This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
An Industrial Summer Training Report of things learnt during Orientation program; and an overview of the different tests carried out on a motor to meet Indian Standards.
Marathon Electric Motors India Limited Paharpur Works 58 Taratala Road 91 33 2469 5560/61/65 91 33 2469 8530/5369 6/1/2012
Document: “Industrial Summer Training Report” on General Orientation of Manufacturing Unit and Overview of Motor Testing required for Indian Standard Certification.
Marathon Electric Motors India Limited Paharpur Works 58 Taratala Road Kolkata - 700024 (West Bengal)
Mr. Rajiv Ranjan General Manager (Design, LT Motors) & Mr. Subal Chatterjee Manager in-Charge, Testing Dept.
Submitted By: Rishabh Dassani B.Tech, Electronics & Electrical Engineering (2nd yr) School of Electronics Engineering Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) University Bhubaneswar - 751024 (Odisha)
Submitted To: Dr. Saranjit Singh, Dean, (T&P) Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) University Bhubaneswar – 751024 (Odisha)
Basudeb Dutta. for assisting me in whatever way possible. Fourth. General Manager (Design. Fifth. for giving permission to undergo training at an organization of my choice. Mr.Charge of the various Units of the Manufacturing Plant and all the working staff who were mostly ready to lend a helping hand. Paharpur Works for referring my application and making it possible to undergo training here. Assistant Manager (HR). Rajiv Ranjan. to Mr. to entire staff of Motor Testing Department for the Immense patience kept while showing me around and help extended towards me in garnering knowledge for further assistance in my career. General Manager (HR).Tech (2nd Year) Electronics & Electrical Engineering School of Electronics KIIT University 3 . Rishabh Dassani B. First. to Mr. Saranjit Singh. LT Motors). Paharpur Works for being InCharge of my project here. to all the Managers in. Dean (T&P). Riten Chatterjee. to Mr.Acknowledgement This project report has been made possible due to the kind hands of support extended by a number of people and I would like to thank the following who helped directly or indirectly. Secondly. Most importantly. Third.
Regal Beloit products can be found in home furnaces. Asia and Australia. medical. a leading manufacturer of fractional horsepower motors for commercial refrigeration and freezer markets. to motors than anyone else in the motor business. in part. Regal Beloit Corporation is a leading manufacturer of electrical and mechanical motion control and power generation products serving markets throughout the world. petrochemical. construction. which has become a company hallmark. manufacturing. The Company now has over 17. conveyors. State of-the-art lab facilities are equipped and staffed with the finest resources available to ensure successful utilization of products. Regal Beloit expanded into blower systems for the HVAC market. Regal Beloit's products are often concealed within. such as blowers. Europe and Asia. In 2007. but essential to the function of much of the equipment powering the world. Since 1913. food processing. power stations and thousands of other places of critical uses. Mexico. custom designed products and an extensive product line industrial quality motors. Marathon Electric’s name has been recognized for engineering excellence. Marathon Electric’s unique design provide more ways in which to add accessories. Markets include Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Since 1913. material handling. 2004 saw two major motor acquisitions from General Electric (GE). pumps. and service facilities throughout North America and in Mexico. elevators. office equipment. Available in all popular enclosures from 1/12 HP through 800 HP and in a variety of mounting configurations. Marathon Electric has been dedicated 4 .000 employees and 54 manufacturing and service/distribution facilities throughout the United States and in Canada. Few companies can match Regal Beloit’s abilities to adapt and modify products to required specifications and deliver consistent quality. With the acquisition of Fasco and Jakel that same year. Regal Beloit has its headquarters at Beloit. x-ray machines. the Company acquired Morrill Motors.Company Profile Marathon Electric Motors India Limited (MEMIL) is part of the Regal Beloit family of companies. to an aggressive acquisition program. at a fair price and a time dictated by the customer. Regal Beloit's strength is in its market diversity as it serves an expansive array of markets from heavy industry to high technology. Alstom’s motor and fan business in India was then purchased. to name a few. Regal Beloit's ongoing success can be attributed. From electric motors and generators to gear reducers. sales. which effectively doubled the size of Regal Beloit. Wisconsin. agriculture and mining. brakes and encoders. and electronic switchgears. Europe. and has manufacturing. taking another step towards the execution of the Company’s globalization initiative.
