# Sizing & Selection

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a valve with a one psi pressure drop. The general Equation for Cv is as follows: Cv = flow specific gravity at flowing temperature pressure drop When selecting a control valve for an application, the calculated Cv is used to determine the valve size and the trim size that will allow the valve to pass the desired flow rate and provide stable control of the process fluid.

Control Valve Sizing
CONTENTS
Introduction .................................................... 3-1 Nomenclature ................................................. 3-1 Calculating Cv for Liquids ............................... 3-3 Liquid Sizing Examples .................................. 3-7 Calculating Cv for Gases. ............................. 3-10 Gas Sizing Examples ................................... 3-13 Calculating Cv for Two Phase Flow ..............3-15 Vapor Pressure Charts ................................ 3A-1 Steam Tables ...............................................3A-7 Fluid Property Correlation Constants ...... ...3A-21 Pipe Data ................................................... 3A-29

Pressure Profile
Fluid flowing through a control valve obeys the basic laws of conservation of mass and energy, and the continuity Equation. The control valve acts as a restriction in the flow stream. As the fluid stream approaches this restriction, its velocity increases in order for the full flow to pass through the restriction. Energy for this increase in velocity comes from a corresponding decrease in pressure. Maximum velocity and minimum pressure occur immediately downstream from the throttling point at the narrowest constriction of the fluid stream, known as the vena contracta. Downstream from the vena contracta, the fluid slows and part of the energy (in the form of velocity) is converted back to pressure. A simplified profile of the fluid pressure is shown in Figure 3-1. The slight pressure losses in the inlet and outlet passages are due to frictional effects. The major excursions of pressure are due to the velocity changes in the region of the vena contracta.

INTRODUCTION
Valtek uses a systematic method for selecting body types, sizes, materials, pressure ratings and trim sizes based on flow characteristics. Valtek control valve flow capacity (Cv) is based upon the industry standard, ANSI/ISA S75.01. This standard and the corresponding measuring standards contain Equations used to predict the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids in control valves. Slightly different forms of the basic Equation are used for liquids and gases. Basic steps for sizing and selecting the correct valve include calculating the required Cv. Equations for calculating Cv for both gases and liquids are found in this section. Valtek has programmed the ANSI/ISA sizing Equations and procedures, making computer-aided sizing available on IBM-PC or compatible computers. These programs permit rapid control valve flow capacity calculations and valve selection with minimal effort. The programs also include exit velocity, noise prediction and actuator sizing calculations. See Section 22 for more details on computer-aided valve selection. These instructions are designed to expose the user to the different aspects of valve sizing. The step-by-step method outlined in this section is the most common method of sizing.

P1 P2
(Outlet Pressure)

P

(Valve Pressure Drop)

NOMENCLATURE Flow Capacity
The valve sizing coefficient most commonly used as a measure of the capacity of the body and trim of a control valve is Cv. One Cv is defined as one U.S. gallon per minute of 60 degree Fahrenheit water that flows through Rev. 6/94

PV PVC

(Vapor Pressure)

(Pressure at Vena Contracta)

Figure 3-1: Pressure Profile of Fluid Passing Through a Valve
3-1

xT. flow rate. Under choked conditions. FF The liquid critical pressure ratio factor. The result is a two phase mixture (vapor and liquid) at the valve outlet and in the downstream piping. Advanced cavitation can affect capacity and valve performance. The point at which full or choked cavitation occurs (severe damage. FF.3. When sizing a control valve. For compressible fluids. the vapor bubbles created at the vena contracta do not collapse. vibration. The velocity at any point in the valve or downstream piping is limited to sonic (Mach = 1). In liquids. FL is an experimentally determined coefficient that accounts for the influence of the valve’s internal geometry on the maximum capacity of the valve. at the fully choked condition due to effects of cavitation for liquids or sonic velocity for compressible fluids. As the pressure in the valve or pipe is lowered. FL Volumetric Flow Rate FL CV = q / ∆P/Gf q max ∆Pch ∆P/Gf Figure 3–2: Choked Pressure Drop Allowable Pressure Drop The capacity curve shown in Figure 3-2 shows that. the inlet fluid is 100 percent liquid which experiences pressures in and downstream of the control valve which are at or below vapor pressure. This two-step mechanism – called cavitation – produces noise. predicts the theoretical vena contracta pressure at the maximum effective (choked) pressure drop across the valve. ANSI/ISA liquid sizing Equations use a pressure recovery factor. 3-2 Choked Flow Choked flow occurs in gases and vapors when the fluid velocity reaches sonic values at any point in the valve body. with constant upstream pressure. The transition to choked flow may be gradual or abrupt.Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor.” is the choked pressure drop. . High recovery valves – such as butterfly and ball valves – have significantly lower pressures at the vena contracta and hence recover much farther for the same pressure drop than a globe valve. The liquid pressure recovery factor. the specific volume increases to the point where sonic velocity is reached. similarly describes the choked pressure drop for a specific valve. As a result. q. vapor formed as the result of cavitation or flashing increases the specific volume of the fluid at a faster rate than the increase in flow due to pressure differential. Cavitation In liquids. a terminal pressure drop ratio. The onset of cavitation – known as incipient cavitation – is the point when the bubbles first begin to form and collapse. and noise) can be determined from Equation 3. Flashing If the downstream pressure is equal to or less than the vapor pressure. It is determined from capacity test data like that shown in Figure 3-2. FL. depending on valve design. Thus they tend to choke (or cavitate) at smaller pressure drops than globe valves. Fi. vibration. when the pressure anywhere in the liquid drops below the vapor pressure of the fluid. is related to the square root of pressure drop through the proportionality constant Cv. FL. qmax. Lowering the downstream pressure beyond this point in either case will not increase the flow rate for a constant upstream pressure. the bubbles collapse (or implode) as the vapor returns to the liquid phase. the flow rate will be limited to an amount which yields a sonic velocity in the valve trim or the pipe under the specified pressure conditions. or pipe. The curve departs from a linear relationship at the onset of "choking" described using the Fi factor. This pressure drop is known as the allowable pressure drop. This is commonly called flashing. Liquid Critical Pressure Ratio Factor. to calculate the ∆Pch at which choked flow is assumed for sizing purposes. predicts the amount of pressure recovery that will occur between the vena contracta and the valve outlet. resulting in a liquid-gas mixture downstream of the valve. ∆Pa. the smaller of the actual pressure drop or the choked pressure drop is always used to determine the correct Cv. Velocity of this two phase flow is usually very high and results in the possibility for erosion of the valve and piping components. and causes erosion damage to the valve and downstream piping. The flow rate reaches a maximum. which begins at a ∆P determined from the factor. When flashing of a liquid occurs. If this pressure is higher than the vapor pressure. multiplied by the vapor pressure. FL also varies according to the valve type. “allowable pressure drop. trim. vapor bubbles begin to form in the fluid stream. As the fluid decelerates there is a resultant increase in pressure.

