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Chapter 4

India became independent in the year 1947 after the epic struggle against the colonial power. The country redefined itself as a sovereign republic with a constitution of its own in the year 1950. The early years of the country in the nascent stage witnessed a spurt of ideas, aspirations and issues to grapple with. The long trail set ablaze with the ideals of the national movement was burning brighter. So far the path leading to the formation of the nation was defined by many factors and the way these divergent factors were tackled led to the formation of the nation. Now, the formation of the nation -state encompassing all the fragments demanded an engagement with the society with its own novel strategies, for the nation needed to sustain itself within the structural framework of power. It became imperative that the reality of nationhood needed to be structured and restructured according to the changing times to help the nation enter the full panoply of the nation-state. In order to survive and progress as a nation India needed a strong sense of cohesion. The land of diversities, in order to sustain itself needed a system with unitary features. This is how the notion of centrality of power, in the context of the nation-state becomes significant. The regional and linguistic pulls and pressures needed to be tackled for the nation to remain coherent as a whole. Thus the years after independence witnessed yet another version of power struggle that cuts through the dialectics of openness and diversity. The policy of integration of native states was initiated by the State Ministry of the Government under the guidance of Sardar Vallabhai Patel. This initiative by the government improved the prospects of the formation of a United Kerala. The State of Travancore-Cochin

came into existence in 1949. The Maharajas of the two states signed the Covenant of Integration. The legislatures and the ministers of the two states combined to form the legislature and the ministry of the new state. Members were elected to the legislature to form the ministry. Owing to internal dissensions in the Congress ministry, the cabinet headed by Panampilli Govinda Menon fell. It was followed by the President‟s rule. It was during the period of President‟s rule in Travancore- Cochin that the decision on the re- organization of the states of Indian Union on linguistic basis was taken up by the Indian government. A. Sreedhara Menon in his A Survey of Kerala History gives a detailed account of the process of integration: Under the States Re- organization Act of 1956 the four southern taluks of Tovala, Agastiswaram, Kalkulam and Vilavancode and a part of Shencottah taluk was separated from Travancore- Cochin and included in Madras state. The district of Malabar and the Kasargod taluk of South Canara district were added on to the remaining portions of TravncoreCochin to constitute the new state of Kerala. The State of Kerala formally came into existence on November 1, 1956 with a Governor as the head of the State. The last vestiges of princely rule in Kerala also disappeared with the end of the institution of Rajapramukh, consequent upon the formation of the new state. (311) Thus the region of Malabar became part of the State of Kerala. The integration of the three Malayalam- speaking regions attempted to bring about an environment of political and linguistic unity to the culture of Malayalam- speaking people. It shows that the issue of language, both as a tool of cohesion and as a tool of division is becoming significant in the entire discourse of the nation. The nation with diverse ethnicities speaking diverse languages, in order to remain

The final section of the novel entitled “Rustlings” talks about the years following independence in the life of the nation. the conversations with Velu Moopar and the new Americanised youth of Atiranippadam who Sreedharan sees on his way back. K.The huge petrol tank that Sreedharan sees on his arrival. The coming back of Sreedharan.stated needed the language of developmentalism to bring . for the nation. concerning the nation. The past is juxtaposed with the present to offer a perspective on how the nation tried to imagine the region. It became imperative for the state to assert the nationalist sovereignty. Pottekkatt attempts to portray the way the nation tried to make the story of the region its own. Issues of development planning. It was part of the modernization process that was very much the need of the hour. the casting of a long glance backwards only to look forward again. The first issue that the novel brings forth is that of the impact of industrialization on the region during the period of “nation. The present chapter attempts to explore the issues that can be read between the words lying on the pages of the novel.” The primary agenda of the sovereign republic in the nascent stages was the development of the country. The site where the nation-state asserted its sovereignty with all its vigour was the site of economy. Oru Desathinte Kadha (1971) written by S. a part of the erstwhile Malabar throws open the new picture of a region where the nation had been trying to paint its hues in the years after independence. the protagonist of the novel to Atiranippadam. In fact “Rustlings” is a looking back. The story of the region had to be made the nation‟s too for the nation.all pint toward the story of the nation read through the region. through various strategies and techniques. representative form of government.building.state to survive.coherent had to assert its sovereignty through strategies developed with this goal in mind. the way the region understands the nation and the onset of neocolonialism are the significant aspects that could be deciphered from the novel.state and the way it mediated with the region.

