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Amit Kumar Jaiswal, 2012

Amit Kumar Jaiswal, 2012

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Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Food Chemistry
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem

Kinetic evaluation of colour, texture, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Irish York cabbage after blanching treatment
Amit Kumar Jaiswal, Shilpi Gupta, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam ⇑
School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin 1, Ireland

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
York cabbage was blanched between 80 and 100 °C with an increment of 5 °C for up to 14 min and kinetics of the different physicochemical properties were studied. Significant reductions in the texture, colour, polyphenols (PPs) and antioxidant (AO) capacity were observed due to blanching. Total phenolic and flavonoid content retained ranged from 19.6–24.5% to 22.0–25.7%, respectively. Heavy losses in the AO capacity of 74.0–82.0% also occurred as a result of blanching. Blanching caused a significant reduction in firmness of 24.0–73.2% and a similar trend was also observed for colour. Kinetic evaluation of degradation was carried out for all the studied quality parameters. The fractional conversion first-order reaction model showed a good fit for the different studied parameters, with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.892 to 0.992, except for texture and colour, which followed first order and zero order kinetics, respectively. The temperature effect followed the Arrhenius law, with activation energies for polyphenolic content, AO capacity, colour and texture calculated as 9.22–11.5, 9.05–35.05, 15.73 and 33.8 kJ/mol K, respectively. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 11 July 2011 Received in revised form 4 August 2011 Accepted 9 August 2011 Available online 24 August 2011 Keywords: Antioxidant activity Blanching Colour Kinetic models Polyphenols Texture York cabbage

1. Introduction Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata), a member of Brassicaceae family (Cruciferae), is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable consumed widely around the globe (Singh, Sharma, & Singh, 2009). It is rich in phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products and is a good source of health-promoting compounds that show preventive effect against cancer, atherosclerosis, nephritis and diabetes mellitus (Taveira et al., 2009). Flavonoids can act in vitro as scavengers of active oxygen species and electrophiles, and as chelators of metal ions, and thus may be beneficial in vivo to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Hollman, 2001). Phenolic acids, such as caffeic, chlorogenic, sinapic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids, possess strong AO activity, due to the inhibition of lipid oxidation and scavenging reactive oxygen species (Sroka & Cisowski, 2003). Vegetables are primarily consumed in the cooked form and are processed by various techniques. Blanching is a short heat treatment that is typically applied to vegetables prior to further processing with the aim of enhancing both safety and quality attributes. Blanching imparts benefits, such as destruction of surface microflora of vegetables and enhancing the colour and texture and also the keeping quality of vegetable products. The quality of blanched product depends significantly on the time and tempera⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +353 1 402 7570; fax: +353 1 878 8978.
E-mail address: nissreen.abughannam@dit.ie (N. Abu-Ghannam). 0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.032

ture of blanching and also on the size of vegetable to be blanched. Under-blanching speeds up the activity of enzymes and is worse than no blanching. Over-blanching causes loss of texture, colour, phytochemicals and minerals. Industrial blanching processes involve temperatures ranging from 70 to 95 °C and times usually no higher than 10 min (Morales-Blancas, Chandia, & CisnerosZevallos, 2002); whereas for domestic purposes vegetables are generally blanched for 10–12 min in boiling water (98–100 °C). A considerable amount of research has been done to understand the effects of blanching on texture, colour, phytochemical content and AO activity of different vegetables. Oboh (2005) and Wen, Prasad, Yang, and Ismail (2010) have observed the blanching effect on the degradation of vegetables’ nutrient contents and AO properties. Volden et al. (2008) showed the effects of blanching of red cabbage on the levels of glucosinolates, polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as for the AO potential by the ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Data on the effect of blanching on physicochemical properties of cabbage is scarce (Amin & Lee, 2005; Volden et al., 2008). Authors observed that the literature lacks information on kinetic evaluation of phytochemicals upon blanching both in terms of empirical models and structured models. Knowledge regarding the kinetics of physicochemical properties is essential to predict quality losses during the blanching process. Kinetic data will facilitate the inclusion of these quality aspects into the design of optimal processing conditions, which will be important for the development of new food products. A number of kinetic models