resulting in even higher noise levels. it is important to keep velocities below 500 feet per second. pipe velocities downstream from the valve are critical to the overall noise level. Fk The ratio of specific heats factor. Liquid applications – where the fluid temperature is close to the saturation point – should be limited to 30 feet per second to avoid reducing the fluid pressure below the vapor pressure. For most applications. depending on the valve type. The above figures are guidelines for typical applications.33 Mach.Reynolds Number Factor. FP. This is also an appropriate limit for applications designed to pass the full flow rate with a minimum pressure drop across the valve. In addition. In general. Z. very low velocities. Expansion Factor. is used to correct the calculated Cv for non-turbulent flow conditions due to high viscosity fluids. Y. FR The Reynolds Number Factor. On smaller valve applications which remain closed for most of the time – such as heater drain valves – higher velocities of 800 to 1500 feet per second may be acceptable with appropriate materials. gpm ∆Pa = Allowable pressure drop across the valve for sizing. Terminal Pressure Drop Ratio. adjusts the Equation to account for different behavior of gases other than air. valve outlet velocities should be limited to the following maximum values: Liquids Gases Mixed Gases and Liquids 50 feet per second Approaching Mach 1. The addition of a control valve to the line will increase the turbulence downstream. xT The terminal pressure drop ratio for gases. the apparent valve capacity is changed. a few of which are provided below.5 Mach can create substantial noise even in a straight pipe. If the process piping configurations are different from the standard test manifold. Expanded outlet style valves – such as the Mark One-X – help to control outlet velocities on such applications. is a function of the temperature and the pressure of a gas.1) Cv = Valve sizing coefficient FP = Piping geometry factor q = Flow rate. FP Valve sizing coefficients are determined from tests run with the valve mounted in a straight run of pipe which is the same diameter as the valve body. Z The compressibility factor. This will also localize the pressure recovery which causes cavitation immediately downstream from the vena contracta. Erosion damage can be limited by using chrome-moly body material and hardened trim. Experimentation has shown that velocities around 0. In flashing services. Velocity As a general rule. Gas applications where special noise attenuation trim are used should be limited to approximately 0. It is used to determine the density of a gas in relationship to its actual temperature and pressure conditions. psi Gf = Specific gravity at flowing temperature 3-3 . Fk. smaller sized valves handle slightly higher velocities and large valves handle lower velocities. Valves in cavitating service should also be limited to 30 feet per second to minimize damage to the downstream piping.0 500 feet per second Ratio of Specific Heats Factor. Piping Geometry Factor. Y The expansion factor. The effect of reducers and increasers can be approximated by the use of the piping geometry factor. accounts for the variation of specific weight as the gas passes from the valve inlet to the vena contracta. or very small valve Cv. xT. CALCULATING CV FOR LIQUIDS Introduction The Equation for the flow coefficient (Cv) in non-laminar liquid flow is: q Cv = Where: FP Gf ∆Pa (3. FR. Compressibility Factor. is used to predict the choking point where additional pressure drop (by lowering the downstream pressure) will not produce additional flow due to the sonic velocity limitation across the vena contracta. This factor is a function of the valve geometry and varies similarly to FL. velocities become much higher due to the increase in volume resulting from vapor formation. It also accounts for the change in cross-sectional area of the vena contracta as the pressure drop is varied. Special applications have particular velocity requirements.

71 .26 .0 N/A ~1.3) .84 to 0.75 .FFPV) 3-4 (3.75 .72 0.65 0.76 0.78 0.0 1.81 0.035* Valdisk Rotary Disc ShearStream Rotary Ball CavControl MegaStream ChannelStream Tiger-Tooth * Typical ** ns = number of stages The following steps should be used to compute the correct Cv.65 0.2) FL = Liquid pressure recovery factor FF = Liquid critical pressure ratio factor PV = Vapor pressure of the liquid at inlet temperature.2 and choked ∆Pch from Equation 3. See charts below for part-stroke values Valve Type Globe Flow Direction Over Seat Over Seat Under Seat Under Seat 60o Open 90o Open 60o Open 90o Open Over Seat Under Seat Over Seat Under Seat Trim Size Full Area Reduced Area Full Area Reduced Area Full Full Full Full All All All All FL 0. psia P1 = Upstream pressure.81 0.0 1.0 .49 0.0 ~1.80 0.0 ~1.3 to check for choked flow: ∆Pch = FL2 (P1 .2/ d (ns/25d)2/3** .040* .85 0.90 0.P2 (3. body size and trim number: Where: Step 1: Calculate Actual Pressure Drop The allowable pressure drop.999 xT . psia See Table 3-I for FL factors for both full-open and partstroke values.0.51 .0 1.0 Fd 1.Table 3-I: Typical Valve Recovery Coefficient and Incipient Cavitation Factors NOTE: Values are given for full-open valves.44 0.90 N/A 0.0 Fi 0. across the valve for calculating Cv. ∆Pa. Cavitation and Flashing Use Equation 3. FF can be estimated by the following relationship: PV FF = 0.70 .66 0.87 to 0.75 0.71 1.0 1. psia (see Table 3-II) Step 2: Check for Choked Flow. ∆P = P1 .56 0.28 (3.96 . psia PC = Critical pressure of the liquid.70 .36 .999 0.90 0.4) PC Where: FF = Liquid critical pressure ratio PV = Vapor pressure of the liquid.30 N/A ~1.0 .92 ~1.3. is the smaller of the actual ∆P from Equation 3.

