Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Q1.
A twodimensional smalldisturbance velocity potential equation for compressible flows
is given as
( )
2 2
2
2 2
1 0 M
x y
φ φ
∞
∂ ∂
− + =
∂ ∂
, where M is the Mach number of flow.
(i) Examine whether this equation is parabolic, elliptic, or hyperbolic?
(ii) Justify your inference from pure physical arguments.
Solution
Consider the following secondorder partial differential equation
0
xx xy yy x y
A B C D E F G φ φ φ φ φ φ + + + + + + =
or, 0
xx xy yy
A B C H φ φ φ + + + = (1)
where
x y
H D E F G φ φ φ = + + +
Assume that ( ) , x y φ φ = is a solution of the differential equation.
It is to be noted that, the secondorder derivatives along the characteristic curves
corresponding to 2
nd
order partial differential equations are indeterminate and, indeed,
they may be discontinuous across the characteristics. However, first derivatives are
continuous functions of x and y. Thus,
x x
x xx xy
d dx dy dx dy
x y
φ φ
φ φ φ
∂ ∂
= + = +
∂ ∂
(2)
y y
y yx yy
d dx dy dx dy
x y
φ φ
φ φ φ
∂ ∂
= + = +
∂ ∂
(3)
From Eqs (1), (2) and (3), we have
0
0
xx
xy x
y
yy
A B C H
dx dy d
dx dy d
φ
φ φ
φ
φ
(
( − (
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
Since it is possible to have discontinuities in the secondorder derivatives of the
dependent variable across the characteristics, these derivatives are indeterminate.
Therefore,
C
0 0
0
A B
dx dy
dx dy
=
or,
2
0
dy dy
A B C
dx dx
 
− + =

\ ¹
Solving the equation yields the equations of the characteristics
2
4
2
dy B B AC
dx A
± −
=
Depending on the value of
2
4 B AC − , characteristic curves can be real or imaginary.
For
2
4 0 B AC − < , no real characteristic is there and the equation is elliptic.
For
2
4 0 B AC − = , one real characteristic is there and the equation is parabolic.
When
2
4 0 B AC − > , two real characteristics are there and the equation is hyperbolic.
For the governing equation
( )
2 2
2
2 2
1 0 M
x y
φ φ
∞
∂ ∂
− + =
∂ ∂
, we have
2
1 A M
∞
= − , 0 B = , and 1 C =
Thus,
( )
2 2
4 4 1 B AC M
∞
− = − − .
If, 1 M
∞
< , then
2
4 0 B AC − < and the equation is elliptic. For 1 M
∞
= ,
2
4 0 B AC − =
and the equation is parabolic. For 1 M
∞
> , then
2
4 0 B AC − > and the equation is
hyperbolic.
Q2.
Identify the nature of the following systems of partial differential equations: ,
u v
x y
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
,
u
v
y
∂
=
∂
where u and v are the two dependent variables.
Solution
u
v
y
∂
=
∂
Differentiating with respect to y, we get
2
2
u v
y y
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
Again, it is given that
u v
x y
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
.
Comparing above two equations, we get
2
2
u u
y x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
or, 0
yy x
u u − = (4)
This becomes a secondorder partial differential equation.
x x
x xx xy
u u
du dx dy u dx u dy
x y
∂ ∂
= + = +
∂ ∂
(5)
y y
y xy yy
u u
du dx dy u dx u dy
x y
∂ ∂
= + = +
∂ ∂
(6)
From Eqs (4), (5) and (6), we have
0 0 1
0
0
xx x
xy x
y
yy
u u
dx dy u du
dx dy du
u
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
Since it is possible to have discontinuities in the secondorder derivatives of the
dependent variable across the characteristics, these derivatives are indeterminate.
Therefore,
0 0 1
0 0
0
dx dy
dx dy
=
or, ( )
2
0 dx =
constant x ∴ =
Hence, there is one real characteristic and the given partial differential equation is
parabolic in nature.
Q3.
Consider a general form of the energy conservation equation as:
( ) ( ) ( ) . .
p p
C T VC T k T S
t
ρ ρ
∂
+∇ = ∇ ∇ +
∂
r
.
In a physical problem, one is interested to obtain the transient temperature
distribution( as a function of and T x t ) in a uniform flow field ( =constant). u U
∞
=
Thermal diffusivity (
p
k
C ρ
)of the medium is negligibly small ( can be taken as zero for
the analysis). There is a uniform rate of volumetric heat generation ( S ) within the
domain and in the physical space the temperature varies only along the x direction. The
physical properties of the medium can be taken as invariants.
(i) Obtain an equation for the characteristics of the final simplified partial
differential equation governing the abovementioned physical problem.
(ii) Examine whether this equation is parabolic, elliptic or hyperbolic.
Solution
( ) ( ) ( ) . .
p p
C T VC T k T S
t
ρ ρ
∂
+∇ = ∇ ∇ +
∂
r
T T
U S
t x
∞
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂
Differentiating with respect to x, we get
2 2
2
0
T T
U
t x x
∞
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂ ∂
(7)
Differentiating with respect to t, we get
2 2
2
0
T T
U
t x t
∞
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂ ∂
(8)
Multiplying Eq. (7) by U
∞
and then subtracting Eq. (8) [U
∞
×Eq. (7)Eq. (8)], we have
2 2
2
2 2
T T
U
x t
∞
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
This is the equation for the characteristics. This is a secondorder partial differential
equation.
The above equation can be written as
2
0
xx tt
U T T
∞
− = (9)
x x
x xx xt
T T
dT dx dt T dx T dt
x t
∂ ∂
= + = +
∂ ∂
(10)
t t
t tx tt
T T
dT dx dt T dx T dt
x t
∂ ∂
= + = +
∂ ∂
(11)
From Eqs (9), (10) and (11), we have
2
0 1 0
0
0
xx
xt x
tt t
T U
dx dt T dT
dx dt T dT
∞
(
( (
(
( (
=
(
( (
(
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
Since it is possible to have discontinuities in the secondorder derivatives of the
dependent variable across the characteristics, these derivatives are indeterminate.
Therefore,
2
0 1
0 0
0
U
dx dt
dx dt
∞
=
or,
2
2
0
dx
U
dt
∞
 
− =

\ ¹
Solving the equation yields the equations of the characteristics
dx
U
dt
∞
= ±
Therefore , there are two real characteristics of the governing equation and hence the
given partial differential equation is hyperbolic in nature.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?