2010). The texturometer was mounted with a 500 Newton (N) load cell and equipped with a Warner–Bratzler Blade (V-notch blade) which cut through the sample at a download speed of 50 mm/min. Determination of total polyphenolic content Total polyphenolic content (TPC) of vegetable extracts was determined by the method of Ganesan. Abreu. Lin.4.K. Abu-Ghannam. / Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 such as zero order. Wang. A 5 g sample was placed on two parallel bars with a gap of 10 mm between them. Preparation of extracts A 5-g sample of crushed cabbage sample was extracted using 60% methanol with 1 min nitrogen flushing. and Bhaskar (2008) using Folin–Ciocalteau’s phenol reagent (Sigma–Aldrich. The firmness of 12 samples was measured individually and an average firmness value was calculated.6. the HPLC system consisted of a reversed-phase HPLC column on an Alliance HPLC (Waters.1. Jaiswal. unprocessed cabbage. texture and colour degradation for a range of fruits and vegetables (Gonçalves. Chroma was calculated according to the Eq. Eighteen to twenty York cabbage heads (25–30 kg) were randomly selected and trimmed of their outer leaves and stem. The chromatogram was monitored at 280 nm. 2. the colorimeter was calibrated using a white reference tile and a light trap (black tile).4. A pooled batch of about 18 kg chopped cabbage was stored in a plastic bag under dark refrigerated conditions (4 ± 0. PPs. 2. and AO activity.5 Â 5–6 cm pieces. Germany). All the solvents used were similar to our earlier report (Jaiswal et al. AO capacity. ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay. A 50-g sample was taken from the pooled batch (in duplicate) as a reference for fresh. Rajauria. The treatments were randomised and were performed in duplicate. Mountsorrel. Mason Technology. Blanching Blanching was carried out by immersing cabbage in hot water using a wire mesh basket (cylindrical. Materials and methods 2. 2. Ireland) at 100 rpm and 40 °C for 2 h. The blanched material was drained. Results were expressed as mg gallic acid (Sigma–Aldrich.6 mm. Plant materials and their preparation Fresh Irish York cabbage was purchased from a local supermarket in Dublin in April 2010. 10 cm diameter and 15 cm height). UK). The segments were chopped into 0. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in a multi-evaporator (Syncore Polyvap.. The maximum force (N) required to shear the sample was used as an indication of firmness. Dublin. e2695 Separations modules) equipped with an autosampler and controller with dual pump. ascorbic acid was used as a reference compound and the results were expressed as mg ascorbic acid equivalents per 100 g (mg AscE/100 g) (fw) of cabbage. All the methods were carried out according to the existing protocols in our laboratory (Rajauria. USA). using a vegetable cutting machine. Canton MA. 0 for black to 100 for white). whereas BHT was used as a reference compound for H2O2-scavenging capacity and the results were expressed as mg BHT equivalents per 100 g (mg BHTE/ 100 g) (fw) of cabbage. cooled in ice water (1–4 °C) for 1 min and then allowed to drain for 30 s. 2. such as texture.5 °C) for 4–5 days and was utilised as the raw material for all subsequent treatments. The processed samples were submerged in liquid nitrogen and ground to a coarse powder using a mortar and pestle and stored in plastic bags at À20 °C until further analysis (10–15 days). 2011). Steinheim.4. The infusions were filtered through Whatman #1. a 2998 photodiode array detector (PDA) and Empower software. and Yang (2009) and results were expressed as mg quercetin (Sigma–Aldrich) equivalents per 100 g (mg QE/100 g) (fw) of cabbage. 2. The basket containing 50 g cut cabbage was immersed in a thermostatically controlled water bath (±0. Five random areas were measured through the plastic pockets (in duplicate) and mean values (total 10 readings/sample) were reported for each treatment. AO capacity analysis In the present study four different methods [2.1. 2. The blanched samples were kept in a plastic bag (20 Â 25 cm) and colour and texture analysis were carried out on the same day. (1): C¼ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 a2 þ b : ð1Þ . Pinheiro. first order and fractional conversion (FC) first order have been used for the phytochemical contents.5. a⁄ and b⁄ Hunter scale parameters. For the DPPH RSC and LPO inhibitory ability.64 A. lipid peroxidation in a haemoglobin-induced linoleic acid system (LPO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay] were used for the estimation of total AO capacity of the fresh and blanched York cabbage. This work investigates the effects of blanching on the degradation kinetics of a number of physicochemical properties.5 °C) containing 5 L water. 2. colour. The heads were then divided into four segments and the central core was removed. For all the temperatures. Instrumental texture analysis The texture of the raw and processed samples was analyzed using an Instron texture analyzer (Instron 4302 Universal Testing Machine. The Hunter Lab co-ordinates [L⁄ (lightness.. Brandão. Mason Technology) at 60 °C and stored at À20 °C until used. MA) was used for polyphenolic separation at 25 °C. Think-Stothard Ltd. Determination of total flavonoid content The total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined according to the method of Liu. Flasks were kept in a shaking incubator (Innova 42. An Atlantis C18 column (250 Â 4. Milford.) equivalents per 100 g (mg GAE/100 g) fresh weight (fw) of cabbage through the calibration curve of gallic acid.3. a⁄ (red-green) and b⁄ (yellow–blue)] were measured using the L⁄. Trolox (Sigma–Aldrich) was used as a standard for FRAP assay and the results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalents per 100 g (mg TE/100 g) (fw) of cabbage. & Silva. Instrumental colour analysis The colour of the raw and blanched cabbage was analysed using a Colour Quest XE colorimeter (Hunter Lab.3. In brief. Abu-Ghannam. Chen.2. 2. until a clear extract was obtained. Data were analyzed by using Bluehill software. 5 lm particle size) from Waters (Waters. & Gupta. Kumar. 2011). samples were withdrawn every 2 min up to 14 min. Blanching was carried out between 80 and 100 °C with an increment of 5 °C.2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH RSC). 2010). Phytochemical analysis 2. HPLC-DAD analysis of polyphenolic compounds The HPLC-DAD analysis of polyphenolic compounds of fresh and blanched cabbage extracts were measured according to an existing method in our laboratory (Jaiswal. Before measuring. Jaiswal et al. & Gupta.