1. psia The required Cv for flashing applications is determined by using the appropriate ∆P allowable [∆Pch calculated from Equation 3.6a is greater than 40. verify analysis with factory if ∆P > ∆P (cavitation) > 300 psi (globe valves) or 100 psi (rotary valves).1 Liquid Hydrogen Chloride Isobutane Isobutylene Kerosene Methane Nitrogen Nitrous Oxide Oxygen Phosgene Propane Propylene Refrigerant 11 Refrigerant 12 Refrigerant 22 Sea Water Water Critical Press.2 Carbon Monoxide 507.0 3208.5 0.6a) Use Equation 3.2 615.2 Carbon Dioxide 1070. psia PV = Vapor pressure of the liquid. alternate analysis may be required.2 749.9 670.00 Pv = Vapor Pressure Pc = Critical Pressure Step 3: Determine Specific Gravity Specific gravity is generally available for the flowing fluid at the operating temperature. from which the specific gravity. The appendix provides fluid property data for 268 chemical compounds. provided the valve is not operating in a laminar or transitional flow region due to high viscosity. If the Reynolds number calculated in Equation 3.8 0.and then proceed to steps 5-7.3].0 823.0 Butane 551. FR can be ignored (proceed to step 8 after step 5.7 0. select the smallest body size that will handle the calculated Cv. or small Cv.40 . Cvt = Turbulent flow Cv (Equation 3.3 492.044 . use ∆Pch for ∆Pa in Equation 3. calculate the Cv. Argon 707.5 Ethylene 730.000.1 Step 6: Calculate Valve Reynolds Number Rev and Reynolds Number Factor FR Use Equation 3.2) .90 1.9 Hydrogen 188. Step 4: Calculate Approximate Cv Generally the effects of nonturbulent flow can be ignored.If ∆Pch (Equation 3.20 . Gf can be calculated.000.1.6b to calculate valve Reynolds Number Factor FR if Rev < 40. Liquid critical pressure ratio.50 .30 .) Figure 3-3: Liquid Critical Pressure Ratio Factor Curve Table 3-II: Critical Pressures Liquid Ammonia Critical Press. from Equation 3.358 Where: Cvs Cvt 0.2 350.1 Chlorine 1117.9 0.60 .655 (3.70 .0 Benzene 710. FF 1.2 Dowtherm A 547. very low velocity.2 Step 5: Select Approximate Body Size Based on Cv From the Cv tables in section 4. (psia) 1205..4 1051.0 667.0 Fluorine 757.1) Fs = streamline flow factor 3-5 .1 732.2 529.5) Cvs = Laminar flow Cv 1 qµ Cvs = Fs Ns ∆P 2/3 (3.3 639.5 Fuel Oil 330.4 598.80 . In the event there is some question.6 0. Where: Fi = Liquid cavitation factor (Typical values for Fi are given in Table 3-I) P1 = Upstream pressure.7 3200.0 Helium 32.6b) It may also be useful to determine the point at which substantial cavitation begins.0: FR = 1.PV) (3.0 Gasoline 410.0 Ethane 708. (psia) 1636. 10 . otherwise FR = 1.4 529. assuming FP=1.6a to calculate valve Reynolds Number Factor: N4 Fd q Rev = ν FL C v FL2 Cv2 +1 N2 d 4 1/4 (3. The following Equation defines the pressure drop at which substantial cavitation begins: ∆P (cavitation) = Fi2 (P1 .0 0.3) is less than the actual ∆P (Equation 3.6c) In high pressure applications.

12 1.04 1.01 1.1.13 1.98 0.60 0.99 0.50 1.22 1. and Cv is calculated from Equation 3. If the pipe diameter is the same as the valve size. Contact factory for critical applications.P2 (3.89 0.07 1.87 0.6d) q Cv = FR Gf P1 .79 0.98 0. Fpversus Cv / d2 Cv / d2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 Where: d = Valve port inside diameter in inches D = Internal diameter of the piping in inches (See Tables 3-VII and 3-VIII) 0.20 1.00 1.02 1.27 1.00 1.99 0.06 1. centistokes = µ/Gf For laminar and transitional flow.6c.6e) Valve inlet diameter.02 1.00 1.92 0.99 0.60 1.95 0.01 1.75 0.321 q Av (3. and the Cv is equal to Cvs calculated from Equation 3.00 1.73 0.98 0.24 1.05 1.96 0.99 0.08 1. Do not use the piping geometry factor Fp if FR is less than 0.98.00 1.98 0.65 2.10 1.00 0.48.32 1.03 1. use the approximate body size (from step 5) to choose the corresponding pipe size.Table 3-III: Piping Geometry Factors for Valves with Reducer and Increaser.00 0.12 1.6e: 3-6 Step 9: Calculate the Final Cv Using the value of FP.99 0.80 1.10 1. FP is 1 and does not affect Cv.97 0.69 d/D 0.89 0.04 1.00 1.96 0. Step 10: Calculate Valve Exit Velocity The following Equation is used to calculate entrance or exit velocities for liquids: V = 0.10 1.12 1.17 1.0). gpm 890 when d is in inches 17. which can be determined by Tables 3-III and 3-IV.48 and 0.01 1.92 0.90 1.02 1.00 1.79 3.86 0. turbulent flow can be assumed (FR = 1.70 1.99 0.04 1. Fs = Where: d Fd Fs q N2 N4 Fd FL = = = = = = 2/3 1/3 FL2 Cv2 N2 d4 1/6 +1 (3.01 1.99 0. the flow is considered laminar.81 0. and the Cv is calculated from Equation 3.90 0.99 0.95 Table 3-IV: Piping Geometry Factors for Increaser Only on Valve Outlet.44 1. For values of FR between 0.50 NOTE: The maximum effective pressure drop (∆P choked) may be affected by the use of reducers and increasers.70 1.98 0.68 0.94 0.37 1. or streamline.14 0.98 0. Fp versus Cv /d2 Cv / d2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 0.03 1.92 0. The pipe diameter is used to calculate the piping geometry factor.97 0.96 0.01 1. the flow is considered transitional.07 1. If FR is greater than 0.98.99 0. centipoise ν = kinematic viscosity.7) .00 1.77 0.01 1.1.84 0.02 1.97 0.06 1.03 1.05 1.22 1.98.95 0.41 0.85 0.89 0.99 0.11 1.90 1. Step 7: Recalculate Cv Using Reynolds Number Factor If the calculated value of FR is less than 0.04 1.97 0.91 0.00 0.08 1.06 1.90 0. when q is in gpm and d in inches Ns = 47 when q is in gpm and ∆P in psi µ = absolute Viscosity.03 1.85 0.96 0.37 1.63 0.04 1.97 0.94 0. flow factor Flow rate.94 0.97 0. inches Valve style modifier (Table 3-1) Laminar.00 1.65 2.99 0.05 1.74 0.00 1. note the ∆P is always taken as P1 . FP. calculate the required Cv from Equation 3.08 1. Step 8: Calculate Piping Geometry Factor If the pipe size is not given.80 1.42 1.79 0.P2.50 0.300.01 1.03 1.94 0.41 d/D 0.02 1. This is especially true of Valdisk valves.

