Industrial Automation Solutions

Programmable Logic Control (PLC)
TI’s PLC system solutions speed the design cycle with the right devices, software, tools and support.

tackle more complex operations and the Distributed Control System (DCS) which is used extensively in process control. The DCS uses distributed controllers, each performing a specific task, connected together by networks for communication and monitoring. A central control room is typically used for an entire plant.

actuators. Together, the input and output modules along with the central controller form a control loop.

I/O Module Types
I/O modules can be classified as analog input (AI), analog output (AO), digital input (DI) and digital output (DO). They are usually categorized into 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-channel modules. I/O modules need to meet stringent electrical specifications such as the IEC 61000-4 family of Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) tests for surge, ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) and EFT (Electrically Fast Transients). They also need short-circuit and overload protection. All these modules include isolation between the control side and the field side via DC-DC converters and isolation on digital communication between the field devices and the digital backplane. Communication over the digital backplane is done by a variety of interfaces (RS-485, CAN, Ethernet, etc.) and industrial fieldbuses (PROFIBUS®, DeviceNet, CANopen®, Modbus, EtherCAT®, Ethernet I/P™, PROFINET®, SERCOS, POWERLINK, etc.). On the following pages we discuss solutions from TI for these various I/O types.
Prop. digital bus

The PLC System Overview
The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is the workhorse of Industrial Control systems. It uses digital and analog I/O modules to interface to sensors, actuators and other equipment. These I/O modules must meet stringent electrical specifications and designers face challenges in conditioning and converting these signals. In addition, increasing levels of embedded processing and connectivity can be seen on these modules. Variations of the PLC include the Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) which has more integration and processing functions to PLCs can be segmented by I/O count and scan rates. They can also be classified as brick type versus modular PLCs. A small or brick PLC has a fixed number of connections for inputs and outputs. Modular PLCs have a chassis (also called a rack) into which are placed modules with different functions. The processor and selection of I/O modules is customized to fit the application. A modular PLC consists of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), a power supply and various I/O modules. The CPU performs the main controller functions like scanning data and running control sequences. The power supply unit converts line power to 24 volts. The I/O modules are used to measure data from sensors and to control various

24-Volt power bus

Power Supply Module

CPU

MultiChannel Analog In

MultiChannel Analog Out

MultiChannel Digital In

Comm. Module (Fieldbus, Ethernet)

I/O Modules Includes backup power 4 to 64 channels is typical Can be integrated with CPU

220/110 Volt

2H 2012 www.ti.com/automation

vibration and motion. low power. ±5V and ±10V. These parameters are transmitted from equipment such as sensors and other field devices on the factory floor in the form of current or voltage. Programmable Gain Amplifiers (PGA) can be used when the input voltage range can vary over multiple sensor types. Current loops typically range from 4–20 mA while voltage inputs can be single ended or differential ranging from 0–5V. low offset voltages as well as minimal drift of the offset voltage over temperature is needed to maintain accuracy. AC power lines and other sources which inject noise on the analog inputs. 0. flow. Differential amps can be used when the common mode range is greater than the power supply rails. Finally. SAR ADCs are a good choice for these applications.9-pA. single-cycle settling • Low-noise PGA.1-nV/√Hz 36-V. 24-bit. 14-kSPS ADC • Input signals from 10s of mV to ±15V • Allows input signal diagnostics OPA2188 36-V zero-drift. 500-ksps precision SAR ADC LMP7721 Ultra-low-bias current 3fA op amp LMP90100 24-bit ΔADC + chopper stabilized PGA 1:128 –– LMP8671/2 2. Precision bipolar op amps are Electrical Isolation Field Side Control Backplane 24 V Communication Fieldbus IN used extensively.ti. pressure. The system accuracy is determined by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) resolution with thermocouple applications needing up to 24 bits. Other considerations are large commonmode voltage range and common-mode rejection of interference from motors. 0–10V. burnout detection • 50-/60-Hz simultaneous rejection. Ib precision op amp ADS8319 16-bit. Since the inputs could be signals from thermocouples and other low-level sensors. Some products also offer ratio-metric measurement with built-in current sources for RTD excitation and voltage biases for ungrounded thermocouples. motion control and power automation. adjustable current limits and programmable de-bounce times. rail-to-rail precision op amp –– OPA211 1. level and flow need lower sampling rates (up to 2 kSPS) while other applications and systems with higher channel counts need larger sampling speeds (several 100 kSPS). precision op amp OPA320 20-MHz. Delta sigma ADCs are a good choice with some products having a built-in PGA and MUX. level. up to 2kSPS • Dual matched current sources for RTD excitation PGA280 + ADS1259 • Zero drift high-voltage PGA + low-noise. The isolation is then limited to the SPI interface as a number of serializers can be daisy chained. digital input serializers can be used to serialize a large number of digital inputs allowing higher channel densities in PLC I/O modules. Inputs typically are 0–24V with tolerances up to 30V. pressure. limit switches and push button switches. Instead. Other functions that are integrated into these products are temperature sensing and voltage regulation. Protection Field Inputs From Sensors Protection Digital Input Serializer 0 – 24 V ±24V Protection Digital Isolation Controller Interface TI solutions for Digital I/O SN65HVS880 18V – 30V industrial 8-channel digital input serializer Protection Memory LEGEND Processor Interface RF/IF Amplifier 24 V Communication Fieldbus OUT Logic Power ADC/DAC Clocks Other SN65HVS881 10V – 34V industrial 8-channel digital input serializer with parity www. The signals from DC sensors used in PLC digital input (DI) modules are typically 24 V DC/DC Converter Isolated Power DC/DC Converter of a higher voltage and are usually isolated through optocouplers before going into a shift register to be serialized. They also provide the benefit of sensing higher voltages.5-nV/√Hz 40V precision op amp Power Management: Exists on All Modules DC/DC Converter Isolated Power DC/DC Converter Isolated Power Group Isolated Analog Input Module − + V+ Buffer Protection AMP VREF Temp Flow MUX Protection AMP ADC Optical Pressure Level Digital Isolation Digital Isolation Controller Interface HART Memory PLC: Digital I/O Design Considerations Digital input modules capture and measure digital input signals from a wide variety of sensors like Electrical Isolation Field Side Control Backplane Communication Fieldbus IN proximity switches. Slow changing variables like temperature. Signal conditioning considerations include high-input impedance when interfacing to sensors with low-source impedance which is achieved with input buffers and instrumentation amplifiers (INA).PLC: Analog Inputs Analog input modules capture and measure signals such as temperature. temperature sensor. Simultaneous sampling architectures are used for modules used in condition monitoring. 24bit. TI signal chain solutions for analog inputs ADS1248 (temperature measurement and universal inputs) • 4 differential or 7 single-ended inputs.com/automation .