95 and 100 °C. and Wijaya (2010) studied the flavonoid contents of 11 vegetables from west Java. R is the gas constant (8.4%. This may be attributed to the inactivation of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme during blanching. the so-called fractional conversion model based on first-order kinetics (Eq. respectively after 14 min.5–45.0–50. Kim. it is important to consider the effect of blanching treatments on the TPC of the vegetables. 90 (-N-). blanching caused significant reduction in the TPC.0% was observed as a result of blanching at 80. 85(-j-). flavonoid content. Fresh cabbage showed the presence of a considerable TFC (95. Statistical analysis All experiments were done in triplicate and replicated twice. This finding is in contrast to much published work wherein it has been pointed out that an increase in the blanching time results in a continuous loss of phytochemicals.63 mg GAE/100 g of fw. These values are within the range of those reported elsewhere for cabbage. Jaiswal et al.. texture (firmness) change and colour change were described by fitting a zero order (Eq. All the statistical analysis and data were fitted to models using STATGRAPHICS Centurion XV. However.4% was observed at lower blanching temperatures (80. the inverse of temperature. The coefficient of determination and mean square error were used as criteria for adequacy of fit. and k is the rate constant at temperature T.9–65. A similar pattern was observed at 100 °C. Results are expressed as mean values ± standard deviation. As the blanching time increased beyond 6 min (until 14 min). (3)) to the experimental data: 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 2 4 6 8 a A ¼ A0 À kt. Overall a reduction of 74. 2003). As can be seen. The TPC of fresh cabbage was 147. Therefore. (5)): 25    Ea 1 . 90.1–76.1 mg QE/100 g (fw). 74. kref is the reaction constant at the infinite temperature. which could be due to thermal degradation and leaching into the water (Gonçalves et al. 95 ( ) and 100 °C (-d-)) and time combinations on (a) total phenolic content and (b) total flavonoid content of York cabbage. 75. 1(b).1%. Batari. A ¼ eÀkt .1. Sandrasari. Ea is an activation energy. (4)) can also be considered: The subscript ‘‘eq’’ indicates equilibrium value. an interesting observation was that when the phytochemical content was compared in terms of per gram dry weight of cabbage extract.1. k ¼ kref exp À R T ð5Þ 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 where. / Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 65 2.3 to 143 mg/ 100 g (fw). Results and discussion 3. blanching for up to 2 min resulted in a severe loss of phenolic compounds. reduction of 63.4 ± 8.6% and 78.5 ± 6.40 mg QE/100 g of fw).3% at 80–90 °C and 69. When any quality parameter varies from an initial value until a residual value.K.8. 85 and 90 °C) whereas 47. t is the blanching time.. The degradation continued up to 6 min of blanching time resulting in a Time (min) Fig.A. the individual measured concentrations were used instead of mean values of duplicate or triplicate experiments. and metal chelators and inhibit lipid peroxidation. 77. Reduction in the range of 43. the subscript 0 indicates the initial value of the parameter. A is the parameter to be estimated. Changes in TFC Flavonoids are potent AO. According to Joubert (1990). accounting for 37. Padilla-Zakour. mg GAE/100g (fw) 10 12 14 Time (min) 100 b 75 A À Aeq ¼ eÀkt : A0 À Aeq ð4Þ 50 The temperature dependence of the rate constant (k) can be expressed by the Arrhenius equation (Eq. there was no further reduction in TPC and it became almost constant for most of the blanching temperatures studied.1 to 133. The changes in the TFC of York cabbage after blanching from 80–100 °C as a function of blanching time are presented in Fig. Indonesia and found that they varied from 0. blanching at higher temperatures (95 °C for 12– 14 min) resulted in a 5–12% increase in the TPC. leading to the inhibition of polyphenols degradation (Yamaguchi et al. as compared to fresh cabbage. The results from the present study are in line with reported results. For all the temperatures studied.3–50. Effect of blanching temperature (80 (-Ç-). Andarwulan. blanching causes solubilisation of phenolic compounds and hence leads to a reduction in TPC.2. Fig. 1(a) shows TPC of fresh and blanched York cabbage. whereas Lin and Tang (2007) reported variation from 4. Maximal loss of TFC occurred in the first 2 min. and T is absolute temperature (in kelvin). (2)) or a first-order kinetic model (Eq. 2010). 2.1. Mathematical models and kinetic analysis The kinetics of York cabbage phenolic content. 3. free radical scavengers.5%. A0 ð2Þ ð3Þ mg QE/100g (fw) where. and Griffiths (2004) reported that TPC of cabbage ranged from 110. 85. Bolling.1.2 to 153. 1. thus taking into account variability within the samples. For the parameter estimation. Similar trends in the changes of TFC were observed at all the five blanching temperatures.5% at 95 and 100 °C.3145 J/mol K). 3. different AO capacity. which is further retained. Effects of blanching on phytochemical content 3.9.3 mg/100 g of fw.4% reduction was observed at 95 and 100 °C after 2 min. Changes in TPC The major contribution to the AO activities of plant foods is related to their content of polyphenols. The activation energy can be obtained through linear regression of the logarithm of the rate constant vs.6% loss .

