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REHS1438-03 March 2004

Special Instruction
i02066887

Installation and Initial Start-Up Procedure for G3500C and G3500E Engines
SMCS Code: 1000

Introduction
Do not perform any procedure in this Special Instruction until you read this information and you understand this information. This Special Instruction provides the following information for G3500C and G3500E Engines:

Electric Power Generation G3516C (S/N: RWA1-Up; TJB1-Up; TJC1-Up; DKR1-Up) G3516E (S/N: GHP1-Up; SLY1-Up) G3520C (S/N: GDB1-Up; GHC1-Up; GHE1-Up; B9P1-Up; CWW1-Up; CWY1-Up) G3520E (S/N: HAL1-Up; GHM1-Up; GHR1-Up; SXY1-Up)

Requirements for the electrical system Proper grounding practices Proper welding practices Required service tools Electrical components and electronic components Wiring connections and the corresponding
1 2 2 3 3 5 6 9 10 11 14 16 17 19 22 23 25 27 functions that are available to the customer

Table of Contents
Introduction ........................................................... Requirements for the Electrical System ................ Grounding Practices ............................................. Welding on Electronically Controlled Engines ...... Service Tools ........................................................ Connecting Cat ET with the 171-4401 Communication Adapter II ............................... Terminal Box ......................................................... Junction Box ......................................................... Customers Wiring ................................................ Required Connections ....................................... Optional Connections ........................................ Unused Terminals ............................................. Wiring for the Emergency Stop Circuit .............. Wiring for the Gas Shutoff Valve (GSOV) ......... Wiring for Monitoring the Generators Output Power .............................................................. Inputs for the Modes of Operation ..................... Initial Start-Up Procedure ..................................... Adjusting the Governor .........................................

Initial start-up procedure Governor adjustment procedures


Reference: Information from the following sources will be needed for this Special Instruction:

Data from a complete fuel analysis that is entered


into Caterpillar Software, LEKQ6378, Methane Number Program engines Technical Marketing Information (TMI)

The engines performance Data Sheet from the Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7681 Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting,
RENR5978

Troubleshooting, RENR5944, G3516C and


G3516E Engines G3520E Engines

Troubleshooting, RENR5979, G3520C and

Requirements for the Electrical System


All of the wiring must conform to all of the codes that are applicable to the site. When you route the wiring, avoid acute bends and sharp edges. To protect the wiring harnesses, route the harnesses through metal conduit. A liquid tight conduit is recommended. Use proper support and alignment in order to avoid strain on the conduit. Electrical power must be supplied to the junction box that serves as the main distribution panel for the engine control system. The engine control system requires a clean 24 VDC power supply that is capable of supplying 30 amperes of continuous power. The maximum allowable AC ripple is 150 millivolts AC peak to peak. For the wiring, the maximum allowable voltage drop is 1 VDC from the power supply to an Electronic Control Module (ECM) or to an actuator. The power supply for the engine control system must be separate from the power supply for the starting motor.

Grounding Practices
Proper grounding is necessary for optimum engine performance and for reliability. Improper grounding will result in electrical current paths that are uncontrolled and unreliable. Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing journal surfaces, and to aluminum components. Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can also cause electrical activity that may degrade the engine electronics and communications.

For the starting motor, do not attach the battery


negative terminal to the cylinder block.

Use an electrical ground strap to connect all

metal cases that contain electrical components or electronic components to the cylinder block. electrical power supply directly to the cylinder block. Connect the negative terminal from the electrical power supply to the negative terminal on the engine mounted junction box. is furnished by the customer. Connect this ground strap to the ground plane. negative terminal for the control system to the ground plane.

Do not connect the negative terminal from the

Ground the cylinder block with a ground strap that

Use a separate ground strap to ground the battery

Rubber couplings may connect the steel piping of

the cooling system and the radiator. This causes the piping and the radiator to be electrically isolated. Ensure that the piping and the radiator are continuously grounded to the cylinder block. Use ground straps that bypass the rubber couplings. corrosion.

Ensure that all grounds are secure and free of

Welding on Electronically Controlled Engines


Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to avoid damage to electronic controls. Perform welding on the engine according to the following procedure. 1. Set the engine control to the STOP mode. 2. Turn OFF the fuel supply to the engine. 3. Disconnect the negative terminal from the battery. 4. Disconnect the engines electronic components from the wiring harnesses: ECM, throttle actuator, actuator for the turbocharger compressors bypass, fuel metering valve, and sensors. 5. Protect the wiring harnesses from welding debris and/or from welding spatter. NOTICE Do NOT use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for grounding the welder. 6. Connect the welders ground cable directly to the engine component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the possibility of welding current damage to the engine bearings, to the electrical components, and to other engine components. 7. Use standard welding procedures to weld the materials together.

Service Tools
The tools that are listed in Table 1 are required in order to enable a service technician to perform the electrical installation procedures and the initial start-up. The Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET) is designed to run on a personal computer. Cat ET can display the following information:

Parameters Diagnostic codes Event codes Engine configuration Status of the monitoring system
Cat ET can perform the following functions:

Perform diagnostic tests. Calibrate sensors. Download flash files. Set parameters.
Table 1 is a list of required service tools.