political sovereignty of the state with the sovereignty of the people. The state was connected to the people. In his article “Development Planing and the Indian State.” The objective of India‟s development strategy has been to establish a socialistic pattern of society through economic growth based on selfreliance.” Arjun Sengupta observes. In his article “The Planning Regime Since 1951.a society of mixed and diverse interests under one umbrella. (210) The National Planning Commission was set up in 1950 under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru. The latter connected the sovereign powers of the state directly with the economic policy of the people. Emphasis was placed on the development of state. India initiated planning for national economic development with the establishment of the Planning Commission. . In fact in India‟s peculiar brand of Socialism centrally directed planning of the public sector operated in a mixed economy with a substantial private sector and a democratic polity.owned heavy industries and a dominant role for the public sector in the economy. A developmental ideology then was a constituent part of the self-definition of the post-colonial state. Boettke in his work The Collapse of Development Planning (16). The former connected. the first Prime Minister of free India. The Nehruvian vision of India was based on the „socialistic pattern of development. These objectives were to be achieved within a democratic political framework using the mechanism of a mixed economy where both public and private sectors co-exist. observes Peter J. the legal.” Partha Chatterjee observes. social justice and alleviation of poverty.nation not simply through the procedural forms of representative government. as in any liberal form of government. it also acquired its representativeness by directing a programme of economic development on behalf of the nation.

state‟s attempts at “nationalization” of the diverse groups Etienne Balibar writes in his work Politics and the Other Scene: The nation is ultimately.state to bring all the diverse entities woven together in one strand recalls what Etienne Balibar has called the “delayed nationalization of society. An impossible task culturally. it ensured independence and benefitted the poor. for „multi. Regarding the nation. gave them swaraj. The main vehicle for the transmission of these decisions was the Five.that is to say. is it benefitting the poor? Nehru believed that industrialization was the natural product of these two legacies. An impossible task economically. which can never entirely achieve its ideal. He believed in industrialization not just as a kind of a boost to economic growth but as an essential desideratum for modernization of the country.” which means successfully producing a “fictive ethnicity” from a population with diverse interests.state through the language of developmentalism. as a problem. (123) The Planning Commission was entrusted with the task of directing and controlling the process of resource generation and allocation.Year Plans developed by the Planning Commission and its associated ministries and agencies. since the „integral distribution of human beings and resources between national units is in no sense a tendency of capitalism. at most it is a means of its „political . The task of the nation. and it is as such.The twin legacy of the Indian national movement was the urge for independence: independence and evaluation of everything in terms of the question. that it is real. The plans were intended to bring coherence to the nation. an impossible entity.ethnicism‟ and „multiculturalism‟ are present from the outset and are constantly reforming themselves.

thereby leading the country on a linear path of development. The aim of the First Five Year Plan (1951-56) was to raise domestic savings for growth and to help the economy resurrect itself from colonial rule. Kerala was reorganized as a State only in November. the nationalization of society is a process of specific statization.not just a more or less stable compromise between classes. This is the first great factor of ambiguity in national identities and class identities. The Second Plan gave greater importance to industry. subsuming the . .reproduction or its hegemony. But it is also a compromise. The industrialization strategy articulated by Professor Mahalanobis placed emphasis on the development of heavy industries and envisaged a dominant role for the public sector in the economy. when compared to the First Five Year Plan. This results in the birth of ambiguous identities that interact with each other. . once the formation of the nation. The later plans led to the development of a variety of institutions around planning and development. These policies and plans that were implemented by the government intended at changing the face of the regions within the country. but a compromise between the two „principles‟ themselves: between the principle of nationalism and that of class struggle.state is achieved die a slow death. The entrepreneurial role of the state was evoked to develop the industrial sector. 1956 and by that time the Second Five Year Plan was already formulated. and a corollary of their reciprocal determinations. The real break with the past in planning came with the Second Five Year Plan (Nehru-Mahalanobis Plan). Thus it can be argued that the Five Year Plans implemented by the government attempted at the nationalization of the society leading to statization. The ideals of nationalism that demanded a confluence of all the divergent voices. In these conditions. (650) As Balibar points out the nationalization of society becomes a process of statization.