CAN. output voltage level and power. ±5V and ±10V. settling time. 0–10 V. The output must be picked based on speed. In addition. For higher resolution and for applications requiring higher linearity like openloop valve control. TI’s XTR industrial drivers are excellent for implementing 4–20 mA current loops. bus redundancy (HVD257) PLC/PAC Comm Module Comm Module HMI DCS/SCADA Industrial Ethernet. ±10 V Digital Isolation Memory HART AMP Protection Current Driver 4–20 mA 0–5 V. and monitor pins OPA140 11-MHz. RS-485. etc. Machine Vision. Some products allow the designer to make the output programmable to be either a voltage or current. inexpensive and inherently monotonic. 32-pin QFN packages (TLK105/TLK106) ISO1050 (isolated CAN transceiver): Integrated CAN and isolation for easy system integration. precision. Other Fieldbuses Sensor Actuator PLC Comm Module Sensor 4–20 mA HART. ±5 V. ultra-small package (3×3 mm) • Wide temperature range (-40°C to 125°C) XTR300 • Industrial analog current/voltage output driver • User-selectable: voltage or current output – Design flexibility • Separate driver and receiver channels • Digital output selection. Extended cable reach and diagnostics to debug wire breaks provides system designers significant value. Cable diagnostics (TLK106/TLK110).5 mA per ch @ 25 Mbps SN65HVD255/6/7 (Turbo CAN transceiver): Fast loop times with up to 2-Mbps data rate. error flags.5V DACs • Wide voltage range of ±16. Newer products integrate the DAC and XTR to minimize board space and optimize power. DeviceNet. Module RS-485 Comm Module CNC. Integrated Enterprise Level PC Network TI interface products for PLC digital isolation on the interface transceivers is highly desirable to reduce board space. Comm IO-Link. Next generation for HVD251 and HVD1050. 0–10 V.PLC: Analog Outputs Design Considerations Analog output modules are used to drive and control actuators and other machines to form part of an overall control system. JFET op amp REF5020 + OPA365 precision voltage reference + high-speed. 4 nV-s glitch energy • 12. Low power consumption: 2. DAC8718 family • 16-/14-/12-bit family of 8-channel bipolar ±16. The linearity. Others Drives IEEE 802. 0–10V. ±10 V PLC: Connectivity Interface There are a number of fieldbus options – both serial (RS-485. Automation Server Ethernet ISO1176/76T (isolated RS-485 PROFIBUS transceiver): Reduced components and board space. low-power and low-voltage DACs • Integrated precision reference (4 ppm/°C drift). Reduced loop time improves timing margin. response and accuracy is determined by the DAC used. Special features: I/O level shifting (HVD256). Finally. R-2R DACs are a good choice. Selecting the right reference and pairing it with the right buffer can impact system performance. Resistor string-based DACs are small.and 14-bit serial and parallel options provide flexible upgrade / downgrade path DAC8562 family • 16-/14-/12-bit family of dual-channel. low-noise. RRO. Current-loop outputs typically range from 4–20 mA while voltage outputs range from 0–5V.11 RTU Gateway PLC Data Acquistion PLC Device (Field) Level Actuator Sensors & Actuators – Digital/Analog IEEE 802. ±5 V.15. Low propagation delay: 7 ns.4 Sensor Sensor Wireless Sensors Actuator Field Network Intelligent Sensors & Actuators Controller Office Network Network Control Level . Extended cable reach (up to 150 m).) and Ethernet based. Considerations for references include initial temperature drift and source/sink current capability. Hot pluggable without data corruption TLK105/TLK106/TLK110 (10/100 industrial Ethernet PHY): Low and deterministic latency for real time. the interface between the DAC and the controller can be digitally isolated either by using optocouplers or TI isolators built with capacitive technology. R-2R multiplying DACs should be used. PROFIBUS®. single-supply railto-rail op amp DAC161S055 16-bit rail-to-rail output DAC with external voltage reference DRV110 current driver for solenoid loads DC/DC Converter Isolated Power DC/DC Converter Power Management: Exists on All Modules Isolated Power Group Isolated Analog Output Module ffer Buffer VREF AMP Protection To Field Acutators I/V Driver 4–20 mA Interface Controller Digital Isolation DAC AMP Protection Voltage Driver 0–5 V. Lower power than optocouplers ISO7420E/20FE (low-power dual-channel. Life span > 25 years @ 125ºC.5V with up to 6× gain eliminates need for external gain circuitry • 10-μs settling time. digital isolator): Signaling rate above 50 Mbps. for achieving the fastest settling times and Electrical Isolation Communication Fieldbus IN Control Backplane 24 V Field Side TI signal chain solutions speeds. CAN.