00 13.00 24.030 0.006 0.042 0.00 34.00 14.00 11. HPLC-DAD analysis of polyphenolic compounds Fig. and (c) 50–70 min of chromatogram ((A) fresh cabbage.022 0.065 0.010 0.070 0.00 a B A AU C 7.014 0.00 70.00 4.018 0.016 0.040 0.025 0.00 65.020 0.00 71.00 51.00 64.048 0.030 0.034 0.008 0.00 55.000 50.000 1.00 50.024 B A C c AU 0.00 3.0 0 Minutes Fig.014 0. (B) 6 min of blanching at 95 °C.010 0.00 38.00 56.00 52.00 46. The degradation continued for up to 6 min of blanching accounting for a total 59.0% loss of TFC from 80–100 °C.00 10. 3.060 0.042 0.006 0.00 57.040 0. 2(a) shows the chromatogram for the 0.028 0.00 66.010 0.018 0.00 26.004 0.024 0.00 60.00 69.045 0.020 0.044 0.00 0.036 0. 2 shows the HPLC chromatogram at 280 nm for the polyphenolic compounds present in the fresh and blanched (95 °C for 12 min) York cabbage.035 0.00 58. Polyphenolic profiles at 280 nm for the fresh and blanched York cabbage: (a) 0–15 min of chromatogram.00 Minutes 8.022 0.038 0.00 18.00 63.00 48.00 32.1.055 0.028 0. .00 b B A C AU 0.00 61.032 0.034 0.00 12.002 0.012 0.050 0.038 0. / Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 over the range of temperatures studied.00 44.020 0.00 67.040 2.00 53.026 0.00 36.00 62.00 9.00 5. Fig.005 16.3. Jaiswal et al. (b) 15–50 min of chromatogram.00 15.K.00 42. 2.00 40.00 Minutes 0.00 59.016 0.00 30.036 0.012 0.032 0.046 0.004 0.026 0.00 6.00 22. and (C) 12 min of blanching at 95 °C).00 28.015 0.66 A.002 0. Blanching beyond 6 min did not have a severe effect on the TFC and the values almost became constant.030 0.008 0.00 20.00 68.6–71.00 54.

/ Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 67 first 15 min of elution. ranging from 0. compounds eluting in this period are generally simple polyphenols.637 0.004 0. FC first-order kinetics model fitted the experimental data with high r2 value.03 0. Similar results were obtained for the other temperatures (data not shown).05 0.337 ± 0.021 0. and Lajolo (2009). which increased after 6 min of blanching at 95 °C.54 kJ/mol K for TPC and 9. According to Bunea et al.725 0.136 ± 0.960 0. Jaiswal et al.740 0.4 0.0 b A-Aeq /A0-Aeq 0.764 0.163 ± 0.016 0.002 0.203 ± 0.010 0.983 at 80 to 100 °C with low MSE (Table 1).01 0.002 0.977 0.6 0.04 0. Fig. The chromatogram shows that there was a significant reduction in the individual peaks after the entire blanching period. 90 (N) and 100 °C (s)] and predicted [80 (—). Experimental [80 ( ).484 ± 0. the degradation rate constant (k) increases from 0. (2)). The temperature dependence of the rate constant for both TPC and TFC was well expressed by the Arrhenius equation (Eq. whereas 12 min of blanching showed enhancement in the level of individual compounds. The compounds eluting in this region are generally flavonoids.366 minÀ1 as a result of temperature increase.148 ± 0.01 0.002 0.04 0. Kinetic analysis of phytochemical content Degradation kinetics of the phytochemical content was modelled using zero order (Eq.003 0. respectively.012 0. Blanching for 12 min showed slightly less deterioration in the individual peak compared to fresh cabbage.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) 1.04 r2 0.977 0.416 ± 0. . first-order (Eq.003 0.935 0.379 ± 0. This was expected as the raw data clearly showed an initial degradation followed by an almost constant retention of the content.007 0.726 0.424 ± 0. respectively.017 0.00 0. the increase in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds after heat processing treatments may be explained by their better release from the food matrix as a result of the breakdown of molecular structures containing phenolic groups.K. 3.928 0.2 0.981 0. total phenolic content.971 MSE 0.02 0.0 a A-Aeq/A0-Aeq 0. (3)) and FC first-order kinetics models (Eq.773 0. corresponding regression coefficient and mean square errors of York cabbage phytochemical degradation due to blanching.00 0.432 ± 0.149 ± 0.1.982 0.376 ± 0. r2. (2008) and Ranilla. which accounts for the leaching of phenolic compounds into water or breakdown of the same.014 0.4 0. 3(a) and 3(b). Mean square error (MSE) and coefficient of determination (r2) (Table 1) were used as statistical measures for comparison of the experimental and model simulated values.015 0.314 to 0.870. 2(c) presents the chromatogram from 50 to 70 min of elution.00 0. Fig.166 ± 0. kinetic parameter estimates.017 Fractional conversion first order k 0.90 r2 0. TFC.349 ± 0.8 0.180 ± 0. regardless of blanching time and temperature.165 ± 0.05 0.015 0.145 ± 0. It is anticipated that these compounds could be highly hydrophilic and totally drained out in the water during blanching.484 minÀ1 when 1.366 ± 0. but it was higher than that of the 6 min blanching. mean square errors.6 0.379 to 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) Fig.22 kJ/mol K for TFC with r2 values of 0.805 0.02 0.A.8 0. The low activation energies clearly showed that these quality attributes were highly temperature sensitive and even slight adverse conditions can result in the loss of these compounds from the plant cell. regression coefficient.892 0. such as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives.148 ± 0.4.02 0. 