providing customers with quality products for targeted applications. and various fans of Industrial. Paharpur Works. Centrifugal. The manufacturing unit here in Paharpur. Proven top performers in every respect. produces a wide variety of LT Induction Motors in the frame size of 63mm to 355mm. within a power rating of 80W to 250kW. the company is composed of two strategic product lines: motors and generators. Marathon Electric Motors India Limited. Located in Wausau. ABB and BHEL amongst others. Danfos. Marathon Electric Motors: Delivers efficient mechanical power solutions using AC electric motors up to 1250 HP. Marathon Electric Generators: Offers power generation for the 21st century with a wide selection of generators for standby and continuous power. is essentially a supplier of export goods to well known MNC’s and national giants including the likes of Hitachi. Axial Flow and Man Cooler Types. 5 . Wisconsin.
an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field. 1. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet.1 Synchronous motor This rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a sub-multiple of the supply frequency. It consists of two basic parts.2 AC MOTOR INTRODUCTION An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current. Serbian inventor Nicola Tesla identified the rotating magnetic induction field principle and pioneered the use of this rotating and inducting electromagnetic field force to generate torque in rotating machines. 1. Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin.2. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by the current due to the induced emf.2 HISTORY In 1882.2. He exploited this principle in the design of a poly-phase induction motor in 1883.2. experiences amechanical force whose direction is given by Fleming’s Left-hand rule and whose magnitude is given by Electrical Energy Input Motor System Mechanical Energy Output (Figure A.1.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field.ELECTRIC MOTORS An Electric motor is an electrical machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy using Faradays’ Laws.1 Types of AC motor (depending on the type of rotor used): 1. 6 . and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field.2. Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. Block Diagram of functioning of Motor) 1. In 1888.1.2. In 1885. 1. Induction motor This rotates slightly slower than the supply frequency. 1.
In fact. and had a half horsepower (400 watts) model by 1888. 90% of industrial motors are induction motors.Introduction of Tesla's motor from 1888 onwards initiated what is sometimes referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution. wind-tunnel drives. and overland conveyor systems. Large industrial motors are mostly 3. 1. If the moving magnetic lines of flux cut a conductive disk. Michail Osipovich & Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cage-rotor" in 1890. Lenz's Law: The polarity of the electromagnet is such that it pulls against the permanent magnet. all motors operated by continually passing a conductor through a stationary magnetic field (as in homo-polar motor). Professor Poeschel. Nicola Tesla conceived the basic principles of the poly-phase induction motor in 1883. One means of creating a rotating magnetic field is to rotate a permanent magnet. 1.194. This current flow creates an electromagnet whose polarity opposes the motion of the permanent magnet according to Lenz’s Law. also of Tesla's invention (1888). Initially Tesla suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of electromagnetic force. Tesla sold the manufacturing rights to George Westinghouse for $65.000.S. This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications. The lines of flux cutting the conductor will induce a voltage. for pipeline compressors.phase motors. and consequent current flow. Professor Poeschel had realized that the induced rotating Magnetic field would start the rotor of the motor spinning. This was because Tesla’s teacher had only understood one half of Tesla's ideas.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Based on rotating magnetic induction field principle. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. but he did not see that the counter electromotive force generated would gradually bring the machine to a stop. stated that would be akin to building a Perpetual motion machine. making possible both the efficient generation and long distance distribution of electrical energy using the alternating current transmission system. That is why such motors are known induction motors. Before widespread use of Tesla's principle of poly-phase induction for rotating machines. making them nearly completely interchangeable between manufacturers (although European and North American standard dimensions are different). the rotating and inducting electromagnetic field force generates torque in rotating machines. The disk follows with a little less speed than the permanent magnet. in the conductive disk. 7 . Patent # 416. Induction motors are the workhorses of industry and motors up to about 500 kW (670 hp) in output are produced in highly standardized frame sizes. his teacher. Very large induction motors are capable of tens of megawatts of output.3.3 INDUCTION MOTORS Most AC motors are induction motors. Conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes place in the rotating part of the motor. it will follow the motion of the magnet. Most large (> 1 hp or 1 kW) industrial motors are poly-phase induction motors. In Induction motors rotor receive electric power by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of a 2-winding transformer receives its power from the primary. Tesla later obtained U.