cannot carry out this task. The backwardness of the region in terms of its lack of industrial modernization made it dependent on the nation. and secure and well. of achieving internal homogeneity. J. .its people and its government. (This is so) . Namboodiripad. the first Chief Minister of Kerala on development planning and its relation with the state of Kerala in the essay mentioned above: The State of Kerala. our economy is not an isolated one but part of the general economy spread throughout India. This had another side to it. . . the creation of internal homogeneity became tantamount to accepting and taking part in the nation. by themselves. .scale developmental activity.a. economically powerful and modernized nation-state in and through large. observes J. precisely because Kerala is not an independent country but an integral part of India. Devika brings in the remarks made by E.however. S.vis their neighbours. (27) Thus for Kerala.building process. In the case of the newly formed state of Kerala. The goals of the Malayalee people. So we Malayalees can find solutions to our problems only as part of the organized efforts carried out by the . M. Kerala had to join the development planning implemented by the central government since the resources needed to come from the centre to promote industrialization in the state. these plans worked in two ways.differences and conflicts within. . seem to blend effortlessly into the goal of the central government seeking to transform a multiplicity of cultures into a unified.state. linguistic nationalism appears an apt tool aiding the central government to set a national development programme in operation. Devika in her essay “ A People United in Development: Developmentalism in Modern Malayalee Identity:” .defined identity vis.

” Sreedharan visits Atiranippadam after almost forty years. “Sreedharan looked at the petrol tank that has a capacity of ten thousand gallons. both national and global. (27) In Oru Deshathinte Kadha. Coming back to the region where a large chunk of his life left memories enough to last for a lifetime.” writes S. The region was now being defined by the nation.K. The tank that could fuel thousands of motor vehicles acts as a symbol in the beginning. At the same time. as Sreedharan sees it. Pottekkatt in the beginning of the chapter (505). the thousand memories that takes the mind in a journey back in time. Development in this context meant taking a linear path. The space that the tank occupies in the landscape of the region is indicative of the nation-state‟s mediation with the region.people and the government all over India to reform and develop India‟s economy. These encounters throw light on how the region has changed under the sway of influences. The huge tank stands for the transformation in the society as a result of the introduction of Five –Year plans leading to the industrialization of the society. the protagaonist witnesses the transformation of the region as a result of the nation.state‟s strategy of “nationalization. It greets . The tank represents the memories that are contained within the minds of each individual. a lot of faces – both old and new. or with the fragments within in at large. to join the legion of nationstates. Sreedharan encounters a lot of things. Each and every aspect encountered and recalled brings forth the new phase in the life of the country – the country that had left the garden with blooming flowers to travel a long way into the arena of a wider space called the world. The will of the nation was being expressed for the wellbeing of its citizens. The huge tank in Atiranippadam changes the face of the region itself. the presence of an object like the petrol tank in a region like Atiranippadam throws open many avenues of thought.

How can I not tell this truth? . When Emma. From the image of the huge petrol tank. . the girl who Sreedharan meets in Germany gets fascinated by his identity of being an “Indian. the Great Himalayas and the southernmost point of Kanyakumari. Velu Moopar . in the verandah of the early seventies in the life of the nation. Now. to food habits. to behaviour live together in the ample space bordered by the Bay of Bengal.” Sreedharan says: A large group of people widely at variance in all aspects ranging from skin colour to body stature. He is one character who has been a witness to the processes of nation formation that manifested themselves through the various struggles against imperialism.state to create the homogenized individual who would ensure the existence and survival of the nation – state. to dressing manner. (557) In spite of all the attempts by the nation. what you call the real Indian is an imaginary figure. They are called Indians. Emma. . to rituals. the writer turns our attention to the house of Velu Moopar.him in the beginning giving an idea of what is to be expected to follow. the striking aspect is that the development planning intended at the nationalization of the society often failed to achieve the creation of the “fictive ethnicity” as Balibar puts it (64). Now the attention shifts from the issue of development planning to the issue of representative government and the way a region understands the nation. the Arabian Sea. Yet. to language. The character Velu Mooppar is a representative of the past. the truth looms large that the “real Indian” is an imaginary figure.

