COOKING

By FLORENCE NESBITT

AMERICM SCHOOLs^HOME ECONOMICS
GIIICAGO, ILLINOIS

Low

Cost Cooking
BY

FLORENCE NESBITT,

B.A.

FIELD SDPEKVISOR AND DIETITIAN, DEPAKTMENT OF KELIEF, JUVENILE OOTIBT OP CHICAGO; LECTUBEB FOB THE CHICAGO YISITINO NOBSESl ASSOCIATION; FOKMERLY VISITING HOUSEKEEPER OF THE UNITED CHARITIES OF CHICAGO

A MANUAL OP COOKING, DIET, HOME MANAGEMENT AND CARE OF CHILDEEN FOR HOUSEKEBPEES WHO MUST CONDUCT THEIE HOMES WITH SMALL EXPENDITUKE OF MONEY

CHICAGO

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS
1915

COPYEIGHT 1915 BY Home Economics Association .

. Cold Lunches When Mother Works Outside the Home 3.. . . A Well-Balanced Diet Economy in Buying Setting the Table . ..Made Fireless 2. . Menus Menus for for ...CONTENTS PAGE Business of Home-Making Food and the Body .. no 112 113 117 Index 223 . 21 66 86 loi Additional Three Weeks' Additional Three Weeks' Summer .... Feeding and Care of Children .. . . ... . . — Home... 5 7 9 11 16 18 19 Ceneral Household Directions General Recipes Week's Week's Menu for Winter with Directions Menu for Summer with Directions Winter . Tables of Composition and Proportion . . .. ...... .. ... .104 107 Calculation of Cost Household Helps 1. . ..

.

well repaid and failure brings wretchedness. one who satisfies with strong drink the craving left by lack of proper food. With plenty of money the average woman can easily furnish her family with comfortable living conditions and good food. to economize. the endeavor being to give.LOW COST COOKING INmost is THE BUSINESS OF HOME-MAKING MANY ways the business of home-making important one in the world. the things she most needs to know in order to Many women who get the best results from her money. poorly-developed children and a husband whose work is made less productive by the poor home conditions or. through proper home care. The unsuccessful homemaker very often has sickly. Economizing on food is a most dangerous thing to try unless the housekeeper has an understanding of food values. The smaller the amount of money on which the home must be run and food bought the greater is the need of the home-maker for wisdom and skill in management. This book is compiled especially for the woman who has little money to spend. study and work than the merchant or mechanic gives to his business. as simply as possible. is made able to do his work and earn the money needed to pay the expenses of the home. are compelled to manage with the smallest possible amount have helped greatly in making the book by giving recipes and plans which they have found useful in their attempts . well-trained children and a husband who. well-kept. 5 . is the To carry it on sucSuccess cessfully requires no less thought. in many cases. cessful The suc- home-maker has well-fed.

not only by the outside work it does but by its inside work.05 bushel potatoes 30 etc.05 peck apples . . so that our muscles can do the work that we wish them to do. to be able to decide where it is wise and safe to cut and where unsafe. WHAT FOOD MUST DO FOR THE BODY We put coal. For example July 1st — 2 heads 1 lettuce . and the housekeeper needs only a blank book in which she sets down each day the things she has bought. $ . and the money she has received. gas and other fuel into an engine so it can have the power to work. Every mother should study these things carefully. The body is itself being constantly worn out. Keeping accounts is just as desirable in the business of housekeeping as in that of shop-keeping. accounts at the end of each The housekeeper who goes thoughtfully over her own week or month will learn much from them. good business man would try to run his business afifairs without keeping books to show him just where his which purchases have been wise and which unwise.05 July 2nd — 2 bunches 1 carrots $ . 10 pounds sugar 2 pounds chopped 20 50 meat 30 $1. for she has the health and well being of her family in her keeping. Keeping Accounts No stand. of course. But giving this power to work or "energy" to the body is not the only use of food. . In exactly the same way we must give food to our bodies. . that is.: 6 LOW COST COOKING She must know what foods are necessary for the health of her family and in what food materials she gets the most for her money. It is much simpler. .

is exposed. and fast as they are body becomes diseased. and the child will not become a well-grown man or woman perhaps it will grow large. it needs food to grow on. It 7 heart.FOOD AND THE BODY by the beating of the other organs. the body is worn out and old when it should be still young and strong. workings of the stomach and they are not repaired just as places are left in the takes various kinds of food to repair if these worn-out parts. . so that it is apt to take any disease to which it them. strong. out. it grow a of the different kinds of food If it does not get needs and enough of it cannot possibly be strong and well. where disease germs may easily grow and it Food it is for the Child child. perhaps tuberculous or. is of even more importance to the child than to the Foods Furnishing Energy The body can use all kinds of food for energy to work on. but if its body is food adult. such as scarlet fever. too. but the best and cheapest for this purpose are the ones that contain starch. The There is larger bones child all to all no other way for the child to get the stufif to make and muscles except from its food. Besides all this. . diphtheria or tubercu- must be exposed to some of these disstrong and clean it will have a good chance to escape taking them. healthy body. Perhaps the growth will be stunted. and it also needs the food to repair the worn-out parts of its body just as the adult does. The city child eases. but will have weak spots in its body where disease germs can easily grow. needs a great deal of food for energy as always moving about in play or work. escaping disease. Give the the food it needs and it will have a good chance large. For these reasons proper losis. worn weak . sugar and fat.

iron. found in all foods. butter and cream. a diet for an adult will be well-balanced contains meat or fish once a day with a milk and an . much and sugar for energy. we depend chiefly on fruits etc. and nuts. but we get most of our sugar in the pure form which has been taken from the juices of sugar cane and sugar beet. Balanced Diet diet which furnishes all of these things which the body needs in the right amount is called a "well-balanced diet. The chief foods which contain fat are the fat parts of meat. although other foods. flour and meals of all kinds. these many different kinds of minerals are needed such as lime. contain valuable minerals. fat and fish. but in largest quantities in such foods as meat. strong and able to resist disease. a substance called protein milk. oranges. Many vegetables and fruits such as carrots. olive oil.8 LOW COST COOKING The chief foods which contain starch are: cereals. milk. fish. lard. starch or fat will cause digestive will Too much protein Too much troubles. necessary. legumes (beans. and also vegetables and fruits to provide the minerals needed. Foods for Building and Repairing the Body and other tissues of the It is is To repair the worn-out muscles body. sulphur.. suet. peas and lentils) and some vegetables such as potatoes and sweet potatoes. eggs and cheese. especially milk and eggs. cheese. Too much sugar if it produce ansemia and cause disturbances of digestion. for building and repairing. foods will cause disturbances of the kidneys. etc. cottonseed oil. little In general. cheese starch. repair the bones and to keep the To build and body clean." It must contain some high protein foods such as meat. contain sugar. A eggs. For and vegetables.

a cereal once. macaroni. WELL-BALANCED DIET following classes of food are the ones that give the body the greatest amount of energy for the money. and must be used in large quantities by the housekeeper who wishes to feed her family well for a small amount of money. with fruit twice per day. HOW TO HAVE A The CHEAP. as well as oatmeal. and those that furnish the mineral elements necessary for keeping the body in health. In Chicago it costs 8 cents per quart. commeal.. or vegetable twice and fruit once. Legumes. cottonseed oil. Protein for Children For children milk is the best high protein food. rice. also lentils and peanuts. which include all kinds of beans and peas. but when it must be done on a small income it becomes a very hard thing to do. oleo. but a very poor To them must be added foods which furnish more one. another vegetable besides potatoes once. Cereals. These alone would make a cheap diet. such as flour from which we make bread.CHEAP. protein than these have for building and repairing the body. which include everything made from grains. This is simple enough when there is plenty of money. peanut oil. In addition the diet should include as much bread and potatoes and some kind of fat as the normal appetite demands. etc. rye. etc. Only milk from good dairies should be given children. WELL-BALANCED DIET 9 egg occasionally. etc. When skim milk can be bought at 3 cents to 4 cents per quart it enables . such as suet. Cheaper Forms of Fat. lard. and this as a rule is the same price with all of the dairies in the same town.

so that in some cases the cost of fuel must be reckoned. When removed. pint at least per day for each child 5 to 9 years. and at these prices are cheap protein food.he year. however. and cottage cheese at 10 cents per pound. pint if possible per day for older children. AMOUNT OF MILK DESIRABLE FOR CHILDREN. Meat should be given only in very small quantities to young children. Foods Furnishing Mineral The body cannot long remain healthy without vegetables and fruits. Eggs are fairly cheap at certain times in 4. I I I I pint to I quart per day for each child under 2 years. Eggs are the next best protein food for children. Meat may be very expensive or quite inexpensive accordway in which it is bought.lO LOW COST COOKING is the housekeeper to economize a milk skimmed the fat is it minerals remain. but the protein and is still a very valuable food. Protein for Adults In order to buy the necessary amount of milk for the children. grown up part of the American brick cheese can be bought at from 19 cents to 22 cents per pound. They are and easily digested and very desir- able for children invalids. and in summer a fireless cooker will save almost all of the extra fuel needed for the long cooking. As a rule the cheaper cuts of meat require longer cooking to make them tender and palatable. There is about the same amount of nourishment in the cheaper cuts as in more expensive ones. ing to the In winter. at other times far too expensive for general use. the protein foods for the family must be bought very economically. pint to 154 pints per day for each child 2 to 5 years. so that little on her milk bill. Those who are entirely cut off from these . When they are cheap they should be given in abundance. when expensive as many as can be afforded. the fire that is used for cooking is also needed for heat.

for this work. but less serious skin diseases. 2J/2 cents of cornmeal. Milk needed. cans pays for advertising these things and then sells them to you. ECON'OMY IN BUYING These are a few of the things every get the greatest value for the woman who tries to money she spends for f6od should always keep in mind: Work If of Others else bakes your bread. names it. the dried fruits and winter vegetables. are very common among This those who have not enough of this class of foods. such as carrots. and we can easily see just how Cornmeal sells in bulk for much we pay A business firm packs the same sort per pound. is rare. at small cost only an expensive part of the diet and can be managed by watching the market closely and buyIn the winter ing the articles cheapest at the time. you must pay him well for all his work by paying a high someone price for the food he has prepared for you. when there are no fruits in season and green vegetables are expensive. puts it into a package. scurvy. cakes or pies. suffers is also very valuable as a source of the minerals child The growing who has sufficient milk rarely from rickets as there is enough lime in the amount of milk recommended above to provide for properly building the bones of the growing child. .ECONOMY IN BUYING II foods are apt to be attacked by the horrible disease. found chiefly in shipwrecks and in besieged cities. advertises Take for instance a cereal. rutabagas and onions can be used. used at all Fresh fruit should be times when the price will permit. and constipa- with is its attending train of diseases. your meat. cooks your vegetables. makes your jelly and jam. This condition tion.

lb. tallow and oleomargarine vegetable oils. lb. lb. advertises it and sells for 16 cents per pound. lo-lb. 14 oz. is 3c to sc a 3 9/ioc a is lb.. The most important difference between these different kinds is the olive oil. lb. in order to pay for the work done on it. salt pork. such as suet. which Rice (broken) Rice (whole) Rice (puffed) 15 oz. lb. bacon. and difference in flavor. Another firm puts corn through a cooking and rolling process. lb. for loc.. but- Cheaper forms are meat fats. 2j^c per oz. for loc. 10 oz. which is . for isc. such as cottonseed and peahut oil. Cornmeal (bulk) Cornmeal (package) 30 Oatmeal (bulk) Oatmeal. The following table in different shows how much we pay for cereals by buying them ways TABLE OF CEREALS WITH PRICES. puts it it in a package. for loc. Oatmeal (package) 22 which is 7c a Sc a Farina (bulk) Farina (package). lb. . Economical Forms of Fat The most expensive ter fats in common use are cream.i6c per sack for 39c.. names it. lb. which oz. as well as the other valuable food the milk contains. as In families where there are children it is better to buy much milk as possible instead of cream or butter.: 12 LOW COST COOKING it and sells it for 5 cents per pound. makes it into corn flakes. which is. for loc. but we must pay nearly six times as much for the cornflakes as for the cornmeal. The amount of food in the com product remains about the same. since get in this we all way the cream and butter fat fat. Bacon is also a very useful where there are small . The first three are also more easily digested than any of the cheaper forms except bacon. 5 1/3C a Cornflakes.. lard. lb. which is iij^c a 3c to Sc a 7c to 12c a i6c a lb.

soup of similar quality can be made for about 2j^ cents. therefore dried fruits are inexpensive in winter in . costs about 2j^ cents. Cut it into small pieces and heat carefully in oven or on top of stove until the fat is fried out and the scraps are crisp but not brown.ECONOMY children. choosing instead the vegetables in season which are the cheapest. (See page 14. will do well to buy leaf fat pound and render it herself into lard. as it is IN BUYING 13 easily digested. it beans. Other canned vegetables and fruits are not quite so A expensive by comparison. Cost of Dried Foods Drying is one of the least expensive ways of preserving foods. Home-made i2-ounce can of soup costs 10 cents. 10 cents worth at a time. It is one of the most inexpensive if bought in the form of "bacon brisket. These crisp bits ("cracklings") may be mashed fine and used instead of drippings in making The economical housekeeper at 10 to 12 cents per shortened com bread. Oleomargarine is a useful and desirable substitute for butter. tomatoes and fat pork which takes to The raw make an amount of baked beans. using freshly rendered leaf lard and suet." "bacon strips. but a careful housekeeper can save much by avoiding canned goods.) Some housekeepers make a substitute of their own. thyme and other savory herbs. It is take crisply fried bacon. Cost of Canned Foods A equal i2-ounce can of baked beans costs 10 cents. pleasantly flavored with onion." which are the odd-shaped trimmings from the sides of the bacon and are sold by the piece at from 14 to 22 cents per pound. sliced." "bacon butts. child one year old can one of the most expensive A forms of fat if it is bought from the "best" brands.

. .14 LOW COST COOKING comparison with fresh fruit or canned fruit. this need fire is. the only difference between the expensive is kinds and the inexpensive ones gerine. yeast.. but when apples are 50 cents peck the dried ones cost only one-half as much. etc. Rolls. the chief difference between butter and oleomar- Oleomargerine is a mixture of the best quality of and suet churned with cream. It is made under careful United States Government supervision so that The uncolored oleo gives it must be clean and wholesome. same Boiled ham and jellies raw. pensive as home-made ones of the same the cook stove all. vided for the baking.r a peck of fresh apples to make 2 pounds of dried kes _pples. etc. cakes. cost more than twice as much as the home-made of the quality. and beef cost about four times as much as and preserves are about three times as exquality. is The large part of the year when used also for heat. that it same weight at costs about twice takes to make a loaf of the home. and dried meats and fish often less expensive than fresh. It J. the saving of course but the careful housewife will use her fuel to the best advantage by baking on washing or ironing day and using all in other ways of the heat produced. Dried sweet corn is cheap and valuable for giving variety to the winter diet. Cost of Bakery and Other Cooked Foods as The baker's loaf ( 12 ounces) of bread much as the flour. the difference in flavor. which adds some of the flavor and a percentage of butter to it. pies. not be considered at When must be especially proless. Fresh appks at 24 cents per peck are equal in expense to dried ^fiples at 12 cents per pound. This is not counting the cost of fuel. Cost of Flavor In This lard many is foods.

ECONOMY IN BUYING 15 is a tax of 10 cents per pound on the colored. dried beans. dried If she gets fruits. such as sugar. money once per week. much as Differences in price of meats is partly a matter of flavor. and buy these. Buying in Quantity just the Buying each day amount of things which are to be used that day is very wasteful. she will save by buying all of the staples. waiting for the others until the time for their season comes. and this makes them very expensive. When small packages you are paying for a large If the housekeeper gets her money once per month. tea. In winter when all fresh fruits are out of season. we must pay enough for them to cover the cost of keeping them in cold storage. . Always try to find out what fruits and vegetables are in season and the cheapest to be had at the time. the apples sold in the spring have been kept for six months or more in cold storage. and usually the price is lower. It may be colored at home if desired with the coloring matter usually furnished. potatoes. it Try buying 10 pounds of sugar and lasts see how much longer you buy so many amount of paper at the same price you pay for food. lentils. For example. rice. than five 2-pound packages. Better weight is given to the customer who buys in large quantities. cured meats. coffee. Foods Out of Season When foods out of season are bought. that she will need for the month.. dried fruits can be used. flour. Nearly the best value for the money. as there all half as One pound of oleo costs about onegood butter and contains only a little less food than the pound of butter. peas. but she can buy enough of these things to last the week. butter is colored. etc. she will probably not be able to her buy in such large quantities.

795 3. 3. i protein. 12 water 12 water 7 water 1 1 protein 9 protein 16 protein 13 protein 10 water 12 water 8 protein 75 75 67 74 79 starch starch starch starch starch 1 fat 2 fat 7 fat I fat yi fat 1. 78 water. 24 protein Foods. 2 protein.. cabbage. Food in lb. 90 water. celery. parsnips. so water 15 protein Fowl 47 water 14 protein Fish (salt) 53 water 25 protein Fish (fresh) 82 water 16 protein Eggs (nine) . 4 sugar and starch ^ 210 105 .. 9 to 12 starch and sugar. J^ fat Turnips.65 water 20 protein Mutton (leg). Cereal Pkoducts. crisco. Lettuce. 85 J^ fat Carrots. kohlrabi.66s (Approximate). peaches. Apples... 1. 14 sugar and starch Tomatoes. 8s water. 69 water. 94 water. string beans. oranges. ^/i fat Potato....i6 LOW COST COOKING COMPOSITION OF Parts in loo RAW FOODS. Salt pork (fat) S sugar IS starch 950 890 76s 410 350 720 310 2. i protein. 60 starch 2 fat i.74 water 13 protein Milk (i pint). 95 water.490 3. etc. 87 water 3 protein Cheese 33 water 26 protein Nuts 3 water 20 protein Fats..650 1. oils. J4 fat Potato.630 Legumes. 8 starch and sugar.670 2. 3 starch and sugar. Food units in I lb. .000 Food 2 protein 9 protein i Bacon (medium Butter fat) Oleo Lard. etc 8 water 17 water II water 10 water 86 62 85 83 100 i protein protein fat fat fat fat fat units in I lb.220 Vegetables. Beans and peas. etc. .410 4. protein. 27 starch and sugar. etc. white. etc.. 18 starch. yi fat 210 185 38s 570 units I Fresh Fruits. i protein. i protein... 13 water . Food in units I lb. 2 protein. Wheat Corn meal Oat meal Macaroni Rice flour .860 i.6ss High Protein Food in fat fat fat fat fat fat 4 fat 33 fat 55 fat 13 IS IS V2 Vz 10 I units lb.640 1. Food in I units lb. sweet. Beef (round).. 84 water..000 3.

Use l^ teaspoonful of salt for one cup of flour for . 3 protein. ij4 fat Dates. .820 All of the above foods except the sugar. Use one teaspoon of soda with one cup of molasses. ^ Dried Fruits. . Use one-half level teaspoon of soda with one cup of sour milk.. TABLE OF PROPORTIONS. Butter and cheese have 2 to 3 per cent of common salt added. etc. Use one tablespoon of granulated gelatin to one pint liquid if cooled on ice. liquid for each cup of flour in mak- For Salting .. TABLES OF COMPOSITION AND PROPORTIONS 17 Apples. 78 sugar and starch.. Use two eggs to one cup of milk for stiff custard. 3 fat Prunes. lard and oils contain from to 2 per cent mineral matter. If well-beaten eggs are used in cake leave out one-half teaspoon of baking powder for each egg used. IS water. Use two-thirds cup ing griddle cakes. Use one-half cup of liquid for each cup of flour in making muffins. which does not increase their food units but are of great value in the diet. . . Rising Agents Use two level teaspoons baking powder to one cup flour in making mufiins. For Doughs and Batters Use one-third cup liquid for each cup of flour in making biscuits. 73 sugar and starch. Use one teaspoonful of salt for one quart of liquid. 2 fat 1. 2 protein.615 „ I lb. V?'*' starch.. etc. . 2 level tablespoons of flour will thicken I cupful of liquid for gravy. 22 water. For Thickening 1 level tablespoon of flour will thicken I cupful of liquid for soups. ^°°^ in 28 water. Use one egg to one cup of milk for soft custard. 100 sugar 1.400 Sugar. apricots. 2 protein. griddle cakes and cakes.320 1.. Use one-half as much cornstarch as flour. bread.. 64 sugar and 1. etc. biscuits. Use two level tablespoons of cornstarch to I cup of liquid for pudding. 3 level tablespoons of browned-flour will thicken i cupful of liquid for gravy. There is also a percentage of refuse in most of food materials which is largest in the meats. raisins.

The doilies may be made 12 to 18 inches square of white or colored linen. If doilies are used. health is Much ill caused by children being allowed to eat with dirty. pepper. It is often much better. bler for water at right. fork spoon beside knife. center only ones. one in the may be used. and one inch from the edge of the at left. Every child should be taught while still young that beto leave One way fore coming to the table his hair and clothing must be neat and his face and hands freshly washed. . water. to use doilies instead of order to save washing. particularly and where there are a tablecloth in young children. Luke warm food to heat plates is is nearly always distaste- them for a short time in hot water. lies Place knife at right. tines up. one under the meat dish. Place the plates an even distance apart. Serve hot things on hot plates and dishes and cold things as cold as possible. bowl up. The coarse muslin of flour sacks bleached white and neatly hemmed or hemstitched makes very nice each plate. sharp edge toward the plate. another way is to put them in warm oven but they may crack and discolor if set in a hot oven.l8 LOW COST COOKING SETTING THE TABLE If a tablecloth is used. right side up table. salt. If this and one under makes too much washing. The napkin Place tum- neatly folded or in a ring beside the fork. Be sure that bread and butter. place one in the center of the table. Japanese toweling. or of any kind of white cloth. germ-covered hands. spread it evenly on the table so at each side that the edges hang down the same length end. sugar and other things needed for the meal are on the table. ful. leaving the rest of the table bare.

when it should be covered closely and put away in the coolest possible place. will save many steps. kettle. can opener. and these arranged in a convenient and orderly kitchen is The the heart of the ily rejoices in its way. sweetest smelling part is it the slightest musty or disagree- able odor. pepper. A 19 . Hang dishpan. Near the kitchen table have all the preparing dishes and tools. The Pantry The pantry should be of the house. with tea and salt. cooking spoon and fork. A narrow shelf near the stove. drainer and towels. shiningly clean pantry well stocked with food supplies is the pride of every good housekeeper. Kitchen Utensils Keep easily. the cooking utensils where you can get at them Hang them on hooks or place on shelves near where they are used. the source of should be found and removed. also vegetable knife. Keep each thing always in the same place so as not to waste time hunting for it when needed. If there the cleanest.sink. Leave left-over food exposed to the open air until it is cold. Dirt may be tolerated better in any other part of the house than in the kitchen. coffee pots and supply cans. Stale odors in the pantry are often caused by foods being shut in there while still warm. near the . No room is more attractive than a kitchen which is shiningly clean and contains only the things necessary for the work done there. which is the workshop for preparing food.GENERAL HOUSEHOLD DIRECTIONS The Kitchen home and the whole famwholesome cleanliness. saucepans.