Governed by the Factory Act of India. the HAZARDS cannot be removed. Now. Proper Planning. Fire etc so the only way to reduce the risk would be to limit the exposure. Policy. and hence PPE or Personal Protective Equipments are made compulsory. HEALTH AND SAFETY: Conducted under Mr. all companies are under the judicial obligation to met out certain safety measures for its workers. The ensuring of maintenance of environment is done by ensuring proper disposal of waste to the designated locations. and Marathon Electric Motors are no different. is given a lot of importance by the company as proved by its. and Volatile Organic Compounds. work and surrounding environment to which the plant is exposed. Only they consider it also to be their ethical binding to look after the immediate. Rigorous hard work and Preventive Measures and Action. A number of steps have been taken to limit accidents and it is reflected in the fact that as of June. and effort. 2012 there hasn’t been an accident for over 500 days. is celebrated every year with mock fire drills.1 ENVIRONMENT. Everyday 22. has a few prized machinery and they are nearly 70 years old yet functioning properly. under many a different company. and by introducing an effluent treatment plant so as to be able to reuse the water being thrown out such that water consumption is reduced drastically. This department though not directly concerned with motors from a student’s perspective. 2. and poster making competitions to raise awareness amongst the workers. Prasant Banerjee The Maintenance department of the manufacturing plant is a prized asset for the company. and all workers are to wear it. like electricity. Most of these machines are tweaked and modified to improve their efficiency and working capabilities by the Maintenance dept. along with skilled workers who know their jobs. it is identified that RISK=HAZARD times EXPOSURE to HAZARD. 8 . The team also performed some spectacular self repairing projects in a couple of parts of the plant which reduced the cost of repair by more than 300% The maintenance team meticulously focuses on Response Time. on 4th March. Amal Mukhopadhyay.2 MAINTENANCE: Conducted under Mr. and the demand is for just a meagre 4.General Orientation The general orientation program spanned over a period of 2 weeks was as: 2. The National Safety Day. Now.000 lts extra. They are the caretakers of every nook and corner and solely responsible for the clockwork like precision and working of the entire plant. by filtering out air pollutants. and disposal of waste.000 lts of water is reused. The plant being functional since 1930’s.
Pressure Control: this method requires pressurizing the molten metal into the gaps and is a slightly better method than above. the squirrel cage rotors are made with implanted shafts.2. 9 . This centrifugal process is the best cause it pushes the molten metal into the smallest of gaps and cracks. and manually operated machines for higher precision. and finer grooving and many such intricate detailing operations are carried out by manually operated machines. There are automatic machines for quicker work.3 MACHINE SHOP: Conducted under Mr. There are a 450 ton and 250 ton such smaller press machines for die-casting. The squirrel cage rotor core is made by stacking fine sheets of laminations and then heating them and adding molten aluminium to fuse and form a solid conducting rotor. Centrifugal Control: this method puts the cylindrical stack on a plate which rotates once the molten metal is poured into it.4 DIE-CASTING DEPARTMENT: Conducted under Mr. 2. The stator shells undergo first operation and second operations. Very poor method. The rotor cores made are of two types: squirrel cage and slip ring type. The automated machines run on a software program called FARROW and FANUC. The stator core and rotor cores are either made in the die-casting department or bought from outside depending upon their convenience. The formation or rather transformation of raw cylindrical shaped rods into shafts. The department uses a one-of-a-kind 750 ton press machine imported from South Africa and is the only such specimen in India. Ranjan Mandal The winding department has to install winding in two different parts of the motor. The polishing. Subrata Koley The machine shop makes some of the motor parts that are not bought from third party dealers or vendors. The filling of air gaps can be done in three procedures: Gravity Control: this method requires poring of molten metal and waiting for it to settle down and remove air pockets under the effect of gravity. Using the above methods. Shells of cast iron material are bought from outside. stator shells and stator and rotor cores. 2. Partha Pratim Das The die-cast department has a small foundry of its own for the making of small to medium sized shields. Most of the productions of completed motor parts are finished here. the stator core and the rotor core. The brackets or end shields are also perfected her using vertical and horizontal turning machines.5 WINDING AND VARNISHING DEPARTMENT: Conducted under Mr. and given the trademark touch here in the plant by the use of vertical and horizontal turning machines which are mostly automated for higher efficiency. by undergoing numerous turning operations are carried out here. in the same machine and then loaded into another machine for third and final operation.
