the possibility of a doubt. so that one may determine in cases of disease whether the heat production is normal or increased or decreased. is important to know definitely whether there any constant measure of the level of the basal metabolism in normal people. Boothby has found that the metaboHsm of patients who have tions recovered their health after hospital opera- and who have been confined in the hospital between twenty and fifty days does not \'ary from the normal standard of DuBois. a dog. It appears from his work that the basal metabolism for men between twenty and fifty years old is approximately 40 calories per hour per square meter of do this body surface. and protein within the body. He was able on account of his discovery of a new and accurate method of measuring the area of the body surface. all for its self-repair are The general term metabolism includes ties the chemical activiof living cells. within a =t= error of 10 per cent. Rubner discovered that the heat production face whether the being of mamor a malia during rest was the same per square meter of sur- was a horse. fat. a man. It has been found by DuBois that the basal metabol- .
. Unfortunately. and that in boys of teen the metabolism is fif- 11 per cent. These results explain the large appetites of boys. individuals. is The is calculated heat produc- however.10. in each case based upon the weight without clothes. given by American life insurance companies. H. Women show than that of a metabolism which is 7 per cent. the weights given in these statistics include clothes worn by the tion. multiply values for boys of fifteen years by 1. V.93. Mr. or 44 calories per square meter of body surface (unpublished work of DuBois). or 50 calories per square meter of body surface. lowing values The table computed from the Calories per fol- square meter Age 15 in years of surface 20-50 55 44 40 37 The To table may also be used as follows: of fifty years. higher than for the adult of the same size and shape. lower men. multiply values for man by of twelve to thirteen years. of Atkinson.: — CALORIES IN ism in boys of twelve is COMMON LIFE 27 25 per cent. From the charts of the average heights and weights men varying between fifteen and fifty-five years old. of my laboratory. or 37 calories per hour per square meter of surface. higher than for an adult of the same height and weight. has calculated the basal metabolism in a table here presented. find the metabolism Women Boys between twenty to 0.
Heat per square meter of surface .819 tistics to a table showing the average weights men of different ages and heights compiled from the sta- of the medico-actuarial investigation of 1912. Age.28 FOOD IN WAR TIME THE BASAL METABOLISM OF MEN Calculated from values of the basal metabolism determined by the methods of DuBois and applied of 221.
2 inches A boy thirteen years old and weighing 156 pounds. Ordinary fashion. years old. His parents are said to have sent him to boarding school in order to reduce their food It is evident bills. necessary for however. G. or larger than that of any grown man given in the table larger than a man weighing 211 pounds and 6 feet. This is the same as that of a man twenty-five tall. 1 inch (there are such cases). his height being 6 feet. 10 inches. but they probably need as much These data with close scientific precision the is minimal requirement for energy which the maintenance of the bed-ridden." From the work of F. is not constituted after this "By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread. 4 inches in height. will give The requirements of girls have not been investigated.— COMMON CALORIES IN The LIFE boy 29 basal metabolism of an average of thirteen years of age weighing 80 pounds and of a height of 4 feet. may be calculated as 1525 calories per day. weighing 126 pounds and 5 feet. life. as follows: . much food as his father. not generally recognized that the boy needs as of the poor probably reduces their requirement of food. from this discussion that the food re- same It is quirement of boys over twelve years old is about the The emaciation of the children as that of men. would have a basal metabolism of 2300 calories. as their mothers. Benedict one may calculate the increase in the basal metabolism. I personally know a boy of this age and size.
leaning on support 3 14 Standing. one finds that it requires about transport a pound of body weight three miles during an hour.30 FOOD IN WAR TIME Increase in the basal metabolism Occupation Sitting in per cent. and that increasing power must cal 1. walking or running. the following calcula- man weighing and who is tions can be made: .3 miles per hour one washes to determine the heat production of a 156 pounds and 5 feet.1 calories to be generated if the speed is increased above this rate of maximal economic velocity. "attention" If one wishes to determine from the basal metabolism table the heat production of a person to his room. one should who is confined of the add to the metabolism twenty-four hours the increase above the basal for those hours of the day during which he chair or standing. 5 Standing.1 3.3 miles per hour Rate of 1 pound body 1. hand on a staiBF 10 11 Standing.1 Running If 5. is sitting in a Passing to a consideration of the subject of mechani- work done by a man.6 3. These relations are shown below: Extra calories per hour required to move of movement Walking 3 miles per hour Walking 5. 7 inches in height. relaxed Standing.