. To get a level tablespoon of flour It takes fill the spoon and it scrape off the top with the edge of a knife. 2 cups equal one pint. turn out Unless this is kept in mind. make sure that hands and and the hair neatly dressed. lift it into the cup with a tablespoon and scrape it off the top of the cup with a knife. Roaches and ants as well as dust and dirt can get into the sacks and make the food unclean. paper with the name of the article on it should be pasted on the outside of the vessel. 16 tablespoons equal one cup. measuring cup should ones cost 5 cents. nails are perfectly clean Measurements All measurements used in these recipes are LEVEL. Glass jars with tight lids are best for sugar. For a cup of flour sift the flour. Personal Care A Before beginning to cook. it just level full. etc. the recipes will all wrong. ex- 2 tablespoons measured in this way to equal one rounded tablespoonful. Wear a wash dress or a big wash apron over the dress. leaving actly level full. leaving always be used.20 LOW COST COOKING No food should ever he left standing in paper sacks. Tin or crockery is best for flour and bread. A The tin . coffee. It takes 3 teaspoons to make one tablespoon. rice. but tin cans and strip of boxes or crockery jars with tight lids are good.

Let the dough rise until it is again double its size. the loaves are done place them sidewise on a rack 21 . The temperature at which bread dough is kept is one of the most important things about bread making. add the remaining flour and mix well. if any. salt in large Put sugar and the hot water. soups and gruels and the finely ground flours for bread. cake and pastry. Place in a well-greased pan. Place where it will keep at a warm. The coarser ground forms are used for mushes. which will be in about Ij4 hours. greasing the top of the dough and cover with clean cloth. com. and too much heat will kill it. knead it again. When the dough has raised to double its size. This recipe will lard. rye and oats are offered for sale in various forms to be used as food. Yeast is a plant. and bake for one hour in a moderately hot oven. even temperature. larger than the common bakers' loaf. Bread must be baked thoroughly in order to be wholesome. For this reason it is best not to make the loaves much. White Yeast Bread 3 quarts flour 1 quart hot water 3 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons lard or other fat 2 compressed lyi tablespoons salt yeast stirred into cakes cup of % lukewarm water pan or bowl and add add the yeast and about Stir until smooth. grease the outside of the loaves and place them in a baking pan. Turn the dough on to a board and knead until it is smooth and elastic. while a low temperature will keep it from growing and forming the gas bubbles which make the bread light.GENERAL RECIPES GRAIN PRODUCTS Cereal grains such as wheat. which weighs 12 ounces. form into loaves. 5 pints of flour. When lukewarm make When eight such loaves. which it should do in about one hour.

has a crisp golden-brown crust and a fine-grained tender crumb._in a of dough. if caraway seeds are desired add i teaspoonful while kneading the second time. cut into i inch slices. roll a layer of bread dough to the thickness of J^ inch and spread with a J4 inch layer of the mashed pulp of stewed prunes.. roll bread dough ^ Prune Rolls the second kneading. greased pan. kneading and baking given for white bread. cut into strips about 3 inches wide and 6 inches long. When perfectly cold. If a soft crust is desired. Cinnamon Rolls At second kneading. grease these on the outside. good loaf of bread is light. ness.ptit into greased bread pan. place. cover the bread while cooHng. Mix to J^ inch thickspread with fat and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. place in baking pan. evenly raised. so that the air will circulate freely around them. . Roll into a long roll. This is very useful in cases of constipation. At . and bake i}4 hours in a slpw oven. When they have risen to twice their size. A Rye Bread 2 cups hot water 3 cups white flour i tablespoon lard or other fat 3 cups rye flour I tablespoon salt i4 cup sugar or molasses I compressed yeast cake stirred into cup lukewarm water % Follow the directions for mixing. kneading and baking given for white bread. allow them to rise to twice their size. bake.22 LOW COST COOKING or table. bake. Graham or Whole Wheat Bread i i I H 3 cups white flour 3 cups graham or whole wheat flour cup sugar or molasses tablespoon lard tablespoon salt yeast cake stirred into cup lukewarm water J4 Follow directions for mixing. Fold each strip of dough so that there will be a layer of prunes between two layers Grease the outside of each roll. Bran Bread 3 cups white 3 cups bran I flour salt teaspoonful all cup molasses teaspoonful baking soda 2 cups sour milk or buttermilk 14 i together. place in a jar or tin box.

when lukewarm add yeast. Just before baking press into the dough three sour apples. Berry Muffins recipe for White Flour Muffins and add ij4 cups of berries huckleberries. desired add flour Add — — ^ Dutch Apple Cake as for coffee cake. and cinnamon if desired. bake. or lard dry ingredients. not soft or soggy. whole wheat or rye flour and i^ cups white flour. Mix Hot Breads are wholesome if light and baked until thoroughly done. blackberries or blue- Use — . If raisins are cup just before putting into baking pan. An egg may be added sift Mix and to the recipe. using ij4 cups graham. Use yi teaspoon baking soda for each cup of sour milk. add liquid ingredients. enough to make a stiff batter about three cups cover dish and let the batter rise. The inside of a muffin or biscuit should be dry and firm. sprinkle with sugar and allow to rise. suet. Spread in a well greased pan. Whole Wheat or Rye Muffins Use recipe above.GRAIN PRODUCTS Coffee Cake cup hot milk yi cup sugar i teaspoon salt l4 cup lard i^ compressed yeast cake stirred into 14 cup lukewarm water I 23 hot milk to lard and salt. half and half milk 2 tablespoons sugar I teaspoon salt water 6 teaspoons baking powder melted drip3 tablespoons pings. This will usually not make the product light enough and there should be J^ teaspoon baking powder added to each cup of flour used. Hot Breads Use of Sour Milk in Baking In any baking recipe where sweet milk with baking powder is used sour milk and soda may be used instead. Sprinkle the apples generously with sugar. mix well. put quickly into a well greased muffin pan. Graham. White Flour Muffins 3 cups flour lyi cups liquid. bake about 25 minutes in moderately hot oven. raspberries. pared and cut into eighths.

put quickly into well-greased muffin pans. add liquid ingredients and melted fat and mix with a knife. Turn onto a floured board. sift Mix and Kice Muffins Mix same oatmeal. cut into rounds with biscuit cutter and place in baking It does not hurt biscuits to stand for a while after pan. Bake as other muffins.) dry ingredients.24 berries to I LOW COST COOKING increase the cup. add liquid ingredients. bake about 20 minutes in a hot oven. mix thoroughly. Baking Powder Biscuits 3 cups flour I cup liquid 6 teaspoons baking powder i}4 teaspoons salt 3 tablespoons fat (lard. the drippings to J4 cup. being ready for the oven. bake in a hot oven. roll or pat to half inch thickness. add fat. . mixing with a knife. into baking pans. finger tips. as above. sift Mix and Drop Biscuits S teaspoons baking i 2% cups flour 1 cup liquid 3 tablespoons melted fat powder teaspoon salt Mix and sift dry ingredients. etc. mixing it with flour by cutting with two knives or rub it in lightly with Add liquid gradually. Oat Meal Muffins 3 cups flour lyi cups cooked oatmeal 2 tablespoons sugar 5 teaspoons baking I i I powder i teaspoon salt cup liquid tablespoon fat egg may be used dry ingredients. crisco. and add like make them more —just before putting cake. add liquids and beat. i If desired to amount of sugar or 2 eggs. adding hot cooked rice instead of Bran Muffins cup flour 2 cups bran 1 2 cups milk or water 6 teaspoons baking powder ij^ teaspoons salt J4 teaspoon baking soda 3 tablespoons molasses 3 tablespoons drippings Mix dry ingredients. if the top is brushed over with melted fat in order to prevent a hard crust from forming. Drop by tablespoonfuls in a baking pan.

When this is done.GRAIN PRODUCTS Baking Powder Cinnamon Rolls 2 cups flour 25 4 teaspoons baking powder J4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fat cup milk or water cup oleo }4 cup sugar 2 teaspoons cinnamon ^ % work Sift the flour. showing cooked substance below. Stale Bread Griddle Cakes Ij4 cups flour 4 cups stale bread crumbs 1 cup milk 2 cups hot water I flour egg Vz teaspoon salt S teaspoons baking powder 3 tablespoons drippings . place them on a plate on top of a kettle of boiling water to keep warm. except for a thin upper layer. baking powder and salt into a mixing bowl. As the cakes are done. Make as many cakes in the griddle as it will hold without their touching one another. tough and indigestible or soggy and raw. beat and begin to cook at once by dropping on hot greased frying pan. brown on the other side. Keep the fire low enough to Turn and avoid burning before it is cooked through. the gas bubbles will burst over the top of the cake. Follow directions closely to prevent them from being hard. Griddle cakes are hard to digest unless very carefully cooked. add liquids. The most important point about cooking the cakes is to avoid turning them too soon. add the milk or water slowly and mix all with a knife into a soft dough. sugar and cinnamon rubbed together in the mixing ftjwl and roll up the dough like a jelly roll. Do not turn until the cake is cooked through. Plain Griddle Cakes 3 cups flour 2 cups liquid V/i teaspoons 3 tablespoons drippings 6 teaspoons baking powder salt dry ingredients. in the fat with the tips of the fingers. Spread with the mixture of oleo. Turn on to a floured board and roll lightly into a sheet J^ inch thick. Cut into J^ inch slices and bake in a hot oven. i sift Mix and tablespoonful in a place. Graham or Corn Meal Griddle Cakes These are made in the same way by using half white and half graham flour or cornmeal.

but when served piping hot with syrup I never can get one big enough. Cut into squares and serve hot. form into large pones about 6 inches long and three inches wide and J4 inch thick. serve hot. mix the same as for add milk. Shortened Corn Bread 3 cups cornmeal (white pref erred) 4 tablespoons cold drippings cup sour milk teaspoon soda 2 teaspoons baking powder i 54 sift dry ingredients." TOAST Toast may be most easily made in winter when fire is going all the time by laying the slices of bread in the oven . Com 2 cups cornmeal I cup flour l]4 cups sour milk 5^ teaspoon baking soda Bread i^i teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted drippings J4 cup sugar Mix and sift dry ingredients. bake as other griddle cakes. Split open and serve with slices of crisp bacon inside.26 LOW COST COOKING Pour water and milk over breadcrumbs and soak until crumb? ate soft. One mother of five children says: "Cornbread is very cheap. bake in greased pan about j/^ hour. For Southern Corn Bread see page 71. Bake about 30 minutes. sift in the flour mixed with salt and baking powder. "Cracklings" Mix and biscuits. form into pone. Bake as other griddle cakes. bake 30 minutes. Place in buttered pan. same as shortened cornbread. Rice Griddle Cakes l^ 1 cups flour lyi cups cooked rice cup milk or water liquid ingredients sifted with salt J4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons sugar s teaspoons baking powder Mix and and add rice. Add egg. The dough should be stiff enough for the pone to hold its shape. add fat. add liquid ingredients. mix thoroughly and quickly turn into hot well-greased flat pan. Add flour mixed and baking powder. Com 3 cups white cornmeal I cup boiling water Pone iH teaspoons salt Mix ingredients. may be used instead of drippings.

GRAIN PRODUCTS
until they are

27

the
is

browned. Toast made in this way is dry all way through, as well as being brown on the outside and more easily digested than soft toast. When the gas
is

being used and has a broiler, place the toast on side, turn and brown on the other. If there is only a gas burner to use it may be covered by a clean asbestos mat and the bread laid on this. An asbestos mat costs 5 cents. wire toaster which will toast 4 pieces at once, can be bought for 19 cents. Toasted Rolls or Baking Powder Biscuits These are made by splitting the biscuits or rolls open and laying them in oven or on the toaster until the exposed
stove
it,

brown on one

A

crumb

is

brown.

French Toast
a mixture of half milk, half water, J^ cup of each, add an egg and dip slices of stale bread in this mixture. Lay them in a hot greased frying pan and brown on both It may be served with syrup. sides.

Make

Cream Toast
toast with or without cheese is made by pouring thin white sauce over toasted bread. Cheese may be added after the hot sauce is removed from the fire. Fuller direc-

Cream

It is seasoned with salt and 96. cheese is added, otherwise with sugar or with dash of nutmeg may salt and pepper alone if desired. be added.

tions are

found on page

pepper

if

A

Milk Toast
Toast bread in oven, cover with hot milk, serve with
salt

and pepper.

COOKING BREAKFAST CEREALS
Cereals are made from hard grains and contain much starch, so require long cooking to make them easily digested. Do not be deceived by directions on the box which say that the contents can be cooked in 15 or 20 minutes. This is never long enough to cook thoroughly and make them fit food for young children. Use a double boiler or a fireless cooker if possible. Sift the dry cereal slowly into salted boiling water, stirring Some cereals like graham all the while to prevent lumping. flour which lump badly should be mixed first with cold

28

LOW COST COOKING

water, then poured into the boiling water. Cook S minutes directly over the fire, then place upper part of double boiler over the lower part, cover closely and steam for the time required. If there is no double boiler, set the vessel containing the cereal in a kettle containing boiling water. When the coal range is used, a very convenient way to cook the cereal is to start it cooking at supper time and leave closely covered on the back of the range all night. In the morning it will be found to be well done. Better still, leave it in the fireless cooker over night.

Proportions and
I

I
I I 1 I
I

I I

cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup

Time for Cooking Cereals 4 cups water 4 hours Rolled Oats...2j4 cups water i to 2 hours Farina 4 cups water J4 to i hour Cracked Wheat. .6 cups water 6 hours or longer Graham Flour... 3 cups water }/^ to i hour Cornmeal 4 cups water 3 hours Hominy 4 cups water 4 hours Rice 3 cups water 30 minutes* Rice 3 cups water 50 minutest * For boiling. t For steaming.
Oatmeal

Cereal

Mush

All of the cereals named above may be served hot as mush with cream or milk with or without sugar. Mush may also be served with syrup instead of milk. Cornmeal

mush
If to

is

much
it

it is difficult

make
I

liked in this way. to teach a child to eat cereal, adding fruit more attractive will often help.

Oatmeal with Raisins
cup oatmeal 4 cups water
54

pound black
raisins
salt

seedless

2 teaspoons

according to directions given under Dried Fruit (page 53) and add enough sugar to make them quite sweet. Serve poured
as directed.
raisins

Cook oatmeal

Stew

over the mush. Dates or figs may be used in the same and with all of the other cereals.

way

Farina with Dates
cup farina J4 pound dates 2 teaspoons salt 4 cups water Cook farina as directed; 15 minutes before serving add Seedless raisins and figs the dates, washed and stoned.
I

GRAIN PRODUCTS

29

may

be used in this

way and with

all

of the different cereals

as well as with farina.

Fried Com Meal Mush or Hominy Pour cornmeal or hominy mush into a deep pan. cold cut in slices and fry until brown in drippings,
suet.

When
lard or

Another method
ping
it

is to use the into the hot fat, frying

mush while
it

still

hot, drop-

in the

form of pancake.

CEREAL DISHES FOR LUNCH OR SUPPER
Oatmeal and Potatoes

%
I 1

cup oatmeal onion
lb potatoes

6 cups boiling water
Sprig of parsley

(3 or 4)

boiling salted water and cook ij^ hours. Fry in cubes and boil J^ hour longer. onion until brown in drippings, lard or suet, and add this to the mixture along with the chopped parsley or any other seasoning desired. Left over oatmeal mush may be used for this excellent dish.

Add oatmeal to Add potatoes cut

Oatmeal Soup
2 cups cooked oatmeal I onion 2 cups water 2 cups milk

Brown onion chopped fine in drippings, suet or lard, to the other ingredients, heat to boiling point and serve.
Rice with Lentils
I

add

i onion cup rice T-Yt teaspoons salt Yi cup lentils Parsley, celery, etc., as desired. Cook lentils, following

on page 39 J^ hour before serving add rice. Fry the onion chopped fine and green flavoring materials (parsley, celery, etc.) in drippings or lard, add to the rice and
directions
;

lentils

and

serve.
in-

Rice with Navy Beans Follow directions for rice with lentils, using beans
stead of
I

lentils.

Lima Beans and Barley
cup dried lima beans 54 cup barley
I
i

onion

bunch soup greens

Salt to taste

Cook beans 2 hours, add barley and cook i hour longer. Fry onion and greens in drippings, add to mixture and serve.

Plain Boiled Rice Rice must be cooked differently from other cereals. saving it for soup. Add the rice slowly and boil rapidly 20 minutes. Put alternate layers of mixture and grated cheese in baking dish. as there is danger of overcooking and rendering the product soggy. pepper and small onion for flavoring Follow directions for cooking cornmeal mush. Steamed Rice Use 3 cups of boiling salted water to one cup of rice. and set the pan back on a low fire to dry out all the rest of the moisture. Place layer of hot cornmeal mush in dish. allowing the rice to boil for 5 minutes directly over the fire. Wash I cup rice by placing in a strainer and allowing the water from the faucet to run through until it is quite clean. Rice cooked by either boiling or steaming should have each grain standing out separate and whole and at the same time be perfectly tender. Sprinkle grated cheese over the top of dish. stewed with plenty of water and poured over. more cornmeal mush and tomato on top. Cook tomatoes. Drain off the water. Rice with Cheese 4 cups cooked rice % pound cheese 4 cups thin white sauce or milk Mix this white sauce with the rice. Cover with . such as black plums. onion and oil i hour or more until the mixture is quite thick. to which has been added 4 teaspoons of salt.30 LOW COST COOKING Polenta 1Y2 cup cornmeal 3 tablespoons salad oil 2 cups cooked tomatoes 3 tablespoons cheese Salt. Rice with Stewed Fruit Serve either boiled or steamed rice with fresh fruit. Cover closely. Follow directions for boiled rice. Rice with Cinnamon Serve either boiled or steamed rice with sugar and cinnamon sprinkled over the top of the dish. Serve with or without milk. set pan in larger vessel with hot water and steam 50 minutes. then layer of tomato mixture. Have ready 2 quarts of rapidly boiling water.

MEATS

31

breadcrumbs and bake in moderate oven until hot through and crumbs are brown. Rice with Tomato Savory Rice Follow directions for rice with cheese, using strained tomato instead of white sauce. It may be made with or without cheese, and onion or green peppers chopped fine may be added if desired. It may also be served hot with-

out baking.

MEATS
Meat is the most difficult part of the diet to manage where The cheaper cuts of strict economy must be observed. meat, fortunately, contain even more nutriment than the
expensive ones, but are cheaper because they are not so The price per pound, however, does not always tender. show which cut of meat is cheaper. The housekeeper must consider carefully the amount of bone and fat that is given

with certain cuts in deciding on the kind to buy for example, spare ribs at 12 cents a pound cost more than round steak at 20 cents a pound because of the large proportion of bone
;

they contain.
fact to keep in mind is that one pound of lean meat about equal to another pound of lean, no matter which part of the beef it is cut from and no matter what the difference in price may be therefore the housekeeper should

The

is

;

choose the piece which gives the most lean meat for the money. Flank steak and lower round are good examples of cheap beef, as they are almost all lean with very little
waste and
sell

for 12 to 16 cents per pound.

valuable, but suet can be bought at 5 cents per
leaf fat at 10 cents,
it

The fat is pound and

which

will

be cheaper than paying for

Always ask the butcher for the trimmings from your own piece of meat. You will find some usable
with the meat.

pieces.

tougher, cheaper meats, unless chopped fine, must cooked by a long, slow process to make them tender be

The

:

32

LOW COST COOKING
palatable.

and

A

fireless

cooker

is

excellent

for this

purpose.

Principle of Cooking Meats. Whatever process of cooking is used, the following facts should be kept in mind a high degree of heat (that is, the boiling point in water or a very hot oven or griddle) hardens and toughens the meat, and it should be used only on the outside of the meat where it is good to form a crust in order that the inside may be kept tender and juicy; long cooking at a low temperature
softens the hard tissues
digestible.

and makes tough meat tender and Pork and mutton must be cooked well done,
be safely eaten rare.

while beef

may

Stews

Of

the long, slow processes, stewing

is

one of the best

In choosing meat for a stew, whether it is beef, lamb, mutton, or veal, take a piece containing some bone, as
methods.
this

adds to the

flavor.

As

it is

to be cooked a long time,
leg,

the tougher parts of the animal such as the neck and

below the round of beef or mutton, and shoulder of veal or lamb may be used. Remove most of the fat before
cooking, as a greasy stew
If the flavor of
is

too

difficult

to digest for chil-

dren and for persons with delicate digestion.

browned meat

is

desired,

brown

the

pieces in a hot, dry kettle.

Add

cold water and bring

slowly to the simmering point.

If the

meat

is

not to be
all

browned cover

at once with boiling water.

In

cases

keep the fire very low so that the stew will not boil, as the high heat will toughen the meat. Stews may be flavored with all kinds of highly flavored vegetables, which should be added just in time to cook tender before the meat is done. If the stew is to be the main part of the meal, it can be made more nourishing by adding barley, rice, macaroni, dumplings, and other cereals or flour mixtures.

MEATS
Brown Stew with Dumplings
lyi
1

33

pounds stew beef onion

3 sprigs of parsley

Sear the beef in a hot, dry kettle until the pieces are all browned on the outside, cover with cold water and cook slowly until tender. Do not allow it to boil. Add onion and parsley after first hour.
well

Dumplings
2 cups flour 5^ cup liquid
1

4 teaspoons baking powdec
i

teaspoon

salt

tablespoon fat

the dough for dumplings exactly as baking powder and drop by tablespoonfuls over the top of the stew. Cover closely and cook 20 minutes without lifting the cover. If dumplings are removed before being thoroughly done they fall and are hard and indigestible. 15-cent knuckle of veal may be used with dumplings where much meat is not needed.
biscuits,

Mix

A

Lamb Stew
ij^ to 2 pounds

with Rice
i

lamb or mutton

pint carrots

Follow directions above for stew. When done thicken gravy with two tablespoons flour. Serve on large dish with a border of boiled rice. For stew with vegetables, see page 73.
Scotch Broth
2 pounds mutton, from neck, shoulder or shank 2 tablespoons minced onions 2 tablespoons minced turnip 2 tablespoons each of carrots, celery and parsnip
2 teaspoons salt 3 quarts of cold water

Remove fat, cut into small pieces, add seasoning, except parsley, bring to a boil and then continue cooking just below boiling point for three hours. Add J^ cup fine barley after
the
first

hour, and parsley J4 hour before

it is

done.