where fields are produced. That is.e. the source of the two phases of AC was a 2-phase alternator.pairs of coils. A better alternative is being used and mica sheets are being phased out. which may also hold the end housings. slot width. i. chip and separator. one pair for each of the two phases of AC. The individual coils of a pair are connected in series and correspond to the opposite poles of an electromagnet. (Figure A) (Figure B. which is a good quality mica sheet. The other pair of coils is oriented 90° in space to the first pair. Stator frame showing slots for windings) The stator laminations are thin insulated rings with slots punched from sheets of electrical grade steel. the other to a S-pole until the phase of AC changes polarity. This insulation sheet is called flexiglass.5. as used on Tesla's early induction motor. 10 . obvious protruding poles.5.1. This pair of coils is connected to AC shifted in time by 90° in the case of a 2phase motor. Following processes are carried out at passing line: 2. INSULATION • A thick insulation paper.2. Generally stack heights vary from 18mm to 500mm. The 2-phase induction motor stator above has 2. shape and dimensions. one coil corresponds to a N-pole. is inserted into the slots of the stator at slot insulator machines. in three layers called top-guard. In Tesla's time. • Stator core is built from high-quality low-loss silicon steel laminations and flash-enameled on both sides. The plant or place where whole process of insulation and insertion of winding and other processes takes place is called as passing line.1. • Insulation paper is inserted into the slots according to the stack height. A stack of these is secured by end screws. However. For the stators which has salient. for larger motors less torque pulsation and higher efficiency results if the coils are embedded into slots cut into the stator laminations.1 STATOR: The stator is wound with pairs of coils corresponding to the phases of electrical energy available. is used to this day for sub-fractional horsepower motors (<50 watts). made from good quality silicon and has chemical composition of glass.
Actual stator windings are more complex than the single windings per pole in (Figure B). to final forming of I.• General check points for insulation are proper checking of stack heights. WINDING (Figure C. That is. Processes carried at this stage are such as expanding lamellas.D.D. is divided into identical coils inserted into many smaller slots than above. and then worked into the slots.4. The distributed coils of the phase belt cancel some of the odd harmonics. 2. A great care is taken for proper insertion of wedge paper into the slots. 11 . The slots at the edge of the pole may have fewer turns than the other slots.5. INSERTION Wound coils are inserted into the stator slots at insertion machines along with the wedge paper for insulation of coil periphery from stator laminations and adjoining cells. and heights of the winding head.. In (Figure B). Forming process is another focal point in the production process. In actual large motors. FORMING The best winding and insertion still doesn't make the perfect stator. 2.3. and then worked into the slots. a pole winding. besides insertion of slot paper should be uniform and of equal height with no shifting down from its original position. producing a more sinusoidal magnetic field distribution across the pole. the phase belts overlap. the number of coils is the same. Comparing the 2-φ motor to Tesla's 2-φ motor with salient poles. Stator with (a) 2-φ and (b) 3-φ windings) The coils are wound on an external fixture.5.5. scratch wire detection. This group is called a phase belt.1. O.2. The coils are wound on an external fixture. Insulation wedged between the coil periphery and the slot protects against abrasion. diameter and other mechanical dimensions of stator core.phase motor have been installed in the stator slots. the windings for both a two-phase motor and a three. 2. Edge slots may contain windings from two phases.
