Which of the following was not characteristic of iberian society?

absence of slaveholding trading how was the commercial experience of Portuguese extended to the Americas The portugese experience in Africa and their involvement in slave trading was extended to the americas. Where in the Americas did the spanish create the models that were applied throughout their possesions in the new world? The caribbean The last spanish colony was established on hispaniola the grants of indians to individual spaniards as a labor system were called encomiendas the dominican friar bartolom e de las casas, a conqinstador turned priest became an ardent supporter o conversion of indians and an advocate of indian rights All of the followinn were advantages the spanish enjoyed over the indians except the failure of nomadic tribes to mount significant resistance to conquest what accounted for the majority of the population loss suffered by native americans after the European arrival? epidemic diseases the tremendous decline of the indian population was matched by the rapid increase in european livestock Which of the following indian institutions were retained by the spanish to serve European administrative purposes? the indian nobility The colonial gov. replaced the labor of the encomiendas with indian labor extracted through local oficials such forced labor was called mita Which of the following statements most accuratley describes the nature of the ceonomy in spanish america

the treaty of tordesillas of 1494 divided the world into spheres of influence belonging to portugal and castile what group of people were most critical to the bureaucratic administration of the spanish colonies in America? university-trained lawyers the catholic church introduced all of the following to american life except the sense of independence from the state what colony became the first major plantation zone organized to produce a tropical crop in demand in europe brazil by 1700 slaves comprised approximately what proportion of the Brazilian pop. french. in what way did the importation of american bullion negatively affect the spanish economy? the arrival of american treasure contributed to a sharp rise in prices and a general inflation. and dutch plantation colonies in the caribbean led to rising prices for slaves and falling prices for sugar what port was associated with discovery of gold in brazil and subsequently became the capitcal of the colony? rio de janeiro what was the negative impact of the discovery of gold on portugal . the portuguese empire included colonies and outposts in asia and africa as well in brazil what conditions undercut the posison of the brazilian sugar plantation? competition from english. the whole spanish commericail sysytem was organized around the mining economy.although the majority of people were engaged in agr.? one half the brazilian model of plantation colony was later followed in the eighteenth century by other european nations in the caribbean what was the primary difference btwn the spanish and portugueses empires? unlike the spanish empire that was almost exclusively american.

fearful or unsettling the social hierarchy. failed to act together to unseat hte colonial gov.portugal failed to develop internal industries b/c the supply of gold allowed the portuguese to purchase manufactured goods from other european countries. but the traditional patterns of influence and power among the Creole bureaucrats was disrupted which of the following was not and impact of the bourbon reforms on colonial economy the frontiers of spanish america becamed fixed the minister responsible for the 18th century reforms in portugal and brazil was the marquis of pombal what was the impace of the 18th century reforms on slavery in brazil? brazil as profoundly based on slavery in the late 18th century as it had ever been wich of the following statements most accuratley describes the state of the portuguese and spanish american colonies by the middle of the 18th century the american colonies of spain and portugal were experiencing considerable growth in pop. which of the following was not one of the early islamic empires abbasid which of the following does not represent a similarity btwn the three muslim early modern empires? each empire was based on religion and its society was oriented toward domination of the mullahs. and productive capacity. what accournts for the general failure of 18th cnetury colonial revolutions againts spanish and portuguese rule? the various racial and social groups. what was the basis for the social hierarchy that develped in the americas? race what spanish dynasty was responsible for the series of eighteenth century reforms that recast the colonial administration of the amricas? bourbon which of the following statements concerning the 18th century spanish reforms in america is most accurate? the french intendancy system was introduced. . goverment improved.