Braising
another important method for long cooking, which is used in making pot roast, beef a la mode, braised beef, etc. The meat is first browned on the outside, then cooked slowly until tender in small amount of water, either on top of stove or in the oven.
Braising
is

Pot Roast with Vegetables 2 pounds meat (pork shoulder. then wrap and tie with twine. Meat Loaf pound chopped meat 4 cups breadcrumbs i or 2 eggs 2 teaspoons salt Pepper and chopped onion to taste . add a small onion. chopped fine brown both a^d Onions l teaspoon salt J4 teaspoon pepper Mix onions. moistened with cold water Salt and pepper to taste teaspoon onion Mix ingredients for dressing. in pieces for serving. Cover closely at a low temperature until done into cakes. place them in a baking dish. I Serve with brown gravy made from the drippings. pared and cut in pieces. such as flank steak or shoulder steak I tablesp'n carrots. last half hour adding the vegetables. etc. and it is better for the housekeeper to choose the pieces of meat and have them To ground. form sides in hot pan. and continue cooking through. Chopped Meats lessen time of cooking. meats may be chopped fine. cover with gravy made from the browning. Brown the pieces in a hot pan. as stale scraps are added.. etc. rutabaga Brown meat on meat fat. Sear the meat in a hot kettle. The chopped meat offered by the butcher is sometimes not quite fresh. cook slowly for three or four hours. heart. all sides in the hot kettle with a bit of Half cover with water. chopped fine. spread over the meat. parsnip. round steak. chopped fine pounds flat piece of beef. chopped fine. turnips. Cover the dish closely and bake until meat is tender. roll. salt and pepper to taste. Add onion and carrots and cook slowly until ^^^^^^- Braised Cutlets Cut any inexpensive meats such as chuck steak. I Dressing I I cup bread crumbs.34 LOW COST COOKING Beef a la ip2 to 2 Mode tablesp'n onions.) 2 cups each carrots. flank steak. 1 54 I ^^^^ Balls pounds chopped meat onion. Cut slashes in the outside of the meat and press into the openings thin pieces of fat salt pork. add enough water to half cover it. brisket. salt and pepper thoroughly with meat.

It will take 10 to 20 minutes. which may be used for all kinds of steaks and chops.MEATS Meat page 85. lay the steak in whole. either for economy or because the health of the family is better with less. Directions must be closely followed to preserve the tenderness of the meat and to prevent it from becoming dry and hard. according to thickness. A small amount of meat may be made to serve the family by combining with other foods. as it 35 loaf may be made without egg as described on If it is to be sliced cold the above recipe is better. or Hamburger steak may be used. Pan Broiled Flank Steak not allow the butcher to score or slash the flank steak for broiling. even if it reaches over the edges of the pan. . It is Scalloped Meats 2 cups chopped cooked meat. Mix Pan Broiling This is a useful way to cook meat quickly. grease it slightly to prevent sticking. veal and pork. beef. as this allows the good juices to escape. If too dry add water or milk to moisten bread. ingredients together. Have the pan very hot. 3 cups boiled rice or breadcrumbs 3 cups thin white sauce or brown gravyfish or fowl Left over meats different kinds may may be very well be used for this dish and used together if they are at hand. Rice or cold potatoes may be used instead of bread crumbs. pork. All kinds of chops and steaks are pan-broiled in this way. will keep its shape better. In serving cut across the fibre of the meat. Salt and pepper may be sprinkled on each side after it is browned. It will shrink in cooking. turn and brown the other. Chopped beef and pork mixed. Form into loaf and bake in moderate oven for ij4 to 2 hours. beef or veal alone. and tomatoes may be used for flavoring. cover the pan closely and continue to cook on a very low fire until done. As soon as browned. to cook it well done and from 5 to 10 minutes to cook it rare. Do Made Meat Dishes sometimes necessary to use very little meat. After browning on orie side.

add 4 cups cooked hominy and reheat. cover with bread crumbs and bake three-fourths hour in moderate oven. i/^ Cut .. Add a layer cooked left-over meat chopped fine or three-fourths pound raw chopped meat.jpg pounds tripe 2 cups white sauce tripe in small pieces. Cover with bread crumbs. cover with hot water and cook 15 minutes. adding parsley. bake in moderate oven until crumbs are brown. bake in hot oven until dough is done. Meat Pie Use leftover stew or any remains of meat at hand. etc. Add hot water to moisten dish. white sauce by recipe on page 42. chopped onion rice with tomatoes and onion chopped fine and water. Put the meat in a baking dish. celery. Place alternate layers of this mixture and the chopped meat in baking dish.36 LOW COST COOKING rice or bread crumbs with white sauce or brown gravy. or brown on both sides in hot greased pan. cover with bread crumbs and bake until brown in a moderate oven. Make Turkish Pilaf 3 cups rice iH cups tomatoes I 1% cups water 2 cups cooked meat. place alternate layers of this mixture and of chopped meat in baking dish. Mix ScEilloped with Rice and Onions baking dish with alternate layers of cooked rice and thinly sliced onions. stew 20 minutes. as desired for seasoning. Mix Meat Croquettes 2 cups chopped meat. Serve as meat balls. beef. Drain. pork. Cut into small pieces. Cover the top with a half-inch layer of dough made as for baking powder biscuits. Form into round or oblong balls. Meat fill Partly Hominy with Bacon Fry 4 slices of bacon until crisp. bake in oven until brown on outside. Scraps of any kind of leftover meat may be used instead of bacon and any of the other cereals may be used instead of hominy. add white sauce. Ti. add sufficient gravy to cover well. fish or fowl 3 cups boiled rice or breadcrumbs 2 cups thick white sauce or brown gravy Leftover meats and gravy may be used for this dish. Mix ingredients thoroughly together.

cover closely and continue cooking on low fire until done. When thoroughly done place whole on a hot dish. a la Mode. Fi^h is . Lay in very hot frying pan greased with salt pork drippings. i teaspoon parsley. In buying fish be sure it is fresh. Panned Fish Clean the fish. In fresh fish the eyes are bright. page Hamburger Steak with Tomatoes lJ4 pounds chopped meat Half can of tomatoes into hot pan. the gills red. veins and cords of calves or beef heart.MEATS Brains 37 Soak over night in salt water. Put I . cook whole. the flesh firm and odorless. . To scramble. When part of it is well browned. i teaspoon chopped onion. soak and Stuff with dressing and braize as described for Beef 34. Put chopped meat FISH one of the high protein foods and may be used at any meal instead of meat. Brown both sides in hot greased pan. i tablespoon chopped suet. remove outer skins. . Brown quickly on both sides. cover closely and cook on low fire about 20 minutes until well done. Bake and . Be sure it is well cleaned before cooking. The cheaper kinds are more economical than meat. roll in flour or bread crumbs. If the fish is large cut into pieces if small. Moisten with J^ cup of milk or water. lay in pan and bake in a moderate oven. add i or 2 eggs and cook in hot greased pan. Baked Fish clean large fish leaving on the head stuff with dressing. Dressing for Fish tablespoon drippings in a sauce pan stir in 2 cups of bread crumbs. stirring constantly. add tomatoes. break in small pieces. Stuffed Heart Remove clean. stirring constantly. rvijo with salt and dry with a little flour. cover closely and cook on low fire ID to 20 minutes until cooked through.

Soft Cooked Eggs If the eggs are to be cooked in the shell. Add . Hard Cooked Eggs Place the eggs in a stew pan and cover with boiling water. Do not allow the water to boil after the eggs are in. keeping the water hot but not allowing it to boil until the white is firm. let it stand. a smaller number may be used for a meal if they are cooked with other foods. into the hot water. Even if The same the eggs are cooked hard they should never be tough. slip it quickly eggs. Poached Eggs Bring to the boiling point enough water to cover the Break each egg separately in a cup. Follow the recipe given on page 84. stirring the mixture until the eggs are cooked. the pan set on the back of the stove and allowed to stand from 7 to lo minutes. Or they may be dropped into boiling water. Cooked in this way the whites of the eggs will be solid but tender.38 LOW COST COOKING THE COOKING OF EGGS principle that applies to the cooking of meats applies also to eggs. but keep it hot for fifty minutes. stirring constantly until the eggs are cooked and the potatoes warmed through. When Eggs Scrambled with Potatoes or in J^-inch cubes. Scrambled Eggs eggs are expensive. add the beaten egg. and the yolks solid and mealy. as the protein found in each is made tough and indigestible by a high degree of heat. heat. cook in a warm greased frying pan over a low fire. In scrambling milk and flour may be added to enlarge the bulk. By this time the white will be solid and the egg hot all the way through. 4 cups cold boiled potatoes Cut the potatoes in thin slices 2 to 4 eggs Eggs Scrambled with Tomatoes % can tomatoes 2 to 4 eggs the beaten eggs to the tomatoes. This will take about seven minutes. they may be put into cold water and the water brought slowly to the boiling point. Add salt and pepper to taste.

3 hours 8 cts. 2j^ hours 7 cts.: LEGUMES Legumes are a very useful class of food. as they contain a large amount of nutriment and may be used to replace part of the meat in the diet. etc. One pound of any of those in the table following contains as much food as the average pound of flank of beef or fresh ham. black eyed peas may Beans with Cheese and Green Peppers ^ pound kidney beans Add i green pepper Vz pound cheese pepper and salt to taste 39 . cheese. seasoning. may then be made into a large number of attractive dishes. Soak several hours or over night. and more than twice as much as cuts which contain much bone. kidney beans.. Navy beans. for one-half hour longer. pepper. lentils. may be added for sea- The following Wash soning as in the following dishes: Boiled Beans with Tomatoes Follow directions for cooking beans given above. TABLES OF COMMON LEGUMES Split yellow peas Split green peas Whole green peas Black-eyed peas Lentils Lima beans Kidney beans Navy them.. They tender. etc. start to cook well covered with cold water and cook until Add one teaspoonful of salt to each cup. directions may be used for cooking all of carefully. salt. When almost tender add canned tomatoes and seasoning and cook Use onion. Little or no meat should be served at the same time. 3 hours 8 cts. lYz hours 6 cts. such as spare ribs and leg of veal. 4 hours 6 cts. which may be divided into the following types Type I. 3H hours 3 hours S cts. 3 hours 6 cts. Tomatoes. also be used in this way. beans- Price Time for cooking per pound after soaking 5 cts.

cook slowly one-half hour and drain off the water. put in the beans and bury the piece of pork in them. Black Eyed Peas with 2 cups black-eyed peas Ham l^ pound Butts salt ham butt Wash and soak the peas over night. cook slowly for 2 hours. and lentils may be baked in the same way. Mix molasses. add boiling water and pour over the beans. Use Boston Baked Beans % 3 cups beans pound salt pork salt 2 tablespoons sugar i tablespoon molasses 2 teaspoons Soak beans over night. Cover with cold water. Add enough boiling water to cover the beans and bake 6 to 8 hours uncover the last hour to allow the beans and pork to brown. Beans. Type II. as desired Cook lentils. salt pork or bacon 4 cups lentils (cooked) Flavorings Onions. place one thin slice of pork in the bottom of the baking dish. add % — . five-pound lard pail makes a good baking dish for beans. A Lentil Loaf lb. split peas and lentils may be cooked in the same way. Place strips of thin cut salt pork or bacon on top. as the following . They may be baked with various kinds of seasoning added. end of salt shoulder or ham. In the morning cook slowly one hour. either split or whole. add peas. Mash fine. following directions above. parsn 3 cups breadcrumbs or 2 cups cooked rice ley. Remove the rind from the ham butt. Type III. Serve hot on toast. cover with cold water.. They may be baked in a loaf. Navy beans. The flavor of meat such as salt may be secured by adding a piece pork. When cooked tender evaporate most of the water and turn into the baking dish. leaving the edges exposed. Baked Peas with Bacon dried peas. Just before taking from the fire add cut-up cheese. Scald a piece of salt pork. etc. lima beans. Chop peppers and cook with the beans until tender. Type IV. Bake in a moderate oven until bacon is crisp and brown. lima beans. and continue cooking until peas and meat are tender.: 40 LOW COST COOKING Soak beans over night. sugar and salt.

2 tablespoons flour 3 slices bacon or salt pork soak over night . acM pota- and stir flour in Add Fry bacon. mixed. boil 3 hours. Vegetable Stews Stews may be made with vegetables without meat. with drippings. Navy beans. lay- pork or bacon. Navy Bean Loaf. Lentil Stew 1 cup lentils 2 cups diced potatoes Wash toes lentils and boil for this and 20 minutes. boil 3 hours. the fat. kidney beans. Kidney Bean LoAFj all may be prepared in the same way. Simmer a half hour.LEGUMES 41 rice or bread crumbs and flavorings chopped fine. lima beans. For each cup of beans add one cup of white sauce made by recipe on page 70. with bread and milk. or with only a small amount used for flavoring. If one of the legumes is used for the basis of the stew. seasoning and the macaroni broken into bits. Beans. i cup water and boil until thick. form a good lunch or supper. may Jungle Stew 154 cup kidney beans yi cup macaroni or rice J^ can tomatoes _ i onion Wash and soak beans over 4 tablespoons drippings seasoning to taste night. bake in mod- Lima Bean Loaf. over the top. lentils or lima beans may be used instead of the kidney beans. or the loaf may be made from leftovers of different kinds. Split Peas with Carrots sliced onions in frying pan. Creamed Kidney Beans Cook kidney beans according to directions given. place in baking pan. or black-eyed peas be used instead of lentils. it will. Add gravy and the bacon cut into small pieces to the stew. and meat is crisp and brown. erate oven until sliced thin. Lima Beans also are especially good creamed. Form into a loaf resembling meat loaf. Brown add to stew with tomatoes. They may be creamed by adding white sauce. 3 cups green 3 cups carrots (cooked) Salt and pepper to taste split peas (cooked) . or by directions given there for creamed carrots. Type V. remove from pan.

White Sauce White sauce or cream sauce sometimes called milk sauce or gravy. fat also adds food value in inexpensive form. cup liquid cup liquid ed ""> Suitable for creampotatoes. stirring until smooth. Minced onions or parsley may be added if additional seasoning is desired. flour. etc. roni. a little milk. and fruit or vegetable juices. . I ' slowly. desired. I Sauce. I grains pepper. add seasoning and. vegetables. mash the peas fine and add enough water to make them like a very thick soup. 3-4 tablespoons flour 2-4 tablespoons fat I tablespoon fat 54 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fat J4 teaspoon salt J4-H teaspoon salt Few etc. stir until smooth. It Milk. Lima Bean Succotash 1/2 can corn 2 tablespoons drippings 2 cups cooked lima beans salt and pepper to taste if Heat corn and beans together. in soups. toast. meat. etc. may be used. etc. is much used to blend foods and add flavor. lard. fish. For the fat. drippings. maca- For with general fish use and most meat loaf. 2 tablespoons flour Thick Sauce. fresh or canned. Put the things all together and reheat. while stirring. oleo. Few I grains pepper cup liquid Basis of croquettes. tablespoon flour Thin Medium Sauce.42 LOW COST COOKING Cut the carrots in }4-inch cubes. and seasoning are the usual ingredients. All or part of the milk may be replaced by water. or chicken stock. which should be hot. Few etc. then cook and stir until thick and frothy Methods of mixing: (i) Melt all over. rub the flour smoothly with cold liquid and stir into the remainder. green or dried. cook again until thick. combined with beans. then add liquid fat in saucepan. (2) Rub fat and flour together and stir into the warm liquid in a double boiler. hot or cold.. (3) When a little less fat is used. Succotash Succotash is green corn. and cook in double boiler until smooth. Then add fat and seasoning. see For the use of legumes page 50. crisco. I grains pepper. butter.

we will probably be compelled to get them in the form of medicine. In steaming and baking there is no loss of minerals and these methods may sometimes be used. such as carrots. min. . As the valuable minerals which the vegetables contain are soluble. cts. browned. as they should be cooked whole with the skin on. turnips and other fruits and vegetables. which furnish energy for the body. If we do not get these minerals in our food.VEGETABLES Besides the starch and sugar they contain. they should first be pared and cut into Cook until tender in pieces. which means that we must buy the medicine as well as pay a doctor for prescribing for us.. we have wiiat is known as winter vegetables. the person who has a pallid color is probably anemic. cts. For example. boiling salted water. to 30 min. 2 3 40 min. cts. cts. COMMON WINTER VEGETABLES Price per Pound Time for Carrots i l I I Rutabaga Onion Beets Parsnips Celery root to to to to 3 3 cts. buttered. much of them go into the water in which the vegetable is cooked. If it cannot be served with the vegetable it should be used for soups. after being carefully washed. and instead of taking an iron tonic it is much better to get iron into the blood by eating foods rich in iron. to 40 min. cts. min. spinach. Directions for Cooking Vegetables these vegetables are to be served creamed. etc. cts. min. The time for cooking varies with the age of the vegetable and the size of the pieces into which it is cut. to 30 min. In the winter. He needs iron. Cabbage Turnip 2 to 4 3 to S 2 to 4 l to 3 cts. to i Cooking i hour i hour 2 hours 3 hours hour to min. vegetables have in them minerals which are necessary to health. When 43 . prunes. Beets are an exception to this rule. 40 30 20 20 to i hour to i hour to 40 min. During the summer by watching the markets and wagons we can usually get a good variety of fresh vegetables at reasonable prices. For this reason none of it should be thrown away.

and Cook beets. remove outer skin by rubbing it off with the fingers under running water. Serve hot. When properly cooked. cut in half-inch slices. brown in . When oven. parsnips. Slice. Hashed Turnips and Rutabaga are prepared in the same way. Hashed Cabbage cooked tender. Chop cabbage fine. Scalloped Onion Remove the outer skin from onions boill whole until tender. . Place onions in baking dish with alternate layers of bread crumbs. cover top of dish with bread crumbs.44 LOW COST COOKING Buttered Beets When tender following directions above. Turnip. stirring constantly. and turnips pared in the same way. onions. 2 tablespoons drippings. and add butter. salt and pepper to taste. cover with milk. brown in oven with bits of bacon over the top. or in a frying pan with drippings. salt may all be pre- Creamed Rutabaga When done cut in in large pieces until tender. half-inch cubes. Scalloped turnips. watery potatoes are difficult to digest and unwholesome. and pepper to taste. add 2 tablespoons of water. Cook Creamed Carrot. water or mijcture of milk and water. Serve hot. cabbage and tomatoes are prepared in the same way. Soggy. long way. add white sauce and serve hot. Celery Root. When Potatoes Potatoes must be treated differently from other vegetables because of the large proportion of starch they contain. and Parsnip are prepared in the same way. Browned Parsnips parsnips are cooked tender. Set back on fire for a few minutes until flavorings are absorbed. oleo or drippings. Rutabaga. . Follow directions carefully to avoid this. drain off the water in which the cabbage has been cooked. potatoes are dry and mealy. which should be saved for adding flavoring to soup.

VEGETABLES 45 Boiled Potatoes pare potatoes carefully. as a high degree of heat will make the cheese stringy and tough. If this is left in they will soon become soggy. and brown. but do not let it boil. add white sauce and reheat. break the skin to let out the moisture. Scalloped Potatoes baking dish with alternate layers of sliced potatoes and onions. When done. Creamed Potatoes Cut boiled or baked potatoes in half-inch cubes. Stir occasionally until cheese is melted. Boiling potatoes with the skins on saves much waste. and beat Keep hot but uncovered until served. leave whole or cut in uniform size and drop into boiling salted water. Baked Potatoes Choose medium sized. Mashed Potatoes Mash well. To each cup of potatoes add J^ to i cup white sauce. Set kettle on back of stove and add cheese grated or chopped fine. boiled potatoes. Add drippings for seasoning. add drippings and milk. Chopped leftover meat may be added. Creamed Potatoes with Cheese Prepare creamed potatoes as above. Wash the potatoes. Test the potatoes by sticking a knife or fork tine into it to determine when it is tender. drain all the water off at once and set the kettle back on a very low fire with the cover partly on until the remaining mois- Wash and ture is gone. wash. add salt and pepper to taste. As soon as they are taken up. Drain off water. bake for one hour in a hot oven. break the skin of each potato so that it will not become soggy. add milk or milk Fill . They will usually be done in 30 minutes. drop into boiling salted water and boil until tender. smooth potatoes. Hashed Potatoes Chop cold boiled or baked potatoes fine. Boil until tender but not longer. To each cup of potatoes i to 2 tablespoons cheese may be used. put into a hot greased frying pan. and set kettle on back of stove to dry out moisture.

They are boiled or baked in exactly the same way as white potatoes.) Radishes (served raw). cook in boiling salted water as above. however. Evaporate most of the water. Time for Cooking 30 to 40 minutes 50 minutes 15 to 30 minutes 20 to 40 minutes IS to 30 minutes J4 to I hour 20 to 30 minutes 30 minutes Spinach and Other Greens Spinach and other greens must be very carefully washed through 4 or 5 waters until all of the dirt and sand caught When clean drop into boiling in the leaves is removed. or milk. until tender. Leftover potatoes may be used. in which case much hour thin. They are not. so that at 3 cents per pound they are about as expensive in proportion to their food value as white potatoes at 2 cents per pound. Put layer of bread crumbs over top and bake 1 34 to 2 hours or until potatoes and onions are cooked. 46 LOW COST COOKING and water to cover. Beet Greens Leave small beet root and top together. so easily digested. be sufificient to cook the onions. pepper. add salt. Wash Add carefully seasoning . be obtained at reasonable prices: Almost all Spinach and other greens Beet greens Green corn Kohlrabi Asparagus String beans Peas Artichokes Lettuce (served raw). water and cook until tender. In addition the vegetables in the following table may. (See Salads. less will usually One-half time will be required for cooking. SUMMER VEGETABLES the vegetables listed under winter vegetables are to be obtained all summer at still lower prices than those named. if sliced Sweet Potatoes Sweet potatoes contain more nourishment than white potatoes. in season. and drippings or oleo..

cut out any decayed part. pepper and drippings or oleomargarine for seasoning. or they may be creamed by adding white sauce. . tender. wash ears and drop into boiling unsalted water. remove Peas Shell peas .VEGETABLES 47 Com Remove on Cob husk. pepper and drippings or oleomargarine. cut in slices or cubes and cook until Add salt. Kohlrabi Wash and pare. They may also be served creamed by adding white sauce. cook 15 to 30 minutes. Salted water turns the corn yellow. Add salt. Add drippings for seasoning. Cook water until tender. according to age. strings in boiling salted Wash. String Beans and break into i-inch pieces. They may be seasoned by a piece of salt pork which is put on in the beginning and cooked with the beans. Serve hot with salt. cook until tender in boiling water.