making his total hourly expenditure of energy nearly 300 calories (249 44) during a hike on a level road. 10 hours at 300 per hour calories 3000 4022 This would be the heat production of a soldier on a day of a "forced march.1). f Running.3* Cals.) The carrying of a load of 44 pounds is done at the same expenditure of energy as the carrying of one's own body weight when the rate is three miles an hour. eight miles at a rate of three miles per hour in order to save money when he pays a however." The ordinary day's march is only fifteen miles. . so the soldier's equipment would call for the added expenditure of 48 calories (44X1. does not include the cost of shoe leather. + His daily requireCalories ment for energy might be: . If the it man's food cost 10 cents a thousand may be calculated that he would have to walk over 5-cent carfare. 5.CALORIES IN Rate of travel per COMMON . 172 562 70 7 484 70 7 70 7 Add for standing 249 * 639 561 Walking. . (This. 560 462 Resting in camp 6 hours at 77 calories per hour Hike of 30 miles.3! Cals. Sleeping 8 hours at 70 calories per hour . calories. hour in miles Metabolism for transporting 156 pounds Basal metabolism . 31 5. LIFE 3* Cals.
The total energy requirement for this kind of a hike would have been 4200 calories. there are hills to climb and the body weight and the pack are is lifted 1000 feet during the hike. quired over 9000 calories for the day. at 77 calories per hour Running 7 hours. 33 minutes. an expenditure of slightly less energy than level.96 calory of energy per pound If the man weighed pounds and the pack 44 pounds. at 561 cal- ories per hour 4236 5433 It is a matter of record that a man has run between Milwaukee and Chicago. but this factor need not concern Supposing.32 FOOD IN WAR TIME This assumes a level road. His metabolism Calories might thus be calculated: Sleeping 10 hours at 70 calories per hour 700 497 Resting 6 hours. however. the additional fuel requirement would be 192 calories (200X0. this of weight lifted.96). 23 minutes.3 miles per hour. a distance of 80 miles. lightly clad. however. and thirty-three min- which is a reasonable record. in about Such an amount of work would have refifteen hours. . Walking down hill is accomplished at walking on the one. done at the addi156 tional expense of approximately 0. this individual were running. he would complete the distance in seven hours utes. If. on a level road in a race for a distance of 40 miles at the rate of 5.
add 10 per cent.57 38. One may turn now ories to the fuel needs in terms of cal- in certain industrial According to Becker and Hamalainen. pursuits. the quantity ism per hour required of extra metabol- in various pursuits is as follows : Extra calories of metabolism per hour due to occupation Occupations of women: Seamstress Typisti 6 Seamstress using sewing machine.63 81-157 Housemaid Washerwoman Occupations of men: Tailor 124-214 44 81 Bookbinder Shoemaker Carpenter Metal worker Painter (of furniture) 90 116-164 141 145 Stonemason ]\Ian 300 \YOod samng 1 378 Observation of Carpenter. for sixteen hours of .CALORIES IN These calculations are results COMMON all LIFE 33 based upon experimental obtained in various laboratories in different parts of the world and can be accepted as being free from any gross It is error. Bookbinder 24 24. . To use this table one may seek the basal metaboHsm of the individual. is e\'ident that the energy requirement propor- tional to the amount of mechanical energy expended.
one obtains the follow- ing requirements of energy tailor his business were that Calories of a and he worked eight hours a day: Sleeping 8 hours at 70 calories per hour . and then multiply the factors in the last table by the numbers of hours of work. . The food-fuel with which to accomplish work is . For example. 560 1232 Awake 16 hours at 77 calories per hour. Add for work as tailor 8 hours at 44 cal. ories 352 2144 After this fashion one might calculate his food re- quirements had he followed occupations other than that of tailor: Calories of metabolism Occupation per day Bookbinder 2440 2510 Shoemaker Carpenter Metal worker Painter 3100 2900 2950 4200 Stonemason Man sawing wood for 4800 These figures make no allowance from the place of employment. walking to or The data here given are inadequate to cover the indus- but they show clearly that hea\T work cannot be accompHshed without a sufficient amount of food-fuel. trial situation. if if one takes the individual weighing 156 pounds.34 wakefulness FOOD IN WAR TIME when the person is sitting or standing. .