Table 1

Service Tools Pt. No. N/A JERD2124 JERD2129 171-4400 7X-1414 237-7547 8T-8726 151-6320 1U-5804 146-4080 7X-1710 156-1060 or 156-1070
(1)

Description Personal Computer (PC) Software Software Communication Adapter Gp Data Link Cable As Adapter Cable As Adapter Cable As Wire Removal Tool Crimp Tool Digital Multimeter Multimeter Probes Emission Analyzer Tool

Functions The PC is required for the use of Cat ET. Single user license for Cat ET Use the most recent version of this software. Data subscription for all engines This group provides the communication between the PC and the engine. This cable connects the communication adapter to the service tool connector on the engine. This cable connects to the USB port on computers that are not equipped with a serial port. This cable is for use between the jacks and the plugs of the sensors. This tool is used for the removal of pins and of sockets from Deutsch connectors and AMP connectors. This tool is used for work with electrical connectors. The multimeter is used for the testing and for the adjusting of electronic circuits. The probes are used with the multimeter to measure voltage in wiring harnesses without disconnecting the harnesses. This tool is used to measure the level of emissions in the engines exhaust. The 156-1060 measures the levels of four different compounds. The 156-1070 measures the levels of six different compounds. Either tool may be used.

(1)

The 7X-1700 Communication Adapter Gp may also be used.

Note: For more information regarding the use of Cat ET and of the PC requirements for Cat ET, refer to the documentation that accompanies your Cat ET software.

Connecting Cat ET with the 171-4401 Communication Adapter II


The engines battery supplies the communication adapter with 24 VDC. Use the following procedure to connect Cat ET to the engines control system. 1. Set the engine control to the OFF/RESET mode.

2. Connect cable (2) to the RS-232 serial port of PC (1). Note: If your PC is not equipped with a serial port, use the 237-7547 Adapter Cable As in order to connect to the USB port. Connect one end of the adapter to the end of cable (2). Connect the other end of the adapter to a USB port on the PC. 3. Connect cable (2) to communication adapter (3). 4. Connect cable (4) to communication adapter (3). 5. Connect cable (4) to cable (5). 6. Connect cable (5) to the service tool connector on terminal box (6). 7. Set the engine control to the STOP mode. The engine should be OFF. If Cat ET and the communication adapter do not communicate with the ECM, refer to Troubleshooting, Electronic Service Tool Will Not Communicate With ECM. 20 Cylinder Engines For 20 cylinder engines, if Cat ET displays Duplicate Type on data link. Unable to Service, check the harness code for the slave ECM. The harness inside terminal box (6) has a jumper wire (harness code) that connects terminals J3-29 and J3-60. The ECM that is connected to the harness reads the harness code. This allows the ECM to operate as the slave ECM. The jumper wire must be connected in order for the Cat ET to communicate with the modules. The jumper wire must be connected in order for the engine to crank. The jumper wire must remain connected in order for the engine to run.

Illustration 1 Left side view

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(1) PC (2) 196-0055 Serial Cable or the 160-0141 Serial Cable (3) 171-4401 Communication Adapter II (4) 207-6845 Adapter Cable (5) 7X-1414 Data Link Cable (6) Terminal box

Check the continuity between terminals J3-29 and J3-60. Verify that the jumper wire is in good condition. Make repairs, as needed.

Note: Items (2), (3), and (4) are part of the 171-4400 Communication Adapter Gp.

Terminal Box
Note: The terminal box is designed to remain mounted on the engine. The mounting hardware includes isolators. Do not move the terminal box to a remote location. Moving the terminal box could result in wiring problems and in reduction of the service life of the components inside the terminal box.

Terminal box (6) contains the electronic control modules. Connectors on the back of the terminal box connect the engines wiring harnesses to components inside the terminal box. The ignition harnesses are routed directly from each ECM to the ignition transformers.

Illustration 2 Rear view (6) Terminal box (7) Emergency stop button

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Illustration 3 shows the components that are inside of the terminal box of a 16 cylinder engine.

Illustration 3 Components inside the terminal box on a 16 cylinder engine (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) ECM Ground strap for the ECM ECM connectors J2/P2 ECM connectors J1/P1 Ignition harness (6) J10/P10 connector for the terminating resistor for the CAN data link (7) Service tool connector J5 for Cat ET (8) J6 connector for the customer (9) J9 connector for the engine harness

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(10) J7 connector for the engine harness (11) J8 connector for the detonation sensors

Illustration 4 shows the components that are inside of the terminal box on a 20 cylinder engine.