.. Find FL using Table 3I.......(0.. Step 8: Using the 2-inch body from step 5........2 = 0..........” find FL as 0...1 and assuming FP is 1. FR = 1.. Flow-to-open Line Size ........ 1/4 (17.97..4)2 Rev = +1 = 114 x 106 4 (0..90)2 [314..... FR......... also check for incipient cavitation using Equation 3....94 Step 4: Calculate the approximate CvFP using Equation 3....... It may be necessary to go to a larger valve size... therefore...... Insert FL and FF into Equation 3....7 .... but flow is not choked. Step 9: Recalculate the final Cv: Cv = 500 0...... 500 gpm Vapor Pressure (PV) . When cavitaiton is indicated.....300) (1) (500) (0..... ∆P = 314..7.5 and Table 3-I: ∆P (cavitation) = (0..3 psi Since the actual ∆P is less than ∆Pch .... the velocity for a 2-inch body is found to be nearly 51 ft/sec... 0.. 0..4) (890)(2) Step 7: Since Rev > 40............. Since this application is cavitating..... damage may result in a 2-inch valve......... gpm Av = Applicable flow area........0.... which is a 2-inch body. Step 12: Select Trim Number First identify if the valve will be used for on/off or throttling service. Using the Cv tables in Section 4. Cv = 500 = 33..2 psia Temperature ..................90)(33. 250° F Upstream Pressure (P1) ............... substantial cavitation is occurring.....6e as required...........28 30 3206.......... Water Critical Pressure (PC) ...4: FF = 0........ Next...014 centistokes Flow Characteristic ...................96 . Step 3: The specific gravity for water is given as 0..4...7 psia = 210 psi Step 2: Check for choked flow..014) (0........ flow-under. Class 600) select the smallest body size for a Cv of 33...... use the smaller (or actual ∆P ) to size the valve... the FP is 0.. The trim number and flow characteristic (Section 9) may be affected by how the valve will be throttled.... Special attention should be paid to material and trim selection.5 and Cv /d2 = 33..... 30 psia Kinematic Viscosity (ν) .......104.93 Step 5: From the Cv tables (Mark One... estimate FF using Equation 3... 3206...94 Valve Action .. equal percentage..... compare that number to the acceptable velocity for that application........ ft/sec q = Liquid flow rate... determine the FP using Table 3-III... in2 of body port (Table 3-VIII) After calculating the exit velocity.... refer to Section 14 to evaluate special trims for cavitation protection. flow-under.6a and 3............... using Equations 3..94 210 Step 11: Recalculate Cv If Body Size Changed Recalculate Cv if the FP has been changed due to selection of a larger body size............ 314.94 = 34.5 210 Step 10: Using Equation 3..... At this point.......... where: d/D = 2/4 = 0...2)....4 LIQUID SIZING EXAMPLES Example One Given: Liquid .35 Therefore according to Table 3-III..........7 psia ......... 104. select the appropriate trim number for the calculated Cv and body size selected...... 4-inch (Class600) Flow Rate .......90)2 (33.....7 psia Specific Gravity . the flow is not choked. A 3-inch body reduces velocity to about 23 ft/sec which 3-7 .4/22 = 8.....0: 0.........3: ∆Pch = (0.7 psia Downstream Pressure (P2) ..97 0....0 and the recalculated CvFP remains as 33..93)(30)] = 232.....Where: V = Velocity. Step 6: Calculate the Reynolds Number Factor...7-30) = 187 psi Since ∆P (actual) exceeds ∆P (cavitation)..81)2 (314..... Looking under “globe..4. Equal Percentage Step 1: Calculate actual pressure drop using Equation (3..90...000.