2. • Without marking. Lacing or knotting problem.5. shifted down wedge paper. Both sides are laced at the same time and a real knot is being tied at the end.After this lead or cables connection are made to the field. mislabeled leads. • Cables or connecting lead length and proper application of insulation tape. chart. After this process the wound stator looks like in figure and then the final process is carried out on field where final inspection is done for visually detecting and removing the defects on account of following: • Loose wires/wiring.I. 2. The end turns are laced with a "diamond" stitch pattern. It checks wrong turn count. It is extremely effective as a diagnostic tool to evaluate and detect any windings fault that may exist. • Slot paper. Winding and insulation tapes are applied according to the specifications as per E.5. It can be used to detect the following in the windings: • turn – to – turn short circuits • Coil – to – coil short circuits • Phase– to – phase short circuits • reverse coil connections • Open coils • Grounded coils • Defective insulation The following tests are performed by the computerized winding tester: Resistance test: The Resistance test is performed on the Main and Auxiliary windings. COMPUTERIZED WINDING TEST DESCRIPTION Computerized winding tester is the most comprehensive quality control method for in-plant testing process industries.6. poor connections. This is the most critical and important stage of passing line from the point of view of quality control. 12 . • Wedge paper problem. At this stage the responsibility lies wholly on operator as there is no intervention of machinery and the defects have to be detected visually and removed manually.5. LACING Lacing or knotting is done at the machine for finally tightening the all the loose wires of coil winding. and incorrect wire size. All the resistance measurements are corrected to the ambient temperature (25° C) using the temperature sensors.
• Surge test: The high voltage surge test checks for insulation problems between turns. (Figure D. VARNISHING Finally the Wound stator i.5. This measures the resistive portion of the leakage current. This test uses the Hall-effect type sensors. oil. Manual Surge Comparison tester.• Insulation resistance test: The IR or megohm test checks the strength of the insulation. and phases of the winding. dirt and acid fume would soon cause a complete 13 . The surge test also has the ability to detect corona caused by weak insulation in addition to actual insulation breakdown. coils. the field after being properly checked goes for varnish plant where penetrating coat of good insulating varnishes are applied on windings to protect them from action of vibration. rather than the total current. • AC Hi-Pot test: The AC hi-pot test detects if there is a breakdown to ground or between windings which would otherwise go undetected using average current measurement techniques.e. Courtesy: Ample Machines) 2. ensuring quality and saving in material and labour costs. water. • Rotation test: The rotation direction test determines the rotation of the stator whether it is clockwise or anti-clockwise. To manufacturers this means that the faulty windings can be isolated and repaired at every stage of manufacturing thus. Surge tests can also detect other faults which change the inductance of a winding such as reversed coils.7. heat.