90 and 100 °C) are presented in Fig. MSE. 90 (——) and 100 °C (–ÁÁ–)] (FC first-order kinetics model) data for blanching temperature and time combinations on (3a) total phenolic content and (3b) total flavonoid content of York cabbage.314 ± 0. Genovese.02 0. A similar trend was also observed at 100 °C. 3. TFC degradation rate also showed a similar trend where k increases from 0.02 0. Temperature (°C) First order k TPC 80 85 90 95 100 80 85 90 95 100 0. (4)).03 0. The chromatogram shows that there was a continuous reduction in the individual compounds other than the peak at 5 min.2 0. 2(b) exhibits the chromatogram for 15–50 min of elution.00 0. Experimental and predicted (FC first-order kinetics models) data for degradation of TPC and TFC due to blanching at three temperatures (80.002 0.892 to 0. total flavonoid content. the temperature increases from 80 to 100 °C. The resulting activation energy was 11.983 0.901 and 0.02 0. There was a significant reduction in the individual peaks after 6 min of blanching.846 0.018 0.741 MSE 0. For the TPC.783 0. during which compounds belonging to derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonoids may generally be seen. Table 1 Kinetic parameter estimates.007 0. (5)). TPC. Similar trends were observed at 100 °C. Results also showed that peaks for a few compounds completely vanished following blanching.003 TFC k.

4. who carried out a detailed study on the effect of the 3.8 ± 109. after which the DPPH RSC remained almost constant.K. The reducing power of blanched cabbage decreased markedly with an increase in blanching time and temperature. 90 (-N-). This result supports the statement of Papetti.7–69. The decrement was more noticeable after 6–8 min (32–35% retention) of blanching. .4. As the blanching temperature increased (95–100 °C). 95 ( ) and 100 °C (-d-)) and time combinations on antioxidant capacity (expressed as relative standard equivalent) on (a) DPPH radical scavenging capacity (b) H2O2 radical scavenging capacity (c) lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability and (d) Ferric reducing antioxidant potential of York cabbage. Similar trend was observed when cabbage was blanched at the higher temperatures (95–100 °C).2. Changes in ferric reducing AO potential The experimental results of this study (Fig. it was reported that Irish York cabbage has a considerable ability to scavenge H2O2 (Jaiswal. although it reduced to different extents. as compared to that at low temperature until 6–8 min of blanching. The LPO inhibitory ability of fresh cabbage was estimated to be 312.3. Daglia. 4(c) shows the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the presence of fresh and blanched cabbage extracts.6 ± 8. Changes in H2O2 scavenging capacity In a previous study.3% loss in H2O2- 200 175 a mg BHTE/100g (fw) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 b mg AscE/100g (fw) 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) Time (min) 300 c mg TE/100g (fw) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 d mg AscE/100g (fw) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) Time (min) Fig.3–57. the H2O2 scavenging capacity was retained beyond 6 min of blanching. in comparison to the lower temperature range. There was a higher reduction in DPPH RSC up to 6 min. which is less than that reported in the present study. The DPPH RSC of fresh cabbage estimated was 187. Blanching of cabbage at the higher temperatures (95– 100 °C) resulted in greater reduction in the H2O2 scavenging capacity (63. Changes in lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability Fig. (2003) measured the AO capacity by the DPPH assay in blanched cauliflower and reported a reduction of 20–30%.2.13 mg TE/100 g of fw) as compared to blanched cabbage. & Gupta. Effect of blanching on AO capacity 3. scavenging capacity until 6 to 8 min of blanching but subsequently the rate of loss became almost constant as the time of blanching increased. 4(a).1. the reduction in LPO inhibitory ability was higher (66–72%). after which the scavenging capacity was constant. In the present study. This may be due to losses or degradation of certain types of phenolic compounds or other compounds responsible for DPPH RSC of York cabbage during blanching. 