there are Gosayis also – It is the land of Hindustanis – the Capital of India. .” “North? Farther than Kashi?” “Yes. Still there is always a lacuna between understandings and misunderstandings. On one hand. On the other hand. very very far. . in other words. “Where is Delhi?” “It‟s far away. who is part of the past which was mired in the struggle against imperialism. heard that you were in some far off land…” “In Delhi. The region fails to understand the regions far off. The land of Gosayis or the land of Malayalees are all put under one framework by the unitary features that the constitution espouses.sits sans eyesight. in the north. Velu Moopar represents the common man. The formation of the .” Sreedharan replied with respect.” “The land of Gosayis! Am I right?” “Yes. The conversation unravels many layers of thinking.”(509) For Velu Mooppar Delhi is unheard of. The conversation between Velu Moopar and Sreedharan throws light on a whole lot of aspects regarding the intermingling of the lives of the nation and the region. how far the capital of the Indian nation is away from the region of Atiranippadam. the conversation focuses on how one region gets to know another region. does not hold much charm for him. “Where do you live . it focuses on how far Delhi is from Atiranippadam. The capital of the country of which he is a citizen.

”But the other face talks about the disparities that exist between what has been imagined and what is existing in real. P. The conversation continues: “What is your job there?” Sreedharan felt confused. Member of Parliament) He admitted the truth to Velu Moopar. and the structurations and restructurations that followed did not seem to have occupied his thoughts at all.. “No work to do there. After all. K.state with the paraphernalia of institutions around it somewhere falls short of the idealistic aspirations that the road to nationalism has envisaged.” What S. ( 509). This is where a criticism of the nation. An idea struck his mind.state arises. often failed to live up to the expectations. representatives from the regions were elected to the . by the people and for the people. Yet. To ensure representation from all regions. What should be the answer? Would Velu Mooppar be able to understand the answer I give? Do I need to tell him? Telling a lie is not the right thing to do. . One face talks about the merits of a democratic system which is the government “of the people. hiding something is different from telling untruth …(Sreedharan is an M. The basic institutions of the democratic polity that were formed to protect the interests of the nation as a whole. the coin has two sides to it. The truth about the job that Sreedharan articulates reflects the chasm that exists between the state and the ordinary men and women. Pottekkattu tries to bring forth is an expression of the disillusionment that was there in the atmosphere of the country in the years that followed independence. The nation. .nation.

woven by different strands of thoughts and ideas. the power struggle continues. Sreedharan thus becomes a representative of the region as well as of the country. for elections with its strict . After the nation became a sovereign republic. after the country gained independence. mechanisms of selectivity. There have always been flipsides to it. In his article “Reconfigurations in Indian Politics” Yogendra Yadav writes As a representational device. Like aesthetic representation. (179) Elections have become a way of life in India. in a sense it merely records „what is out there‟. erasure and highlighting are inevitably at work in political representation. it is the turn of the nation-state to uphold these ideals in a new fashion altogether. In a sense. The notion of equality in the face of hierarchy depending on the position one occupies in the ladder of power becomes a central concern as well as stark reality of Indian democracy. in a way they create a reality of their own in their life for the sake of representation.parliament. elections are better compared to a camera. The issue of representation displays its manifold impressions in all such processes in a democratic polity like India. Sreedharan is the representative of the people while Velu Moopar even fails to understand what the idea of representation means. elections go much beyond recording the political reality. Velu Moopar and Sreedharan stands at the opposite poles of power hierarchy. like a camera. The idea of representation becomes central to the interpretation of the nation. And what is more. The ideals of democracy that went into the process of nation formation now get a new avatar. in which direction and with what focus. Earlier. the regions were united together in the national movement. but it all depends on who holds it.