and remachining of the commutator. double –layer. manpower and time. which are not wires but consists of heavy copper bars. 14 . graphite dust. This type of rotor is provided with 3-phase. The rotor is wound for as many poles as the no. From the point of view of quality control the inspection made at varnish stations for defect is most crucial.2.3. ROTOR The rotor consists of a shaft.5. done using hangers) and unloading takes about 4-5 hours. distributed winding consisting of coil as used in alternators. The misalignment with the stator slots reduces torque pulsations. The squirrel cage conductors may be skewed. This eliminates the brushes. The varnish here is done manually for the large stator and rotor windings.failure of field or rotor circuits. brush adjustment and replacement. The rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots for carrying the rotor conductors. as compared to a DC motor armature. 2. of stator poles and is always wound 3-phase even when the stator is wound two-phase. a steel laminated rotor. Without a coating of insulating varnish. • Loose wires or wiring in varnished fields (at unloading station) •Without marking.2. rather the bars are inserted from the end where semiclosed slots are used. while the help of an auto varnishing plant is present in the premises for the varnishing of small rotor and stator windings.5. • Knotting/lacing problem. arcing.2. sparking. 2. with respect to the shaft. When properly applied and treated. insulating varnish provides a solid film protective covering. Squirrel-cage Rotor: Almost 90% of induction motors employ this type of rotors because of simple and rugged construction and almost indestructible. • Lead cut/unequal length/terminal damage. and an embedded Copper or aluminium squirrel cage. At both loading and unloading stations thorough inspection of fields is done to detect visually for: • Loose wires or wiring in green fields (at loading station) •Wedge paper problem. since the varnished fields are passed on for assembly line and if rejection is made on basis of above problems during any stage of assembly line results in wastage of resources. Loading onto the auto varnishing plant (here the entry and exit point for the stator and rotor cores are the same. Phase-wound Rotor: Motors employing this type of rotors are called ‘wound’ motors or ‘Slip-ring’ motors. slot papers would soon become brittle and crack or soggy from moisture and the enamel covering of wires would chip and flake. The rotor bars are brazed or electrically welded or bolted to two heavy and stout short-circuiting end-rings. They are of two types as follows: 2. there is no commutator.1. One bar is placed in each slot.2. twisted.
FAN ASSEMBLY: Conducted under Mr. rotor. They have blade sizes of 12”. Then the bearings are attached to the shaft and one of the brackets. Motors for Hitachi are painted black. Sujit Bhattacharya The finished products reaching this segment of the plant are the stator shells & cores. as sold to ABB.7. and the fit is snug. This department deals with cooler fans. 15”. DANFOS. E. or company code. the plant also manufactures fans of the types: Industrial Fans Centrifugal Fans Axial Flow Fans. rotor cores. or the motors are painted according to the demand. sphigoting is done on the shell for fixing of brackets. Sanjib Majumdar & Mr. The rotor and shaft too are pressed together but using just the machine with force applicable to a maximum of 200 tons. The assembled product is then sent off to the paint shop where a basic primer is put on in case the consumer wants to apply paint of their own accord. 2. The specifications are followed according to the Indian Standard 2312. and Man Cooler Fans. First the rotor is placed inside of stator. Then they are bolted together before the terminal box is set up. power rating. Then after the last final adjustments in the form of fine cutting and grooving. the assembly line workers collect each of a stator.6. brackets and terminal box. and Chilling purpose. The flow chart of formation of an impeller from the sheets of steel it arrives in is as: 15 . The stator shell and core are pressed together by first heating the shell so as to expand it. The name tags or plates are put on once the paint dries up. The fan as a whole again has two parts: the motor and the impeller. and then inserting the core and then pressed using a hydraulic press machine. Both of these are made in the plant. product no. while those for Danfos are painted military green. voltage rating frequency and speed of rotation or rpm.g. MOTOR ASSEMBLY: Conducted under Mr. as sold to Hitachi. mentioning the batch code. BHEL etc. After the pressing operation is complete. The other bracket is also similiarly attached. 18” and 24”. shafts and the brackets.2. current rating. Partha Pratim Das Apart from the LT Induction Motors. Application wise there are two types of cooler fans: Transformer cooling.
Blanking: The outline of the blade is given to the pieces. and weights are added as in where required to balance. Forming: The pieces are further bent so as to shape up like a blade.7. to reduce the cost of production. ii.1. So. iv. the machine is the only of its kind in Asia! Pressing: The blades are taken together into the required no mentioned by design to form the impeller and pressed together with the help of nuts. and the machine aiding workers is an automated one. is required. a stringent quality control and assurance department looks after all the tests that a motor undergoes from production line till packaging. After these processes are done. Painting: The finished impellers are sent off to be painted as required. Hence. Drilling & Riveting: Done using a machine which does both together. 16 . vi. viii. is to conduct tests of the parts during transit. The process is better explained below. v. optimal usage of raw materials and resources along with skilled management of goods. iii. QUALITY CONTROL/ASSURANCE: Conducted by Mr. The way forward. When a motor is tested only before packaging. Shearing: The sheet metal is cut into smaller rectangular pieces. Quality directly transcends into goodwill of the company in the market.Sheet(raw material) Pressing Pretreatment Shearing Drilling & Rivetting Balancing Blanking Forming Painting (Figure E. Pretreatment: The impellers are taken in baskets and dipped in tanks of chemicals. PROCESS OF FORMATION OF IMPALER: i. Sukanto Roy. Balancing: All rotating devices are made to undergo balance tests. many production line faults may be noticed and fixing them requires dismantling and reconstruction.8. Diagram showing process of formation of impeller) 2. vii. which is unnecessarily cost increasing for the company. between major stations. the impellers are sent to the assembly line to be put together with the motor to form a fan. 2.