2011). Blanching treatments produced a significant decrease in the LPO inhibitory ability in most cases with respect to their fresh counterparts. Jaiswal et al. who reported that the RSC would decrease if the vegetables were exposed to heat. A similar result was reported by Amin and Lee (2005). Changes in DPPH radical scavenging capacity The effect of blanching temperature and time on DPPH RSC of York cabbage is presented in Fig. In the case of all five temperatures.4 ± 0. 3. Heating beyond 8 min did not have any significant effect on the LPO inhibitory activity. 85(-j-). such as with blanching. 3.9 mg BHTE/100 g of fw.08 mg AscE/100 g of fw. AbuGhannam. at the lower blanching temperatures (80–90 °C) there was a significant loss (60–65%) in DPPH RSC up to 6 min of blanching.7 ± 6. Effect of blanching temperature (80 (-Ç-). The H2O2 scavenging capacity of fresh cabbage was estimated to be 667.2. Results showed that for all the different temperatures. Results showed that there was a reduction in DPPH RSC after blanching. Puupponen-Pimiä et al. Similar to the phytochemical content. and Gazzani (2002). The rate of loss gradually reduced as the blanching time was increased finally resulting in almost constant values. 4(d)) indicate that fresh and blanched cabbage had the ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ in different proportions.2.2.56 mg AscE/100 g of fw. Similar to other AO systems.68 A. / Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 3.2. there was reduction in the H2O2 scavenging capacity of the blanched York cabbage as compared to fresh (Fig. 4(b)). Lower blanching temperatures (80–90 °C) resulted in a 55. fresh cabbage had relatively strong ferric ion reducing capacity (26. blanching at 80–90 °C resulted in 55–58% reduction in LPO inhibitory ability up to 6 min of blanching but subsequently the rate of loss reduced. maximal degradation occurred in the first 2 min.8%) than that of the lower temperature for up to 6 min. Rajauria. However.

295 ± 0.0 0. .0 b A-Aeq/A0-Aeq 0. first-order (Eq.143 ± 0.105 ± 0.007 0.03 0.001 0.009 0.825 0.007 0.02 0.003 0.03 0.958 0.4 0.00 0.903 0.03 0.275 ± 0.8 a A-Aeq/A0-Aeq 1.684 0. regression coefficient.004 0.012 0.03 0.0 0. H2O2. Table 2 shows deg- Table 2 Kinetic parameter estimates.310 ± 0. FRAP.009 0. lipid peroxidation in a haemoglobin-induced linoleic acid system.01 0.0 0. 3.4 0.03 0.982 0.012 0.902 0.2 0.979 0.020 0.003 0.009 0. mean square errors.00 0.903 0.977 0. mustard cabbage.04 0.03 0.06 0.981 0.002 0.8 0.4 0. (3)) and FC first-order (Eq.991 0.009 0.5.144 ± 0.018 0.829 0.006 0.172 ± 0.02 0.2 0.01 0. Temperature (°C) First order k DPPH 80 85 90 95 100 80 85 90 95 100 80 85 90 95 100 80 85 90 95 100 0.03 0.950 0.6 0. (2)).6 0.437 ± 0.04 0.285 ± 0.903 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) Time (min) 1.003 0.011 0.2.966 0.398 ± 0.982 0.300 ± 0. LPO.00 0.02 0.976 0.159 ± 0. ferric reducing antioxidant potential.968 0.865 0.312 ± 0.01 0.00 0.367 ± 0.808 0.004 0.960 MSE 0.04 0.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity.08 0.437 ± 0.973 0. corresponding regression coefficient and mean square errors of York cabbage antioxidant capacity reduction due to blanching.764 0.005 0.984 0. (4)).04 0.144 ± 0. 90 (——) and 100 °C (–ÁÁ–)] (FC first-order kinetics model) data for blanching temperature and time combinations on antioxidant capacity on (a) DPPH radical scavenging capacity (b) H2O2 radical scavenging capacity (c) lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability and (d) ferric reducing antioxidant potential of York cabbage.351 ± 0.03 0.968 0.169 ± 0. Experimental (80 ( ).003 0.008 0.003 0.04 0.140 ± 0.004 H2O2 LPO FRAP k.794 MSE 0.138 ± 0.8 0.02 0.007 0.04 0.150 ± 0.237 ± 0.947 0.104 ± 0.275 ± 0.414 ± 0.398 ± 0.271 ± 0.008 0.03 0. kinetic parameter estimates.006 0. MSE.975 0.186 ± 0. cabbage.03 0.868 0.03 0. 2.05 0.172 ± 0.124 ± 0.975 0.345 ± 0.0 d A-Aeq/A0-Aeq 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) Time (min) Fig.991 0.124 ± 0.002 0.002 0.825 0. hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay.126 ± 0.012 Fractional conversion first order k 0. 90 (N) and 100 °C (s)] and predicted [80 (—).899 0.0 0.2 0. r2.2 0.03 0.006 0.06 0.8 0.903 0. Jaiswal et al. Kinetic analysis of AO capacity AO capacity analysis was modelled using zero order (Eq.172 ± 0.980 0.03 0.237 ± 0.K.002 0.013 0. and Chinese white cabbage.4 0. 5.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 c A-Aeq/A0-Aeq 1.002 0.04 r2 0.02 0.01 0.269 ± 0.140 ± 0.790 0.007 0.03 r2 0.003 0.837 0.171 ± 0.014 0.114 ± 0.793 0.001 0.009 0. DPPH. / Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 69 blanching time for red cabbage. 1.03 0.863 0.271 ± 0.04 0.6 0.6 0. Chinese cabbage.009 0.A.816 0.