watchdog timers.5 MB of Flash LM4Fx • Up to 120 GPIOs that can drive over 600 mA • Up to 8 UARTs.with integrated communications interfaces point C28x + ARM • Support for Power Line Communications Cortex-M3 standards www. Ethernet enables integration of field devices to the corporate enterprise network. PROFINET®.5-kB – 512-kB NVM MSP430FR57xx • Low-cost. TI processors for PLC • Sitara AM335x ARM Cortex-A8 Processor • Multiple industrial communication standards integrated with application processor • Two development tool options: $99 USD Industrial Communications Engine (ICE). multiple SPI ports. These include fault diagnostics.ti. higher-performance MPUs (Micro Processing Units) are needed.PLC: Processor Processor To support the processor. integrated analog peripherals like ADCs and PWM outputs which perform similar functions to DACs. including dualcore C28x + ARM Cortex-M3 devices with up to 1. Most industrial Description Sitara™ ARM® Cortex™-A8 processors with integrated industrial communications support TMS570 ARM Cortex-R4F-based microcontroller for safety-critical applications up to 160 MHz and 2-MB Flash RM4x ARM Cortex-R4-based microcontroller for safety-critical applications up to 220 MHz and 3-MB Flash Device Series AM335x AM3517 control applications need simple. development platforms and software tools in addition to support which quickens time to market are highly desired. Connectivity options ranging from Ethernet ports to UARTs to simple SPI ports are required. SERCOS-III. MCUs (Micro Controller Units) are a good choice for these applications. For applications which push Key Benefits • Integrated industrial communications support including: EtherCAT®. PROFIBUS®. PID control and motion. easy-to-use tools Stellaris® ARM Cortex-M4Fbased MCUs up to 80 MHz and 256-kB Flash C2000™ 32-bit real-time MCUs up to 300 MHz. CANOpen®. Ethernet/IP™.com/automation . POWERLINK. UARTs. and 6 I2C • Two integrated CAN controllers and USB OTG Delfino™ floating. 0. and more. 4 SPI. with scalable performance • Support for safety-critical applications up to IEC 61508 SIL-3 • Three integrated CAN controllers • Powerful Cortex-R4F floating-point CPU • Up to 2 MB of integrated Flash memory • Support for safety-critical applications up to IEC 61508 SIL-3 • Three integrated CAN controllers • Powerful Cortex-R4 CPU • From 384 KB up to 3 MB of integrated Flash memory capabilities and need higher loop rates along with advanced control algorithms to handle multiple functional domains like logic. $895 USD Industrial Development Kit (IDK) • Robust software options including: SYS/BIOS™ real-time kernel and application stacks for industrial communication standards • Includes parts listed to the left TMS570LS2x RM42x RM46x RM48x MSP430™ 16-bit ultra-lowMSP430F2xxx / F4xxx • 10 – 24-bit ADC / op amps / DACs power microcontroller family.• IEC61131-3 programming with CoDeSys point series • Integrated real-time control peripherals coupled Concerto™ floating. low-cost PLCs with lots of digital I/O and integrated functions. Up MSP430F5xxx / F6xxx • Fast / ULP FRAM non-volatile memory to 25 MHz. TI provides solutions to address all these needs. low power.