As Ranabdir Sammadar points out in his article. but also compel a politics of interpreting the nation. through development planning and technological modernism. Burchell). Who are those whom the representatives really represent remains an issue mired with ambiguities. the language of votes becomes more critical than the arithmetic essence of the act of voting. The strategy of development planning together with the nation. also metaphorise the non-essentials by making them appear as essentials.compartmentalization and organizational structure fail to express the popular will as such.state. The process of elections ensures the continuity of the life of the nation. It problematises the issue of mimesis in the political life of the nation. This modern form of power exercises itself through forms of representation thereby offering itself an aspect of self. Votes lie at the heart of elections. Often.” Elections. they metaphorise the essentials. The huge petrol tank. its mode of reasoning a certain instrumental notion of economy.state. “Nation Legitimised. The Foucauldian notion of governmentality reminds that there is a “specific form of power that entrenches itself in modern society having its goal the well being of a population. symbolizing the onset of industrialization point .state‟s way of legitimizing itself – the process of elections recall the idea of „Governmentality‟ put forward by Michel Foucault. thus not only compel an interpretation of the politics of the nation. Representatives from among the people take part in elections conducted every five years. They are the essential image of the process. Recalling the idea of governmentality in the Indian context as seen in the novel unravels the way the nation tried to perform itself asserting its sovereignty. and its apparatus an elaborate network of surveillance” (qtd in. (176) The institutions and practices like elections ensure the sustenance of the nation.disciplining of the very population over which it is exercised. therefore.

in fact changed the face of the region and the nation. The protagonist of the novel. the only real space for political struggle and contestation. . . “This was an essential aspect of the hegemonic construct of the post. for our presentis not so much the etatisation of society. this is because the governmentalization of the state is at the same time what has permitted the state to survive. . To sum up. through the deployment of various strategies and the setting up of new institutions. this is so precisely thanks to the governmentality. This situation recalls what Foucault has written about the paradoxical phenomenon of the governmentalization of state in his essay “Governmentality:” May be what is really important for our modernity. the Nehruvian ideal of the modern state. To borrow Partha Chatterjee‟s words. . which is at once internal and external to the state. The development decades saw the combination of accumulation with legitimation. Sreedharan. being one among the many representatives sent to the parliament by the people of India stands for the way through which the modern nation legitimizes itself .colonial state: combining accumulation with legitimation while avoiding the „unnecessary rigours‟ of social conflict ( 259). On one side we can . (103) Right at this point the doubt arises as to whether the modernizing state succeeded in changing the attitude of its citizens to a more progressive level of thought. since if in fact the problems of governmentality and the techniques of government have become the only political issue. This governmentalization of the state is a singularly paradoxical phenomenon. as the “governmentalization” of the state.that is. as Partha Chatterjee puts it.toward a situation where the „national economy‟ becomes synonymous with the nation itself. and it is possible to suppose that if the state is what it is today.

(519) This passage expresses how the notion of untouchability.witness the rapid industrialization of the economy. Velu Moopar‟s opinion reflects the mentality of the region regarding the notion of gender . to put it broadly. Occupations are no longer based on the caste into which one is born as in the past. that too a work like cooking beef and pork.” Velu Moopar said with contempt. In other words. The fact is asserted by the Indian constitution too. “Who is that young man?” Sreedharan asked. “Stupid boy – he reeks of beef. On the other side certain attitudes remain unchanged.He is the cook of that company owner Sayippu– his job is to prepare beef and pork – you have to bath if you happen to touch him !” “Velu Moopar is a diehard conservative.studied till eighth standard. People like Velu Moopar views with contempt those who do jobs that are considered „cheap‟ and „low‟. Another point of contention that Velu Moopar has with Kunjiraman is that he does cooking which is in fact a work which is the prerogative of women. The thought processes still needed to undergo transformations. Eventhough the country was getting modernized with the introduction of economic planning and all true modernity was yet to arrive. “Who is he?” Sreedharan asked you know what his job is?. The opinion that Velu Moopar forms about Kunjiraman is an instance where the rigid notions of conservatism expresses itself in a different manner altogether. Velu Moopar thinks it cheap for men to work in someone else‟s kitchen. “He is the uncle of Supadra. prevails in a totally new fashion.” thought Sreedharan. Now the issue is with regard to the gender.