Mix with the dressing.SALADS Vegetable foods that may be eaten raw. have the same food value. and raw or cooked may be dressed and served cold as salads. add remaining milk and boil for five minutes. cucumbers. 48 . chopped cabbage with celery or nuts. cress and celery. cabbage. add egg. cottonseed or peanut. beating costs all the time. salt. stirring it well through the mixture. apples with celery. cover and allow to stand 10 minutes in order to cook the egg. cold boiled peas with carrots. All kinds may be served on lettuce leaves or with sprigs of cress. Combinations that are good are cold boiled kidney beans with chopped celery.25 per quart. Pour in the oil slowly. are most suitable for salads. Make smooth Oil Dressing for Salad 6 tablespoons I oil to 2 tablespoons vinegar or lemon juice oil 2 teaspoons salt teaspoon paprika % The oil used may be olive. while cottonseed and peanut oils cost 25 to 45 cents. tomatoes. Boiled Salad Dressing 1 cup milk 1/3 cup vinegar 2 tablespoons flour 2 tablespoons oleo or crisco 2 egg yolks or whole egg i teaspoon salt J4 teaspoon pepper teaspoon mustard % paste of flour with oleo and part of milk. such as lettuce. Set on back of stove. pepper and mustard and mix thoroughly. Chopped peanuts may be added to all of these if desired. In mixing a salad have all materials as cold as possible. and a very pleasant flavor. Put salt and paprika in dish with vinegar or lemon juice and mix thoroughly. Add vinegar. All sorts of cooked vegetables. fruits how- ever. tomatoes with lettuce. Olive from 65 cents to $1. sliced cucum- bers with lettuce.

way Meat Soups. 49 . add vegetables for seasoning and rice or barley for nourishment and cook until these are well done. The soup itself made in this has a pleasing taste and acts as a stimulant to digestion. noodles. lentils. as it is difficult to digest and may cause digestive disturbances. Soup containing much fat from the meat should not be given to young children or to adults with delicate stomachs. pot roast or chops. For example. a cereal such as rice or barley a flour preparation such as macaroni. but contains very little food. or those from roast. Fat with Soup. or dumplings or a legume such as beans. cover well with cold water and cook slowly five or six hours. Soups with Meat. those to give flavor. fish. but it still contains most of It should always be used. To remove the fat set the soup aside to cool. In order to extract the juices which contain the flavoring material the meat should be started to cook in cold water and cooked slowly for a long time. If the bones are large crack them. Always save the bones of the chicken or other fowl. To make it more nourishing Additions to may be added.SOUPS Soups may be divided into the two general classes . Soup Stock from Bones. This leaves the meat itself its food value and can either be served with the soup so that its lack of flavor will not be noticed or it may be served in combination with a highly-flavored vegetable made with meat and those without. Strain out the bones. peas or other food materials . . When the fat has risen to the top and hardened remove it. Meat is used tasteless. such as tomatoes or onions. reheat the soup and serve.

Cut stale bread in round. Some favorite flavorings turnip. soup lies largely in the flavoring. whom Do not be afraid to try new combinations of flavoring. Crackers are more expensive than the other materials. Cream Soups. A com- bination of several different flavors usually better liked than a single one. croutons or crackers ever be thrown away. parsley and bay is leaves. should always be dried in the sun or oven and kept in a fruit jar for future use. table. Croutons are made of bread toasted a light brown all the way through. Soups without meat are usually made of vegetables or legumes with or without the addi- tion of milk. but kept to add flavoring to soups. as a pound of crackers contains only a little more nourishment than a pound of bread. celery. Bread. soup is a very thin white sauce. In serving. square or oblong pieces or in one-inch cubes and set in a crackers cost lO cents per slow oven until brown. onion.' 50 LOW COST COOKING cook Seasoning for Soups and Stews. Any a few experiments in combining flavors find those most pleasing to the taste of the people for The success of a may by making she cooks. thick as thin cream. The tough leaves of celery. No water in which vegetables have been cooked should Soup. toast. To Serve with are usually served with soup. carrot. while bakers' bread costs 6% cents per pound and may be made at home for half that amount. should be smooth and about as . A cream It flavored with vegetable. unfitted for other uses. cabbage. The pound in bulk and i6 cents per pound in packages. Croutons. are tomatoes. Parsley in a may be dried in the same so as always way. or better still grown window box to be ready for use. the cubes it is may be dropped on the bowl of soup just before taken to the Soups Without Meat.

teaspoon pepper 2 tablespoons flour Put beans through a to the suet before adding flour. Just before serving add seasoning and sour cream. chop fine and add to drippings before stirring in the flour. This soup may be made more nutritious by using milk instead of part of the water. Just before serving sprinkle cube shaped croutons over the top of the bowl. teaspoon pepper For additional flavoring. and salt and pepper. Add peas. carrots. celery. split peas (cooked) i tablespoon flour l teaspoon salt 2 cups water 2 slices fat pork Ys. mashed fine. . com and potatoes may be used instead of the lima beans. The potatoes and peas should be mashed fine and the beans and corn crushed through a colander before being added. colander or mash them fine add them and the milk to the soup. i tablespoon each of onion. parsley. but keep hot until served. add hot water and let the mixture stand a few minutes until the bread is soaked. parsley. celery. may be used. kidney beans. Purees are thick soups. It should be added last so that the mixture need not boil afterwards. Puree of Split Pea . etc. if desired. Navy beans. split peas. green peas or com may be used instead of the split peas. Add water and boil If onion. or any one of them alone. add water and boil for 5 minutes. stir in flour. rials requiring cooking are used. green peas. Navy beans. Melt suet. 4 cups Fry pork until crisp and break or cut into small bits. lima beans. Do not boil again. Stir flour into the pork and drippings.SOUPS Cream of SI Lima Bean Soup 3 tablespoons drippings or suet ij^ teaspoons salt If additional seasoning is desired use i tablespoon each of onion. If onion or celery is used for flavoring add it chopped fine 3 cups lima beans (cooked) lYi cups milk Ij4 cups water li. kidney beans. celery or any of the flavoring mate5 minutes. When beans are used tomatoes may be used for flavoring.. etc. usually made without milk.. Sour Cream Soup 3 tablespoons sour cream 4 cups broken bread 3 tablespoons drippings 3 cups water Salt and pepper to taste Stir bread in hot drippings until brown.

The soup will use up all the stale bread. string beans. take out beans in baking dish. sufficient water to form thick soup. also the pork and arrange in pan to bake. Season the beans. cut up about 3 medium sized potatoes. add water and boil. Let cook thoroughly and serve hot with toast or crackers. stir flour and chopped up onion into drippings and add the whole to potatoes and leek. leaving about two cupfuls in the water. salt and pepper to taste. using syrup to sweeten if desired. lentils. 3 cups boiled beans 1 _ _ . and fresh biscuits with syrup and the baked beans with stewed tomatoes make a fine supper. add to melted drippings and cook. Add Bean Soup very good soup is made when you prepare beans to bake. Fry salt pork crisp. rinse and put on to boil in the morning with plenty of cold water. About one hour before dinner.52 LOW COST COOKING Potato Soup with Leek S medium-sized potatoes 1 leek yi onion 4 slices salt pork Boil potatoes and in the 2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper to taste leek together until soft and mash them water in which they are cooked. leaving the baked beans for supper. Thin Soups without Milk Soups of the same thickness as cream soups may be made of vegetables without milk. green peas. Split peas. Stir in the flour. This will make a very good dinner. Soak the beans over night. kidney beans." An "A excellent household manager says. Try this on baking day. Add beans mashed fine and tomatoes. Put them aside for supper. Boil until beans are soft. two onions and a carrot into the soup. break into small bits. using a small piece of fat pork or bacon for seasoning. Add more water. baking slowly with plenty of water on them. Bean and Tomato Soup i small onion i tajblespoon mixed parsley cup tomatoes 2 tdblespoons flour 2 cups water 3 tablespoons drippings Mince onion and parsley. When soft. let simmer on back of the stove. corn. potatoes or potatoes mixed with parsnips may be used instead of beans.

Dried fruits are useful in times when fresh ones are most expensive. Wash peaches with apricots. lay in baking pan and bake them about 15 minutes in moderate oven. Fresh fruit. cook slowly in same water. If the meal has not contained enough starchy food use a dessert made of rice. raw.DESSERTS AND SWEETS When a dessert is served it should round out the meal. Peel the banana and cut lengthwise into halves. place in baking dish. just enough to start it. makes a good dessert. makes a good S3 . Bake in a slow oven for about ij4 hours. Combining two or more of these is sometimes better than one alone. Mix bake three hours Serve hot or cold. etc. and add small amount of water. using a fruit containing acid with one containing little. Apples may be combined with either prunes or raisins. apricots. use the skin of the fruit if it cooks tender. stirring frequently to prevent the rice from sticking to the bottom of the dish. tapioca or bread. much Baked Banana Baked bananas are more easily digested than raw ones. peaches. in a very slow oven. cut into half-inch pieces. Baked Rhubarb rhubarb. In cooking. add sugar to taste.. Dried Fruits carefully. furnishing something which is lacking. Rj^g Pudding quart skim milk. or until pieces are tender. as it contains much water. sprinkle generously with sugar. raisins. Rice with Fruit Boiled or streamed rice. Serve sprinkled with sugar and lemon juice. pour in a greased baking dish. soak over night. dates. stewed or baked. or i pint whole milk and i pint water J4 cup rice I Wash J4 teaspoon salt J^ cup sugar ingredients together. Apples. poured over it. currants and prunes are to be cooked in this way. with stewed fruit which has been cooked with plenty of water.

stirring constantly to prevent lumping. Serve hot. fresh or dried peaches. may be made in the same way. Berry Betty. Add egg and milk. rhubarb. until mixture thickens. add milk and boil. Stew with plenty of water. . cinnamon or nutmeg. fresh or dried apples. apple sauce made of dried apples may be used. good for Chocolate 2 cups milk cup sugar Cream Pudding 3 tablespoons chocolate or cocoa 5 tablespoons flour J4 teaspoon salt Mix flour. sugar and chocolate. % Serve hot or cold with milk or cream. Instead of raw apples. Remove cover and set in oven for a few minutes. etc. etc. Brown Betty Place a layer of sour apples. Any The toasted bread may be used juicy fruit may be used. Mix with knife.54 dessert. and bake 2 hours or more in a slow oven. black or red plums and peaches are espethis. Scatter Add a few bits of suet over the top layer of crumbs. enough water to moisten the crumbs well and bake in a slow oven. Sprinkle with sugar and in the bottom of a baking dish. Pour into a greased baking dish. tablespoon oleo.. Date Betty. until apples are done. cially LOW COST COOKING Prunes. add layer of toasted bread crumbs and another of apple and so on to the top of the dish. using these fruits instead of apples. in whole slices instead of crumbed.. Indian Pudding I quart scalded milk Yi cup cornmeal I Yi cup molasses teaspoon salt Pour the milk slowly on the meal and cook in double boiler for 15 minutes. covered. plums. While fruit is boiling drop dough on top by tablespoonfuls. Steamed Fruit Pudding I cup flour 1 egg 2 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons milk Sift flour with salt and baking powder. cottosuet or drippings 2 teaspoons baking powder J^ teaspoon salt I Cherries. may be used for fruit. Add drippings and rub through flour with finger tips. Plum Betty. pared and cut in thin slices. Cover kettle and cook for 20 minutes without lifting cover.

If cold water is put into the hot syrup it will pop out and may injure the cook. Measure carefully and follow directions closely. The Plain Cake i or 2 eggs 2 cups sifted flour I cup sugar 3 tablespoons oleomargarine 1 cup liquid 4 teaspoons baking powder (milk. the remaining flour mixed and sifted with the baking powder. Caraway and poppy seed may be used in cookies and sweet breads. oleomargarine and tgg yolks thoroughly toAdd the liquid and all except J4 cup of the flour and beat the mixture hard for five minutes. Caramel made in this way may be set aside in a covered dish or jelly glass. Caramel is a pleasing flavor. Cake success of a cake lies more in the mixing and baking than in the richness of the ingredients. 55 Flavoring for Desserts on the market are expensive. nutmeg or other spices Flavoring I tablespoon caramel. may be used in cake instead of vanilla. the edges will shrink from the pan and the. It will not spoil and needs only to be kept clean. sugar. Spices. and the economical housekeeper should study the use of other materials which cost less. Add the tgg whites beaten stiff. keep the heat of the oven as even as possible and do not allow the cake to be jarred or cold air to strike it while it is baking. mace. Bake in a moderate oven. then add hot water and boil until it becomes a thick syrup. mix quickly and pour into a buttered pan. Mix .— DESSERTS AND SWEETS . In baking. The good flavoring extracts Caramel 1 cup sugar Yi cup water Boil sugar and water until it becomes a thick medium brown mixture. surface will be firm to the touch. Another method is to heat the sugar in a dry pan until it melts and browns. especially nutmeg. ginger and cinnamon. etc. and when made at home is very inexpensive. or milk and water) teaspoon mace. add enough hot water to make a thick syrup. When it is done. to be used as needed. % gether. Remove from fire.

Place the flour sifter in the mixing bowl and put in it cup of fine granulated or brown ij^ cups of flour. Chocolate or Caramel Sauce cups boiling water 54 cup sugar 3 tablespoons flour 1 5^ J4 cup cocoa or grated chocolate or 2 tablespoons caramel. and boil five minutes. If no sour milk is to be had use sweet milk or water. well-greased pan. Add i table- spoonful oleomargarine and J4 teaspoonful grated nutmeg. J4 teaspoon of Sift in the bowl. Mix with the dry ingredients and beat well 2 or 3 minutes. For Chocolate Cake add 3 tablespoons cocoa in place of spice. soda and baking powder. salt.56 LOW COST COOKING made into It may be baked in a loaf. made as above Mix dry ingredients together and add cold water to moisten. Other spices may be used instead of those named. leaving out the cocoa. Spice Cake 2 cups flour I egg I cup brown sugar J^ teaspoon soda ij^ teaspoons baking powder Yi cup melted drippings I teaspoon cinnamon Yi cup sour milk J4 each teaspoon allspice and cloves Mix egg. mix well. sugar. Bake in greased muffin tins in quick oven. and pour over chocolate. or stewed fruit. ^ ^ . For chocolate cake add ^ cup cocoa. leaving out the cocoa. stirring constantly. cup it Cottage Pudding Cut plain cake while still warm in squares. Nutmeg Sauce. Make Make as above. bake in shallow. leave out soda and use 4 teaspoons baking powder. drippings and sour milk. Add 2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice after it is ofif the fire. in layers. fill up the cup with milk. Lemon Sauce as above. Quick Cup Cakes (Lightning Cake). pour on boiling water. or lemon sauce. caramel. break in i or 2 eggs. sugar. or cakes by baking in muffin pan. In the measuring cup melt yi cup oleo or crisco or lard. Add teaspoon flavoring extract or J^ teaspoon of spice. 3 level teaspoons of baking powder. Add flour mixed and sifted with spices.

Add more necessary to moisten ingredients drop by teaspoonfuls into greased pan. J4 cup milk. For steaming put into a buttered pan or baking dish. Add the liquid Pour into a shallow. add other ingredients. add to it J4 cup melted fat. Mix well and drop from the tip of a spoon onto greased pans.. until thoroughly mixed. . or baked. cover with paper or a tin lid. It may be baked in the same way that a cake or pudding is baked. Sift into this ij4 cups white flour to which has been added J^ teaspoonful soda. The pudding may be either steamed or boiled. and bake 25 minutes in a moderate oven. Beat I — Ginger Bread teaspoon ginger cup molasses 2 teaspoons baking powder Yz teaspoon soda Y2 teaspoon salt I 2 cups flour cup sugar Yi cup hot water S tablespoons melted drip5^. then add i^ cups bran and i cup raisins chopped. 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder. bake in moderate oven. add beaten egg and milk. if . Bake in a moderate oven. H pings Add the drippings and the hot water to the molasses. Beat well. and beat Suet Pudding cup flour 2 cups breadcrumbs I cup milk or water 1 grating of nutmeg cup finely chopped suet cup sugar J4 teaspoon salt 3 teaspoons baking powder I i Mix the suet well with the flour. Mix and sift dry ingredients all together. For boiling tie the dough up in a floured cloth and boil from 2j^ to '3 hours. well greased pan. J4 cup brown sugar. and J^ cup molasses. Mix Bran Cookies ^gg well. and J4 teaspoonful salt. and make into a smooth batter.DESSERTS AND SWEETS Oat Meal Cookies 2 cups I 1 57 rolled oats Yi cup flour cup sugar egg 3 teaspoons baking powder 3 tablespoons oleo or drippings I pinch salt 4 tablespoons milk milk dry ingredients. Cook about an hour. and set in a larger kettle of boiling water.

or a cup of raisins. Orange and other fruit jellies made in the same way. dates. chopped figs. It should be given children after meals Caramel Cream Candy ij4 cups water 2 cups sugar Heat turns a Yi cup sugar in hot stew pan until it melts and remaining sugar and water and boil slowly so that it will be at least 30 minutes before Test by dropping }4 teaspoonful into a cup of it is done. Serve very cold. set in cool place to harden. cup lemon juice Speck of salt cold water. When it is cooked enough the syrup will harden in the water until it can be rolled by the fingers into a firm ball. Directions must be very carefully followed. Brown i tablespoonful of sugar in a hot stewpan. Add more sugar if desired. It should not be hard enough to be brittle. pour on boiling water % CANDY A °"ly- small amount of candy is useful in feeding children. and cool until lukewarm. It is very useful for invalids and children. dissolved in i i to 2 tablespoons sugar tablespoon lukewarm water Junket tablets are bought at a drug store for 10 cents a When added to milk junket causes it to become solid and it is then more easily digested. One or more eggs may be added to enrich the pudding. or nuts may be added to give variety. Caramel Junket I 1 quart milk junket tablet. medium brown. Lemon Jelly % box gelatin ^2 cup sugar Soak gelatin in a little to dissolve it. \Vhen made at home by simple recipes. and begin to beat when lukewarm. Strain. add sugar and lemon juice and make up to i pint with cold water. Add the milk and leave on fire until sugar is all dissolved. very cold water.58 LOW COST COOKING Serve with any of the pudding sauces or as a cake without sauce. candy is one of our cheapest foods. Add the dissolved junket tablet. Set aside to cool. It will become lighter in color. stir. and as soon as it begins to grain very slightly pour into a buttered plate and cut into squares. package. Add . pour mixture into dessert dishes and let stand until it jellies.

pail with a lid. The ice cream may be frozen in a good tin or in a baking powder can. walnut brittle. plum. They may be chopped fine or used whole. juice and freeze. made from melted sugar. The brittle may be made light if desired by adding >4 teaspoonful soda to the candy made from 3 cups sugar. To Freeze. are added just before pouring out. grape. It should be a very light brown when done. orange. add 2 cups milk and boil.gg. etc. Place the mixture to be frozen in a granite Yi. Place the amount of sugar to be used in a stewpan or frying pan.. then pour out quickly. Scour the bottom of the pan before using and do not pour on enough to allow it to run over the sides. The nuts. cool and freeze. Fruit Ice Mix sugar and from fire. stir and allow mixture to stand 10 minutes to cook the e. 2 cups sugar 4 cups water cup fruit juice (lemon. Stir frequently and watch constantly or the sugar will brown too much while melting. or a mixture of several) Cool. and melt over a low fire. Turn inner pail . FROZEN DESSERTS in very hot weather and may be made at home instead of allowing children to buy cheap ice cream cones which are often unclean and unwholesome. if used. Remove add &gg. Use i cup salt to 3 cups ice. To cool. well beaten. Frozen desserts are useful Ice quart milk 4 tablespoons flour I I Cream I cup sugar 2 tablespoons caramel or browned sugar y^ teaspoon salt egg flour. As soon as the candy is cool it may be easily broken loose from the pan by striking the inside of the pan. Sift it in and shake pan well to mix. Place the pail or can in a larger Vessel with layer of chopped ice under inside pail.. Add other ingredients. add fruit Boil sugar and water for 10 minutes.FROZEN DESSERTS Brittle Brittle is 59 with nuts or left plain. etc. It may be combined and made into peanut brittle. pail then pack space between pails with chopped ice mixed with coarse salt. turn a tin pie pan upside down and pour the melted sugar on this.

drain off the it and add i cup sugar to each cup of juice. Children love to do the freezing and three pails or cans of ice cream can be frozen at once in a dishpan half full of cracked ice. Peaches. then scrape from sides of pail. jam or marmalade being made from the pulp of the fruit after part of the juice has been drained is A off for jelly. Jams. sour apples. Preserves Wash small fruit such as plums and berries and use whole. boiled until the fruit cooked and the product is sweet and thick. while marmalade is a little thinner. In jam and marmalade the whole of the fruit is used and they are for that reason more economical than jelly. PRESERVES. under-ripe grapes and plums. Add J4 to cups of sugar to each cup of raw fruit and cook until the desired thickness All of the fruits named above may be used for is reached. is a useful food.6o LOW COST COOKING constantly until mixture begins to freeze. turn again. pears. grapes. Some of the fruits good for jelly are currants. apples. preserves. add to I cup sugar to each cup of fruit and boil until the desired thickness is reached. scrape. seeds by running through a colander. crabapples. Cook Remove fruit ^ ^ jeUigs In order to make good jelly a fruit must contain both acid and a substance called pectin. Butters and Marmalades until soft with as little water as possible. They may be made of plums. The two methods may be combined sometimes. sweet apples and quinces alone will not make jelly as they do not contain enough acid. JELLIES AND MARMALADES combination of fruit and sugar. tomatoes and many other fruits. Boil S minutes for each cup of juice used. Jams and butters are made thick enough to drop from the spoon. Large fruits such as peaches and pears should be pared and cut into pieces. and fairly economical when the fruit can be secured at the low price it can often be bought for during the height of the season. berries of all kinds. strain . which uses only the juice. Extract the juice of the fruit by boiling. and so on until thick. at the end of juice. peaches.