Gephart and issued by the Department of Health of the City of New York If in a leaflet edited by Doctors Holt. Pisek. and they could buy more gently if they knew the energy. Cost of 1000 Price per _ Table ^ 1 Cost of Fats. The tables were prepared by Dr. F.7 65 (1 pint) .1 43 51 Bacon Bacon.9 12. of the food which he Tables showing the cost of various vrholesome foodstuffs about July 1. 1917. sliced. the work of the individual should eats.) 37. Cream (extra hea\y. cents cents Cottonseed 7. the world is seeking after enis ergy in the form of food-fuel. workman and it should be adequate in quantity.8 37 65 23. C. must be joyment clearly understood that people are always des"eat cal- tined to look with hopeful anticipation toward the enof a meal. satisfactory^ in quality.— CALORIES IN behind the COMMON LIFE 35 necessary not only for the soldier.8 11. but for the line. They will instinctively ories" just as they instinctively "eat pounds. and not exorbitant be worthy in cost.8 ." They intelli- buy pounds of food. oil ^ e T^ calories. pound. 40 per cent.5 30 25 Peanut butter Butter Olive oil 8. La Fetra. In \drtue of the world-wide scarcity of food. are here reproduced for the benefit of the reader. and Lusk on the subject of food for children. in jars 13.3 31 Oleomargarine 8.value of what they buy. . the w^orld titled to rightly enIt understand the value of its purchases.
0 27. in bulk Broken rice.8 5. in bulk Oatmeal.0 10. Price per pound. 7.8 Shredded Wheat Biscuit Grape-nuts Force 13 15 8. in package 8. in package Farina. in package . in rice.1 Table 3 Cost of Ready-to-serve Cereals. in bulk 3.9 Cracked wheat. in package 5..0 2.6 6 Hominy. in package Macaroni. cents Table 2 Cost of Cereals.5 Table 4 —Cost of Vegetables.4 16 Com Flakes 11. in package 4.0 Lima beans .6 29.7 20 38 Puffed rice 23..0 39. in bulk food. in in bulk 5. in bulk 3.0 6.1 10 10 bulk Whole bulk 10 14 Wheatena.6 9.3 5.8 4.3 Onions Spinach 30.9 4.0 3.7 6 6 7 7 3.9 Pearl barley.3 New beets 5. in package 6. in bulk Quaker Oats.6 4. White potatoes Turnips 12.— 36 FOOD IN WAR TIME Cost of 1000 calories.2 39.7 Malt breakfast Petti John.6 3.2 Samp.1 6.2 Green peas 10. cents Cornmeal.4 4. 4. in package 9 10 10 10 Cream of Wheat.0 6.5 20.5 8 8 8 8 Wheat flour. Barley flour..
0 38.0 8.0 23.— : CALORIES IX COMMON Cost of 1000 calories.2 18.0 Table 5 Cost of Brcadstufs. LIFE Price per pound.0 23.4 Chicken (roasting) Beefsteak (round) 32.5 8.0 15.0 8.6 76.7 50.4 10.3 44.6 41.7 6 5 Oranges 65.0 chops 34.3 8.7 Ginger-snaps 12.2 10. (in season) Bananas Apples 23.0 10 .5 13.0 Table 6 Milk (Grade A) Roast beef (rib) Buttermilk 20.8 Uneeda Biscuit Cost of Proteins.3 Rye bread Graham crackers Soda crackers French rolls 9.0 9.2 8.0 12.0 9.0 14.4 24.0 7.0 55. 12.0 45.7 43.0 10.0 18.9 6.4 214. 6.3 10.0 Carrots String-beans 50. cents cents Cauliflower 42.0 (1 dozen) 34.0 Table 1—Cost Fresh of Fruit.4 26.3 Graham bread White bread 10.0 (1 quart) 26.9 codfish (fresh) 38.0 (1 quart) Lamb Lamb Young Eggs chops (lorn) (rib) 32.0 Squash Lettuce Celer>' 89.