Illustration 4 Components inside the terminal box on a 20 cylinder engine (1) Master ECM (2) Slave ECM (3) Ground strap for the master ECM (4) J3/P3 connectors for the slave ECM (5) Master ECM connectors J2/P2 (6) J4/P4 connectors for the slave ECM (7) Master ECM connectors J1/P1 (8) Ground strap for the slave ECM (9) Ignition harness for the left bank (10) Ignition harness for the right bank (11) Service tool connector J5 for Cat ET (12) J10/P10 connectors for the terminating resistor for the CAN data link

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(13) J6 connector for the customer (14) J9/P9 connectors for the engine harness (15) J7/P7 connectors for the engine harness (16) J8/P8 connectors for the detonation sensors

Junction Box
The junction box serves as the main distribution panel for the engines electrical power. The junction box contains all of the circuit breakers for the engine. The junction box also contains the magnetic switches for the electric starting motors. Illustration 5 shows the junction box.

Illustration 5 The junction box is located on left side of the engine. (1) Junction box (2) 2.5 amp circuit breaker for the engine control (3) 10 amp circuit breaker for the customer (4) 35 amp circuit breaker for the engine controls main power supply (5) 2.5 amp circuit breaker for the start command from the ECM

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(6) Positive terminal for the connection of the engines power supply (7) Negative terminal for the connection of the engines power supply

Customers Wiring
To properly wire the engine for the requirements of the specific application, the customer must be aware of several inputs and outputs that are associated with the engines control system. The following list includes some examples of the inputs and outputs:

Some of the wiring connections are required. Some of the wiring connections are optional. The connections that are required are identified in Table 2. The connections that are optional are identified in Table 3.

Emergency stop Electrical power supply for the control system Start-up and shutdown Engine speed and governing Status of engine operation
The 9X-7147 Connector Plug is available for the customer in order to fabricate a wiring harness to the customer connector on the engine mounted terminal box. A 16 to 18 AWG size of wire may be used. The 9X-7147 Connector Plug mates with the J6 connector on the back of the terminal box. Refer to Illustration 6.

Illustration 6 40pin J6 connector

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Note: The 40pin connector is secured with a retaining bolt that is tightened to a torque of 2.25 0.25 Nm (20 2.00 lb in).

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Required Connections
Table 2

40-Pin Connector J6 Required Connections Terminal 10 20 Description Emergency stop Digital return Functions and Comments Terminal 10 is provided as an option for a customer supplied emergency stop button. Terminal 10 must be connected to terminal 20 in order for the engine to run. If this circuit is open, the engine will not start. When this circuit is opened during operation, an emergency stop shutdown is activated: If the ECM is controlling the gas shutoff valve, the ECM will de-energize the gas shutoff valve. The fuel is immediately shut off. The ignition is immediately shut off. For details, refer to Wiring for the Emergency Stop Circuit. 36 Digital return This terminal provides a ground for the following switch inputs from the customer. Some of the inputs are required and some of the inputs are optional. Auto Start/Run Stop Timing setting On/Off grid Driven equipment Normal stop Idle/rated input 21 31 Fuel control relays +Battery Fuel control relays +Battery The Gas Shutoff Valve (GSOV) may be controlled by the engines control system or by the customers equipment. For details on these terminals, refer to Wiring for the Gas Shutoff Valve (GSOV). 9 Driven equipment This input indicates when the driven equipment is ready for operation. This input must be connected to terminal J6-36 in order for the engine to run. When this input is connected to terminal J6-36, the engine can be started. When this input is not connected to terminal J6-36, the engine will not crank. An event code will be generated if this input is not connected to terminal J6-36 within a period of time that can be programmed with Cat ET. If the engine is running and this input is disconnected from terminal J6-36, the ECM will immediately shut down the engine by removing the voltage from the GSOV. The fuel supply is immediately shut off. The engine cooldown will not occur.
(continued)

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(Table 2, contd)

40-Pin Connector J6 Required Connections Terminal 29 19 Start/Run Stop Description Functions and Comments If these inputs are not wired correctly, the ECM will activate a diagnostic code. These inputs are provided by the customers equipment. The inputs control the engines mode of operation. The transitions between the inputs must occur within 1/10 second. These inputs must return through terminal J6-36. When terminal 29 is grounded to terminal J6-36, the normal sequence for start-up is initiated. After start-up, the engine will continue to run. If the engine is running and terminal 19 is grounded to terminal J6-36, the sequence for a normal shutdown is initiated. If the cooldown is programmed, the engine operates for the cooldown period prior to shutdown. 40 Idle/Rated Input This input must be grounded to terminal J6-36 in order for the engine to run at rated speed. When this input is open, the engine will run at the idle speed that is programmed with Cat ET. When the engine oil pressure is greater than the setpoint for the engine speed and this terminal is grounded to terminal J6-36, the engine will run at rated speed. 30 Normal stop This input must be grounded to terminal J6-36 in order for the engine to run. The grounding of terminal 19 to terminal J6-36 is recommended for normal shutdown. If this input is not grounded to terminal J6-36, the engine will not crank. If the engine is running and the circuit is opened, the engine will shut down. If the ECM is controlling the gas shutoff valve, the ECM will remove the voltage from the GSOV. The engine will shut down. The cooldown does not operate. If the customers equipment is controlling the GSOV, the customers equipment must remove the voltage from the GSOV. The engine will shut down. The cooldown does not operate. No diagnostic codes or event codes are provided for this input. Because the cooldown will not operate for this input, this input is not recommended for normal shutdown.
(continued)