...4: FF = 0.5........ Since this application is cavitating........... Step 11: Since the body size has changed... the final Cv remains as 77......... However....7 psia Specific Gravity .4......... a 2 x 4-inch Mark One -X might also be chosen.91 Flashing Liquids Velocity Calculations When the valve outlet pressure is lower than or equal to the saturation pressure for the fluid temperature.. so Reynolds Number Factor is ignored.. Cv = 850 = 77........is a more acceptable value.. Trim number 2....65 Step 4: Calculate the approximate Cv using Equation 3............. 1638... which is a 3-inch body...040 w Av 1- x 100% vf2 + x v g2 100% (3..... 45...85)2 [149..................... It will also be less costly to install in a 4-inch line. Damage problems may result from such a system.7 psia = 85 psid Step 2: Check for choked flow.. Refer to Section 14 on special trims for cavitation protection............... flow-over. However. It is less costly than a 3-inch valve and the larger outlets will lower the velocities.......... special attention should be made to material and trim selection.......... Example Two Given: Liquid .. FR = 1...02 centistokes Flow Characteristic . use the ∆Pch for ∆Pa to size the valve.5... 0.....62.. and the final Cv is 33......... Step 8: With the 3-inch body and 3-inch line... Step 12: Referring to the Cv tables...0.. Flashing requires special trim designs and/or hardened materials.... could result in cavitation damage to body and trim...65 Valve Action ..00 or the full size trim number 2............(0...85. Linear Step 1: Calculate actual pressure drop using Equation 3.... Cv recalculation is not necessary since the body size or trim style did not change.2 ps Since the actual ∆P is more than ∆Pch . ∆P = 149...5.7 psia Downstream Pressure (P2 ) ...1: 0. 149.7 .. since the size is restricted to a 3-inch line.. If flow rate is in lb/ hr: Insert FL and FF into Equation 3. FP = 1..........” find FL as 0.....0. Find FL using Table 3-I...91)(45........ 3-inch valve would use a trim number of 2..... estimate FF using Equation 3.96 ....... CavControl or ChannelStream should be considered... a Cv 77...... The FP for a 3-inch body is nearly 1.. Use of this trim.. see Section 14.................6)] = 78..... 850 gpm Vapor Pressure (PV) .6 psia Kinematic Viscosity (v) ..2 = 0.... Looking under “globe.8) . linear.. recalculate the Cv by following steps 8 and 9... Step 10: Using Equation 3.65 78........... 64.. 3-inch valve would require at least a trim number of 1..... this velocity may damage a 3-inch valve...0 may also suffice and have no reduced trim price adder........ Step 3: The specific gravity for ammonia is given as 0.... a larger valve size cannot be chosen to lower the velocity. Class 600) select the smallest body size for a Cv of 77... the following calculations must be used to determine velocity........ see Section 14. When flashing exists.25..6 1638...... 20° F Upstream Pressure (P1 ) ...2 NOTE: In this example. however. flow-over... Flashing velocity greater than 500 ft/sec requires special body designs.7........64.. 3-8 V = 0...3: ∆Pch (choked) = (0.... A cavitation control style trim should be suggested..0........ the flow is choked and cavitating...............7 psia ................. a Cv 33.... Ammonia Critical Pressure (PC ) .... Flow-to-close Line Size . Step 12: Referring to the Cv tables................ Steps 6 and 7: Turbulent flow is assumed. 3-inch (Class 600) Flow Rate ........2 psia Temperature .... Since the service is cavitating... part of the fluid flashes into vapor.. Next.5 Step 5: From the Cv tables (Mark One. the velocity for a 3-inch body is found to be over 38 ft/sec..28 45..... therefore... Step 9: Since FP = 1. special trim may be required to eliminate cavitation damage..2........ Step 11: If cavitation control trim is not selected. 0......

0178 + 2. vf2 = Saturated liquid specific volume (ft3/lb at outlet pressure) vg2 = Saturated vapor specific volume (ft3/lb at outlet pressure) x = % of liquid mass flashed to vapor 20 q Av 1.07 2. Since a portion of the liquid is flashing.10: hf1 = 321.4 Btu/lb at 105 psia (from saturation pressure tables) 321.x 100% vf2 + x v 100% g2 (3. Equations 3. except that the temperature is 350° F rather than 250° F. By referring to the saturated steam temperature tables.234 V = 156 ft/sec For water. the fluid is flashing. lb/hr q = Liquid flow rate.3 886. Flashing velocity is less than 500 ft/sec. hf2 and hfg2) and specific volumes (vf2 and vg2) can be found in the saturation temperature and pressure tables of any set of steam tables. the velocity in a 3-inch valve can be determined by using Equation 3.9) Flashing Liquid Example Assume the same conditions exist as in Example One. which is acceptable for Mark One bodies.8 Btu/lb at 350° F (from saturation temperature tables) hf2 = 302. in2.if the flow rate is given in gpm. you find that the saturation pressure of water at 350° F is 134. 3-9 . ft/sec w = Liquid flow rate. x (% flashed) can be determined by using Equation 3. Hardened trim and CavControl should also be considered. Therefore.9 and 3.302. gpm Av = Valve outlet flow area. see Table 3-VIII. which is greater than the outlet pressure of 105 psia (90 psia).2% 1100% 0.10 must be used. the following Equation can be used: V= Where: V = Velocity.9: vf2 = 0.hf2 hfg2 Where: x = % of liquid mass flashed to vapor hf1 = Enthalpy of saturated liquid at inlet temperature hf2 = Enthalpy of saturated liquid at outlet pressure hfg2 = Enthalpy of evaporation at outlet pressure V = x= x 100% = 2.3 Btu/lb at 105 psia (from saturation pressure tables) hfg2 = 886.10) Therefore. the enthalpies (hf1.8 .2% 100% 4.5 psia.0178 ft3/lb at 105 psia (from saturation pressure tables) vg2 = 4.2% x= x 100% (3.4 Calculating Percentage Flash The % flash (x) can be calculated as follows: hf1 .234 ft3/lb at 105 psia (from saturation pressure tables) (20)(500) 7.

∆P P1 (3.36 0.14) Fk = Ratio of specific heats factor k = Ratio of specific heats (taken from Table 3-VI). the flow is choked. The form of the Equation used is one of the following. lb/ft3 Q = Gas flow in standard ft3/hr (SCFH) Gg = Specific gravity of gas relative to air at standard conditions T1 = Absolute upstream temperature o R = (o F + 460o) Z = Compressibility factor Mw = Molecular weight P1 = Upstream absolute pressure.40 (3.70 0. psia Choked flow occurs when x reaches the value of FkxT. Step 2: Check for Choked Flow Determine the terminal pressure drop ratio. by using Equation 3. is introduced into the valve sizing formula. Table 3-V: Pressure Drop Ratios. the flow is not choked.16: x = Where: x = Ratio of pressure drop to absolute inlet pressure ∆P = Pressure drop (P1 . psia P2 = Outlet pressure.13) Fk = Where: 1. select one of the four Equations: 3. Next.00 0. If flow is choked. by using the Equation below: k (3. if x is less than FkxT.12) The following steps should be used to compute the correct Cv.3 FPCvY Q = 1360 FPCvP1Y w = 19.75 0.11) (3.70 0.12. depending on the process variables available: w = 63.75 0. To account for the change in specific weight.3 FPCvP1Y Q = 7320 FPCvP1Y x P1 γ1 x GgT1 Z xMw T1 Z x MwT1 Z (3.15) (3. xT Valve Type Globe Flow Direction Flow-to-close Flow-to-close Flow-to-open Flow-to-open 60o Open 90o Open Under Seat 90o Open Trim Size Full Area Reduced Area Full Area Reduced Area Full Full All Full xT 0. Calculate the ratio of actual pressure drop to absolute inlet pressure.13 or 3. determine the ratio of specific heats factor. Fk .CALCULATING Cv FOR GASES Introduction Because of compressibility.P2) P1 = Inlet pressure.30 High Performance Butterfly Multi-stage Ball 3-10 . decreasing their specific weight.11. x. 3. lb/hr FP = Piping geometry factor Cv = Valve sizing coefficient Y = Expansion factor x = Pressure drop ratio γ1 = Specific weight at inlet conditions. Y. then FkxT should be used in place of x (whenever it applies) in the gas sizing Equations. Therefore. psia NOTE: The numerical constants in Equations 3.11– 3.14.16) Where: w = Gas flow rate. gases and vapors expand as the pressure drops at the vena contracta.26 ~1.14 are unit conversion factors. for that particular valve by referring to Table 3-V. xT . body size and trim number: Step 1: Select the Appropriate Equation Based on the information available. an expansion factor. If x is greater. 3.