929 to 0. Results showed that blanching had a severe effect on chroma.002 0.952 0. DPPH RSC.00 0.913 0.4 0. Higher activation energy implies that a smaller temperature change will degrade the AO capacity more rapidly. The k value confirmed the effect of blanching temperature on the reduction of AO capacity.05 r2 0.09 0.00 0. 90 (——) and 100 °C (–ÁÁ–)] data for blanching temperature and time combinations on (a) colour (chroma) (zero order equation) and (b) texture (firmness) of York cabbage (first-order kinetics model).0 0. Kinetic parameter estimates. 2.37 35. 22.05. 5.05 21.193 0.093 ± 0.2 Table 3 Kinetic parameter estimates. Effects of blanching on colour change Colour is one of the most important quality attributes of food materials.54 9. ferric reducing antioxidant potential.880 radation kinetic parameter estimates. the k increases when the temperature increases from 80 to 100 °C (Table 2). (5)). H2O2.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) 1. Experimental and predicted (zero order) data for three blanching temperature (80.22 33. mean square errors.569 1. & Burdurlu. Ea. 25. total phenolic content.967 0.943 0.0 Chroma 15.907 0. The temperature dependence of the AO capacity analysis rate constant was well expressed by the Arrhenius equation (Eq. The reduction in chroma could be due to degradation of chlorophyll accompanied with a loss of the liberated colouring compounds by migration into the blanching water. regression coefficient. The values were 35. 1999). Weemaes. Salgado.977 0.05 kJ/m K for H2O2 RSC. Jaiswal et al.937 0. (2007) and Lespinard. Zero order Colour k.756 minÀ1 with an increase . The higher its values are.06 0. / Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 Table 4 Activation energy and regression coefficient for different physicochemical properties. Ooms.612 ± 0.002 0. respectively.10 0. These authors studied the effects of blanching on colour of Brussels sprouts and mushrooms and found that blanching leads to fading of colour from dark to light with increased temperature. (2)) was found to be appropriate for modelling the effect of blanching on York cabbage chroma with high r2 ranging from 0. The activation energies obtained from these data for different AO methods are presented in Table 4. activation energy. Karadeniz. 6. TFC. total flavonoid content. LPO inhibitory ability and FRAP assay. regression coefficient. as indicated by the CIE scale parameters: co-ordinate a⁄ was À3.875 0.146 ± 0.9 ± 1. & Hendrickx.7 with a chroma value of 23.0 a 3. Kinetic studies of chlorophyll degradation have found this reaction to be temperature dependent (Koca. the more desirable a food product is. 90 and 100 °C) and time combination on chroma are presented in Fig.042 ± 0.70 A.08 0. Temperature (°C) First order k Texture 80 85 90 95 100 80 85 90 95 100 0.901 0.043 ± 0. Goñi.985 0. lipid peroxidation in a haemoglobin-induced linoleic acid system.8 b A/A 0 0. Zero order kinetic model (Eq.937 0.543 ± 0.908 0. For the entire AO capacity analysis.672 0.52. 20.543 to 0.53 9. corresponding regression coefficients and MSE of York cabbage AO capacity losses due to blanching.K.04 r2 0. r2. 6a (similar results were obtained for 85 and 95 °C (data not shown)).003 0. DPPH.962 MSE 0.633 ± 0. Chroma is the indicator of colour saturation and intensity. TPC. b⁄ was 20.6 0.648 ± 0.80 15. hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. 2007.962. kinetic parameter estimates. corresponding regression coefficient and mean square errors of York cabbage texture (firmness) and colour (chroma) degradation due to blanching.53 and 9.015 0. corresponding regression coefficients and MSE of chroma due to blanching are included in Table 3.001 0. Similar findings were observed by Viña et al. as the temperature and time of processing increased the value of chroma decreased.903 0.227 1.090 ± 0. was 64.45. and Mascheroni (2009).2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity.3.0 10.01 0. associated with lightness.929 0. r2.00 0.00 0. The k value increases from 0.870 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (min) Fig.756 ± 0.910 0.37. Van Loey. LPO. 90 and 100 °C are presented in Fig. 21. Difference in the activation energies for different methods could be explained by the fact that different compounds or their synergistic effects were associated with a particular AO capacity assay. FRAP. Ea (kJ/molK) TPC TFC Texture Colour DPPH H2O2 LPO FRAP 11.73 22.957 0. Experimental [80 ( ).3 and the L⁄ co-ordinate. Experimental and predicted (FC first-order) data for the deterioration in AO capacity due to blanching at 80. 90 (N) and 100 °C (s)] and predicted [80 (—). Different AO systems showed a high degree of fit for all the models studied with FC first-order kinetic model being the most suitable. Fresh York cabbage heads were bright green. MSE.

