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How to Control End-breaks in Ring Frames?
R.Senthil Kumar, A.P (SRG), Department of Textile Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore-49,India email@example.com
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • End Breakage rate Occurrence of End Breakage Rate Control of End Breakage rate Reasons for End Breaks in Ring Spinning Assignable reasons for High End Breakage rate Effect of twist on End breakage rate Effect of count on End breakage rate Effect of Spinning triangle on End breakage rate Effect of operator Assignment on End breakage rate Effect of Traveller wear on breakage rate Effect of defective bobbin on Breakage rate Yarn Strength- Spinning Tension- Yarn Break Causes of Yarn Breaks Breaks during Spinning Process Breaks during Doffing
Content • • • • Ends Down Loss % Control measures in Mixing Control Measures in preparatory machines Control measures in Ring Spinning .
material. • The end breakage is a critical spinning parameter also affects the maximum spindle speed. the mechanical condition of the machines and the quality of raw material.End Breakage Rate • In a Modern Spinning Mill. energy consumed and end breakage rate. work allotment. and human faults. • End breakage rate is a deciding factor influences productivity as well as quality of the yarn produced in the ring spinning process. achieving the productivity and quality is a quite challenging task. . Productivity of the spinning mill is decided by several factors such as spindle speed. • A high end breakage rate points to a combination of machine.
i. an end will break when the spinning tension exceeds the strength of the weakest portion of the yarn in the spinning zone.e.e.. between the front rollers' nip and the thread guide. . • It is an observed fact that almost all end breaks in the ring frame take place just after the delivery from the front nip in the spinning zone. The end breakage phenomenon in ring spinning is absolutely slippage-dominated..Occurrence of End Breakage • In ring spinning. i. the end breakage occurs due to the imbalance in the tension imposed on the yarn and the yarn strength at the weakest portion. there is no evidence of fibre breakage. • Therefore.
lower machine efficiency.Control of End Breakage • Control of end breaks at various stages of processing is very vital in order to produce a good quality yarn and maintain a high level of machine and labour productivity. 10% drop) or increase the pneumafil waste by 1%. .000 spindle mill manufacturing 40s count.15 lakhs per year.3 lakhs per year or a loss of over Rs. this would mean an increase in wages cost by over Rs. • Every end break results in a yarn defect. • Even an increase of 1 break per 100 spindle hours would significantly increase either the tenter’s work load or the pneumafil waste.e. • For a 30. higher waste and more work load for the tenter. An increase of 1 break per 100 spindle hours would reduce the tenter assignment by 252 spindles(i.
worn/damaged critical components such as top arms. cots and aprons. etc… .Reasons for the End Breaks in Ring Spinning • Normally. a yarn break occurs at places that are too weak to withstand the tension imposed during spinning.V%. spindles. high levels of imperfection. • The major reasons are high strength C. inadequate ambient conditions. poor maintenance of ring frames. rings. • Besides low yarn strength. there are a number of other reasons for a yarn to break.
Assignable Reasons for High end breakage rate • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Damaged skewers and clogged bobbin holders Jerky motion of ring rail Eccentric spindle drive pulleys Slack spindle tape Worn gear wheels and deep meshing of gears Choking and improper alignment of pneumafil ducts. Spindle out of centre with rings and lappets Cracked and worn-out empty cops Improper fit of empty cops on spindles Closer setting of traveller clearers Too high a draft Break draft not optimum Loose and worn aprons Incorrect shore hardness of top rollers Insufficient top roller pressure Incorrect apron nip opening and settings .
Effect of Twist level on End Breakage Rate Twist reduction affects the stability of the spinning process. This negative effect is even increased by the following factors: • high yarn tension • smaller deviation radius of the yarn at the yarn guide • smaller diameter of the yarn guide material • reduced twist multiplier • smaller elasticity module of the fibre .
• As a result of this pre-tension. especially the marginal fibres are prevented from migrating between the different layers of the yarn cross-section. while maximum load is exerted on marginal fibres. fibres are always subjected to uneven load due to the spinning tension.Spinning Triangle • In a spinning triangle. . • The wider the spinning triangle. the more different is the pre-tension of the marginal fibres at the moment of twist impartation.
Yarn Strength – Spinning Tension – Yarn Breaks .
Causes of Yarn Breaks In general. we distinguish between two kinds of yarn breaks: • Breakage during doffing • Breakage during the spinning process .
Breakage during doffing Cause of Yarn breaks High curling tendency of the yarn Remedy (Correction/Solution) Increase drafting system’s start-up delay Change traveller type (e. profile Modify start-up program Run-up faster or increase traveller weight Optimize the starting program of the ring spinning machine Check condition of the ring. g. form. change type of Traveller jammed traveller Unthreading yarn Balloon stability too slowly built-up Start-up characteristics .
increase the twist or reduce the speed Too long running time of the travellers Poor condition of the rings Climatic conditions not optimal (fibre fly) Yarn evenness (roving. impurities) Unfavorable raw material Ring traveller severely worn Shorten the changing cycle Replace rings Optimize climate. change traveller profile Uneven spinning tension. yarn tension peaks Spindle speed too high. adjust blower nozzles Optimize spinning preparation Check raw material composition Reduce running time. yarn strength insufficient Poor centering of the rings. re-centre! Yarn twist too low.Breaks during spinning process Cause of yarn break Unsuitable traveller type Remedy (correction/solution) Try another traveller form. test another traveller form .
Effect of Count on End Breakage Rate .
Effect of Traveller Wear on End Breakage rate .
Effect of Defective Bobbin on End Breakage Rate .
. so does the number of weak spots. and an operator can only serve a smaller set of spindles. As the number of ‘thins’ increases.Effect of Operator Assignment on End Breakage Rate • Operator assignment is strongly affected by the end-breakage rate in processing. In other words the assignment has to be lowered.
d = ends down % e = end breakage rate (breaks/100 spdl hrs) t = patrol time of piecer in hrs Further patrol time of piecer also increases with end breakage rate. As a result ends-down loss increases exponentially with increase in end breakage rate.Ends-down Loss • Ends-down denotes those spindles where end has broken and is waiting for piecer to mend it. .75 t Where. Ends-down loss is given by: d = e X 0.
• Minimize the variation in mixing the soft waste between the days. . • Avoid mix-up of bales with high trash and immature fibre content.Control Measures in Mixing • Ensure the even distribution of soft waste in the mixing. vertical cutting method should be followed. Bigger size tufts to be avoided. • While removing the mixing. • In stack mixing.
Control Measures in Preparatory Machines • Short Fibre Content (SFC) of combed sliver should be less than 15% for combed yarn. • Proper maintaining of Roving tension. • Creel drive in speed frame should not have any jerk. • Single bobbin holding pins should be firmly tight. • Ensure Proper handling of sliver cans. • Sliver from one draw frame can should not be distributed to more number of feed cans to fly frames. .
• Ensure proper rotation of bottom clearer rollers. otherwise fluff accumulation in the drafting zone occur. • Spindles should have plug buttons. • Proper centering of roving guides • Proper Functioning of OHTC • Proper traveller change frequency • Ensure proper gaiting in all the spindles after doffing • Proper traveller clearer setting • Scientific training of workers • Proper Maintenance Audit • Proper Follow up of R.Control measures in Ring frames • Ensure rotation of bobbin holder smoothly.H% • Spindle. ring. lappet out of centre • Instruct the tenters to avoid using knife during roller lapping .
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