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(Table 2, contd)

40-Pin Connector J6 Required Connections Terminal 4 14 Description Unswitched +Battery (2.5 amp) Switched + Battery Functions and Comments These terminals provide the primary source of switched electrical power to the engine control system. The unswitched 24 VDC is always available as an output at terminal 4 when the 2.5 amp circuit breaker in the junction box is switched ON. The output is intended for use by a customer supplied engine control switch. The engine control switch provides the 24 VDC through terminal 14 to the following components during operation in the Auto mode, in the Start/Run mode, and in the Stop mode: Master ECM Slave ECM (if equipped) Integrated Temperature Sensing Module (ITSM) Fuel metering valve For more information on these terminals, refer to Inputs for the Modes of Operation. 3 13 Kilowatt signal Return If the generator is equipped with an EMCP II+ system, these terminals are not used. These terminals are only required if the customer supplies a wattmeter for monitoring of the generators output power. For more information, refer to Wiring for the Generators Output Power. Desired Speed Input The desired speed input may be supplied by a 0 to 5 V analog signal or by a 4 to 20 mA signal. The method for the desired speed input must be selected with Cat ET. 5 +5 V for the speed potentiometer The ECM provides the +5 V supply to the potentiometer. The potentiometer provides the signal input for the desired speed. The signal input ranges from 0 to 5 volts. Provide an input of 0 VDC for minimum high idle. Provide an input of 5 VDC for maximum high idle. It is not necessary to use a potentiometer. The 0 to 5 V signal may be provided by a PLC or by a load share control. The 4 to 20 mA is an optional method for providing the desired speed input. If the 4 to 20 mA method is used to control the desired speed, the 0 to 5 V input for the speed must be disabled. Provide an input of 4 mA for minimum high idle. Provide an input of 20 mA for maximum high idle. The 4 to 20 mA is an isolated input. The positive + input must be in the same circuit as the negative - input.

25 15 35 37 27

Signal + Return Shield 4 to 20 mA desired speed (+ input) 4 to 20 mA desired speed ( input)

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Optional Connections
Table 3

40-Pin Connector J6 Optional Connections Terminal 1 11 Fused 24 VDC -Battery Description Functions and Comments This connection provides a fused 24 VDC power supply for the customer. The electrical power is provided to terminal 1 via the junction box. The electrical power is always available when the 10 amp circuit breaker in the junction box is switched ON. This connection can provide a maximum of 10 amperes. 39 Auto If this input is not wired correctly, the master ECM will activate a diagnostic code. The transitions for the input must occur within 1/10 second. This input must return through terminal J6-36. When terminal 39 is grounded to terminal J6-36, the master ECM is ready to start the engine. For a remote start input, the customer must provide an additional switch between terminal J6-36 and terminal 29 (Start/Run). When this method is used, the normal sequence for start-up is initiated. When the remote start switch is opened, a normal shutdown is initiated. If the cooldown is programmed, the engine operates for the cooldown period prior to shutdown. 24 Fuel control relays return If the engine harness connector for the GSOV is not used, this terminal is an option for a customer supplied harness to the solenoid for the GSOV. The customer may connect a harness between this terminal and terminal J6-21. For details, refer to Wiring for the Gas Shutoff Valve (GSOV). 28 On/Off grid If the generator will be connected to a grid, this input must be used. This input changes the generators Grid Status parameter to ON or to OFF. When this terminal is not grounded to terminal J6-36, the Grid Status is OFF. The engines control system governs the engine according to the Governor Gain parameters. When this terminal is grounded to terminal J6-36, the Grid Status is ON. The engines control system governs the engine according to the Auxiliary Governor Gain parameters.
(continued)

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(Table 3, contd)

40-Pin Connector J6 Optional Connections Terminal 23 Engine failure Description Functions and Comments The engines control system will activate this output when the control system causes the engine to be shut down. When this output is activated, this output is connected to ground. This output is capable of sinking 0.3 amperes. 32 Crank terminate The engines control system activates this output when the engines rpm increases to the crank terminate speed. The crank terminate speed can be programmed with Cat ET. This output remains activated until the engines rpm is reduced to zero. When this output is activated, this output is connected to ground. This output is capable of sinking 0.3 amperes. 8 Desired timing This input is provided in order to control the base timing of the engine. When this input is an open circuit, the engine control will use the First Desired Timing. When this input is grounded to terminal J6-36, the engine control will use the Second Desired Timing. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting for additional information on the Desired Timing parameters. 33 Active alarm This output is activated if the engines control system detects an alarm condition. During an alarm condition, this output is connected to ground. This output is capable of sinking 0.3 amperes. 22 Run relay This output is activated when the engine begins to crank. The output remains active until the beginning of engine shutdown. When this output is activated, this output is connected to ground. This output is capable of sinking 0.3 amperes.
(continued)

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(Table 3, contd)

40-Pin Connector J6 Optional Connections Terminal 7 17 Cat Data Link + Cat Data Link Description Functions and Comments These connections provide the means for communicating the status of the engine control system, of various engine components, and of sensors. The Cat Data Link can be connected to the Customer Communication Module (CCM). For information on connecting the CCM, refer to the most recent literature for the CCM. When the Caterpillar Software for the CCM is loaded on a personal computer, the program uses this data link in order to obtain engine information via the CCM. 12 2 Emergency stop indicator Emergency stop indicator These terminals are provided for the customer to use as an indicator of an emergency stop. This circuit is normally open. When the engine mounted emergency stop button is pressed, this circuit closes. This circuit does not affect engine operation. For details, refer to Wiring for the Emergency Stop Circuit. 18 Manual prelube At the time of this publication, this output is not used.