Most of the tests carried out are mechanical in nature. The Mild Steel materials follow the order: 1 > 2 > 3&4 > 5 > 7 > 10. The aim of the QC/A is to keep the tested outputs to a half of the permissible half. The raw materials taken from trusted sources are also sent for testing in 3rd party laboratory. The standards of quantity are pre-specified by Indian Standards. there is a scope of provided for some error. Special mention: PRETREATMENT FOR FAN BLADES: The blades are dipped in 10 different tanks according to requirement. That way. so that they can be tested for quality.The standards for quality are predetermined by the ISO or International Organization for Standardizations 9000 series. and beyond scope of the report. The tanks have: 1 • I:Phosclean P:Degreasing 2 • I:Running Water P: Rinsing 6 • I:Phoschem Z P:Anti-rust coating 9 • I:Running Water P:Rinsing 3&4 • I:Rustokit 161 P:Pickling 5 • I:Cold Running Water P:Rinsing 8 • I:Rustokit 176 P:Chemical Etching 7 • I:Cold Running Water P:Rinsing 10 • I:Phosbond P:Permanent acid particle removal The Aluminium materials follow the order: 1 > 2 > 8 > 9 > 10. The above order signifies the drums into which the blades are put into. 17 .
1.1 The ROUTINE TEST consists of: Insulation Resistance test Measurement of winding resistance test No Load test Locked rotor test Reduced voltage running up test (die-cast) HV test 3. The Megger. 18 . is used between the ends of windings.1. a resistance measuring device which measures in MΩ.1. one to the windings and another to the body.1. The motor is kept on the ground and two connections from a machine capable of generating 3kV potential difference are attached to the motors.2 The TYPE TEST consists of: All Routine tests Full load test Torque test Vibration test Noise test 3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS According to the IS 325:1996. the tests on a LT Induction Motor are of two types: Routine tests: The test on completion issues a certificate which means that the motor has been run and found to be electrically and mechanically sound and in working order in all particulars. 3.General Overview of Motor Testing 3. Type tests: The test on completion issues a certificate on a motor identical in essential details with the all the motors in its batch (of maximum 20 quantity) along with the routine test certificate for individual motors.1 INSULATION RESISTANCE test and HIGH VOLTAGE test: The test is conducted on isolated motors.
which effectively helps in checking whether a motor is working within accepted temperature limits or not. if any. Balanced voltages are applied to the stator terminals at the rated frequency with rotor uncoupled from any mechanical load. room temperature (TC). which can lead to disastrous consequences. winding losses. “the increase in temperature above ambient temperature. and speed of the motor.The aim is to check for the short connection. The temperature of the air gap of the motor is also noted. 3.e. The aim is to find out the losses of the motor.1. in NEMA standard MG 1-1998. voltage and power are measured at the motor input. i. The test is conducted by measuring the lead-to-lead resistance (RC) in “cold” condition.e. using data from the readings of power. Once done.1. between body and winding. 19 .5MΩ and open circuit between body and windings. the resistance is again checked (RH).2. The losses in the no-load test are all due to core-losses. 3. The motor is then run at rated voltage till the air gap temperature stabilizes(TH). Ideally the result should be an insulation resistance of the order of 2.3 NO LOAD Test: This is one of the most basic tests. windage and friction. Ideally the result is aimed at half of the average of permitted range. The following formula is then used to calculate the acceptable temperature rise (Th) : Th= [(RH/ RC)x(K+ TC)]-K Where K= 234. has defined temperature rise of motor. Current.5 for copper (temp co-eff) The aim is to find out the temperature till which the motor air gap heats up. current on input side. the temperature of the cooling medium of the motor. Temperature rise has been defined as. Measurement of WINDING RESISTANCE test: National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).1.1. i.