The inexperienced cook should test it by setting a small part aside to cool. Apple parings and cores alone may be used as these contain more Cook until apples are pectin than the rest of the apple. however. Cook mixture until thick. such as flour or sugar sack and drain until as much juice as possible is out. This time rule will not hold if more than 3 cups of juice are boiled at once. A Apple Jelly apples well and cut into small pieces. lemon juice and sugar. which darkens the jelly. Cut rhubarb and let it Date and Prune Jam juice from ^ lemon pound prunes I pound dates J4 cup sugar Cook prunes. convenient method for sealing the top is to pour over it when cold a layer of melted paraffine. Test by putting a few drops on cold plate and if necessary boil longer. well softened using as little water as possible. It is better. and Fig Preserves Wash Rhubarb 4 pounds rhubarb i pound figs 3 pounds sugar figs into i inch pieces. When the fruit is used wash the sheet of paraffine and keep it for use again. In the morning let it cook slowly one hour. and I figs with dates. add sugar and stand over night. as large quantities require long boiling. The jam or preserves should be poured boiling hot into hot jars or glasses which have lain in boiling water for at least 3 minutes. In the same way prunes may be combined with figs. Sealing Jams and Preserves.PRESERVES 6l which time it will usually be found to be done. until figs are tender. 2^2 pounds rhubarb 3 pounds sugar . to boil the jelly a little at a time. stoned and cooked. Put into a clean bag made of thin cloth. Rhubarb Marmalade 2 lemons 2 oranges Cut rhubarb into half-inch pieces. Put 3 cups juice into stew pan with 3 cups of sugar. Stir occasionally. With a sharp knife pare off very thin the colored part of the lemon and orange. Sugar may be omitted. boil 15 minutes. Skim off the dark froth which rises to the top with boiling. remove stones and add dates.

etc. dients Watermelon Rind Pickles the pink pulp and thin green skin'^from the rind and cut into cubes or strips.62 LOW COST COOKING cut it into small pieces and add to the rhubarb. The abnormal craving for appetizers is either the result of habit or is caused by the diet containing too little fruit and vegetables. Boil a half hour. Tomato Catsup Yz I peck ripe tomatoes tablespoon salt Yi. Tie i teaspoon ful each of cloves and cinnamon in a thin white cloth and drop into the kettle. They should not be used at all for children under 7 years of age and very sparingly for older children. Seal tightly. Reheat and put into clean jars or bottles that have lain five minutes in boiling water. It is much better to satisfy the appetite by adding more of these than by using pickles. Sour Cucumbers 6 large cucumbers Yi cup sugar J^ cup vinegar spices Pare the cucumbers and cut the long way into eighths. Add other ingreand boil slowly until reduced one-half. which is more easily digested than pickles. remove seeds and add to mixture. APPETIZERS Pickles. have little food value. Cover with hot salted water and cook until tender. Drain off the water.. divide them into sections. using i cup water and J4 cup sugar all Remove . then pass through sieve. make enough syrup to cover. catsups. Remove peel of the oranges and lemons. cup sugar I cup vinegar 2 tablespoons cinnamon 2 tablespoons mace i teaspoon cayenne pepper Scald tomatoes and remove skins.. Cover with salt and water and boil one-half hour. add sugar and boil very slowly ij^ hours longer. etc. simmer Yi hour. Pour off water. The largest cucumbers that come into the market are best for this. in large quantities. but are useful to a certain extent as appetizers. add vinegar and sugar and enough water to cover. They are hard for the delicate stomachs of children to digest and spoil the appetite for the simple foods they should be taught to eat.

It may th^n be used cold or reteated. They are stimulants only and contain no food except what is given them by the sugar and milk added. Proportions. Cocoa 4 teaspoons cocoa 2 cups water 2 cups milk 4 teaspoons sugar teaspoon flour I pinch salt % Mix flour. toast tea or cereal drinks may be given. When Coffee of the most important things about making good the care of the coffee pot. If a hot drink is desired. Drinks for Children Milk or buttermilk is. cocoa. however. but are always harmful to children. dissolve sugar and salt. the best drink for children. wash. or as much less as is liked. See page 67 for recipe and directions. until Tea Have teapot hot when tea is put in.BEVERAGES to each cup of vinegar. coffee and tea are suitable drinks for adults. cambric or cinnamon tea. Use i teaspoon tea to each cup for strong tea. Add enough cold water to and add remaining water and boil for 5 minutes . Pour water into the pot just as soon as it has boiled. it may be kept good by draining from the grounds and keeping it in a covered vessel.. dry and leave open to air coffee is One next used. If any coffee is left over. cloves for seasoning and pour over the rind. Let the mixture hoil. Coffee should never be used after it has stood on the grounds for an hour or more. rind is tender. . Cold coffee is very refreshingin hot weather. 2 level (one rounded) tablespoonfuls coffee makes a strong cup of coffee. Ij4 leygl tablespoonful makes medium strong and i level tablespoonful makes weak coffee. of course. Always make just enough for the meal and afterwards empty the pot. 63 add whole Boil until BEVERAGES well made.

An economical cereal drink may be made by toasting barley. Directions for making comes on the package. but do not allow it to boil after the milk is added. Serve with sugar and milk as desired.64 LOW COST COOKING or longer. Add milk and heat. These are both refreshing and healthful. but are rather expensive. Toast Tea I cup toasted breadcrumbs 4 cups water boiling water to the toasted bread crumbs. Cocoa Shells I cup shells 6 cups water Boil slowly 2 hours. wheat. Summer Drinks Any fruit juice left from stewed or canned fruit can be used in making fruit drinks for summer. such as Postum. as well as lemon and orange juice. strain and serve with milk and sugar. This will prevent a scum from forming on the top. Cambric or Cinnamon Tea 2 cups milk 2 cups boiling water teaspoon cinnamon 3 teaspoons sugar % Serve hot. Add Serve Cereal Drinks Several cereal drinks. grinding them in the coffee mill and boiling until the water is well colored. with sugar and milk as desired. rye or other grains. are on the market. . Before serving beat with an egg beater until it froths.

use them largely and do not need to be reminded of bill With only them. season are used. Only the cheapest materials for furnishing each kind of food needed are used. In winter dried fruits. although excellent. are seldom used in these menus. For the same reason the dishes in most common use. For furnishing protein the cheap cuts of meat.MENUS The menus in the following pages are given as samples of meals which furnish the food necessary to keep the body in health at the least possible cost. If the buying is carelessly done. The menus therefore are planned to give as many dififerent ways of preparing these food materials as possible and of new combinations. bacon strips. root vegetables and canned tomatoes are chiefly used for this purpose. For this reason the same dish is seldom given twice. these materials to use it is hard to keep the of fare from becoming monotonous. For furnishing the mineral the cheapest fresh vegetables and fruits of each. of seven with one. cheese and legumes are used for adults. Most housekeepers are familiar with them. such as meat soups and stews. For furnishing energy. 6s . cereals. including breadstufifs and fats of meat. and monotony is a destroyer of appetite. however. milk and eggs for small children. or if any of the foods are bought ready cooked they may easily cost twice as much. Recipes give quantities suitable for serving families of six with two adults. If the buying is carefully done and the cooking all done at home these meals may be served for the amount of money indicated or even less by unusually careful buying. suet. although of course a dish that is liked may be repeated several times per week without becoming tiresome. salad oils and oleomargarine are used.

removing any skin and bits of meat. Cut the fat into small pieces. and is one-eighth water. Keep in a cool place.. Have ready a hot greased griddle or frying pan. Strongly flavored fats from bacon. Soak again if there is time. which sells for about lo cents a pound. This improves flavor. When using in recipes calling for butter. 66 ham and sausage . add liquid and mix quickly. as many as the pan will hold without their touching. may be used. Cover with cold salted water and let stand for 4 or and keeping qualities Now melt the fat slowly in the oven or over boiling water and cook until the scraps are crisp but not brown. Use like lard. turn each cake to brown on the other side. drop the mixture in by tablespoonfuls. fat trimmings. When more fat is needed the soft flank fat of beef or pork. cans or jars which can be covered. etc. Cook on slow fire until the cakes are brown on the lower side and the bubbles burst in the top. MILK FOR CHILDREN Com Meal Griddle Cakes cups liquid. this way until the batter is all used. milk and water mixed 6 teaspoons baking powder 1% teaspoons salt lyi 2 cups cornmeal 1 cup flour 2 tablespoons melted drippings Mix and sift dry ingredients. Crisco. etc. "Drippings" By drippings is meant the fat from roasting.WINTER MEALS BREAKFAST Monday CORN MEAL GRIDDLE CAKES WITH CARAMEL SYRUP FRIED BACON STRIP COFFEE FOR ADULTS. Every bit of fat coming into the house should be saved and used. Cook in Serve hot. frying or boiling meat. Strain into clean pails. add more salt and take a little less because butter contains salt 5 hours or over night. which costs about 5 cents a pound more.

Measure out ingredients for griddle cakes. Keep hot without boiling for ten minutes longer. Preparing the Meal Put water to boil for coffee. Caramel Syrup 2 cups sugar Vz cup water Put sugar and water in stewing pan. drippings from the bacon may be used with the cakes. Bacon strips are the odd-shaped pieces of bacon cut from the side in the process of trimming. and boil until of thickness desired. Ground coffee loses coffee pot is well washed and aired. Add boiling water. Add 2 tablespoons of cold water to settle the grounds and it is ready to serve. mix them and start cooking. lay the slices Fried Bacon Strips bacon from the strip. turning as necessary. Coffee J4 cup ground coffee 2 cups (i pint) boiling water . which should be heated in some convenient way. cup Cut thin slices of rind. boil the syrup. Remove skin and in a cold frying pan. flavor and strength. Cut and prepare bacon. remove stopper and pour off the top of the milk for coffee. placing the cakes as they are done on a plate over When the cakes are half done a pan of boiling water. set table except for the plates. Moisten coffee with cold water add to boihng water and boil from one to three minutes.WINTER MEALS 6/ should be kept separate and used for hashes or warming over potatoes. Do not allow the coffee to stand on the grounds. stiri ring occasionally until it turns a light brown. pour off and keep hot. Make coffee if water has boiled. put the rest in glasses for the children. If a crushed egg-shell is added to the ground coffee with the cold water when making it will settle more easily and surely. Wash the top of the milk bottle. . Serve the cakes on the hot plates. cook until crisp and brown. The hot fry the bacon attending to both at the same time. It sells for 14 to 22 cents per pound in pieces weighing 4 to 8 pounds. settle and pour the coffee. See that the if not served at once. and if possible it is best to grind the coffee in a small hand mill just before making.

Finish the rice and make the tea. piece which is Yz lean meat. rice or macaroni 2 cups turnips or cabbage 2 cups carrot or celery root 2 tablespoons onion Salt and pepper to taste 1 Choose shank. Preparing the Meal While it is Start the rice a half hour before meal time. stirring occasionally with a fork. cooking. and pour the water freshly boiled over it. and boil. Steep i to 3 minutes. Monday RICE LUNCH OR SUPPER WITH TOMATOES AND CHEESE BREAD AND OLEO TEA FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN Rice with Tomatoes and Cheese — I Yt. .. Wash Tea ij^ teaspoonful tea 2 cups boiling water Put the tea into a hot teapot. for tea becomes bitter and harmful if allowed to stand on the leaves. sift it slowly into about 5 cups of boiling.68 . Pour into vegetable dish. or any cheap cuts of beef.. set the table and put on the water for the tea. never longer. Monday DINNER MEAT SOUP WITH CEREAL AND VEGETABLES TOASTED BREAD DRIED APPLE COBBLER COFFEE FOR ADULTS 2j/^ MILK FOR CHILDREN Meat Soup with Cereal and Vegetables — 2 tablespoons celery leaves or pounds soup beef parsley cup barley. Boil 20 to 30 minutes. salted water. LOW COST COOKING . A . . Do not make the tea until ready to serve it. shoulder bone or neck bones. cup rice can tomatoes 2-inch cube of cheese 2 teaspoons salt J4 teaspoon pepper the rice. the rest bone with a little fat. and grate the cheese over the top. When done evaporate the water by leaving it Add the tomatoes and pepper partly covered on a low fire. part lean and part bone. is best for soups.

soak 6 hours. and About two hours let it simmer on back of range all day. BREAKFAST Tuesday MUSH WITH DATES SERVED WITH TOP MILK OAT MEAL TOAST COCOA FOR CHILDREN COFFEE FOR ADULTS — . Do not allow the soup to be so greasy as to spoil the digestion of a child. Wash Use fresh apples instead of dried when they are as cheap. Cover the meat (cut in rather small pieces) with cold water and allow it to cook slowly. 1 Crust for Cobbler i^ tablespoons fat cup flour Yi teaspoon salt Vi cup milk or water 2 teaspoons baking powder Mix and sift flour with salt and baking powder. Try it out in the oven and use as drippings. or over cook slowly in same water until tender. add them to the soup. Cover with the crust made as below.. Turn the dough on a floured board. Put bread in oven to toast make coffee and set table. cut them in J^ inch cubes. WINTER MEALS Wipe 69 the meat clean with a cloth. Serve night. Dried Apple Cobbler ij4 cups dried apples Yi cup sugar i teaspoon cinnamon or nutmeg dried apples very carefully. Add barley 2 hours before meal time. bake until brown in a moderately hot oven. before dinner time add the barley to the soup. rub the fat into the flour with the finger tips. wet with cold water. J^ hour before meal time make pie crust and put pie in oven. Start the meat to cook for soup immediately after breakfast. Add sugar and place in baking dish. for from 6 to 10 hours. and roll or pat to the thickness of J4 inch. Mince onion and celery leaves fine and add with the vegetables. hot. but not boil. Preparing the Meal Wash apples and put to soak the night before. and add i hour before meal time. remove the fat if there is too much. Sprinkle more sugar and cinnamon or nut meg over top. and put Prepare the vegetables and the dried apples on to cook. Wash and pare the vegetables. add milk and mix with a knife.

boil three minutes. evaporate the water. stirring 3 tablespoons dripping or oleo ij4 teaspoon salt Stir the flour in hot drippings or oleo. . and add the white sauce. more simply. and make the coffee. cut into pieces Yz inch thick. set table.70 LOW COST COOKING Oat Meal Mush with Dates ij^ cups oatmeal 1 4 cups boiling water teaspoon salt Sift oat meal slowly into boiling water. Make toast. 3 cups of white sauce. and thick. mixed 4 tablespoons flour boil. J4 inch square. stirring constantly. Add 2 teaspoons of salt and cook until tender. Fifteen minutes before serving add the dates. add to cooked carrots Two and boil. lay in oven until Preparing the Meal Start oat meal cooking the night before. In the morning put it on to reheat. White Sauce 3 cups milk or milk and water. Pour off top part of the milk for cereal and coffee. washed. add dates. Toast Slice stale bread J4 to brown. Continue cooking i or 2 hours longer. Cover with boiling water. constantly until smooth add milk gradually. rub together 4 tablespoons of flour and 3 of drippings with y^ cup of water and 2j^ cups of milk . Wash and pare carrots. If placed the evening before in a fireless cooker it will be done in the morning. or brown over coals. stoned and cut in halves. or it may cook over night on the back of a coal range where it can remain hot. made separately . ^ inch thick. Remove cover from pan. then cover closely and set pan in a larger vessel containing boiling water. LUNCH OR SUPPER Tuesday CREAMED CARKOTS BREAD WITH CLEG TOAST TEA FOR CHILDREN TEA FOR ADULTS Creamed Carrots pints of carrots. or.

make toast tea and tea. add boiling water to the crumbs. % Tuesday DINNER NAVY BEANS WITH SHANK OF SALT PORK TOMATO CATSUP CORN BREAD STEWED APRICOTS AND PEACHES MILK COFFEE Beans Boiled with Meat 3 cups navy beans 2 pounds . set table. well-greased pan and bake in a moderately hot oven. Cut in squares and serve hot. by cutting up and heating in a dish in the oven and used for drippings. Preparing the Meal Wash and pare carrots and put them on to cook hour before meal time. mixed. adding more water if necessary until both meat and beans are tender. prepare toast crumbs. cover well with boiling water.WINTER MEALS Toast Tea I 71 cup toast crumbs 4 cups boiling water Roll toast left from breakfast with a rolling pin. add milk. stir until partly dissolved.) Add meat to the beans. shank salt pork carefully and (This fat can be fried out remove skin and part of fat. . Serve hot with sugar and milk. This may be done in a fireless cooker. pour into hot. Pick over and wash the beans wash meat Southern Corn Bread 3 cups corn meal (preferably white) lyi cup thick sour milk 34 teaspoon cooking soda i i teaspoon salt egg 3 tablespoons melted drippings Beat egg in mixing bowl. sift in meal with soda Beat quickly until well salt. If sweetened corn bread is preferred. There will be enough beans left from this amount for lunch on the following day. use yellow corn meal and add 3 tablespoons sugar. cook slowly 4 or 5 hours. and add melted fat. Egg may be omitted. add dressing to carrots. Flour may be used in place of one of the cups of corn and meal.

set in a larger pan of boiling water and continue cooking J^ to i hour . or leave closely covered over night on the back of the stove. cook slowly water until tender. Make coiifee. about J^ cup. stirring all the while.72 LOW COST COOKING Dried Apricots and Peaches Vi pound apricots J4 pound peaches Wash in same the fruit. or in a tireless cooker. and set aside to cool when done. Pour this mixture into the boiling salted water. fry bacon and make the toast. BREAKFAST Wednesday GRAHAM MUSH WITH TOP MILK FRIED BACON STRIP TOAST COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN Graham Mush V/i I cups graham flour 4 cups boiling water 2 teaspoons salt cup cold water Mix the flour with the cold water to prevent it from lumping when added to the boiling water. Preparing the Meal The graham mush should be started the night before. About Yi. Let dried fruit be cooking at the same time. soak over night in cold water. set the table. then serve the dinner. set the table. Twenty minutes before meal time make the coffee. Half an hour before meal time make com bread and put in to bake. Boil 5 minutes. Preparing the Meal Start beans and meat cooking while lunch is being prepared.. LUNCH OR SUPPER Wednesday BEAN POLENTA BREAD WITH OLEO HOT STEWED DRIED APPLES TEA FOR ADULTS CINNAMON TEA FOR CHILDREN — . Add sugar to taste. hour before breakfast time put it on to reheat.

mixed with a little cold water. Preparing the Meal the dried apples and put them to soak the night About an hour before meal time put them on to cook in the same water. Put them into the kettle in which the stew is to be cooked and place over a hot fire. the boiling water to the scalded milk and sugar just Sprinkle the cinnamon over the top. One-half hour before meal time make the polenta. and put the cakes on to brown. When the polenta is done make the tea and the cinnamon tea. Add the vegetables pared and cut into pieces. Wash Wednesday DINNER STEW WITH VEGETABLES BREAD SUET PUDDING Stew with Vegetables 154 to 2 pounds stew meat 2 carrots 2 turnips 4 to 6 potatoes i onion 2 sprigs parsley i tablespoon salt teaspoon pepper % breast of lamb or veal or inexpensive cuts of beef may be used.WINTER MEALS Bean Polenta 4 cups white beans (cooked) tablespoons molasses 2 teaspoons vinegar lyi J4 73 ^ teaspoon mustard teaspoon pepper Drain the water from cold boiled beans. mash them fine. and mix with the other ingredients. While they are browning put the milk on to heat for the cinnamon tea and set the table. until the meat is tender. Neck or . Form the mixture into cakes and brown on both sides in hot greased pan. and cook slowly. spoons of flour. before. during the Thicken the gravy with two tablelast hour of cooking. stirring occasionally Cover with hot water until the outside is well browned. Cinnamon Tea 2 cups scalded milk 2 cups boiling water 3 teaspoons sugar J^ teaspoon cinnamon Add before serving. using the beans left from dinner the day before. Have the butcher cut the pieces of meat rather small. just before serving. without boiling.

Extra Baking Just before starting lunch mix the bread and set it to rise. make the coffee and set the table. add the remaining flour and mix well. add the vegetables to the stew. chopped figs. and set in a larger kettle of boiling water. . or baking dish. The pudding may be either steamed or boiled. Turn the dough on to a board and knead until it is smooth and elastic. cake. It will be ready for the second kneading after lunch is over. or a cup of raisins. Serve the stew on a large platter with the meat piled in the center and the pieces of vegetables arranged around it. or nuts may be added to give variety. while it is cooking. Cook about an hour. One or more eggs may be added to enrich the pudding. Serve with any of the pudding sauces. For steaming put into a buttered pan. Serve the pudding. tie the dough up in a floured cloth and boil from It may be baked in the same way as to 3 hours. add other ingredients. 2^ Preparing the Meal About 3 hours before meal time put the meat for the stew on to cook. or baked. cover with paper or a tin lid. make the suet pudding. like cake. For boiling. Make rolls from part of the bread dough.74 LOW COST COOKING Suet Pudding cup flour 2 cups bread crumbs I cup finely chopped suet I cup sugar 1 3 teaspoons baking powder J4 teaspoon salt Grating of nutmeg i cup milk or water Mix the suet well with the flour. cut in squares without sauce. Place in a well-greased Put lard. or as a cake without sauce. White Yeast Bread 2 tablespoons salt quart hot water 2 yeast cakes stirred into }4 cup 2 tablespoons sugar of lukewarm water 2 tablespoons lard or other fat 3 quarts flour 1 salt in large pan or bowl and add lukewarm add the dissolved yeast and Stir until smooth. dates. sugar and the hot water. When about 5 pints of flour. and make into a smooth batter.

Place where it will keep at a warm. The temperature at which bread dough is kept is one of the most important things about bread making. bake. Let the dough rise until it is again double its size. if any. greasing the top of the dough and cover with clean cloth. This recipe will make eight such loaves. If caraway seeds are desired add one teaspoonful while kneading the second time. cover the bread while cooling. Cinnamon Rolls Roll bread dough to J^ inch thick at second kneading. At the second kneading roll a layer of bread dough to the thickness of J^ inch and spread with a J4 inch layer of the mashed pulp of stewed prunes. so that the air will circulate freely around them. If a soft crust is desired. spread with fat and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. When the loaves are done place them sidewise on a rack or table. form into loaves. When they have risen to twice their size. place in baking pan. knead it again. Rye Bread 2 cups hot water 3 cups white flour 2 tablespoons lard or other fat 3 cups rye flour I tablespoon salt Yi cup sugar or molasses cup lukewarm water I yeast cake dissolved in % Follow the directions for mixing. cut into strips about 3 . Yeast is a plant. which weighs 12 ounces. while a low temperature will keep it from growing and forming the gas bubbles which make the bread light. When perfectly cold. larger than the common bakers' loaf. and bake for one hour in a moderately hot oven. Prune Rolls . When the dough has raised to double its size. cut into J4 inch slices grease these on the outside. which it should do in about one hour. grease the outside of the loaves and place them in a baking pan. and too much heat will kill it. place in a jar or tin box. kneading and baking given for white bread. Bread must be baked thoroughly in order to be wholesome. even temperature. For this reason it is best not to make the loaves much. roll into a long roll. which will be in about ij^ hours.WINTER MEALS 75 pan.

set the table. bake. fry the pork and make the gravy. boil well. Cut the fried pork in J4 inch pieces and mix with the gravy. While they are baking make the coffee. and into this rub 2 tablespoons flour. sprinkle with sugar and allow to rise. Coffee Cake cup hot milk J^ cup sugar _ i teaspoon salt J4 cup lard Yz yeast cake dissolved in J4 cup lukewarm water I _ Add hot milk with lard and salt. Mix and sift dry ingredients . when lukewarm. then spread in a well greased pan. — — BREAKFAST Thursday RYE MUFFINS FRIED SALT PORK COFFEE FOR ADULTS —MILK FOR CHILDREN 2 tablespoons sugar 6 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons drippings WITH MILK GRAVY Rye MufHns cups rye flour V/i cups white flour V/i teaspoons salt iYi cup milk or water V/i. Preparing the Meal Put water on to boil for coffee . Add i cup of water slowly. add dissolved yeast. place in a greased pan. make the muffins. Fried Salt Pork with Milk Gravy Cut the pork in very thin slices and fry in a hot pan until crisp and brown.76 LOW COST COOKING will inches wide and 6 inches long. grease the outside. add liquid and melted drippings and beat. . Take out pork. Fold the dough so that there be a layer of prunes between two layers of dough. Put quickly into heated. allow them to rise to twice their size. add a cup of milk. If raisins are desired add J^ cup just before putting into baking pan. flour enough to make the stiff batter about three cups cover dish and let the batter rise. greased muffin pan and bake about 25 minutes in a moderately hot oven. bake. pour off all but 3 tablespoons of the drippings.

place in baking pan. put on to cook at breakfast time and cook slowly until tender. cut lengthwise into halves. Preparing the Meal Wash and soak beans over night. Twenty minutes before meal time. or. If the whole is too thick. PreMake the soup. The lemon juice may be omitted and the bananas served with milk and sugar. if desired. the butcher score the steak when it is bought.WINTER MEALS Thursday 'j'j LUNCH OR SUPPER PUREE (thick soup) OF LIMA BEANS TOASTED MUFFINS BAKED BANANA TEA FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN Puree of Lima Beans — 2 slices fat pork 4 cups cooked lima beans 2 cups water i tablespoon flour Salt and pepper to taste For additional flavoring. . Add water and boil. Peel the bananas. Dredge well with beat it well with a hammer. Thursday DINNER FLANK STEAK BRAISED WITH VEGETABLES BROWNED PARSNIPS STEWED FIGS COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN Flank Steak Braised with Vegetables — Have better still. set the pare bananas and put in to bake. put muffins left over from breakfast. chopped fine. use i tablespoon each of onion. parsley or celery. sprinkle with sugar and lemon juice. The soup may be made more nutritious by using milk instead of water. in the oven to toast. and bake in a moderately hot oven for about 15 minutes. and if onion or celery is used add this at the same time and cook for a few minutes. and add them. and any other scraps of bread. break or cut it into small bits. is Baked banana Baked Banana more easily digested than raw. Serve hot or cold. Fry pork until crisp and brown. and make the tea. mash the beans fine. stir the flour into the drippings and pork. table. add more water.