Unused Terminals
Table 4

40-Pin Connector J6 Unused Terminals 6 16 26 34 38

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Wiring for the Emergency Stop Circuit


The emergency stop buttons must be properly wired in order to immediately stop the engine in case of an emergency situation. An emergency stop button is provided on the engine. NOTICE Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or controls for normal stopping procedure. In addition to the normally closed electrical circuit for emergency stopping, the emergency stop button is mechanically connected to another circuit that is normally open. When the emergency stop button is pressed, the other circuit is closed. This other circuit does not affect engine operation. This other circuit is available to the customer via terminals J6-2 and J6-12. These terminals are provided for the customer to use as an indicator of an emergency stop. Illustration 8 is a wiring diagram of the engine mounted emergency stop buttons circuit. If the customer does not supply an additional emergency stop button, a jumper wire must be installed between terminals J6-10 and J6-20.

Illustration 7 Rear view of a 20 cylinder engine

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The 16 cylinder engine does not have a J3/P3 connector. (1) J6 connector (2) J1/P1 connectors (3) J3/P3 connectors on engines with 20 cylinders (4) J9 connector (5) Engine mounted emergency stop button

The circuit for the emergency stop is normally closed. If the emergency stop button is pressed, the circuit is opened. Electrical power to the ignition system is immediately removed by the engines control system. If the engines control system is controlling the GSOV, the ECM immediately removes the voltage from the GSOV. The flow of fuel is stopped.

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Illustration 8 Schematic of the engine mounted emergency stop buttons circuit The configuration for a 20 cylinder engine is shown. The 16 cylinder engine does not have a slave ECM.

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The customer may supply an additional emergency stop button. The contacts of the emergency stop button must be normally closed. If the customer supplies more than one emergency stop button, the buttons must be wired in series in order to operate properly. Illustration 9 is a wiring diagram of the engine mounted emergency stop button and an additional customer supplied emergency stop button.

Illustration 9 Schematic of the engine mounted emergency stop buttons circuit and a customer supplied emergency stop button The configuration for a 20 cylinder engine is shown. The 16 cylinder engine does not have a slave ECM.

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Wiring for the Gas Shutoff Valve (GSOV)


The GSOV must be energize-to-run. The GSOV may be supplied by the customer or by Caterpillar. The GSOV may be controlled by the engines control system or by the customers equipment. The GSOV is also called the fuel control relay. The ECM can supply a maximum continuous current of 1.5 amperes to the GSOV. A relay must be installed if the GSOV requires a continuous current that is greater than 1.5 amperes. When the engines control system controls the GSOV, the ECM supplies voltage to the GSOV. The valve opens in order to allow fuel to flow to the engine. When voltage is removed from the GSOV, the valve closes and the fuel flow stops. When the customers equipment provides voltage to the solenoid for the GSOV, the equipment must include the necessary logic in order to ensure that the GSOV opens and the GSOV closes at the appropriate times. Usually, the GSOV is installed when the piping for the fuel is installed at the site. The components in the circuit for the GSOV are identified in Illustration 10.

Illustration 10 Left side view of a 20 cylinder engine The 16 cylinder engine is similar. (1) J1/P1 connectors (2) J7 connector (3) J6 connector (4) Engine harness connector for the fuel control relay

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There are three options for wiring the GSOV. The options are described in the following paragraphs. The GSOV is controlled by the customers equipment. In this case, the circuit for the engines control system must be closed. Otherwise, an open circuit diagnostic code will be activated and the engine will not start. Refer to Illustration 11 for an example of this type of installation.

Illustration 11 The GSOV is controlled by the customers equipment. The circuit for the engines control system is closed.

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The GSOV is controlled by the engines control system. The engine harness is used for the connection. The customer may supply an additional switch in the electrical circuit for the GSOV. If the customer does not provide an optional switch, the J6 connections must be closed. Refer to Illustration 12 for an example of this type of installation.

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Illustration 12 The GSOV is controlled by the engines control system.

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The GSOV is controlled by the engines control system. The GSOV is connected to a harness that is provided by the customer. The customer may supply an additional switch in the electrical circuit for the GSOV. Refer to Illustration 13 for an example of this type of installation.

Illustration 13 The GSOV is controlled by the engines control system. The GSOV is connected via a harness that is provided by the customer.

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Wiring for Monitoring the Generators Output Power


The ECM monitors the generators output power in order to accurately control the air/fuel ratio. The ECM uses an output from one of the following sources in order to monitor the generators output power:

For details on these parameters, refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, RENR5978, Electronic Control System Parameters. Illustration 14 is a wiring diagram for a typical power sensor.