5-V–52-V PWM controller for isolated flyback. 15-W negative output voltage power module 7-V to 50-V input. synchronous solution • Low IQ: 500nA • 150-mA. ultra-lowpower. DC-DC converters 50-mA / 200-mA 4. high PRSS.8 V to 18 V • Adjustable threshold: Down to 400 mV • Open-drain outputs for over. The design can be customized for performance and cost by using a DC-DC converter and discrete components or pre-built isolated DC-DC converter modules can be used. F281x. pin-selectable frequency. Picking a DC-DC converter with a large input range will protect against supply transients. low drop-out linear regulator High-power/high-efficiency Power-over-Ethernet PD solution TPS7A4700 TPS7A3301 TPS2378/9 • Integrates PoE interface and DC-DC controller TPS23751/2/4 • 25-W operation. F2823x. 0. 1-A step-down converter.5/2. 0.4 μVrms and 72-dB PSRR • Reduces noise from switchers generating ± Vout • Optimized to supply TI’s C2000 MCU series: F2833x (Delfino™).3/5-Vin isolated DC/DC converter ±36-V.and low-side switches • Constant on-time control • Small MSOP10 or SON10 (3×3-mm) packages • Choose MOSFET to optimize performance • Refer to PMP4626 • Provides circuit protection and current limit • Supports any switching or linear regulator with an available feedback node • Simple design with adjustable gain and bandwidth 4.2-μF ceramic capacitor • Low noise with 15.TPS75005 tors and triple voltage rail monitor Window comparator for over and under voltage detection TPS3700 +3-V to +36-V input. Other considerations include high efficiency and integration along with smaller packages. and F280x/F2801x • Wide supply voltage range: 1. Finally. LDO reg. 500-mA low-dropout regula.. DCS-Control topology.7-V to 60-V synchronous step-down converters 150-mA. power good 100-V.5-V to 60-V input. 3. ≥ 55 dB (10 Hz to 10 MHz) • Input voltage range: –3 V to –36 V • Output voltage noise: 16 μVRMS (10 Hz to 100 kHz) • Power-supply ripple rejection: 72 dB (10 kHz) TPS55010 TPS7A4901/ TPS7A30xx Dual. ultra-low-noise LDOs Device Series TPS54060A/ 160A/260/ 360 TPS54062/1 TPS78001 Key Benefits • 12-/24/48-V support plus transients • Small size and low IQ • Refer to PMP5863 • Very small size.ti.5-A stepdown power module 17-V supply. very low IQ • High efficiency. 150-mA high voltage. the field side which interfaces to sensors is electrically isolated from the control side.8-mm QFN package • Meets Class B radiated emissions • Frequency synchronization • Small 9×11×2. boost or SEPIC Precision current limiter TPS84250 TPS62150 TPS62175 LM5017 TPS40210 LMP8646 www. adj. low drop-out linear regulator –3-V to –36-V input.17 μVRMS (10 Hz to 100 kHz) • Power supply ripple rejection: 82 dB (100 Hz). dual-level output voltage 2-W.5/3. high PRSS. high efficiency • Robust process to withstand surges and over-currents TPS84259 • Small 9×11×2.PLC: Power Power To protect against transients and ground loops. 1-A low noise (4 μVRMS). using LDOs with good PSRR (power supply rejection ratio) to supply the precision analog circuitry will reduce the power supply ripple and preserve system accuracy and resolution.5/1. DCS-Control™ topology. This is done on a per channel basis or by isolating groups of channels from each other and from the control side. high.5-A. 1-A low noise. 600-mA synchronous stepdown regulator with integrated high-side and low-side MOSFETs 4.5 to 40-V input. power good 28-V supply. TI power management for PLC Description 3. IQ 500-nA with pin-selectable. 2.and under-voltage detection • Input voltage range: +3 V to +36 V • Output voltage noise: 4. soft-start.com/automation . Low-dropout regulator with pin-selectable dual-voltage level output • No optocoupler required • Primary side feedback allows input/output voltage combinations with the same transformer • Stable with  2.8-mm QFN package • Meets Class B radiated emissions • Frequency synchronization • Small solution footprint (80 mm2) • High efficiency across entire load range • Fast AC line and load transient response • Ideal for powering Stellaris® processors • High efficiency across entire load range • Small total solution footprint (<60 mm2) • Wide 9-V to 100-V input range • Integrated 100-V.5-A step-down converter with SNOOZE mode.

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