first calculate the reduced pressure.60 Tr=1.50 4.80 Step 4: Determine the Compressibility Factor To obtain the compressibility factor. Nelson and E.0 Tr=5.Figure 3-4: Compressibility Factors for Gases with Reduced Pressures from 0 to 40.00 10. (Reproduced from charts of L.20 6 E0175 0 1 2 3 4 5 Reduced Pressure. psia PC = Critical Pressure.80 0.74 0.F.00 8.20 0.70 0.18) PC Where: Pr = Reduced pressure P1 = Upstream pressure. Obert.50 Compressibility Factor.0 Tr=1.40 Tr=1.20 Tr=1.72 0.00 15. Pr Figure 3-5: Compressibility Factors for Gases with Reduced Pressures from 0 to 6.66 Tr=1.10 1.64 Tr=1.68 0. Pr Step 3: Calculate the Expansion Factor The expansion factor.30 Tr=1. Z 3.0 Tr=1. may be expressed as: x Y = 13FkxT (3.00 5. and the reduced temperature.00 Tr=1. Northwestern Technological Institute) 3-11 . use FkxT for x.15 1.02 1.94 Tr=2.F.00 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 3.60 1.50 Tr=2. (Reproduced from charts of L.96 0.40 1.0 2.30 1. Tr: P1 Pr = (3.90 0.00 1. 0. Obert.86 0.00 6.88 0.00 3.00 0.82 0.78 0.20 1.50 Tr=1.00 1.19) TC Compressibility Factor.00 40 E0174 Reduced Pressure.50 1.98 0.92 0. Z. Nelson and E.84 0. find Z in Figures 3-4 or 3-5. (3. Y.76 0.17) 1.C. Northwestern Technological Institute) 4.80 2. psia (from Table 3-VI) T1 Tr = Where: Tr = Reduced temperature T1 = Absolute upstream temperature TC = Critical absolute temperature (from Table VI) Using the factors Pr and Tr . 2 NOTE: If the flow is choked.05 1.C.00 2. Pr.

0 39.1 18. M (gas) = Qa 5574 Av kT Mw (3. Equation 3.21) Step 7:Calculate Piping Geometry Factor If the pipe size is not given.2 507.22 for air and Equation 3.23) T (3.4 1636.0 44. M (gas) = Qa 1036 Av kT Gg (3. in2.00 2.22 or 3.8 271. Use Equations 3.Table 3-VI: Gas Physical Data Critical Pressure (psia) 492. Step 9: Calculate Valve Exit Mach Number Equations 3.9 44.0 615.67 1.3 1165.22) Step 8: Calculate the Final Cv With the calculation of the FP.23 for steam.19 1.31 1. 3. see page 3-13) Av = Applicable flow area.8 342.2 Critical Temperature (o R) 227.31 1. not SCFH. FP. FP is 1 and is not a factor. The pipe size is used to calculate the piping geometry factor. use the approximate body size (from step 6) to choose the corresponding pipe size.0 665.4 492.20 or 3.23 are used to calculate entrance or exit velocities (in terms of the approximate Mach number).31 1.4 342.2 667.0 9.0 30.33 Gas Air Ammonia Argon Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Natural Gas Nitrogen Oxygen Propane Steam Step 5: Calculate Cv Using the above calculations.1 4.20. use one of the four gas sizing Equations to determine Cv (assuming FP is 1). (o F + 460o) w = Mass flow rate. ft3/lb Gg = Specific gravity at standard conditions relative to air Mw = Molecular weight k = Ratio of specific heats .04 28. lb/hr v = Specific volume at flow conditions.13 1.1 Molecular Weight (Mw) 28.40 1.21.66 1.1 547. figure the final Cv.1 28.0 1070. Qa M (air) = 1225 Av wv M (steam) = 1514 Av T (3.5 730. If the pipe diameter is the same as the valve size. which can be determined by Tables 3-III or 3-IV.4 667.8 278.02 Ratio of Specific Heats (k) 1.97 17. Use downstream temperature if it is known.1 729.9 188.40 1. otherwise use upstream temperature as an approximation.8 226.29 1.20) Step 6: Select Approximate Body Size Based on Cv From the Cv tables in the appendix.9 549. select the smallest body size that will handle the calculated Cv.1 707. 3-12 Where: M = Mach number Qa = Actual flow rate.40 1.04 16.40 1.4 732.02 16. of body port (Table 3-VIII) T1 = Absolute temperatureo R. ft3/hr (CFH. 3.6 32.4 508.40 1.0 32.1 708.01 59.24 1.21 for gases.9 3208.2 238.0 28.