Electronic Modular Control Panel II+ (EMCP II+) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Wattmeter
The PLC and the wattmeter are also called power sensors. If the generator is equipped with the EMCP II+, information on the engine load is provided via the CAT data link. The wiring is installed at the factory. No additional connections are needed. If the generator is not equipped with the EMCP II+, information on the engine load must be provided by a power sensor. The power sensors output to the ECM must be an analog signal with a range of 0 to 4.8 VDC. The power sensors output must have a linear relationship with the generators output power. The accuracy of the wattmeters output must be within one percent of the generators actual output power. The engines control system includes parameters that allow the ECM to accurately estimate the generators output power. The values for these parameters are modified by using Cat ET. To identify the parameters for the wattmeter, Cat ET labels the parameters Generator Output Power Sensor.
Illustration 14 Schematic of the power sensors input For the actual wiring, refer to the generators schematic diagram. The potentiometer is optional. For further information, refer to Troubleshooting, Ganerator Output Power Sensor - Calibrate.
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Inputs for the Modes of Operation


The engines control system has three active modes of operation: Start/Run, Auto, and Stop. The mode of operation is determined by three inputs on the J6 connector. A mode is activated when the terminal for the mode is connected to the digital return. Table 5 lists the valid combinations of the inputs which are determined by the positions of the engines control. Configurations that are not shown in Table 5 will activate a diagnostic code. The transition between inputs must occur within 1/10 second. If the transitions do not occur within 1/10 second, a diagnostic code will be activated. Illustration 15 is a schematic of the modes inputs and of the switched +Battery supply to the engines control system.
Table 5

Valid Configurations of Terminals for the Engines Mode of Operation Mode Terminal 29 Off/Reset Start/Run No Yes
(1) (2)

Input Terminal 19 No No No No Yes Terminal 39 No No Yes Yes No

Yes Auto Stop


(1) (2)

No No

The No indicates that the terminal is not connected to terminal 36. The Yes indicates that the terminal is connected to terminal 36.

Illustration 15 Schematic of the inputs and of the switched +Battery supply to the engines control system The configuration for a 20 cylinder engine is shown. The 16 cylinder engine does not have the slave ECM.

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Off/Reset When none of the inputs are connected, the engine is in the Off/Reset mode. The switched +Battery supply to the engines control system is off. Any active diagnostic codes are cleared. Start/Run The engine start sequence will begin when terminal J6-29 is connected to terminal J6-36. Switched +Battery power is supplied to the engines control system. The engine will run until terminal J6-29 is disconnected from terminal J6-36. When terminal J6-29 is disconnected, the normal shutdown sequence is initiated. If the cooldown feature is programmed, the engine will operate for the cooldown period prior to shutdown. Auto When terminal J6-39 is connected to terminal J6-36, the engines control system is in the AUTO mode. Switched +Battery power is supplied to the ECM. The engine will not start unless terminal J6-29 is also connected to terminal J6-36. This can be accomplished with a customer supplied remote start switch.

When terminals J6-29 and J6-39 are connected to terminal J6-36, the engine start sequence will be initiated. The engine will run until terminal J6-29 is disconnected from terminal J6-36. When terminal J6-29 is disconnected, the normal shutdown sequence is initiated. If the cooldown feature is programmed, the engine will operate for the cooldown period prior to shutdown. The engines control system will remain in the Auto mode. In the Auto mode, terminal J6-29 is used to control both the engine start sequence and the shutdown sequence. Stop If the engine is running, the shutdown sequence will begin when terminal J6-29 or terminal J6-39 is disconnected from terminal J6-36 and terminal J6-19 is connected to terminal J6-36. If the cooldown feature is programmed, the engine will operate for the cooldown period prior to shutdown. In this mode, the switched +Battery power is still supplied to the ECM.

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Initial Start-Up Procedure


Ensure that all of these factors are in proper condition prior to the initial start-up: engine installation, driven equipment, all of the related hardware, and electrical connections. Failure to perform the commissioning procedure could result in unsatisfactory operation. Perform the following procedure for the initial start-up and for start-up after major maintenance and/or repair. 1. Verify that the connections between the engines control system and the customers equipment are connected properly. 2. If the information on the generators output power is provided by a power sensor, check the power sensors offset voltage. Refer to Troubleshooting, Generator Output Power Readings Do Not Match. Continue with this procedure after you have minimized the power sensors offset voltage. 3. Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector. Refer to Connecting Cat ET with the 171-4401 Communication Adapter II. 4. Set the engine control to the STOP mode. Test each emergency stop button before the engine is started in order to verify that the engines control system generates a E264 event code. After the operation of each emergency stop has been verified, set the engine control to the Off/Reset mode. Note: Check the generators protective devices prior to start-up. Some of the generators protective devices can only be checked during engine operation. 5. Check the generators protective devices for proper operation. 6. Turn on the jacket water heater. Verify that the heat is set to 45 to 65 C (113 to 150 F). Note: The engine may be difficult to start if the jacket water coolant temperature is below 43 C (110 F). Note: The spark plugs may become fouled with moisture condensation if the engine is cranked and the jacket water coolant temperature is below 43 C (110 F). 7. Inspect the inlet air system. Make sure that the system does not leak. Make sure that the system is free of debris. 8. Inspect the fuel supply system. Make sure that the system does not leak. Make sure that the system is free of debris. Blow any debris from the fuel lines.