1. at least three test points of voltage versus current. The rotor is blocked to prevent rotation and balanced voltages are applied to the stator terminals at a frequency of 25% of rated frequency at a voltage where the rated current is achieved. (Figure G.4 BLOCKED ROTOR Test: This is another basic test.1.5. (Figure F. watts and sometimes torque are taken to as a high voltage as possible and then extrapolated to rated voltage on log-lo9g graph paper to establish the desired values.1. For motors above 37kW. the pre-mentioned √ 20 . voltage and power are measured at motor input. The aim is to find the breakaway torque. Block Diagram of No-Load Test of Induction Motor) 3. input current and power. power and speed are measured to calculate the losses. READINGS: The input current and power are recorded using 2-WATTMETER method.1. RUN-UP Test for Die-Cast Rotor The test is applied to squirrel cage motors. In order to determine the values at rated voltage. The test is made to check the ability of the motor to run upto its rated speed at no load. The motor upto 37kW is supplied with a reduced voltage of of rated voltage for each direction of rotation. Block diagram of Locked Rotor Test of Induction Motor) 3. Current.READINGS: Input current.
3. The aim is to make sure that the shaft doesn’t come under mechanical stress and lead to faulty results from the motor. The test is then repeated for 1/4th.1. So when the hot winding resistance is measured. power factor cosine φ and slip.2. Then the force exerted by the shaft is measured by use of weight scale.1. FULL LOAD Test Motor is initially run at full load till the constant temperature is attained in the air gap of the motor.2.2. 3. TORQUE Test: The rotor is locked and jammed. The aim is to calculate the efficiency η. 1/2th & 3/4th load.2. along with that the speed is measured using tachometer. and run at rated voltage. The aim is to find out the least voltage required to run the motor at rated speed. The torque measured is used to find out the output power using the formula: The last equation is for efficiency calculation.3. Slip is calculated by using the slip formula: ⁄ The efficiency is calculated by dividing output by input. NOISE and VIBRATION Test: The motor while being run at various voltages is checked with a vibration meter for vibration in the three axes of the motor so as to check if it is within permissible limits. The speed obtained in rpm is subtracted from the synchronous speed and difference is divided by the same to obtain slip. but the direction is as specified and not any random direction. 3. Speed is measured for all conditions. The above test is done simultaneously along with the temperature rise test and winding resistance test on the same motor.1.value or lesser is used. or its variants. 21 . The aim is to ensure the torque developed is within the specified range.1. Weights scales are used to determine the torque.
current. Voltage. The saturation curve is taken with the motor running without any load.2. The test is usually performed after half an hour or more after the no-load test to ensure input values have stabilized. power and winding temperatures are recorded at each step.3. and the curve extended to zero voltage.1. An entire graph is likewise used to determine the saturation test.4. 22 . To segregate the losses. SATURATION Test: This test is performed to determine the windage. friction and core losses in a motor. At rated frequency. power input minus the stator I2R loss is plotted versus voltage. the line voltage on the motor is varied in steps from 125% of rated voltage down till further voltage reduction brings about disproportionate increase in current.
Finley. 3.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Understanding Complete Tests Performed on Induction Motor-William R.B. Theraja.Bureau of Indian Standards. A Textbook of Electrical Technology Vol 2 . 2. ________________________ Project In-charge signature 23 . Bureau of Energy Efficiency Code : ELECTRIC MOTOR. Understanding Motor Temperature Rise Limits-Tom Bishop 5. Three Phase Induction Motors.Specifications (5th Revision) . 4. L.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.