The early years seemed crucial for the development of the country for the country aspired to become a member of the world community. Through the words of Velu Moopar the novelist skillfully portrays the picture of a region. the writer brings in another significant aspect that speaks of the negotiation of the region with the world through the agent of the nation. Yet. Thus. If it was based on the hierarchy determined by caste system.state could not confront all these issues widening the gap between the voices from different directions. the region also experienced its outcomes. where in spite of all the modernization strategies brought out by the postcolonial state. modern nation freed from the clutches of the British rule. In fact while Velu Moopar represents the vestiges of the past.state started moving from the national to the global during the postindependence period. While the nation tried to enter into the world order. Sreedharan represents the present as well as the future. By the middle of the twentieth century India‟s relationship with itself and the world outside changed leaps and bounds.state. It was inevitable now for the region to enter into the panoply of the new horizon. The issues contained within the novel in fact gives a whole picture of Atiranippadam during the first two decades following independence. for Atiranippadam. The unitary picture put forward by the nation. Sreedharan has a difference of opinion – “Is the job of a cook something low? It is always better to do some work instead of sitting at home idle” (519).equality and inequality. Toward the end of the novel. The newly formed nation. India was entering the arena of the world as the new. certain attitudes remain the same. The character of Velu Moopar is far different from the character of Sreedharan. the occupational status determine the hierarchies of today. changes came naturally as seen in the passage given below: . The focus now shifts to the entry of India into the global order.

R. and two capitalist democracies. Though the earlier attitude of the country was inward-looking owing to the idealistic spirit imbibed from the nationalist movement which emphasized on “Swadeshi.” The country opened its doors to globalization in the early 1990s only. The huge advertisement of Coca-Cola is indicative of a lot of factors that contributed to the tremendous changes that occurred in the life of the nation. Prawns Pulao and Coca.Cola! Bharatmata teashop were once delicious biriyani was served seems to be a part of some distant dream. What happened before which led to the arrival of . a new restaurant could be seen.Cola occupy its place. The space that a global brand occupies in a region like Atiranippadam is indicative of the local merging with the national and the global. The years of Nehruvian vision of economy saw the rise of a mixed economy at home. S. The fact that the three steel plants built in the country during this period were based upon collaboration with one socialist country.Near the road.” the entry of the country into the global arena and subsequent forging of relationships with other countries were necessitated by the country‟s existence as a “nation-state. engulfed in the noise made by mills and motor workshops. The years also witnessed the country‟s involvement with all available partners from the foreign world and the socialist countries like the U. the Soviet Union. indicates the emergence of a global outlook in the industrial programme of the country. Britain and Federal Germany. (567) The advertisement of Coca-Cola displayed in front of the restaurant where the Bharatmata teashop once stood speaks volumes. The memories of biriyani have faded away – today Tashkent. An aluminium board carrying the picture of a huge red bottle is placed near the entrance – the advertisement of Coca. S. Bharatmata has gone.

The image of Coca. emphasizing on the global reach the instruments and institutions of neocolonialism enjoy. Right before the Sphinx in Egypt. Sreedharan came across one such advertisement of Coca-Cola. Sreedharan was not surprised at the incarnation of cola in the old Atiranippadam. the realities of the time showed that India was entering the neocolonial phase. The Indian market remained attractive to the multinational corporations and global giants of which Coca-Cola is a representative. in spite of the lack of purchasing power of the broad masses of people. In course of time foreign capital that penetrated into the vital sectors of the economy under the cover of tariff and protection reaped huge profits from the production of a variety of consumer goods. a huge board displaying CocaCola invited the tourists who were burning with thirst. Along with the Sphinx. a deserted place where not even grass sprout. While he was in Egypt.Cola leads the thoughts of Sreedharan to another direction. (567) . Sixteen years ago. the image of Coca-Cola still remains etched in memory. The advertisement of Coca. while domestically aggravating social and regional inequalities. Ultimately this led to a worsening of the balance of payments and deepening dependence of the country on neocolonial institutions. Criticism giants into an economy like that of India leads us through the alley where the buds of neocolonialism was slowly sprouting.Cola placed near the Sphinx fails to leave his memory and he is not at all surprised at seeing the same advertisement in Atiranippadam also. The upper strata of Indian population was much larger than the population of several imperialist countries. Thus the Indian market was attractive to MNCs and their compradors. Sreedharan recalled.