. CFH Actual temperature.....000) (10.. select the smallest body size for a Cv of 47... 18.......23... compare that number to the acceptable velocity for that application....................... Flow-to-open Critical Pressure (PC) .... Z is found to be 1..... calculate the Mach number using Equation 3.....5 + 460 = 0...000 lb/hr Valve Action .............0 Step 5: Determine Cv using Equation 3.......41 ft3/lb at T2 = 414oF : M= (10............24) Step 2: Referring to Table 3-V...... 3206..95)(0.. 10....19: Pr = 140 3208....... xT....... Steam Temperature ...° R (° F + 460° ) Standard pressure (14........ Step 10: Recalculate Cv if Body Size Changed Recalculate Cv if FP has changed due to the selection of a larger body size.78 = 0.. 10.....71.64 3 (0..04 = 0..NOTE: To convert SCFH to CFH use the Equation: (Pa)(Qa) Ta Where: Pa Qa Ta PS Q TS = = = = = = = (PS)(Q) TS (3. is 0..33 1.......... Using the Cv tables in Section 4...........75...41 Step 1: Given the above information..13 can be used to solve for Cv....64) (18..71) Step 4: Determine Z by calculating Pr and Tr using Equations 3.....41) 1515 (3........74 This is greater than Mach 0...... select the appropriate trim number for the calculated Cv and body size selected.....2 psia Critical Temperature (TC) ..0) (0. Therefore..13 and assuming FP is 1: Cv = 10. FkxT is (0. flow-under. 2-inch (Class 600) Specific Volume .. Caution: Noise levels in excess of 110 dBA may cause vibration in valves/piping resulting in equipment damage..... Equation 3......... 50 psia Flow Rate .40 140 . the pressure drop ratio..........17: Y = 10. Class 600)............ 3-13 ..............70) (910) (1.18 and 3...7 psi) Standard volume flow rate.....14) 414 + 460 = 0..02) = 47................................ Use x in all Equations....33 Flow Characteristic . Step 6: From the Cv tables (Mark One.. Steps 7 and 8: Since the pipe size is the same as the body....... FP is 1 and is not a factor.50 140 Therefore.. Assume a constant enthalpy process to find specific volume at downstream conditions..16: Fk = 1........... which is a 2-inch body...70 = 0....5 and should be reviewed for excessive noise and use of noise reducing trim..75) or 0.026 Ratio of Specific Heats (k) ..... flow is not choked........ Tr = Using Figure 3-4... The trim number and flow characteristic (Section 9) may be affected by how the valve is throttled.... Step 11: Select Trim Number Identify if the valve is for on/off or throttling service....... v = 10.... SCFH Standard temperature (520° Rankine) x = After calculating the exit velocity..95 Actual operating pressure Actual volume flow rate......3) (140) (0..............64 = 0...............000 (19.....705........... 450° F Upstream Pressure (P1) .......... equal percentage.2 450 + 460 705.............. 1.... Step 9: The gas is steam. Step 3: Determine Y using Equation 3.. Select a larger size valve if necessary......... Refer to section 13 to predict noise level.........0 GAS SIZING EXAMPLES Example One Given: Gas... Calculate Fk using Equation 3... Since x is less than FkxT ... from steam tables.15 and x using Equation 3..5° F Molecular Weight (Mw) .......... the Cv is 47.......... Equal percentage Line Size ... 140 psia Downstream Pressure (P2).

...000..7........70... use 1 as the FP factor........7 psia Flow Rate .. noise should be calculated from Section 13... Step 3: Determine Y using Equation 3.. 65° F Upstream Pressure (P1) ........ see Sections 13 and 14. Equation 3..7.... Since x is greater than FkxT........ Pr = = 1.........92 = 0. Step 9: Since the gas is natural gas........62..70) Step 4: Determine Z by calculating Pr and Tr using Equations 3.92 psia Critical Temperature (TC) ....31)(65 + 460) 16.8 = 1.. Unknown (Class 600) Step 1: Given the above information.... Flow-to-open Critical Pressure (PC) ......000 SCFH Valve Action .Step 10: If body size does not change..0 Mach.......61 Y = 1- = 0.. a Cv 47. 1314.......7 667........14 and assuming FP is 1: (2... 2-inch Mark One would use a trim number of 1..7 ..... Thus a 6-inch valve is required.. Step 2: Referring to Table 3-V..... select a size to reduce the velocity to less than 1....86) = 31.14 can be used to solve for CV.... the CV is 31.. 16..........936 Step 6: From the Cv tables (Mark One.04)(525)(0.......24........86..000...667) (16....31 1.. Step 12: Referring to the CV tables. Step 5: Determine CV using Equation 3.... Linear Line Size .. Use FkxT in place of x in all Equations.20....7.53 Using Figure 3-5.720*) 5574 (1.75) or 0..31 (65 + 460) 16...... 2. Z is found to be about 0............. 672...... there is no impact on Cv calculation..16: Fk = x= 1... Therefore... 6-inch Mark One would use a trim number of 1...97 3-14 ..... 1.3) = Av = πd2 or d = π π = 4...................... Step 11: Referring to the Cv tables.............6 in......70 3 (0....042 Ratio of Specific Heats (k) ...........75 by assuming a Mark One flow-under.99... and special trim may be selected from Section 14...7)(.. Step 10: Mach numbers in excess of sonic velocity at the outlet of the valve are not possible. Calculate Fk using Equation 3.. If noise is a consideration.. flow-under..17: 0...00) CV = (7320)(1314.. select the smallest body size for a Cv of 31...... Class 600).7 psia Downstream Pressure (P2)...94)(0... Step 11: Using Equation 3.20: (297.... Since the flow is choked........7 1314........15 and x using Equation 3............... the pressure drop ratio.667 Solve for the valve diameter from the area by: 4Av 4 (16..... calculate the Mach number using Equation 3....5 Mach velocity: 297... Steps 7 and 8: Since the pipe size is unknown. 99.. FkxT is (0.. linear......62..... solve for the recommended valve area required for 0.7 Therefore.70 Example Two Given: Gas.... A larger valve size should be selected to bring the velocity below the sonic level......19: 1314.......... To properly size the valve.04 Av = 16...31 Flow Characteristic ........... which is a 1 1/2-inch body..77) (1. is 0.. flow is choked...8°R Molecular Weight (Mw) .......... Tr = 65 + 460 342..... use Equation 3..18 and 3.....3 in2 M= = 6...4 = 0.. a CV of 31.. xT.....04 *NOTE: To convert SCFH to CFH. Natural Gas Temperature .. 342.720 CFH 0...7 0....5 M = 5574 A 1...40 1314.