pound. for This has been done I with drastic severity in Germany.1 10 15 15 12.5 20 Table S—Cost of Syrup. and pluck. the greatest German authority on of his nutrition. calories. It makes no difference what the nutritive condition of the person is. have heard from . continue his labor for a certain time. excited grossly inappropriate hilarity in the comic press country by showing that a poor woman who actually waited several hours in line in order to re- ceive the dole of fat allowed her by the government fat in the consumed more of her own body to receive effort of standing during those hours than she obtained in the fat given her last.4 11. cents Dned: Prunes Apples Peaches Apricots cents 8.7 Cane sugar Karo corn syrup 8 8 A by British scientific commission has reported to Par- if the workman be undernourished he may. when her turn it came at A method by which food-fuel can readily be saved is with benefit to the nation and to the individual the overfat to reduce their weight.5 5. Rubner.5 15. if a certain job involving muscular effort is to be done it liament that grit always requires a definite amount of extra food-fuel to do it. 4.38 FOOD IN WAR TIME Cost of 1000 Price per . but in the end his work is sure to fail.
pounds lost 90 pounds since the war began how a cor- pulent professor at Breslau lost greatly in weight. that any exof ternal muscular work is to be accomplished of a given it can only be effected at the expense food-fuel. of the food-fuel formerly required. must be strictly borne in mind. is every reason why a man who liis overweight at the age of fifty should reduce weight until he reaches thirty-five. and reduces the fuel needed for moving the body is extreme illustration of the food requirement losing nearly half of her effect of amount of The most emaciation upon the afforded by a woman who after body weight was found to need line of only 40 per cent. Suppose a clergyman or a physician requires 2500 calories daily in the accomplishment of his work and takes . a joy not summer of the war regained his former corpulence during a sojourn in the Bavarian now tolerated. Fisk he five is when he was According after thirty- a better insurance risk is he is under the weight which the average for those of his years. if the weight he was to Dr. whether the person be fat or all difficult not at to reduce the body weight. but nity it indicates how a commuIt if may long support itself on restricted rations. It is added quantity thin. This represented a state not far from the border death from starvation.CALORIES IN unquestioned sources COMMON a LIFE 39 how man \Yho had weighed 240 . and how an American last winter in is woman There lost 40 pounds in weight Dresden. Reduction in weight reduces the in walking. however. basal requirement for food. but during the second Tyrol.
The work of the world is accompKshed in largest part by the oxidation of carbohydrates." be applied which I heard the last time I was stuff your husband. needed. But if this excess in ^^dll food in- take be continued for a year. but its advice has made so many of my friends so utterly miserable that I am sure in the end it ^\ill counteract its own mesthe quantity of fat taken. the balance of food-fuel the reser\^es of the body's must be obtained from own supply By cut- by ehminating a ting down or a drink of whiskey. It would seem to be the height of absurdity to object to such a trifle. little book entitled ''Eat and Grow Thin" recommends a high protein and almost carbohydrate-free diet for the accompHshment of this purpose. The additional 80 calories is the equivalent of a butter ball weighing a third of an ounce. that is to say. if instead of taking more than is required amount of food a little less be taken than of fat. and not compenglass of beer sating for the loss of these by adding other food stuffs.40 2580 calories FOOD IN WAR TIME per day instead. of . The amusing the weight may be gradually reduced. husband Now it is evident that. Such a person would find that he required a constantly increasing amount of food in order to transport his con- stantly increasing weight. the person gain nine pounds and at the end of ten years ninety pounds. or an ounce of bread or half a glass of milk. In instances of this sort a motto may in Washington: ''Do not your the stuff. or sage.
They may be used in- for the production of work without of themselves creasing the heat production of the worker. In the dinner-pail of the laborer they testify as to the source of his power. Bread. Alcohol gives a sham sensation of added force and in reality decreases the ability to do work. macaroni. They are the convertible into glucose in the body. Cane-sugar of fatigue. these are par excellence the food-fuels of human machine. (See p. and when taken in small quantities every half hour. 18. its importation would long since have been forbidden. the question re- solves itself into several factors. LIFE rice.) Fat also may be is used as a source of energy. cane-sugar. en- wholesome and may be place of sugar. glucose raisins As a substitute. is a valuable condiment. 41 and starches.CALORIES IN sugars COMMON corn. Alcohol is the greatest cause of it. It is may delay the onset more largely used in the United States than in other countries in the world. good beer makes poor food . may be used. also This is found in grapes and in and it is produced in large quantities by the This substance freely is hydrolysis of starch and sold under the commercial name tirely of corn syrup or Karo. but unless carbohydrate present a person can not work up to his fullest capacity. which is scarce. and as Cushny has put alcohol had been a new synthetic drug introduced from Germany. employed in the As to the use of alcoholic beverages. On the other hand. if misery in the world. as happens after meat ingestion. which glucose gives power to the human machine.