Cola ownership of the nation‟s top soft drink brands and bottling network . The hold that the global brands had over India led to widespread criticism and the country was not fully opened to the global economy.Cola cut across geographical boundaries and cultural borders to became the world‟s most powerful brand.Cola India.Jennife Kaye writes in Coca. From Egypt in Africa to Atiranippadam in India. far removed from the ideological implications it possess. After a 16year absence Coca.Cola has spread its arms.Cola controlled the entire soft drink industry of India till 1977 only to return in 1993.Coca.Cola came to India. Coca. The notion of Bharatmata which evolved during the time of nationalist struggles. (3. It was only in 1991 that India opened its doors fully to the world economy. Atiranippadam is no exception. The Indian market was witnessing the arrival of neocolonialism through the entry of multinational corporations.Cola symbolizes the globe‟s mediation with the nation as well as the region.Cola was the leading soft drink brand in India until 1977 when it left rather than reveal its formula to the government and reduce its equity stake as required under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act ( FERA) which goverened the operations of foreign companies in India. mediated through the nation enters into the global arena with or without its consent. when located in the context of a region like Atiranippadam. “Bharatmata has gone. Coca. It was in the year 1956 that Coca. The economic policies formulated by the government of India led to basic changes in the structure of the regional economy. cementing its presence with a deal that gave Coca. becomes the symbol of the feeling of nationalism . The region. a brand like Coca.” says Sreedharan (567).4) The advertisement of Coca. Bharatmata teashop of the past does not belong to the present and the future of the country.cola returned to India in 1993.

” is a representative of the times.state is in the state of an endless process of becoming. Increasing integration of the country with imperialist market led to the creation of new identities inscribed with imprints of neocolonial agendas including cultural imperialism. . The aspects of the society that S. Herbert Schiller provided his seminal definition of cultural imperialism as: “. wears western wear. the teenager stands for the preset state which is marked by the re.Cola. K. What happened to the spirit of idealism that led to the creation of a beautiful garden. The foreign flavour that pervades the entire atmosphere smells of neocolonialism and of cultural imperialism. Oru Deshathinte Kadha examines the engagement of the nation with the region through various strategies and the outcome of this engagement. The teenager who walks around in “tight pants and terylene shirt” whistles some “American rock and roll tune. He drinks Coca.state. with promises of a new life in the novel Sundarikalum Sundaranmarum seems to be the . the values and structures of the dominating centre of the system” (9). . and sometimes even bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to or even promote.that went deep into the mindscape of the region. pressured. Pottekkatt tries to bring forth in the novel Oru Deshathinte Kadha analyse the most significant chapter in the life of the nation. and sings western pop tunes. It becomes imperative in this context to recall Herbert Schiller‟s seminal definition of cultural imperialism. Indigenous food items are replaced by foreign recipes. the sum of the process by which a society is brought into the modern world system and how its dominating stratum is attracted. the era of “nation building. Just as Sreedharan stands between a past with seething memories of the struggle against imperialism and a present where the nation. The “Americanised” youth of Atiranippadam is the representative of the new era dominated by cultural imperialism.entry of colonialism in a new form. forced.”While the novel Sundarikalum Sundaranmarum affirmed the positive outlook the Indian nation along with the region had in the early fifties.

K. Pottekkatt tries to bring forth in his novel. as written by the nation. . The story of the region.state is the primary concern that S.lingering question that lurks on the pages of Oru Deshathinte Kadha.