9. Connect a properly calibrated emissions analyzer to the exhaust stack. 10. Perform the daily inspection and all of the daily maintenance procedures that are scheduled in Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7681, Maintenance Interval Schedule. 11. Set the engine control to the STOP mode. Use the Monitoring System screen from the Service drop-down menu on Cat ET to view the default settings of the trip points for the alarms. Adjust the settings, if necessary. For the necessary values of the operating parameters, refer to the applicable Data Sheet on engine performance in the engines Technical Marketing Information (TMI). 12. Use the Configuration screen from the Service drop-down menu on Cat ET to view the configuration parameters. Note: Use the data from the gas analysis and from Caterpillar Software, LEKQ6378, Methane Number Program in order to determine the correct settings for the Fuel Quality and the Gas Specific Gravity parameters. a. View the parameters that are listed in Table 6. Program the parameters, if necessary. Incorrect programming of the parameters may lead to complaints about performance and/or to engine damage. For details, refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, RENR5978, Electronic Control System Parameters. Note: If the generator set is equipped with an EMCP II+ system, it is not necessary to program the Generator Output Power Sensor Scale Factor and the Generator Output Power Sensor Offset.
Table 6

Configuration Parameters for G3500C Engines Timing Control First Desired Timing Second Desired Timing Air/Fuel Ratio Control Fuel Quality Gas Specific Gravity Fuel Specific Heat Ratio Desired Emission Gain Adjustment Air/Fuel Proportional Gain Air/Fuel Integral Gain Speed Control
(continued)

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(Table 6, contd)

Configuration Parameters for G3500C Engines Low Idle Speed Minimum High Idle Speed Maximum High Idle Speed Engine Accel. Rate Desired Speed Input Configuration Governor Type Setting Engine Speed Droop Governor Proportional Gain Governor Integral Gain Governor Derivative Gain Auxiliary Proportional Governor Gain 1 Auxiliary Integral Governor Gain 1 Auxiliary Derivative Governor Gain 1 Start/Stop Control Driven Equipment Delay Time Crank Terminate Speed Engine Purge Cycle Time Engine Cooldown Duration Cycle Crank Time Engine Overcrank Time Engine Speed Drop Time Engine Pre-lube Time Out Period Monitoring and Protection High Inlet Air Temp Load Set Point Power Monitoring Generator Output Power Sensor Scale Factor Generator Output Power Sensor Offset Engine Output Power Configuration Engine Driven Accessory Load Configuration Information for the ECM Engine Serial Number Equipment ID Customer Password #1 Customer Password #2 Total Tattletale

Unburned gas in the inlet manifold and/or in the exhaust manifold can ignite when the engine is started. Personal injury and/or property damage can result. Use this procedure to clear the engine and the exhaust system of unburned gas: Before starting an engine that was stopped by terminating the ignition system, turn the gas supply OFF. Crank the engine for approximately 15 seconds in order to clear any unburned gas from the engine and the exhaust system. 14. Start the engine. The engine will accelerate to low idle rpm. Operate the engine at low idle. Verify the following conditions:

Proper engine oil pressure No fluid leaks No gas leaks


Several attempts may be required for the initial start-up before air is purged from the fuel lines. Note: If the engine will not start, use Cat ET to check for diagnostic codes and for event codes. Correct any active conditions before you attempt to start the engine again. 15. After the engine is running, test the operation of each emergency stop button. After each test, reset the emergency stop button and set the engine control to the Off/Reset mode. Then restart the engine. After all of the emergency buttons have been tested, use Cat ET to clear the event codes from the ECM. Note: Some of the generators protective devices can be checked prior to start-up. Some of the generators protective devices can only be checked during engine operation. 16. Check the generators protective devices for proper operation. 17. Increase the engine speed to high idle rpm. Verify that the engine is stable. If the engine is unstable, perform the following procedure. a. Record the values for these parameters:

13. Turn ON the fuel supply to the engine. Verify that no gas is leaking. Verify that the gas does not flow past the GSOV.