BREAKFAST Friday FRIED HOMINY MUSH WITH BROWN SUGAR SYRUP TOAST COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN — Fried Hominy Mush Pour one part hominy slowly into four parts boiling. Pour over this 2 cups of stewed tomatoes. The parsnips might be omitted from this dinner. and cook in boiling. Cook slowly in the same water until tender. greased pan until it is . . and leave it to cook uncovered. greased pan. or for several hours. or over night in a less cooker. cover One-half closely and cook slowly in oven 2j4 to 3 hours. then a layer of thinly sliced onion. salted water. Three hours before meal time prepare the steak and put it in to bake i J^ hours before prepare the parsnips and start them to boil. Cut lengthwise into slices Yz inch thick. Wash carefully and soak over night. hour before the meat is done. stir till it thicketis and then cook slowly in a double boiler for 3 hours or more. or in the oven with baking meat. Add water as necessary. Browned Parsnips Pare parsnips. They are usually sold for cooking at 10 to 12 cents per pound. cut in halves. fire- Pour boiled hominy into a deep. Stewed Figs dried figs that are not pressed. Make . and put figs on to cook J^ hour before lay the parsnips cut in slices in the pan to brown. salted water until tender.^& LOW COST COOKING flour and lay in baking pan. Use Preparing the Meal After breakfast wash J^ pound cooking figs and put to soak. place it whole on a platter and cut down as through a loaf. remove the cover. brown in a hot. In serving. Add sugar if desired. They may be served plain boiled and if any are left over they may be browned at the next serving. Over it place a thick layer of thinly sliced raw potatoes. set the table. the coffee.

Croutons bread into small cubes or in strips 2 inches wide. add rice to liquid Beat and put ingredients and combine the two mixtures. The next day turn the mixture out of the pan. add the onions and celery to it der. Brown Sugar Syrup Melt 2 cups of brown sugar with i cup hot water. Preparing the Meal Start 2 cups of hominy to cook as a mush the day before while lunch is being prepared. start to fry the mush. Let it cook all afternoon and pour the part for breakfast into the pan and leave overnight in a cold place. Dry in a inches thick. Set the rest aside to bake with The next morning make the coffee. and while it is cooking make the syrup and set the table. or in any fancy shapes desired. slow oven until crisp and light brown all the way through. i i 1 tablespoon chopped onion tablespoon chopped celery tablespoon flour Scrape the carrots. slice in J4 inch slices and brown both sides in hot. greased pan. add the rice water with salt and pepper to taste.WINTER MEALS 3 inches or 79 more in depth. add this mixture to the carrots. LUNCH OR SUPPER Friday RICE SOUP WITH CROUTONS RICE AND CORN MEAL MUFFINS Rice Soup 3 cups rice water 2 cups carrots 2 tablespoons drippings. and cook them 5 minutes without browning. cheese on Saturday. Mix and . Stir in the flour. boil 5 minutes and cool. cut in small pieces and cook until tenHeat the drippings. stale Cut ^ Rice and Corn Meal Muffins I I I I cup cooked rice cup flour teaspoon salt cup corn meal 5 teaspoons baking powder 154 cups liquid 3 tablespoons melted drippings sift dry ingredients together.

slice. well greased pan. salt fish and soak in luke warm until the pieces are softened. muffins and while they are baking. or water for about Fill a baking dish with alternate layers of the fish and boiled rice which has been mixed with the white sauce. greased muffin pans. Preparing the Meal A half hour before meal time put 2 cups of boil. and bake 25 minutes in a moderate oven. Wash . rice on to the rice for the scalloped fish for dinner and for the muffins. Add the drippings and the hot water Mix and sift dry ingredients all together.. Add the liquid Pour into a shallow. and the rice water for the soup. Boiled Beets the beets without breaking the skin and boil for 3 hours or until tender. Cover with bread crumbs and bake until hot through and crumbs are browned. set the table. Gingerbread 2 cups flour y^ cup sugar 1 teaspoon ginger 2 teaspoons baking powder J4 teaspoon soda 54 cup molasses Ys cup hot water 3 tablespoons melted drippings teaspoon salt % to the molasses.Drop in cold water and rub off the skins. season with salt and oleo and serve hot. DINNER SCALLOPED SALT FISH BOILED BEETS HOT GINGERBREAD COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN Scalloped Salt Fish ^ lYi cups salt fish 2 cups thin white sauce 3 cups boiled rice Shred the an hour. 8o LOW COST COOKING Bake about 20 min- quickly into hot. Use „ Friday . Cut the croutons into Make the J^ inch cubes and put them in the oven to brown. Finish the soup and serve with the croutons sprinkled over the top of each bowl. utes in a moderately hot oven. Prepare the carrots and put them on to cook. and beat until thoroughly mixed..

At the gingerbread. Preparing the Meal Make the jam the day before. the mush in cereal bowls with sugar and the top half of the bottle of milk. may Serve Start the coffee. Cook mixture until thick. Saturday LUNCH OR SUPPER HOMINY BAKED WITH CHEESE STEWED RAISINS TEA BREAD WITH OLEO TOAST TEA FOR CHILDREN . % Saturday BREAKFAST CORN MEAL MUSH WITH TOP MILK TOAST WITH DATE AND PRUNE JAM COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN Corn Meal Mush V/i cups corn meal 6 cups boiling water 2 teaspoons salt Sift the com meal slowly into the boiling. cleaned and stoned. set the table. While these are baking make the coffee. otherwise later. make the toast. morning set on stove to reheat Yz hour before breakfast . After boilstirring constantly to prevent it from lumping. salted water. In the Start the corn meal to cooking the night before. skin and slice the beets and set the table. pound dates Date and Prune Jam pound prunes i Cook prunes. Start the beets to cooking at breakfast time if wanted hour before meal time make pickled. and figs with dates add a little lemon juice for the flavor. In the same way prunes be combined with figs.WINTER MEALS Or in 8l the sliced beets may be soaked as weak vinegar and used Preparing the Meal for an hour or two Pickled Beets. ing lo minutes. prepare the scalloped fish and put in oven. time. place the kettle in a larger pan of boiling water or in a I fireless cooker to cook over night. while preparing lunch. remove stones and add dates.

DINNER . If small. peas. lb. cook the vegetables in the water. Add enough milk. surrounded by the vegetables. Almost any other vegetables. scum and continue cooking just below the boiling point for When the meat is tender.82 LOW COST COOKING Hominy Baked with Cheese Put alternate layers of boiled hominy and grated cheese in baking dish. . Serve the meat on a large platter later than the others. seedless raisins and soak over night. and other vegetables in Cabbage should be added about lo minutes similar size. cover with cold water and bring slowly After boiling S minutes remove the to the boiling point. Wash Preparing the Meal Put raisins to soak the night before and cook during breakfast. may be used instead of part of those named. core. Cut these in uniform size and cook them until tender. of corn beef cabbage rutabaga lb. Add sugar if deslowly in the same water until tender. etc. remove it and about 3 hours. thin white sauce or water to moisten. Wipe Apple Sauce Wash Remove 6 sour apples and cut into eighths with skins on. beets. the carrots may be cut in halves.. Stewed Raisins Cook black. sired. brisket lb. Saturday CORN BEEF WITH VEGETABLES BAKED POTATOES APPLE SAUCE jCOFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN — Com 2 J4 J/^ Beef with Vegetables J4 i lbs. turnips carrots i onion the meat. if large in quarters.. set the table and make the tea. One-half hour before lunch time prepare the hominy using that left from breakfast the day before and put in the oven to bake. lb. While it is baking. Cover with hot water and . and decayed spots. Cover with bread crumbs and bake until hot through and crumbs are browned.

cook I will be ready to bake bread in afternoon when the corned beef is cooking. Preparing the Meal five hours before meal time put the meat on to hour before wash 6 medium sized potatoes and lay them in the oven to bake. Four or . and milk. J^ cup sugar. Sunday GRAHAM BISCUITS WITH DATE AND PRUNE JAM SCRAMBLED EGG COFFEE FOR ADULTS lyi cups graham flour 1^2 cups white flour i^ teaspoons salt . Turn the mixture on floured bread board. After the dishes from the noon meal are washed. or to taste. Drop by teaspoonfuls into greased pan. bake in moderate oven. Mix and sift . but not warm. Wash and pare the vegetables. Roll or pat to J^ Cut out biscuits and bake 15 to 20 minutes inch thickness. in a hot oven. through by cutting with two knives. make and bake the oatmeal cookies for Sunday. remove the meat from the kettle. If more convenient the potatoes may be pared and quartered and cooked with the other vegetables. While the vegetables are cooking make the apple sauce and the coffee and set the table.WINTER MEALS cook slowly until tender. late in the . add egg beaten. luke 83 Remove from fire and add about Serve either hot or cold. mixing with a knife. Make Extra Baking the morning so that it Oatmeal Cookies 2 cups rolled oats yi cup flour I cup sugar I egg 2 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons oleo i pinch of salt 3 tablespoons milk Mix _ dry ingredients. or by rubbing lightly with the fingers. laying it in the warming oven to keep warm. Add the liquid. BREAKFAST — COCOA FOR CHILDREN Biscuits cup liquid 3 tablespoons lard or crisco l Graham 6 teaspoons baking powder Mix the lard evenly dry ingredients.

If desired add an onion finely chopped to the tomatoes. Cool a little and ture constantly over a very cooked but not tough. Preparing the Meal ar^d One-half hour before meal time. e Sunday DINNER MEAT LOAF WITH BROWNED POTATOES CREAMED RUTABAGA CABBAGE SALAD BAKED APPLES WITH RAISINS COFFEE MILK . take out only enough for once around.84 LOW COST COOKING Scrambled Egg Beat 4 eggs light. Brown in oven. prepare the tomatoes put them in the oven. Serve the cookies made on Saturday. In serving the biscuits. add Yz teaspoon salt. Stir the mixlow fire until the eggs are and beat again. pepper to taste. While they are heating make the cocoa and set the table. Preparing the Meal them standing in the baking 20 minutes before time for breakfast. This may be done the night before in cold weather if each biscuit is brushed over with melted fat to prevent a crust from forming and the pan is closely covered to keep out dust and germs. Make the coffee. i Boil J^ cup with i tablespoon flour in the add the eggs. the biscuits and leave Make pan until ahout Sunday „ . put the biscuits in oven and scramble the eggs. teaspoon baking powder. leaving the others in oven to keep hot. LUNCH OR SUPPER SCALLOPED TOMATOES OATMEAL COOKIES COCOA BLACK OLIVES Scalloped Tomatoes Place alternate layer of bread crumbs and canned or ripe tomatoes and seasoning of salt and pepper in baking dish with crumbs on top. . milk or milk and water mixed frying pan.

add J4 cup water and bake in a moderate oven until the apples are soft. . Wash and Cabbage Salad Cut Shave the cabbage fine and add salt and pepper. Preparing the Meal Two hours before meal time prepare the meat loaf and put in oven. stirring to make a smooth Pour into drippings and boil.WINTER MEALS Meat Loaf pound chopped meat 2 cups bread crumbs 1 i cup thick white sauce Flavor with salt and pepper 85 Mix ingredients thoroughly together. finish the rutabaga. until thick liquid slowly to flour. Put the rutabaga on and apples and start them to baking. form into loaf and bake in moderate oven for two hours. stirring constantly and smooth. Evaporate the water by leaving kettle uncovered on fire. or stir 3 tablespoons of flour into J4 cup water and add this with 2J/2 cups of milk and water to the vegetables and boil. while it is cooking. While very hot pour over the cabbage. minced onion may be added if desired. Serve the Ipaf whole with the potatoes arranged on the platter around it. set the table. make the cabbage salad and the coffee. Add a little vinegar. i hour before pare 6 medium sized potatoes Prepare the cut in halves and lay in the pan with the meat. them in baking dish. Baked Apple v^ith Raisins Put the core from 6 medium sized apples. One tablespoon Thick White Sauce 1 cup liquid tablespoons flour 3^/2 2 tablespoons drippings tablespoon salt H Add paste. Add 3 cups of thin white sauce made separately. fill the cavity with sugar and seedless Remove raisins. Cook in boiling. Add salt and pepper to taste. Creamed Rutabaga pare the rutabaga and cut in pieces about J4 inch square and }^ inch long. salted water until tender. two thin slices of bacon into small pieces and fry till brown.

SUMMER MEALS Monday BREAKFAST POTATO CAKES RHUBARB SAUCE COFFEE MILK Potato Cakes over mashed potatoes with such scraps of meat. Rhubarb Sauce peel 8 large stalks of rhubarb. and as soon as the last cup to be used hot is poured. There will be sauce enough for breakfast and to serve with rice for Tuesday's dinner. If no meat is on hand omit or use a Httle bacon or salt left Mix pork. Boil gently until the pieces are tender but still whole. Add sugar tq taste and set aside to cool. Rhubarb sauce should be made the day before and served cold. Part of this juice may be poured ofif to make a fruit drink and the remainder served with the sauce. Brown cakes on both sides in hot greased pan. Make the toast and set the table. Make enough coffee for dinner as well as for breakfast. Wash and Preparing the Meal Make potato cakes and put them on to brown. and add almost enough cold water to cover. Monday RICE LUNCH OR SUPPER AND CHEESE RAREBIT ON TOAST APPLE SAUCE TEA FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN — 86 . as necessary to make the mixture stiff enough to form into cakes. This is to be used for iced coffee in the evening. Add bread crumbs dressing and gravy as may be on hand. Cut into J4 inch pieces. pour the remainder off of the grounds and set aside to cool.

stantly. but do not lose shape. set Make away Monday DINNER HAMBURGER STEAK WITH TOMATOES MCED POTATOES HASHED KOHLRABI OATMEAL COOKIES ICED COFFEE MILK Hamburger Steak with Tomatoes — Half can of tomatoes brown. A Hashed Kohlrabi Pare kohlrabi. stirring conWhen part of it is well browned. hot. Set the table. IJ4 pounds chopped beef Put chopped meat into hot pan to Riced Potatoes Press plain boiled potatoes. Add J^ cup sugar just before removing from fire. cover closely and continue cooking on low fire until done. add tomatoes. Wash and Preparing the Meal the apple sauce just after the breakfast is over and to cool . letting potato them fall into dish in which they will be served. cut into quarters and cook until tender . Use fresh tomatoes if cheaper. Apple Sauce quarter 6 summer apples and remove cores. remove from the fire and add cheese chopped fine. Cover with hot water and cook slowly until apples are tender. and when again reaches boiling point. J^ hour before meal time put the rice on to cook. through ricer. When milk and the flour mixed with this to boil. finish the rarebit and make the tea. % cooked tender add cup of water. Stir cheese through the hot mixture until it melts and serve on toast.SUMMER MEALS Rice and Cheese Rarebit ?4 cup of rice 87 % cup of cheese ij4 cups of milk 2 tablespoons flour iH teaspoons salt J^ teaspoon pepper Boil rice in plenty of water. Allow it add salt and pepper. ricer is a great convenience and may be bought for from 25 cents to 50 cents.

rhubarb. or if without ice put into a clean milk bottle and place in a pan under cold running water. stewed with plenty of water. such as plums. It may be served hot or cold. Preparing the Meal Set the oatmeal on the fire to reheat after cooking over night.88 LOW COST COOKING Evaporate water. etc. toast. cut in small pieces. cooked. berries. may be used. hamburger steak. see page 83. Make stewed fruit by boiling J^ dozen plums or other fruit in plenty of water.) Tuesday BREAKFAST OATMEAL WITH TOP MILK FRUIT TOAST COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN Fruit Toast Use 6 slices of toast with 2 cups of stewed fruit. Add carrots. and 3 cups of boiled carMash the peas fine and add salt and pepper to taste. Pour it over the freshly toasted bread. Hash the kohlrabi. Preparing the Meal Prepare the potatoes and kohlrabi and put them on to Prepare the cook one-half hour before the meal time. the last baking day. Reheat and serve. and J4 cup of milk. rice the potatoes and serve the meal. . (Use oatmeal cookies made on in boiling salted water. Use Preparing the Meal Soak 2 cups of peas over night and start them to cook This will make enough for 2 hours before meal time. Make the coffee and the Tuesday LUNCH OR SUPPER SPLIT PEAS WITH CARROTS PRUNE ROLLS TEA MILK Split Peas with Carrots 3 cups split peas. Set the table and add ice to the coffee.. cherries. rots. Fruit. chop fine and add 3 tablespoons of drippings.

water and cook until Pour cup of fruit over % Preparing the Meal Four hours before meal time put the pot roast on to . adding water as necessary. Wash and scrape carrots and cut in J4 inch cubes. cover with Wash and stone the Add sugar to taste. each dessert dish of rice. cherries. Brown the meat Add 2 well on all sides in a hot kettle. cups of water. cover closely and cook slowly for about 4 hours. Add Place stewrice to boiling water and boil for 5 minutes. Cook in boiling. Make tea enough for this meal and for iced tea for dinner. or brisket. meat 2 cups parsnips 2 cups carrots i onion 2 cups rutabagas Choose a piece of meat with some bone and a little fat. such as pork or beef shoulder.SUMMER MEALS lunch croquettes on Wednesday 89 also. As soon as the hot tea is poured. pared and cut in pieces. Use prune rolls made on the last baking day. in larger kettle of boiling water and steam for 50 minutes. Tuesday DINNER POT ROAST WITH VEGETABLES STEAMED RICE WITH STEWED CHERRIES ICED TEA FRUIT DRINK FOR CHILDREN — Pot Roast with Vegetables 2 cups turnips or cabbage 2 lbs. Serve the meat whole on the platter with vegetables ar- ranged around I it. Use I Steamed Rice with Stewed Cherries box of cherries to 3 cups of steamed rice. closely covered. tender. The last three-quarters of an hour add the vegetables. salted water for J^ hour before meal time: Set the table and add mashed peas to carrots. with a bit of fat. pan. pour off the remainder and set aside to cool. Steamed Rice cup rice 3 cups boiling water 1 5^ teaspoon salt Wash rice by placing in a strainer and allowing the water from the faucet to run through until it is clean.

make the fruit drink for the children by adding a little of the cherry juice and 2 cups water to the rhubarb juice left from Monday. Put rice on to steam. enough will be left for croquettes on Wednesday. Wednesday BREAKFAST RICE GRIDDLE CAKES FRIED BACON STRIPS COFFEE 54 cup boiled rice BANANAS MILK Rice Griddle Cakes 2 cups flour 1% cup liquid 2 tablespoons drippings S teaspoons baking powder i teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons sugar the dry ingredients. plan to keep the top of the stove full while fire is going.90 LOW COST COOKING cook. Set the table. . Ice the tea for the adults. If coal or wood fire is used. Mix cakes. and set the table. As soon as the rice is done set it in a cool place. There will be enough of it for the griddle cakes on Wednesday as well as for the dessert. and can be baked before time for the evening meal. And when they are finished serve the breakfast. Serve meat on platter with vegetables around it. Three-quarters of an hour before meal time prepare the vegetables and add them to the meat. Add rice to the liquid ingreAn egg may be added. attending to the cooking of the cakes at the same time. Make cinnamon rolls as well as bread. Extra Baking Before starting to cook the noon meal mix the bread and set it to rise. Finish preparing the dessert. Cook by tablespoonf uls the same as other griddle dients. Combine with the dry and beat well. If a 3-pound piece is used. It will be ready for the second kneading soon after lunch. Make the coffee. stew the cherries and set them aside to cool. Leave no empty space in the oven while it is hot. slice and fry the bacon. Preparing the Meal Make the griddle cakes and start the first griddle full cooking. and while it is cooking.

water or another egg. Wednesday DINNER BAKED CROQUETTES BAKED POTATOES HOT CINNAMON ROLLS BANANAS WITH LEMON JUICE LEMONADE Baked Croquettes chopped meat 3 cups bread crumbs 3 cups i i teaspoon onion juice teaspoon salt 2 cups thick white sauce Pepper to taste white sauce by stirring j4 cup flour into cup melted fat. Form into loaf. Brown in oven. cook till frothy. If too soft to hold its shape add more bread crumbs. form into croquettes about 3 inches crumbs. all Mix the ingredients together. stirring till smooth. Bananas with Lemon Juice 4 bananas. and cook again till thick. sprinkle with brown sugar and lemon . . beaten egg teaspoon minced onion celery.SUMMER MEALS .x. . veal or pork and bread Mix well. . cooked 2 cups bread crumbs I tablespoon minced parsley. lay them in greased pan. long. Preparing the Meal Use split peas cooked on Tuesday. Wednesday 9I LUNCH OR SUPPER SPLIT PEA LOAF SLICED TOMATOES BREAD WITH OLEO TEA MILK — Split Pea Loaf i i 4 cups split peas. and set in hot oven to brown. lay over it thin slices of salt pork or bacon. Set the table and make the tea. — Slice juice. or the two mixed. . add milk. Slice the tomatoes. stirring all the time. Add cooked meat ^beef mutton. Make a % — . If too dry. „. A half hour before meal time make loaf and put in oven to brown. desired. or other flavoring as Salt and pepper to taste. then add slowly 2 cups milk or water.