the abbaside dynasty was dominated by the seljuk turks the original base of the ottoman turks was anatolia following the timurid invasions. th Janissaries were slave troops of the Ottoman foricbly conscripted as adolescnets from conquered territories what permitted the janissaries to gaina position of prominence in the ottoman empire their control of artillery and firearms gave them prominence over the aristocratic turkis cavalry the head of the ottoman central bureaucracy was the vizier what did the ottomans do to constantinople following its fall in 1453? soon after its conquest. what was the chosen language of the ottoman court? turkish how did the ottoman dynsasty compare to other ruling families? the ottoman dynasty lasted over 600-. but were unable to prevent Western advances in the Indian Ocean. the ottoman sutan undertook the restoration and beurification of contantiople. the ottoman empire was restored under Mehmed I the ottomans conqured constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire in 1453 which of the following statements concerning ottoman naval power is most accurate? powerful ottoman gally fleets captured major island bases in E.a feat matched by no other ruling family on the sea.the ottoman galleys were eclipsed by western naval power as early as the .which of the following represents a differnce btwn the various muslim early modern empires? the ottoman empire was primarily sunnite while the safavide empire was shi'ite. mediterranean. Pior to the mongol invasions of their empire.

africa n india portugal which of the follwing groups represented such extreme coservatism within the ottoman empire that reform was frustrated? Janissaries which of the following represents a diff. btwn the declines of the abbasids and the ottomans the ottomans were at a much greater disadvantage as a result of the more potent threat from the west? which of the following represnets a difference btwn the origins of the ottomans and the safavids the safavids represented the shi'ite train of islam the center of the safavid empire was the modern day state of iran the safavid dynasty had its origins in the 14th century in a family devoted to what variant of islam sufi the first safavid shah was isma'il why was the battle of chaldiran in 1514 so impt? the safavids were dealt a desvastating defeat that checked the westward advance of shi'ism and decimated the ranks of the turkic warriors who had buitl the safavid empire the safavid empire reached its greates exten under shah abbas the great What was the status of the turkic chiefs under the safavid shahs like the ottomans. the turkish chiefs were gradually transformed into a warrior nobility with assigned villages and peasant labor after chaldiran. of the safavid empire became persian the capital of the safavid empire under abbas the great was . the official lang.16th century what european nation first threatened the ottoman monopoly of trade with e.

the army was backward in weaponry and tatics. his son humayan was exiled by 1540 and forced to fight to restore the mughal rule which of the following statements concerning the reign of akbar is not accurate he attempted to purify islam by removing hidu influences what was the critical feature of akbar's new religion. the din-i-llahi was rejected by both muslim nad hidus which of the follwoing statements concerning the ceonomy of the mughal empire iws mos t accurate? european traders brought products from thourhgout asia to exchange for the subcontinent's famed cotton textiles what was the state of the mughal dynasty at the outset of reign of aurangezeb the mughal bureaucracy was bloated and corrupt. . the din-i-llahi it attempted to blend elements of the many faiths with which he was familiar as a means of reconciling hidus and muslims what was the outcome of the din-i0llahi by akbar's death in 1605. leaving no capable ruler following his deaht.isfahan what led to the rapid demise of the safavid empire like the ottoman empire. the immediate succestor of the safavid dynasty in persia was nadir khan afshar the founder of the mughal dynasty was babur the first mughal emperor successfully defeated the muslim ruler of the lodi dynasty in 1526 panipat which of the following descriptions of the accomplishments of babur is not accurate he reformed the ineffective lodie bureacuracy to create a streamlined admistration which of the following statements most accurately characterized the reign of humayan despite the seeming stability of babur's reign. the lack of a principle of succession led abbas the great to eliminate all capable rivals. and the peasants and artisans had seen living standards fall.

which of the following statements concerning the relationships of the muslim empires to the west is not accurate the absence of minority peoples within the empires left them withought commercial and cultural contacts with the west. early portuguese trade fort located el mina which of the following statements concerning the early portuguese trade forts is most accurate most of the forts were established with the agreement of license of local rulers which of the african kingdoms was most successfully converted to christianity by portugueses missionaries kongo following the model established bye the portuguese.what were the goals of Aurangzeb? he was determined to extend the mughal control voer the whole of the indian subontinent and believed it was his duty to purify indian islam. but control and state revenues passed increasingly to regional lords who gave little more that tribute payments to the emperors. which of the following was not on of the principle of european contact with africa? widespread european colonization which of the following statements about slavery in europe before 1450 was most accurate? Slavery had died out in the middle ages in most of europe except along the military frontiers btwn christians and muslims in the mediterranean . What was the state of the mughal empire following aurangzeb's death in 1707 the empire was far larger thatn earlier. what was the african contribution to the colombian exchange slaves which of the following was not considered a factor in the develpment of the large kingdoms in africa collapse of the christian kingdom in ethiopia in the face of muslim advance what european nation first established direct contact with black africa portugal where was the most impt.