Governor Proportional Gain Governor Integral Gain

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Governor Derivative Gain


b. Set the values for the Governor Proportional Gain, Governor Integral Gain, and Governor Derivative Gain parameters to zero. c. Adjust the Fuel Quality parameter until the engine becomes stable and the exhaust oxygen is approximately four percent. Verify that the exhaust port temperatures are below the setpoint for a warning. d. Adjust the primary governor. Refer to Adjusting the Governor. 18. Select the Information drop-down menu in order to view the status parameters. Review the values of the status groups on Cat ET. Verify that the pumps for the cooling system are operating. Verify that the cooling system temperatures and the cooling system pressures are within the correct operating ranges. 19. Close the main circuit breaker for the generator in order to engage the generator. Note: When the engine load exceeds 25 percent, the air/fuel ratio control will operate in the feedback mode. 20. Slowly ramp the load up to 30 percent. Note: When the air/fuel ratio control is in the feedback mode, the Fuel Correction Factor (FCF) may no longer be 100 percent. The ECM may adjust the FCF in order to compensate for the fuel quality and for the ambient conditions. 21. Set the Desired Emission Gain Adjustment to a value of 100. 22. Verify that the value of the Generator Real kW parameter in Status Group 1 is within 1 percent of the generators output power. If the reading on Cat ET is not within one percent of the generators output power, refer to Troubleshooting, Generator Output Power Readings Do Not Match. When the value of the Generator Real kW parameter is within 1 percent of the generators output power, continue with this procedure. 23. Slowly ramp up to 50 percent load. Allow the jacket water coolant temperature to reach 75 C (167 F). 24. Slowly ramp up to 70 percent load. Verify that the engine is stable. If the engine is unstable, adjust the auxiliary governor. Refer to Adjusting the Governor.

25. Verify that the NOx emissions are above the desired full load setting. 26. Slowly ramp up to 100 percent load. Verify that the engine is stable. If the engine is unstable, adjust the auxiliary governor. Refer to Adjusting the Governor. 27. Verify that the value of the Generator Real kW parameter is within 1 percent of the generators output power. 28. Adjust the Desired Emission Gain Adjustment parameter in order to obtain the values of emissions that are required at the site.

To lean the air/fuel mixture, decrease the gain


adjustment. adjustment.

To richen the air/fuel mixture, increase the gain


A small change in the Desired Emission Gain Adjustment causes a large change in the actual exhaust emissions. For example, an adjustment of one percent in the parameters value will result in a change of 20 to 40 ppm in the actual level of NOx. When you adjust the exhaust emissions, make a small change in the value of the gain. Wait until the system stabilizes. Check the emissions again. Repeat the process until the desired emissions level is achieved. Use the emissions analyzer in order to verify that the values of emissions meet the requirements of the site. 29. Record the data from all of the status groups on Cat ET. Save the data for future reference.

Adjusting the Governor


The response of the throttle actuator can be adjusted with the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET). Use Cat ET to change these three parameters:

Proportional gain Integral gain Derivative gain


The default values should be sufficient for initial start-up. However, the values may not provide optimum performance. These adjustments are provided in order to obtain optimum responses to changes in the load and in the speed. The adjustments also provide stability during steady state operation.

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If you have a problem with instability, always investigate other causes before you adjust the governor. For example, diagnostic codes and unstable gas pressure can cause instability. When you adjust the primary governor, make sure that the Grid Status parameter is Off. When you adjust the auxiliary governor, make sure that the Grid Status parameter is On. To change the proportional gain, the integral gain, or the derivative gain, use the Real Time Graphing feature on the Information drop-down menu of Cat ET. The graph provides the best method for observing the effects of your adjustments. After you make adjustments, always test the stability by interrupting the engine speed and/or load. Operate the engine through the entire range of speeds and of loads in order to ensure stability. Note: Adjustment of the proportional gain directly affects the speed of the throttle actuator when there is a difference between the actual engine speed and the desired engine speed. An excessive increase of the proportional gain may amplify instability. To set the proportional gain, increase the proportional gain until the actuator becomes unstable. Slowly reduce the proportional gain in order to stabilize the actuator. Observe that the engine operates properly with little overshoot or undershoot. The adjustment of integral gain dampens the actuators response to changes in load and in speed. Increasing the integral gain provides less damping. Decreasing the integral gain provides more damping. To reduce overshoot, decrease the integral gain. To reduce undershoot, increase the integral gain. Note: An increase of the integral gain may require a decrease of the proportional gain in order to maintain a stable operation. Illustration 16 shows some typical curves for transient responses.
Illustration 16 Typical response curves (Y) Engine speed (X) Time (1) The proportional gain is too high and the integral gain is too low. There is a large overshoot on start-up and there are secondary overshoots on transient loads. (2) The proportional gain is slightly high and the integral gain is slightly low. There is a slight overshoot on start-up but the response to transient loads is optimum. (3) The proportional gain is slightly low and the integral gain is slightly high. There is optimum performance on start-up but slow response for transient loads. (4) The proportional gain is too low and the integral gain is too high. The response for transient loads is too slow. (5) The response to transient loads is adjusted for optimum performance.
g01017530

Decrease the derivative gain until a slow, periodic instability is observed. Then, slightly increase the derivative gain. Repeat the adjustments of the proportional gain and of the integral gain. Continue to increase the derivative gain and readjust the proportional gain and the integral gain until stability is achieved and the engines response to changes in load and in speed is optimized. Illustration 17 is a graphic representation of adjusting the derivative gain.

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Illustration 17

g01017541

The increased width of the line for the actuator voltage indicates that the throttle actuator is more active as the derivative gain increases. (Y) Actuator voltage (X) Time in seconds

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