Thursday BREAKFAST FARINA MUSH WITH TOP MILK CINNAMON ROLLS (BAKING POWDEr) COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN — Farina Mush Use % cup of farina to 4 cups boiling salted water. prepare the bananas and lemonade. Turn on to a floured board and roll lightly into a sheet J^ inch thick. add the milk or water slowly and mix all with a knife into a soft dough. Croquettes and cinnamon rolls (see page i6) may be baked together about J^ hour before meal time.92 LOW COST COOKING Preparing the Meal Put six potatoes for dinner and four for tomorrow's lunch in oven one hour before meal time. 2 cups boiled beets and 2 cups . baking work Preparing the Meal Put on water to boil for cereal and coffee. Cook J^ to i hour. Cut into 5^ inch slices and bake in a hot oven. Set the table. Baking Powder Cinnamon Rolls 2 cups flour 4 teaspoons baking powder J4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fat 54 cup milk or water }4 cup oleo J4 cup sugar _ 4 teaspoons cinnamon powder and salt into a mixing bowl. Make the same as other cereal mush. while the farina is cooking make and bake the cinnamon rolls. Thursday LUNCH OR SUPPER CREAMED POTATOES AND BEETS LETTUCE WITH FRENCH SALAD DRESSING BUTTERMILK Creamed Potatoes and Beets Use 2 cups boiled potatoes. sugar and cinnamon rubbed together in the mixing bowl and roll up the dough like a jelly roll. the fat in with the tips of the fingers. while bread is still baking. Spread with the mixture of oleo. Sift the flour. make the coffee and set the table.

from fire. One-half hour before meal time. Lettuce and Green Onion Salad trim the tops of the onions. Use beef heart the same way. or water and milk mixed Add flour to hot drippings and let it brown.SUMMER MEALS 93 thin white sauce. Set the table and mix the salad dressing. add 2 tablespoons flour mixed with J^ cup cold water and ij^ cups milk to the vegetables and boil. French Salad Dressing three parts olive. peel part of the Skin the cold beets. and boil 3 minutes. add pepper and salt to taste. Add liquid gradually. cover pan and cook on very slow fire until tender. Reheat in white sauce made separately. Make the white sauce. Brown Gravy 3 tablespoons drippings 3 tablespoons flour 2 cups water. leaving the rest for Friday's salad. peanut or salad oil with one part lemon juice or vinegar. Serve them on lettuce leaves with French dressing. Soak in cold salt water for i^ hours. Wash 6 beets and start them When cooked tender remove to cook at breakfast time. roll in flour or bread crumbs and brown both sides in hot suet fat. sliced lengthwise. stirring constantly until a smooth mixture is obtained. Mix Preparing the Meal Several hours before meal time wash carefully 2 bunches of lettuce and lay it on ice or in a cool place so that it may be crisp when time to serve. in J^-inch slices. Cut the potatoes and beets in J^-inch cubes. baked potatoes cooked Wednesday and cut both in j4-inch cubes. or. Add salt and pepper to taste. Wash and . add the vegetables and reheat. Thursday DINNER LETTUCE AND GREEN ONION SALAD COFFEE MILK Fried Calves Hearts FRIED calves' HEARTS WITH BROWN GRAVY MASHED POTATOES ij^ pound hearts.

Brown the hearts and while they are cooking make the coffee. set the table. Preparing the Meal Cracked wheat should be started to cook the night before. Lettuce with Cheese and French Dressing Mix the French Stir dressing. Cook on low fire until boiling reached. When hot it is ready to serve. While they are cooking. add 3 tablespoons grated cheese. make the coffee. making six extra cups to serve cold at dinner. Prepare the potatoes and put them on to cook J^ hour before meal time. Stir the flour.. put on the eggs. make the toast. Start them to cook about 2 hours before meal time. etc. and add to the Preparing the Meal Soak 2j4 cups beans over night for soup and for Saturday's lunch. Friday BREAKFAST CRACKED WHEAT TOAST CODDLED EGGS COFFEE FOR ADULTS COCOA FOR CHILDREN — Put 6 eggs in Coddled Eggs stewpan with enough cold water point is to cover. make the cocoa. Mash the until they are browned. Wash and drain the lettuce and leave in ice . dress the salad and mash the potatoes. Set the table. beans fine or put through a sieve or colander. Add salt and pepper to taste. onion and other flavorings in hot drippings Add water and boil. Set on to reheat.94 LOW COST COOKING Preparing the Meal One and one-half hours before meal time put the calves' hearts to soak. Friday LUNCH OR SUPPER Cream of CREAM OF NAVY BEAN SOUP LETTUCE WITH CHEESE AND FRENCH DRESSING Navy Bean Soup 3 tablespoons drippings 3 tablespoons flour i tablespoon minced onion as desired for flavoring 3 cups cooked navy beans lJ4 cups milk ij4 cups water Minced celery. lettuce.

Quick Cup Cakes Place the flour sifter in the mixing bowl and put in it ij4 cups of flour. into a hot greased frying side. Sift in the bowl. break in i or 2 eggs. add remaining milk and boil for five minutes. One-half hour before meal time set the table. tin pail 95 If there is no ice box. Serve on lettuce leaves. cup of fine granulated sugar. In the measuring cup melt J4 cup oleo or crisco or lard. 2 level teaspoons of baking powder. put the lettuce in a with a tight cover in a cool place or under running water. Serve with one-half folded on top of the other like an omelet. cups salt codfish Wash and and Drain. stirring it well through the mixture. fill up the cup with milk. salt. pare the potatoes and cut them in uniform Pick salt cod in small pieces and drop the potatoes mash thoroughly and put pan until well browned on under Boil until the potatoes are soft. Mix ^ % .SUMMER MEALS box to get crisp. pepper and mustard and mix thoroughly. add egg. cover and allow to stand 10 minutes in order to cook the egg. fish into boiling water. Beet Salad Cut boiled beets in J^-inch cubes. dressing. J4 teaspoon of salt. When cool. Mix with boiled salad Boiled Salad Dressing cup milk 2 egg yolks or whole egg i teaspoon salt J^ cup vinegar 2 tablespoons flour teaspoon pepper yi teaspoon mustard 1 % Make smooth paste of flour with part of milk. Friday ^^^^ER SALT CODFISH HASH BEET SALAD CUP CAKES COLD COCOA Salted CodHsh Hash 3 cups potatoes 1% size. Set on back of stove. add vinegar. make the soup and dress the salad. Add }i teaspoon flavoring extract or teaspoon of spice.

Add Preparing the Meal Reheat graham mush which was started to cook the night before. make the salad. planning to have it baked about the time the evening meal served. add water and 2 cups milk stir until smooth. Add remaining milk. Make the toast.96 LOW COST COOKING with the dry ingredients and beat well 2 or 3 minutes. Make the cakes and while they are baking set the table. as it requires a cooler oven than the bread. Pour over hot toast and serve. Cut off the tops and save them to cook for greens. when Saturday - ^ . BREAKFAST GRAHAM MUSH WITH TOP MILK CREAM TOAST COFFEE Cream Toast 6 slices toast 2 tablespoons sugar I egg 2 tablespoons flour J4 cup water Mix the sugar and flour in stewpan. Cook the plums for Sunday is Mix lunch while bread is baking. . Add i cup milk and boil until thick. Set the table and finish the toast and coffee. stirring it well through the mixture. heat to boiling point and remove from fire. start the coffee and make the sauce for toast. Prepare the codfish and potatoes and put them on to cook J^ hour before meal time. Make plain rolls for this meal and sugar rolls for Sunday breakfast. Preparing the Meal Wash enough beets for salad and for lunch on. Bake in greased muffin tins in quick oven. Cook the beets immediately after breakfast. brown the codfish hash. For Chocolate Cake add 2 tablespoons cocoa in place of spice. Extra Baking the bread about the same time as on Wednesday. a beaten egg to the hot sauce. Use cocoa left from breakfast. so they will be cold needed. Saturday. and bake it first. Mix the spice cake for Sunday J/^ hour before the bread is ready to bake.

pared and cut into J^-inch pieces. With a sharp knife pare very thin. . pieces. peel.SUMMER MEALS Saturday 97 ^^NCH OR SUPPER PUREE OF BEANS AND TOMATOES RHUBARB MARMALADE Boiled Beans and Tomatoes 3 cups cooked navy beans 1 2 tablespoons drippings cup canned tomatoes i tablespoon minced onion I tablespoon minced parsley or celery if desired Salt and pepper to taste Add tomatoes to beans and boil J4 hour. Rhubarb Marmalade 3 pounds (6 cups) sugar 2 oranges Cut rhubarb into J^-inch off. Preparing the Meal Make rhubarb marmalade after breakfast is over and put away in sealed jars the part not to be used at once. . When done thicken the gravy with 2 tablespoons flour. Cover with cold water and cook slowly without boiling for 4 to 6 hours. in the drippings. the colored part of the lemon and orange Then cut this into small pieces and add to the rhubarb. prepare the seasoning and add it to the beans. Saturday DINNER LAMB STEW BEET GREENS COFFEE FOR ADULTS MILK FOR CHILDREN —BOILED RICE — with Rice Lamb Stew lyi 2 cups carrots pounds lamb or mutton Use lamb or mutton from shoulder. Cook onions and other seasonings Syi pounds rhubarb 2 lemons add to the beans. boiling J4 hour. Serve on large platter with a border of boiled or steamed rice. One-half hour before meal time start the beans and tomatoes and while they are cooking set the table. add sugar and boil very slowly 1% hours longer. cut into small pieces. divide into sections add this to mixture and cook. Remove remaining peel of the oranges and lemons. Three-quarters of an hour before meal time add carrots.

remove from the pan. using 3 pounds of the meat. Evaporate the water from the rice and season the greens and serve.98 LOW COST COOKING Beet Greens Wash greens carefully. This will make enough for Sunday also. One-half hour before meal time add them to the stew. Put greens on. Preparing the Meal table. and cook Make cinnamon tea. Preparing the Meal Three hours before meal time put the lamb on to stew. DINNER Sunday TURKISH PILAF HASHED SPINACH WITH EGG RHUBARB TAriOCA . Season with pepper and drippings. Wash ij4 cups of rice and put on to boil. in boiling salted water. Set the Wash the peaches and serve them whole in a fruit Fry the bacon. BREAKFAST Sunday WITH EGG TOAST FRESH PEACHES COFFEE FOR ADULTS CINNAMON TEA FOR CHILDREN FRIED BACON Fried Bacon with hot Egg into the Fry the bacon. Wash and pare carrots and cut in long. Break eggs and drop them whole fat. until tender. so that enough may be left over for Turkish Pilaf on Sunday. the dish. Cook on low fire without turning. narrow strips. Make the coffee and set the table. and thicken the gravy. Set aside the meat for Sunday. put milk on to heat. eggs. Cook i hour or more. Make the coffee and toast.

take it up. and bake until rhubarb is tender. and arrange the eggs. Serve hot or cold with milk. about 30 minutes. Wash the spinach and while it is cooking make the coffee and set the table. peeled and cut into half-inch pieces. Chop fine and season with 3 tablespoons drippings. Make the Pilaf. following the directions for hard cooked eggs. hour before meal time. Save the water in which the spinach was cooked for soup. and rhubarb. Hashed Spinach with Hard Cooked Egg Yi peck spinach 2 eggs spinach very carefully. Drain. as it contains valuable salts. . bake until brown in moderate oven. Serve the Pilaf in dish in which it was baked. and cook until transparent. add boiling water.SUMMER MEALS Turkish Pilaf 3 cups rice 1 5^ cups of tomatoes V/i cups water 2 cups meat. Season the spinach. Preparing the Meal Soak the tapioca over night and prepare this dish imme- diately after breakfast and set it aside to get cold. cook the eggs for the spinach. place ahernate layer of the mixture and of chopped meat in baking dish. Serve in vegetable dish with a border of hard cooked eggs cut into quarter sections. Leave the dessert in the ice box until the An stew first part of the dinner is eaten. Add sugar. Prepare the lamb left from Saturday by picking the meat from the bones and chopping it. using this with rice cooked on Saturday. and put in the oven 40 minutes before meal time. Lift the spinach out of the water. cover with bread crumbs. chopped 99 and cooked Mix rice with tomatoes and water. Apple Tapioca is made in the same way. Wash Rhubarb Tapioca 4 cups rhubarb J^ cup tapioca 2 cups sugar Soak the tapioca over night in cold water to cover. Cook in boiling salted water until tender.

Spice Cake cup dark brown sugar I cup cold water ij^ cups seeded raisins Yi cup drippings or crisco _ i teaspoon ground cinnamon _ Yz teaspoon ground cloves % nutmeg Y2 teaspoon salt Boil the above ingredients together three minutes. If the crumbs are not well moistened. Add the cheese to the . Preparing the Meal Twenty minutes before serving.lOO LOW COST COOKING SUPPER Sunday SPICE CAKE ENGLISH MONKEY STEWED CHERRIES English Monkey 54 cup cheese 4 cups bread crumbs Salt and pepper to taste 2 cups milk Heat the bread crumbs and milk. sifted with J4 teaspoon of baking powder. then cool. When cold stir in one teaspoon of soda dissolved in a little warm water. May I be served on toast. Bake as a loaf in a slow oven with the "Extra Baking" on Saturday. Monkey and while it is heating set the hot mixture and serve. add water. remove from fire and stir until cheese is melted. add cheese cut in small pieces. Add 2 cups of flour. Nuts are a pleasing addition. When hot. start English table.

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05 .30 .14 Split peas 2 lbs i $ .20 .24 .20 10 lbs Oranges . The prices quoted are those for the year 1914 in Chicago.20 $ . lb .20 .Yi doz $5. White flour Rye flour 49 lbs 3 lbs $1. Navy beans 3 lbs lb 2 lbs I $ . Seedless raisins I bu $ .. however.70 .20 . If the particular kinds mentioned in the menu cannot be bought at the price named some other kind cheaper that day can usually be found and used instead.20 i pk Lemons ...24 8 lbs Bananas .08 6 I lbs lb lb .16 . WINTER MENUS.40 .12 6 lbs Fresh apples . In the latter case.16 8 lbs Dried apricots . The cost would remain the same.45 . Cereals and Breadstuffs.08 . enough for a family consisting of a woman and six children under 14.12 .COST FOR ONE MONTH The following quantities are estimated as sufficient for a family of man..15 .60 2 lbs 2 doz i J4 pks I doz 2 Canned tomatoes .10 . Of course these vary greatly in different parts of the city.15 Rice (broken) Rice (whole) 3 lbs lb 2 lbs 2 lb i I $ .90 Prunes .20 .24 .15 Hominy Farina Barley OS .10 3 lbs Dried apples .06 Lima beans Lentils 2 lbs $74 2 lbs 3 lbs S lbs i lb Potatoes Sweet potatoes Turnips Rutabaga Cabbage Beets Carrots Onions Dates Figs Vegetables AND Fruits.06 $2-53 Legumes.18 .62 107 . Allowance is made for unavoidable loss in cooking and preparing but not for any waste of good food materials being thrown away.12 Kidney beans Black eyed peas .and prices of fruits and vegetables fluctuate from week to week and even from day to day.20 2 lbs 2 lbs . woman and four children over 4 and under The same amount of food would be 13 years of age. the menus should be modified to give more milk for the children and less meat will be needed.12 8 lbs Dried peaches .07 Graham flour 3 lbs Oatmeal (bulk) Cornmeal Cracked wheat 4 lbs .

. Eggs.63 1 lb . .28 •44 1.40 . qts $5.14 •30 .24 Round steak i^ Sugar Tapioca Black olives Coflfee IS lbs i lb i lb 4 lbs J4 lb 54 11> -06 Tea Cocoa .76 .40 1.42 1.84 .18 .20 8 lbs 4 lbs ...24 . .36 1. . Fats.60 •33 4 lbs 1 2 lb lbs •44 •IS ..60 Corn beef brisket. Etc.28 . 2 Fresh pork shoulder 3 I salt pork shoulder 8 Flank steak 4^ Calves' hearts salt pork Bacon strips Milk $ Fat lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs ij^ lbs 3 lbs 8 lbs lbs Codfish Salt fish 2 lbs 3 lbs Eggs Cheese Oleomargarine Suet Leaf fat Beef heart Beef for pot roast. 7 Beef for stew 4 Mutton for stew. 4 doz 2 lbs . . 70 Hamburger steak. io8 LOW COST COOKING Meats.

18 lbs lb 4 lbs 54 lb lb i $ .33 MiSCEUANEOUS.254 lbs 4 .60 . 2 lbs Codfish 3 lbs 6 lbs Beef for stew 6 Eggs Salad oil 8doz i qt $18.72 .10 . lbs Suet Oleomargarine 3 lbs Bacon strips Chopped meat 8 lbs 8 lbs 1. Milk Buttermilk Cottage cheese 70 qts 12 qts 109 $5. 2 Calves' hearts Round steak Veal for stew Flank steak .24 ..oo .30 .15 Neck bones Brains ...68 1.33 .. Eggs.18 .08 l.44 .10 16 cakes . .70 Total for the Month..21 American Lard cheese.50.68 .16 .15 Lamb for stew 3 lbs lbs 3 lbs ij^lbs 2lbs ij^lbs ij^lbs 3 lbs $ Mutton for stew.72 Tripe .10 .96 .55 .40 . Sugar Tapioca Coffee .lO Yeast Tea Cocoa Baking powder ^ $2..92 . Etc.36 .. 8 lbs Boneless ham butt.COST OF MENUS Meats. .90 . $29.20 .60 .30 .15 1. etc Salt $.06 Flavorings. Fats.35 lbs Beef for pot roast.24 .

HOME MADE The use free FIRELESS COOKER of a fireless cooker will save gas. straw. sawdust or crushed newspaper. For the top make a cushion of thin white with excelsior or paper. tightly all is Set the vessel to be used on this and pack the excelsior or paper around to the top of the kettle. slow cooking. sides sloping For a cooking vessel choose one with straight sides or upwards and a tight lid. Food is started cooking.00. Almost every housekeeper has some large box with a lid. then the kettle is tightly will and placed where be so shut out from the air is that the heat held until the food cooked. the grocer can supply a tall cheese box or a butter tub for lo cents. When the kettle be left into which it can be put again. A granite pail with lid will a tin do and may lard pail can be used. be bought for 30 cents. Pack the bottom of the box or tub with an 8-inch layer of excelsior. an old trunk or something of the sort which can be used. of asbestos paper as wide as the kettle is high Cut a strip and long enough to reach around it. box or tub and allow the down closely over no . The closed principle on which is it it is made is that of keeping in the heat. 5-pound Aluminum or granite stock pots A made for this purpose with clamped lids can be bought for 80 cents to $2. keep the kitchen from steam and heat and give excellent results with foods which require long. If not. Line the nest with lifted out a nest will this. cloth filled Make the cushion just large lid to enough fit to fill the top of the it.

FIRELESS COOKER III TIME TABLE FOR HOME-MADE FIRELESS COOKER Meats .

with seasoning such as mustard. They should be very carefully wrapped in oiled paper so they will not dry out. It is better to have each sandwich small as this makes them more appetizing. Sliced Meats. chopped fine. Dip one side of the bread to be used in the hot drippings. SANDWICHES Slice bread for sandwiches very thin. etc. sliced thin. Chopped Meats. 1. cut off some good slices for the next day's lunch. All leftover meats can be used in this way and made into tasteful sandwiches.. The following are some suggestions for making filling for sandwiches. etc.COLD LUNCHES If a cold lunch must be eaten by any member of the family. mutton. salad dressing. Home-cooked meats cost only about one- Ham. pork. it should be very carefully prepared and should have as much variety as possible. beef. A cold lunch soon becomes exceedingly distasteful if it is always the same. Each compartment should be lined with white paper fresh each day. fried crisp. or candy. much as the ready-cooked. lay the pieces of bacon inside. The lunch box or basket may be divided into two or four parts by making partitions of strips of pasteboard. third as 2. When such meat used for the family dinner.. The substantial part of the lunch must usually be sandwiches with fresh fruit if possible and sometimes cake or cookies. In this way different kinds of food can be kept separate and it will be possible to carry baked beans and salads of all kinds in one compartment where they will not injure the other foods. 112 . This is good with cornbread. is roast or boiled beef. 3. etc. Ham. Bacon. put in the filling and cut them the size and shape desired.

for this. Nut and ground Use dried nuts. Chopped or ground peanuts or other Fruit. 1 13 Lettuce. add a little mustard and vinegar. so that a good meal will be almost ready when the mother returns. or any other seasoning desired. Spread a leaf of lettuce with cooked salad dressing and place between slices of buttered bread. 7. Egg. or dates. Sweet Sandwiches. prunes. . moistened with hot drippings or butter. use cottage cheese instead of salad dressing. and other dishes requiring long cooking. fine. moistened with salad dressing or melted butter. Baked Beans. 8. and thick marmalade may be used spread between buttered bread. Mash the beans 10. dates. 6. Make bread. sweet green pepper chopped fine may be added. If the fire is not to be kept. Or. or lentils be left in the oven to be ready for the evening meal. raisins nuts.. It a layer of grated cheese between slices of buttered may be moistened with syrup. figs. They can be put into the cooker before the mother goes out to work and will cook while she is away. etc. The children can be instructed to put potatoes for baking in the oven an hour before meal time. or fried egg placed between pieces of bread. kettles of legumes with meat. . chopped fine and mixed with Cheese. meat soups. Many of the menus given require more of the housekeepers' attention and time than she can give if in addition to her own home keeping she must do outside work for the support of her family.SANDWICHES 4. can be cooked on the top of the stove or baked beans. a fireless cooker should be used for such dishes as these. figs. peas. stews. Hard-cooked egg chopped fine. If the fire is to be kept going all day during her absence. 5. Nut Sandwiches. 9. A WHEN THE MOTHER WORKS HOME OUTSIDE THE . or of cereal. or salad dressing. Mash the pulp of stewed fruit. and place between buttered bread.

at latest. This should be finished by 1 1 a. two children working at each bed at the same time. 10 A. On rising. Clean the sink. at latest. Insist that each child be washed and dressed before coming to the breakfast table. set bed rooms and sitting room in order. Wash hands and face and dress fully before starting to cook breakfast. M. Set the breakfast table neatly and all sit down to eat together. Rise. The older one may plan and have the others work under her direction. The beds may be left to air all day and made when school is over. open the beds and leave the bed clothing neatly spread out to air with the windows all open. put everything in place. M. After lunch is over wash these dishes at once so that the house will be in order again for the afternoon and there will be time to rest and play before time to start things cooking for the supper. m.114 LOW COST COOKING by themselves. and dust. Have each child do this for his own bed. Program for Work When Mother Is Away From Home Each child old enough to work must help as the housework is too much for one child under 14 years of age. one child washing. 6 :30 A. m. and sweep the kitchen. so that there will be time for rest or play before getting lunch. Bread with either hot or cold milk and fruit or jam makes a good lunch. — —Make the beds. or a creamed soup or creamed vegetable will which the children can re-heat for themselves or eat cold in the Summer. This much should be finished by 10 a. . brush up floors if necessary. The following may help some little housekeeper who wants to have the house in order when her mother returns tired out from the day's work. After breakfast wash dishes at once. If the children are to eat a lunch prepared it be wise to make milk an important part of the meal. During the part of the year when the children are going to school they should plan to do this much before dressing for school. in the Winter. another wiping and putting away.