of central africa in favor of a disproportional number of women how did the british organize the shipment of slave to americas? in britain. the chartered royal african company was granted a monopoly over the shipment of slaves to colonies in the americas the spanish term for a healthy adult male slave was indies piece what was teh average profitability of the english slave trade in the late eighteenth century? 5-10 percent .saharan slave trade differ from that of the atlantic slave trade the trans-saharan slave trade concentrated on woemn. but the atlantic slave trade concentrated on young men what was the demographic impact of the slave trade on africa> the slave trade had the impact of skewing the pop.the firs slaves brought directly to portugal from africa arrived in 1441 in what manner did the portuguese seize most of the slaes that were transported from africa? they traded for them with african rulers what development led to an intensification of the portuguese involement in the african slave trade? develpment of sugar plantations on the atlantic islands of madeira and the canaries what is the best estimate of the nubmer of african shipped across the atlantic btwn 1450 abd 1850? 12 million in what century did the atlantic slave trade reach its zenith in terms of numbers of african exported? eighteenth which of the following statements concerning the volume of the slave trade to the american colonies is most accurate? the high volume of the slave trade was a necessity because slave mortality ws high and fertility was low leading toa loss of slave pop. In what way did the trans.

how did the profitability of the slave trade compare to that of other contemporary business ventures? the slave trade was a little more profitable than most business activities of the age and was not a major source for the industrial revolution of europe what was the term utilized for the commercial arrangement by which african slaves were shipped to teh americas. an example of the acceptance of milotic peoples as ruling dynasties among the bantu was the luo at bunyoro the muslim reform movement of the 1770s that swept through the trade networks in senegambia and the western sudan was what variant islam? sufi . the swahili trading cities continued their commerce in the indian ocean with both the portuguese and the ottoman turks one of the unique features of the east african coast that differeed from the west africa was the establishment of plantations producing cloves using african slave labor. resulting in more slaves which of the following was a large african state taht develped in wester africa during the period of the atlantic slave trade? asante under whose rule was unity achieved among the numerous akan clans of asante osei tutu the title given to the supreme civil and religious ruler of the asante kingdom was asantehene on the east coast of africa. sugar and tobacco were carried to europe. and european manufactured goods. were transported to africa? triangular trade What was the political impact of the presence of eruopeans on the african coast? west and central african kingdoms just inland from the forts began to redirect their trade and expand their influence in what way did the european slave trade enable centralizing states ti expand more rapidly slaves were traded for fireamrs that allowed expanding states to overpower therif neighbors.

running away. slaves contiuted to live in family units which of the following statements concerning resistance to slavery is most accurate? recalcitrance. which of the following statements concerning slave families is most accurate? despite enormous difficulties.usuman dan fodio began rebellion in what african kingdom in 1804? hausa usuman dan fodio's rebellion eventuallyl led to the formation of what caliphal state? sokoto what area of africa was least affected by the slave trade? southern africa in 1652 what group established a colony at the cape of good hope? the dutch east india company in 1818 who assumed leadership in the Zulu chiefdom of the nguni people of southern africa shaka what was the impact of the mfecane? resulting political disruption sent african groups fleeing before the zuhus into both portuguese coastal regions and the boer farms of southern africa what was the average mortality for slaves shipped to the americas in the atlantic slave trade? 18-20 percent the slave voyage to the americas was referred to as the middle passage why were the africans sought for plantation labor in the americas? west africans were already familiar with metallurgy. hearding. and direct rebellion were present wherever slaves were employed. and intensive agriculture wheras indians were not how were the british colonies of the southern atlantic coast of north america different from the latin american colonies? the british colonies depended less on imported africans b/c the positive of growth among the slaves. .