W. D. which is indicative that texture characteristics of York cabbage were highly sensitive to the blanching temperature.. O.. (2009). Kumar. Pasper. The activation energy was estimated as 15. (2005). S. (2008). (2007). Y. Jaiswal et al.1111/ j. S..). S. Abu-Ghannam. The loss of texture continued up to 14 min of blanching without reaching any equilibrium. 122(1). 90 and 100 °C) and time combinations on the firmness are presented in Fig. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging.0–87. M. (2010). (2003). N. N. H. A. D.. Joubert. Genovese. et al. L. Effects of blanching on textural properties Texture is one of the most significant quality constraints.. P.975. textural properties of cabbage seemed to follow a different trend. B. Y. F. T. C...). Sousa. Wang. 41(6). such as solubilisation and depolymerisation of pectic polysaccharides.).. Similar results were obtained for the other two temperatures (data not shown). 45(12). antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacities of edible Irish brown seaweeds. (2009). Rajauria. F. M. C.. T. refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Martins.. & Lajolo. P. R. R. 2717–2723. T. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie. & Singh. & Mascheroni. M. J.. 2006). heat transfer and quality indexes during mushroom blanching. 69(9). Furthermore. Since the degradation of texture was less as the blanching time was increased. 101(1).910). G. 513–517. Food Chemistry. antioxidant and anti-radical activity of some phenolic acids. (2009). green asparagus and carrots. Carrot (Daucus carota L. 108(2). O.-M. a range of enzymatic and chemical reactions occur.. & Yang.. G.2–50. (2007). Abreu. 2485–2493.. 339–343. Daglia. 2314–2320. Kinetic modeling of texture development in potato cubes (Solanum tuberosum L. Flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of various cabbage genotypes at juvenile stage. W. H.). costata DC: Potential plant 3. Westport: The AVI Publishing Company. & Gupta. Effect of blanching on the antioxidant properties of some tropical green leafy vegetables. K. 753–758. S. Lin. The k increased from 0.) and red gram splits (Cajanus cajan L.. J. 4. thereby resulting in a major change in the firmness of fruits and vegetables (Nisha.8 kJ/mol K. Journal of Food Engineering. H. C685–C689. phenolic contents and AO capacity of York cabbage. K. M. L. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. C. Sharma. Mechanical properties of foods. Brandão. 99(8). (3) and (5)) fitted well in the experimental data with r2 ranging from 0. Häkkinen. V. M. (2009). 8–27). Y. I. Verhé.1745-4514. (2002).. (5)). Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from lychee (Litchi chinenesis Sonn. S.. Andrade. In the present study. Thermal inactivation kinetics of peroxidase and lipoxygenase from broccoli.. 83(14). 574–581.. W. G. Voisey. Liu. Ranilla. (2004). 609–615. (2005). R.. The activation energy was estimated as 33. 524–530.. Effect of different cooking conditions on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some selected Brazilian bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal of Food Engineering. V.. Lin.. References Amin. & Cisneros-Zevallos. 25(3).. A.. B. A reduction in the range of 9–28. 81(9). C.. firmness was better retained at lower temperature and longer time as compared to higher temperature and longer process time. J. 1231–1235. / Food Chemistry 131 (2012) 63–72 71 in temperature from 80 to 100 °C. Padilla-Zakour.. Taveira. 6(b). Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables. Nisha. & Silva..A. M. E.) flowers. 32–36.. Singhal. 67(1). 114(2). Rheology and texture in food quality (pp..9% was observed in the first 2 min. Food Chemistry. B. K. 146–154. W. 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