while. conserving the safety of our own people. it therefore. saving to the utmost. at the same time. have our daughters taught After that vre can talk about prohibition. be careful in our abundance. In some parts of the world whole nations are star\dng to death. any other and we must. In most countries of the world people are In America we have more food than in land. short of food. . is The how cure for bad food to to cook a decent meal.42 taste well. FOOD IN WAR TIME It also frequently leads to overeating.
or a sum which. or beet-tops. Eat corn bread. In many families 10 per cent. would greatly improve the welfare 4. in many ways 3. taken with cabbage.Ill RULES OF SAVING AND SAFETY 1. is excellent food. the cheapest protein food. Farmers should be urged to meet this demand. duce meat requires much meat is used as is now right. sparingly. if spent for real food. causes increased sweating and discomfort. 5. laborer and indolent alike. cestors of the family. Meat does not increase the muscular is power. rich Eat meat and poor. Let no family (of five persons) buy meat until it has bought three quarts of milk. to France. for it warms the body more than it any other twice as In hot weather. lettuce. for to promuch fodder which might better be used for milk production. In general. Save the cream and butter and eat oleomargarine and vegetable oils. meat may be recommended. imitating milk. Olive oil or cottonseed oil. If we eat it we can send wheat Eat oatmeal. 2. for the same reason. Drink no alcohol. When food. It saved our New England anfrom starvation. of the income is spent for drink. 43 . a person exposed to great cold.
Since the total energy for the maintenance of our bodies can be measured in calories. fruit and vegetables. Eat Eat fresh fish.44 6. is it not surprising how little even educated people know^ about the subject? . pudding. for raisins contain sugar. FOOD IX WAR TIME Eat corn syrup on raisins in rice cereals. It will save the sugar. 8. Eat 7. and since this en- ergy serves for the maintenance of the nations of the world.
40 Chittenden. 41 Diet. 35. measurement definition of sur- metabolism. 29 of men. a balanced. metabolism in. Sylvester. 16 Graham. use of. metabolism Foods. 25 45 . 11 reasons for using. 9 analysis of. 28 Economy 39 in diet. 16 muscular Gr. 41 Appetite. 8 Com and pellagra. relation of to. 41 Carbohydrates and work. definition. 27 Butter. 14 syrup. cost of. 24 quantity available. 26 table. 35 Fasting. 10 in Italy. 25 35 Calorimeter. 23. 26 24 of boys. in. life 23 Cabbage. 8 Emaciation. 16 Green leaves in diet. 41 Cream. of. 23 Italian. nature of. 10 Hindhede's dietary. cost of. 9 DuBois.\ham bread. of women. 7 7 Balanced Basal ration.INDEX Alcoholic beverages. 24 Cane sugar. 7 Calorie. 24 Calories. biological of purified food-stuffs. 26. a proper. face area. 11 Life. 8 Energ}^ of sun. 7 Heat production in man.
43 13. metabolism of. oils. 39 27 33 Women.20 in England. running. definition of. cost of. 12 17 Pellagra. 30-32 walking. 17 and protein.46 INDEX muscle work. metabolism of. 30 26 and carbohydrates. 38. economic production 20 food value. 32 industrial. 11 in pellagra. 18 specific dynamic action in of. Muscle work. 30 43 Oleoma rgarin. 8 18. 18 of. 38 and labor. 9 Meatless dietary. 8. 25. 43 Milk. 23 Weight. 15 posture. 16 Occupation and metabolism. 18. 40 and diet. desirability of. 23. 10 Summar>% 43 25 Surface area and heat production. Men. 38 Oxidation of food-stuffs. 25 Rules of. 14 historical. 8. restricted diet of. 14 Pork. 15 39 in fasting. 31 climbing. . of saving and safety. 38 Vegetable Vitamins. 13 19. 39 Undernutrition. Substitution of foods. Meat and Occupation and metabolism. Peanut butter. use of. economic production 19. economic production 20 in hot weather. 8. in America. 17 and fasting. 30 19. 27 Metabohsm. reduction of. 18 and undernutrition. 12 Vegetarianism. Mineral salts. Potato diet. 20. carrying a load. 26 in emaciation. 21 of. 12 Olive oil. 24 Germany. 19 Overfat people.