which of the following statements concerning the ending of the slave trade is most accurate? while it is true that legitimate products began to replace slaves in the european commerce with africa. what factor convinced the europeans that they could make little headway againts teh kingdoms of asia? large pop. of asain kingdoms what was the portuguese lesson learned at calicut? western products brought for trade were of little or no value in indian markets what was the initial portuguese response to the encounter at calicu? they applied military force to obtain desired asian products what peoples had preceded the protuguese in entering the markets of south and souteast asia? muslims which of the following products ws associated with the arabian zone of the asain sea trading network? glass which of the following products was associated with the indian zpone of the asian sea trading network? cotton textiles wihcih of the following products was not one of the products associated with the chinese zone of the asina sea trading network? cotton textiles What raw materials were most highly valued in teh asain sea trading network? spices which of the folloing items wsa more likely to be exchanged within the ports of each of the main trading rather than over greater distance btwn zones? rice . its is difficult to demonstrate a link between economic self.interest and the abolition of the slave trade the ultimate task of all the explorations launched by the europeans from teh fourteenth century onward was finding a sea link btwn europe and the wealthy civilizations of asia despite their armaments.

what was the nature of the sea routes in the asain trading network? most of the navigation was along the coastline. who succeeded the portuguese as the most successful european entrant into the asian sea trading network? holland where was the chief dutch trading fortress and port in southeast asia? batavia how did the dutch commercial strategy within the asian trade networkd differ from that of the portuguese? the dutch were more systematic in their monoploy control of a limited number of specific spices. . the portugueses lacked the manpower and ships to sustain a monoploy. why were the protuguese unwilling to exchange bullion for products within the asain commercial system? the doctrine of mercantilism equated possession of bullion with power and argued againt negative trade balances. why did the protuguese beleive they could successfully enter the asian sea trading by force the protuguese had fewer ships. and force was usually absent from commercial exchanges. but they were more numerous than those of their asain opponents. which of the following was one of the crusial points in the asain sea trading network where trade coverged? the straits of malacca which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of the asian sea trading network? there was no central control. the portuguese won a mojor sea battle over a combined fleet of egyptian and indian vessels in 1509 at? diu what trade did the potugues intend to monopolize within the asian trading network spices how successful was the portuguese monopoly on asain products? though they managed to monopolize some spices grown in limited locales.

the growing power of the rural landlords ledto increased tenancy and landless laboreres. which of the follwoing reason is at least in part responsible for the peopling of the yangtze region in the southern part of china during the ming era? the into.in what way did the dutch and english participation within the asain sea trading network change by the middle decades of the seventeeth century? for bot hteh dutch and the english. of crops from teh americas that coulg be cultivated on inferior soils that did not require irrigation. min society remained rigidly stratified iwth emphasis on deference of youth to elders nad women to men. Where were foreigners permitted to do business in china during the ming era? at macao and canton which of the following statements concerning the ming economy is most accurate? much merchant wealth was ivested in land as a means of socail advancement. among which of the following groups did roman catholic missionaries enjoy some success? outcaste groups in indian coastal regions the first ming emperor of china was hongwu which of the following reforms was not introduced by the first ming emperor? family influence in the selection of men to the chinese bureaucracy was eliminated which of the following statements concerning ming reforms in favor of the peasantry is most accurate? despite some attempts to improve economic conditions for the peasantry. during the reign of what ming emperor did the chinese launch commercial expeditions to southeast asia. which of the following statements concerning ming socail organization is most accurate? under the continued influence of neo-confucian ideology. peaceful commerce came to be more profitable than forcible control and monopolies were aimed at european rather than asian rivals. persia and africa? yunglo why did chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the zhenghe expeditons? .

in what way did the jesuit missionaries maintain their positions at the court of the ming emperors? by demonstrating knowledge of scientific and technological skills what group successfully asserted in control over china following the collapse of the ming dynasty? the jurchens or manchus what dynasty succeeded in ming in china? qing which of the follwoing was not one of the three military centralizers of japan? hiata ashikaga in what year was the tokugawa shogunate founded. the japanese elite abandoned all contact wit hwestern learning and technological advances. marking the reestablisment of central gov. in japan? christianity was seen as a counterforce to the buddhist orders that opposed the impostion of central rule.and the voyages were expensive to carry out. which of the following was not a policy imposed as a result of japanese isolation in the 17th centuryt. the greatest silver mine was located at potosi .there was little of value for the chinese to import in trade.

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