Recommended two phase flow velocity limits are similar to those for flashing when the gaseous phase is dominant. Step 2: Calculate the Equivalent Specific Volume of the Liquid-gas Mixture Where: ve = fg = ff = (fgvg) Y2 wg (wg + wf) wf + ffvf Step 8: Recalculate Cv if Body Size Changed Recalculate Cv if FP has been changed due to the selection of a larger body size. FP. velocity of the mixture should be less than 50 ft/sec in the body. Step 5: Calculate Piping Geometry Factor If the pipe size is not given. use the approximate body size (from step 6) to choose the corresponding pipe size. which can be determined by Tables 3-III or 3-IV.4 Gf wgT1 2.7 P1Gg) 1 (62.) qg = Area = applicable flow area After calculating the exit velocity. 3-15 (wg + wf) T1 vg = (2. If liquid is the dominant phase.4 Gf) Y = gas expansion factor (Equation 3. To size valves with liquids and their own vapor at the valve inlet will require good engineering judgement. The required Cv is determined by using an equivalent density for the liquid gas mixture. Using the Cv tables in Section 4. figure the final Cv. ft3/hr qg = volumetric flow rate of gas. Special trim and materials may be required if high noise levels or cavitation are indicated. Whichever is greater will be the limiting factor: If qf > qg. Step 6: Calculate Final Cv With the calculation of the FP .7 GgP2 Step 1: Calculate the Limiting Pressure Drop First it must be determined whether liquid or gas is the continuous phase at the vena contracta. select the appropriate trim number for the calculated Cv and body size selected. then ∆Pa = ∆Pa for gas The ∆P a for liquid or gas is either P1 . lb/hr Gf = liquid specific gravity at upstream conditions Gg = gas specific gravity at upstream conditions T1 = upstream temperature (o R) Step 3: Calculate the Required Cv of the Valve CvFp = wg + wf 63.17) vf = . compare that number to the acceptable velocity for that application.P2 or the choked pressure drop of the dominating phase if the valve is choked. lb/hr wg = gas flow rate. Step 9: Select Trim Number Identify if the valve will be used for on/off or throttling service.P2 and ∆Pch for Pa. FP is 1. The pipe size is used to calculate the piping geometry factor.CALCULATING Cv FOR TWO PHASE FLOW Introduction The method of Cv calculation for two phase flow assumes that the gas and liquid pass through the valve orifice at the same velocity. Step 7: Calculate the Valve Exit Velocity Where: Velocity = qf = (qf + qg) Av wf 62. The trim number and flow characteristic (Section 9) may be affected by how the valve is throttled. then ∆Pa = ∆Pa for liquid If qg > qf.3 ve ∆P a Use the smaller of P1. Nomenclature: Av = flow area of body port (Table 3-VIII) ∆Pa = allowable pressure drop qf = volumetric flow rate of liquid. Select a larger valve size if necessary. Step 4: Select Body Size Based on Cv From the Cv tables in the appendix. If the pipe diameter is the same as the valve size. ft3/hr wf = liquid flow rate. This is done by comparing the volumetric flow rate of the liquid and gas. (See the gas and liquid choked pressure Equations. select the smallest body size that will handle the calculated Cv. This method is intended for use with mixtures of a liquid and a non-condensable gas.

95 1.5 411 649 938 1282 0. Av (Square Inches) Class 150 0.7 74.27 63.48 660.20 0.95 6.11 1320.3 129.5 298.87 213.4 283.9 74.27 78.6 434 678 975 1328 51.65 226.11 0.77 2.79 1.7 298.1 143.96 962.82 261.32 23.80 117.54 113.28 58.28 21.23 0.2 402 382 663 602 914 870 1255 1187 0.7 293 STD 0.10 137.61 11.89 50.73 302.1 188.95 6.30 0.57 28.7 227.1 122.10 97.94 10.7 114.39 325.92 1194.0 326 513 38.89 182.07 45.13 588.9 152.9 135.9 106.88 92.8 82.8 310 Table 3-VIII: Valve Outlet Areas Valve Size (inches) /2 /4 1 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 3 1 Valve Outlet Area.56 671.18 69.5 415 XXS 0.94 194.14 207.07 45.79 1.98 6.97 44.20 0.7 240.0 163.57 28.54 113.13 84.80 18.65 233.14 7.36 541.9 182.20 0.15 0.44 0.20 0.8 213.43 130.53 0.53 143.79 1.0 425 661 956 1302 51.6 204.71 132.6 230.61 1.8 137.50 2.14 7.41 9.2 135.7 111.14 7.07 12.97 41.78 3.73 28.83 240.77 4.43 0.82 25.46 101.6 103.0 425 XS 0.2 80.79 1.29 19.50 26.3 252.30 Class 900 0.0 78.59 Class 600 0.52 907.5 160.5 117.1 291.0 265.04 424.44 0.53 0.5 182. use the Equation V P = V v A v / A P where: VP = Velocity in pipe Vv = Velocity in valve outlet A v = Valve Outlet area from Table 3-VIIl A P = Pipe area from Table 3-VII 4A v /π .27 78.6 96.5 98.86 153.98 10.86 143.89 50.99 1.5 71.27 41.1 86.39 12.7 237.51 11.06 Class 2500 0.9 113. Ap (Square Inches) Nominal Pipe Diameter /2 /4 1 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 3 1 Schedule 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0.15 36.59 380.27 50.37 0.77 2.04 3.41 2.35 855.28 0.78 6.36 70.10 137.2 193. D = 4A p /π To find equivalent diameters of the valve or pipe inside diameter use: d = 3-16 .77 3.52 1.36 7.5 60.7 202.87 210.14 NOTE: To find approximate fluid velocity in the pipe.7 169.04 3.27 50.7 80.62 84.89 Class 4500 0.5 56.07 12.05 0.1 137.53 415.77 74.86 2.16 7.5 185.8 278.66 108.07 12.77 3.36 7.27 48.0 283.39 12.50 26.62 101.23 2.77 40.48 60.86 2.77 3.7 213.3 173.8 68.30 0.0 47.70 291.53 346.37 0.89 182.20 0.51 15.4 223.7 227.57 28.83 37.29 170.7 238.15 0.73 28.73 167.7 176.50 2.44 0.0 176.30 0.73 38.7 115.7 43.7 108.37 0.29 22.78 5.4 132.3 129.61 11.12 117.63 28.9 140.5 90.43 0.28 50.72 1.33 476.17 0.25 Class 300 0.19 Class 1500 0.8 365 344 574 542 830 782 1132 1064 10.Table 3-VII: Pipe Flow Areas.1 101.77 3.72 1.61 1.20 0.23 0.9 78.8 109.6 64.9 182.24 5.98 283.6 144.07 25.6 233.44 0.25 0.

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