To take this and make it beautifully is in- clean and teresting from germs ready to be used for food work and is pleasant when properly done. They should always be washed out immediately after using as they are hard to wash after drying. dirty dish A is fit for nothing. Dry and arrange neatly on pantry shelves. it. Fill cooking dishes which have had food burned in them with water in this in the empty newspaper. in pan of hot water with soap or soda. others in hot water. They must be boiled every few days to keep them from having unclean odors. Rinse in another pan containing clear hot water or pile on a rack and pour over them enough hot water to remove the dirty soapy water. There must Sugar sacks. Al- ways fill the kettle after taking water from also be clean dry towels for wiping the dishes. which the grocer sells 3 for 10 cents make excellent ones. cleanest articles first.DISH WASHING When children hate dish washing it is because they do not think about what an important and fine thing it is to take articles unfit for use and make them fit. free is Plenty of hot water with soap or soda necessary. Piling and Soaking all bits Scrape of food from dishes on to one plate and garbage pail which should be lined with same kind together and put to soak those that would otherwise be hard to wash. silver and cups. Washing Wash the "S . Rinse milk glasses with cold water and soak dishes containing egg or dough in cold water. Pile dishes of the which washing soda has been dissolved. glass. boil until they can be easily washed.

or open door using short strokes and holding the broom close to the floor so that the dust will fly about as little as possible. spread on the lower sheet. table legs and other parts of furniture partly hidden. Do not forget to wipe the dust off the rungs of the chairs. In winter snow may be scattered over dusty carpet to keep dust down. Open doors and windows. Sweep out the corners well and sweep towards the center of the room. A soft cloth makes the best duster. . the narrow one at the bottom. Spread on the upper sheet and the blankets or com8 or 9 inches longer at the top than the covers so that it may be turned back over them to protect them from getting dirty. Shake the duster out of window after using. Tuck all under the mattress with square corners.. and wash it often. Il6 LOW COST COOKING MAKING THE BEDS Turn the mattress over. pulling down tight without crease put the spread on evenly and lay the pillows on squarely. forters leaving the sheet SWEEPING AND DUSTING Before sweeping. stretchit ing very tight and tucking under the mattress. The broad hem of the sheet belongs at the top. Damp sawdust and coarse salt are also good for this purpose. see that no uncovered food is in the room or anything that dust will injure.

fruits. hot rolls. 7. liver. fruits. Fruits with hard seeds. Of these tea and coffee are the ones most likely to be given to children. These are some of the reasons why stimulants should not be given children (a) If a child is given stimulants he feels satisfied without food. unless these are put through a sieve or colander. milk and other wholesome foods which have little flavor. cucumbers. vegetables. Raw vegetables. Freshly baked bread. dried beef. tea and coffee. 2. Pie and pastry of all kinds. Stale or very ripe 8. such as ham. Fried vegetables of all kinds. If milk and eggs are freely given it is not necessary to give meat at all. and nuts. or minced chicken. such as onions. pork. Green corn and dried beans.: FEEDING AND CARE OF CHILDREN Many foods good for adults are very harmful to the weaker digestive system of a child. Since the menus given are planned for a family including children. meat broth. — and the result is that his growth is stunted. 1. A child's stomach can no more do the work of a man than his hands can do a man's work. Give a little scraped beef or mutton. most of the dishes given may be eaten by children over four years of age. stimulants. The food for a child under four requires more special attention and must be specially prepared. rich cake. or with a smaller amount than is needed. 6. 117 . corned beef. such as beer or any 9. or pickles. Strong acid 3. Raw bananas and preserved fruits. 5. radishes. Things a Child Under Four Must Not Eat Heavy meats. sausage. etc. (b) Coffee and tea having a pleasant flavor spoil the taste of the child for cereals. such as lemon and tomato. 4. Most important of all alcoholic beverages.

whole or mixed with water. A Food for a Child Under artificially One Year If a child must be fed or when the time comes. but should have regular meals and be given nothing between. ' healthy. Regular Habits child be taught what to eat but he must child needs food be carefully trained as to eating times. LOW COST COOKING it becomes more difficult for the mother to teach the child to eat the things necessary for his proper growth and development. . this number will not be harmful. A mashed through a strainer. but always at the end as a dessert. and cooked celery which have been clean. strained orange juice or prune juice. may now (d) Coffee and tea in excess weaken the nervous system and injure the heart. (c) Coffee and tea in excess affect the kidneys and be responsible for much of the kidney disease so common among children. carrot. at 6 to 9 months. and should be kept just as strictly as meal time. so as to spoil their appetite for supper. Never give candy or sweets between meals. when it needs other food in addition to or in place of its mother's milk. It should be something that will not tempt them to eat much. Not only must a A oftener than a grown-up person. several kinds of cereal after they are strained. Bad feeding at this time is exceedingly dangerous. His sleeping hours should be arranged to come between meals. the advice of a physician who is a specialist in the feeding of children should if possible be obtained. as the large number of deaths among small children show. School children need a light lunch after school. asparagus.Il8 Therefore. well grown child of one year can be given fresh milk. Bread or cold toast or fruit or milk is suitable. and a few vegetables such as spinach. child under four years needs at least four meals and if five meals suit the mother's arrangements better.

FEEDING AND CARE OF CHILDREN

119

it should be given prepare use a piece of lean meat cut like steak across the grain of the meat. In scrap-

When

a child

first

begins to have meat

scraped beef or mutton.

To

behind the tough

meat can be gotten out, leaving into pats and broil. The following sample diet shows the amount and kind of food necessary for young children.
ing, the substance of the
fibers.

Form

Menu

for Child iJ^ Years
7:00 A. M.

—Weight About 26 Pounds

2 tablespoons farina (measured raw)
J4 cup milk

2 tablespoons orange juice
10:00 A.
12 :30 P.

M. M.

I I

cup junket or milk
small baked potato
slice

I
I

^
2 :30 P.

bread and butter bacon cup milk
slice

S :30

egg yolk on toast crumbs slice bread 54 cup spinach pressed through strainer P. M. 2 tablespoons oatmeal (measured raw) J4 cup milk
I
I

M.

3 prunes

The farina and oatmeal must be cooked for at least 2 hours and the oatmeal should be strained. Prunes and spinach should be put through strainer. Prunes may be given mixed with the oatmeal. Junket makes the milk easier to digest. Directions for making on page 58. Cook the egg soft and use the soft yolk, hot, on the freshly toasted bread crumbs. Carrot, lettuce and celery, cooked soft and mashed through
a strainer,
the bacon

may

Bacon must be cut

may

be used instead of spinach. thin and fried crisp. The fat from be eaten with the bread instead of butter.

I20

LOW COST COOKING
for Child

Menu

2^

Years

—Weight About 30 Pounds

7 :oo A. M.

2 tablespoons oatmeal (measured raw)
Yi cup top milk 2 large prunes
I

cup milk

10 :oo A.

M.

J4 cup milk I slice toast J4 cup carrot pressed through strainer
I I

slice bacon cup milk I small baked potato I egg I small baked apple I teaspoon sugar Milk toast 6 :oo P. M. (2 slices toast, cup milk) 2j^ tablespoons hominy with milk (dry)

2 :oo P. M.

^

The same amount can be arranged
physicians are
onion, lettuce

now

in 3 or 5 meals. Some advising only three meals for children

even as young as 18 months.
or put through strainer,

Green beans and peas, spinach, and celery cooked soft and mashed fine

may

be used instead of carrots.

Orange

juice, ripe

mashed peaches, apple sauce and the
not too sour

juice of almost

all fruits

may be

used as well

as those named.

Importance of Breakfast for School Children

No
It is

meal

is

so important to school children as breakfast.

easy for the child to form the habit of running
all all

away

to school without eating at

or with only a cup of coffee.
to furnish

This leaves the child

morning with no food

the body with material for growth, and will surely have the
effect of stunting his growth.

A

cup of coffee

is

worse

than no breakfast at

body and makes
roll

it

because the coffee stimulates the wear out faster. Coffee with a sweet
all,

almost as bad, as the roll or cake contains only a small part of the nourishment the child needs.
is

or cake

A

breakfast of cereal and milk does not cost as

much

as coffee

and

rolls

and gives good material to grow on.

FEEDING AND CARE OF CHILDREN

121

A

It is the aim of every intelligent mother to learn how to save her children from needless illness. Many mothers would like a reliable test by which they may know whether their children are perfectly well and developing properly. pamphlet lately pubhshed by the National Children's Bureau gives these rules:

Every

A

child should show: steady gain in weight, height and intelligence. Good appetite clear skin ; bright, wide-open eyes ; contented expression.
;

Very little crying. Bowel movements of

the normal number, color and consistency. Quiet, unbroken sleep, with eyes and mouth tightly closed.
It adds that the way to secure these results is by giving children proper food at regular times, keeping them clean, giving them plenty of sleep at regular hours, fresh air day and night, and training them in regular habits of living. If a child is not growing and gaining steadily in weight there is something wrong and the mother should try to find out what it is. The following list will give an idea of the weight and height a child of a certain age should have

attained.

AVERAGE WEIGHT AND HEIGHT OF CHILDREN.

'

— Pounds —
Girls
19.8

— Inches —
Girls 29.0 32.5 35.0 38.0 41-7 44-0 46.2 48.2
50.1 52.2

Boys
1

Boys

2 3 4
5

6
7 8

9
10
11

12 13 14 15 16 years

year years years years years years years years years years years years years years years

20.5 26.5

287
32.5 35.0 38.0 41-4 43-6 45.9 48.0 49.6 51.8 53-8

312
35-0 41-2
45-1

25.5 30.0

340
39-8 43-8

49-5

480
52-9 57.5 64.1
70.3 81.4 91.2 100.3 108.04

S4S
60.0 66.6 72-4 79-8 88.3 99-3 110.08

S40
SS-8 58.2 61.0 63.0 65.6

S7i
58.7 60.3 61.4

1237

"30

617

Low . C. Canned Fruits.122 LOW COST COOKING GOVERNMENT BULLETINS Send to the Department of Agriculture. Cost Recipes. Economical Use of Meats in the Home. Corn Meal as Food and Ways of Using It. Bread and Bread Making. 10 cents. D. No.50 (cloth edition). 80 cents. $1. Washingfton. Lessons in Cooking Through Preparation of Meals. Gibbs. Jacobs. No. Preparation of the Vegetable for the Table. Free. Preserves and Jellies. American School of Home Economics. 20 cents. 391 256 203 389 565 Other Bulletins and Books Freehand Cooking on Scientific Principles. No. Robinson and Hammel. Housekeeping Notes. American School of Home Economics. 75 cents. No. Kittredge. Economical Cooking for Two. No.

37 Scrambled with Eggs. etc. 77 Braising. 95 Beets. 44 Buying. 17 Balanced Diet. 82.. Cost Caramel. 85 Cake. 15 Cabbage. 24 Drop. 26 Graham. 93 Stew. 67 Carrots. 34 Soup. 22 White. 80 100 Calves' Heart. 13 Baking Powder. 37 Peas. 53 Bakery Foods. 81 Beverages.INDEX Accounts. 72 Babies' Food. 22 Rye. 41 String. Economy In. 11 In Quantity. 99 Apricots. 58 Broiling. 40 Boiled with Meat. 55 Cream Candy. 22 Corn. Boiled. Nut. 55 Spice. 39 Bed Making. Canned Goods. 63 Candy. 49 With Cheese. 33 Sugar Syrup. 34 Heart. 22 Bread. Scotch. 56 Syrup. 40 Potatoes. 58 Sauce. 37 Braised Cutlets. 91 Fish. 69 Jelly. 22 Breakfast Foods. Baked. 77 Beans. 32 Beet Greens. 40 Brains. 45 Bran Bread. 44 Pickled. 45 Klce. 33 Brown Betty. 73 Soup. Cost of. Fried. Keeping. 53 Grary. 83 123 . 14 Baking Powder Biscuits. 116 Beef a la Mode. 37 Cambric Tea. 70 of. Boiled Beans with Meat. 23 Cobbler. 93 StutEed. 79 Browned Parsnips. 62 Apple Baked with Kaisins. Dutch. 58 Buttered. 8 Banana. 71 61 Sauce. 50. 24 Graham. Fried. 67 Beans with Tomatoes. 39 Creamed Kidney. 85 Banana. 52 Polenta. 85 Cake. 38 Potatoes. 53. Bran. 68 Stew with Vegetables. 24 Proportions Used. Hashed. 48 Boston Baked Beans. 27 Brittle. 46. 21 Rhubarb. 71 Boiled with Tomatoes. Dried. Whole Wheat. 98 Salad. Baked. 87 Tapioca. 30 Salad Dressing. 44 Salad. Creamed. 63 Biscuits. 33 Baked Apple. 40 Croquettes. 58 Junket. 37 Steak. 77 Bean and Tomato Soup. 118 Bacon. 39 Eggs. 6 Appetizers. 35 Broth. 52 Beans.

28 Prices of. 38 English Monkey. 34 Pone. 13 Fruits. 9 Protein for. 94 Cooking of. 35 . 69 Cocoa. 28 Fats. 38 Scrambled. 44 Croquettes. Balanced. Table of. 63 Drinks. 33 Dusting. 92 With Date Sauce. 42 Soups. 9 Weight and Height of. 95 Creamed Carrots. Time Table for. 82 Corn Bread. 91 Cheese in Cream Gravy. 11 Eggs. 62. 116 Menus for Young. Oatmeal. 37 Salad. 81 Corn on Cob. Program for. Economical. 56 Cream of Bean Soup. 37 Cakes. Coddled. 115 Dressing for Fish.. Baking Powder. 113 Work. 110 Flreless Cooking. 69 Cucumber Pickle. 45 Children. 114 Chocolate Cake. 117 Fig Preserves. 61 Pigs. 107 Cottage Pudding. 62 Food. 25 Tea. 118 Economy in Buying. 111 Fish. 66 Feeding of Children. 8 Dishwashing. 100 Farina Mush. 95 Coffee. 116 Eating. Summer. 62 Cereal Drinks. Braised. 34 Cinnamon Rolls. etc. 77 Broiled. 39 With Potatoes. Cost of. Dried Apple. 84 Scrambled with Potatoes. 62 Shells. 51 Navy Bean Soup. 64 Coddled Eggs. 50 Cruist for Cobbler. 22 Rolls. 44 Potatoes. 95 Flank Steak. 42 Salt Pork. Home-made. 67 Cake. 112 Composition of Foods. 42 With Beans. 56 Desserts and Sweets. 70 Kidney Beans. Feeding and Care of. 78 Fireless Cooker. 38 Scrambled with Tomatoes. 64 Cereals. 36 Croutons. 26 Southern. 57 Corn Beef with Vegetables. 53 Drinks for Children. 66 Mush. 94 Sauce. 69 Apricots and Peaches. 57 Bran. 12 LOW COST COOKING Lima Beans. 62 Cup Cakes. 94 Codfish Hash. 12. Tomato. 72 Foods. Habits of. 54 Sauce. 41 Meat. 7. 63. 64 Dumplings for SteW|S. 48 Dried Apple Cobbler. 41 Onions. 73 Cobbler. Baked. 56 Chopped Meats. 85 Salt Fish. Stewed. 96 Cream Pudding. 23 Cold Lunches. 76 Vegetables. 121 Children's Drinks. 45 Rutabaga. 53 Flavoring for. 50 Cream Toast. Cooking. 71 Corn Meal Griddle Cakes. 51 Lima Bean Soup. 26 Cost of Month's Menus.124 Catsup. 55 Diet. 119 Milk for. 26 Shortened. 16 Cookies.

etc. 26. 56 58 Corn Meal Mush. 40 Stew. 19 Kohlrabi. 36 Scalloped.INDEX Flavor. 24 Graham. 42 Lima Beans with Barley. 45 Spinach. 23 Ice Cream. 54 Oatmeal. 78 Salt Pork. Fried. 82 28. 54 Toast. In Cooking. 23 Bran. With 97 Legumes. Sauce. 93 With Cheese. 14 Flavoring for Desserts. 87 Ham with Peas. 7 Furnishing Minerals. Lentil. 77 Bean Succotash. 25 Graham Lettuce and Green Onion Salad. 112 Making Beds. 27 Loaf. 93 Toast. 36 Soup. 33 Rice.. 37 44 Meats. 16 For Building and Bepalr. 21 Greens. 7. 23 Indian Pudding. 41 Kitchen Utensils. Caramel. For Babies. 119 Summer. 34 Croquettes. Cold. 98 Fried Calves. etc. 57. 19 French Salad Dressing. Steamed. 37 Lemon Jelly. Date and Prune. 113 Foods. Rhubarb. 23 Minerals. 72 Grain Products. 87 Potatoes. Berry. Hominy Baked with Mush. 46 Griddle Cakes. 85 Pie. 41 Junket. 22 Mush. Composition of.. 59 Sour. 24 . 68 Mashed Habits of Eating. Hashed Cabbage. 83 Bread. 20 Meat Balls. 37 With Tomatoes. 44 Heart. 56 Lima Bean Puree. 25 Corn. 40 Lunch for School Children. 58 Jellies. 104 Winter. 118 Luncheon. 6 125 Jam. 47 Hashed. Cost of. 45 Measurements in Cooking. 94 lightning Cake. 47 Lentils with Rice. 29 Ginger Bread. etc. 27 Fried Bacon Strips. 61 Potatoes. 93 Kidney Bean Loaf. 87 Lamb Stew. 78 Hot Breads. Food Furnishing. 29 Lunches.. 88 Lentil Loaf. 65 For Young Children. 99 Turnips. Cereal Dishes. 10 Muffins. 117 For the Child. 93 Stuffed. 31 Menus. 8 Furnishing Energy. 118 For Children. Beet. 40 etc. 59 Puddings. 35. 36 Loaf. 25 Rice. 80 Biscuits. 61 60 Jungle Stew. 118 Hamburger Steak. Heart. 59 Fruit Ice. 65 Food and the Body. 76 Frozen Desserts. Kohlrabi. 101 Milk for Children. 90 Stale Bread. 29 Hominy Mush. 67 With Eggs. 116 Marmalade. 35. 9 Cheese. Fried..

76 Proportion to Use. 40 Pickled Beets. Browned. 56 Savory Rice. Meat. 61 Prune Rolls. 28 Oleomargarine. 85 Dressing. 87 Rhubarb and Fig Preserves. 8 For Adults. Chocolate. 9 Prune and Date Jam. 86 Tapioca. 24 Fanbroiled Flank Steak.. 37 Poached Eggs. 93 Salads. 61 Mush. 79 Eye. 53 Rice. 13. 90 Muffins. 24 Soup.. 35 Pantry. 77 Pea. 30. 30 Griddle Cakes. 95 Pork in Milk Gravy. 30 Scalloped Meat. 53 Marmalade. 35 Boujid Steak. 73 Potato Cakes. 56 Raisins. 40 Green. 29 With Potatoes. 34 With Vegetables. Cabbage. 36 Pllaf. 28 Cookies. 44 Potatoes. 79 Steamed.126 LOW COST COOKING Pudding. 23. 14 Onions. 89 Preserves. 80 With With With With With With Cheese. 22 Rutabagas. 97 Rice. 29 Nut Brittle. Chocolate. 51 Bice. 7 Scalloped. 70 Muffins. 33 Navy Bean Soup. 29 Plain Cake. 47 With Carrots. 22 Muffins. 35 Onions. 30 Lentils. 68 Riced Potatoes. The. 81 Pickles. Fmit. 52 Navy Beans with Bice. 99 Puree of Lima Beans. 60 Protein. 54 Tapioca. Turkish. 54 Cottage. 86 Soup. 56 Indian. 44 Peas. Boiled. 44 Pot Roast. Scalloped. 19 Parsnips. 27 Bean. 48 Salt Fish Hash. 52 Potatoes. 23. Cooking. 53 Soup. 112 Sauce. 30 Tomatoes. 62 Pie. 48 Dressing. Cereal. 26. Stewed. 36 Meats. 28 Mutton Stew. 87 Rolls. 30. 55 Planked Fish. 19 For Children. 44 . 53 Steamed Fruit. 41 Pudding. 22 Sandwiches. etc. 76 White Flour. 57 Quick Cup Cakes. 56 Oatmeal. 23 Mush. 44. 44 Baked. 58 Nutmeg Sauce. 61 Sauce. Creamed. 38 Polenta. 24 Blee and Corn Meal. 76 Salad. Baked. 82 Rarebit. 36 Stewed Fruit. etc. Rice and Cheese. 89 With Ham. 53 29 Navy Beans. 29 With Baislnis. French. 85 Rye Bread.

41 With Vegetables. 33 Scrambled Eggs. 27 Turkish Pilaf. 62 White Bread. 115 Watermelon Rind Pickle. etc. 96 French. 23 Southern Corn Bread. 80 Tomatoes. 36 Veal Stew. 71 Thickening. 84 Tripe. 37 Succotash. 84 Setting the Table. 100 Spinach. 89 Stewed Figs. Braised. 68 Oatmeal. 88. 43 Washing Dishes. 32 Vegetables. 29 Rice. 64 Menus. 42 Suet Pudding. in Cooking. 77 Hamburger. 73 String Beans. 22 Winter Meals. 26 Cream. 41.INDEX Salt Fish. 99 Split Pea Loaf. 73 Toast. 71 Spice Cake. 85 Whole Wheat Bread. 63. 64. 17 Toast. 78 Raisins. 79 Soups. 37 Pan Broiled. 43 Yeast Bread. 48 Tomatoes Scalloped. 116 Sweet Potatoes. 104 Vegetables. 41. 30. 62 Salad. 46 Supper Cereal Dishes. 27 Tea. 18 Tapioca. Beef. 91 With Carrots. 38 Soup. 21 Sauce. 54 Eice. Apple.. Brown Sugar. 99 Tea. 88 Steak. 82 Stews. 84 Scotch Broth. 21 . Proportions of Flour for. 27 Milk. 101 Vegetables. 35 Steamed Fruit Pudding. 42. 71 Tomato Catsup. 67 Table Setting. Thick. 18 Sherl^pt. 70 Sauce. 57 Summer Drinks. 29 127 Sweeping and Dusting. 27. 32 Vegetable Stew. 79 Caramel. 51 Milk. 46 With Eggs. 81 Cream Soup. 73 Vegetables. 59 Soft Cooked Eggs. 66 Menus. 68 Cinnamon. Cooking. 46 Syrup. 49 Sour Beets. 47 Stuffed Heart.

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