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Programmable Logic Control (PLC)
TI’s PLC system solutions speed the design cycle with the right devices, software, tools and support.
tackle more complex operations and the Distributed Control System (DCS) which is used extensively in process control. The DCS uses distributed controllers, each performing a speciﬁc task, connected together by networks for communication and monitoring. A central control room is typically used for an entire plant.
actuators. Together, the input and output modules along with the central controller form a control loop.
I/O Module Types
I/O modules can be classiﬁed as analog input (AI), analog output (AO), digital input (DI) and digital output (DO). They are usually categorized into 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-channel modules. I/O modules need to meet stringent electrical speciﬁcations such as the IEC 61000-4 family of Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) tests for surge, ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) and EFT (Electrically Fast Transients). They also need short-circuit and overload protection. All these modules include isolation between the control side and the ﬁeld side via DC-DC converters and isolation on digital communication between the ﬁeld devices and the digital backplane. Communication over the digital backplane is done by a variety of interfaces (RS-485, CAN, Ethernet, etc.) and industrial ﬁeldbuses (PROFIBUS®, DeviceNet, CANopen®, Modbus, EtherCAT®, Ethernet I/P™, PROFINET®, SERCOS, POWERLINK, etc.). On the following pages we discuss solutions from TI for these various I/O types.
Prop. digital bus
The PLC System Overview
The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is the workhorse of Industrial Control systems. It uses digital and analog I/O modules to interface to sensors, actuators and other equipment. These I/O modules must meet stringent electrical speciﬁcations and designers face challenges in conditioning and converting these signals. In addition, increasing levels of embedded processing and connectivity can be seen on these modules. Variations of the PLC include the Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) which has more integration and processing functions to PLCs can be segmented by I/O count and scan rates. They can also be classiﬁed as brick type versus modular PLCs. A small or brick PLC has a ﬁxed number of connections for inputs and outputs. Modular PLCs have a chassis (also called a rack) into which are placed modules with different functions. The processor and selection of I/O modules is customized to ﬁt the application. A modular PLC consists of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), a power supply and various I/O modules. The CPU performs the main controller functions like scanning data and running control sequences. The power supply unit converts line power to 24 volts. The I/O modules are used to measure data from sensors and to control various
24-Volt power bus
Power Supply Module
MultiChannel Analog In
MultiChannel Analog Out
MultiChannel Digital In
Comm. Module (Fieldbus, Ethernet)
I/O Modules Includes backup power 4 to 64 channels is typical Can be integrated with CPU
2H 2012 www.ti.com/automation
vibration and motion.ti. low power.5-nV/√Hz 40V precision op amp Power Management: Exists on All Modules DC/DC Converter Isolated Power DC/DC Converter Isolated Power Group Isolated Analog Input Module − + V+ Buffer Protection AMP VREF Temp Flow MUX Protection AMP ADC Optical Pressure Level Digital Isolation Digital Isolation Controller Interface HART Memory PLC: Digital I/O Design Considerations Digital input modules capture and measure digital input signals from a wide variety of sensors like Electrical Isolation Field Side Control Backplane Communication Fieldbus IN proximity switches. Finally. pressure. Inputs typically are 0–24V with tolerances up to 30V. rail-to-rail precision op amp –– OPA211 1. Other functions that are integrated into these products are temperature sensing and voltage regulation. Ib precision op amp ADS8319 16-bit. Protection Field Inputs From Sensors Protection Digital Input Serializer 0 – 24 V ±24V Protection Digital Isolation Controller Interface TI solutions for Digital I/O SN65HVS880 18V – 30V industrial 8-channel digital input serializer Protection Memory LEGEND Processor Interface RF/IF Amplifier 24 V Communication Fieldbus OUT Logic Power ADC/DAC Clocks Other SN65HVS881 10V – 34V industrial 8-channel digital input serializer with parity www. Programmable Gain Ampliﬁers (PGA) can be used when the input voltage range can vary over multiple sensor types. Instead. level. ﬂow. 0–10V. up to 2kSPS • Dual matched current sources for RTD excitation PGA280 + ADS1259 • Zero drift high-voltage PGA + low-noise. Since the inputs could be signals from thermocouples and other low-level sensors. level and ﬂow need lower sampling rates (up to 2 kSPS) while other applications and systems with higher channel counts need larger sampling speeds (several 100 kSPS). burnout detection • 50-/60-Hz simultaneous rejection. limit switches and push button switches. Precision bipolar op amps are Electrical Isolation Field Side Control Backplane 24 V Communication Fieldbus IN used extensively. precision op amp OPA320 20-MHz. AC power lines and other sources which inject noise on the analog inputs.9-pA. These parameters are transmitted from equipment such as sensors and other ﬁeld devices on the factory ﬂoor in the form of current or voltage. The system accuracy is determined by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) resolution with thermocouple applications needing up to 24 bits. digital input serializers can be used to serialize a large number of digital inputs allowing higher channel densities in PLC I/O modules. low offset voltages as well as minimal drift of the offset voltage over temperature is needed to maintain accuracy. Signal conditioning considerations include high-input impedance when interfacing to sensors with low-source impedance which is achieved with input buffers and instrumentation ampliﬁers (INA).com/automation . TI signal chain solutions for analog inputs ADS1248 (temperature measurement and universal inputs) • 4 differential or 7 single-ended inputs. Differential amps can be used when the common mode range is greater than the power supply rails. 14-kSPS ADC • Input signals from 10s of mV to ±15V • Allows input signal diagnostics OPA2188 36-V zero-drift. single-cycle settling • Low-noise PGA. Slow changing variables like temperature. SAR ADCs are a good choice for these applications. They also provide the beneﬁt of sensing higher voltages. pressure. 0. Current loops typically range from 4–20 mA while voltage inputs can be single ended or differential ranging from 0–5V. ±5V and ±10V. Simultaneous sampling architectures are used for modules used in condition monitoring. Some products also offer ratio-metric measurement with built-in current sources for RTD excitation and voltage biases for ungrounded thermocouples. The isolation is then limited to the SPI interface as a number of serializers can be daisy chained.PLC: Analog Inputs Analog input modules capture and measure signals such as temperature.1-nV/√Hz 36-V. adjustable current limits and programmable de-bounce times. The signals from DC sensors used in PLC digital input (DI) modules are typically 24 V DC/DC Converter Isolated Power DC/DC Converter of a higher voltage and are usually isolated through optocouplers before going into a shift register to be serialized. Other considerations are large commonmode voltage range and common-mode rejection of interference from motors. Delta sigma ADCs are a good choice with some products having a built-in PGA and MUX. 24bit. temperature sensor. 24-bit. motion control and power automation. 500-ksps precision SAR ADC LMP7721 Ultra-low-bias current 3fA op amp LMP90100 24-bit ΔADC + chopper stabilized PGA 1:128 –– LMP8671/2 2.
PLC: Analog Outputs Design Considerations Analog output modules are used to drive and control actuators and other machines to form part of an overall control system. precision. ±10 V Digital Isolation Memory HART AMP Protection Current Driver 4–20 mA 0–5 V. Cable diagnostics (TLK106/TLK110). Considerations for references include initial temperature drift and source/sink current capability. response and accuracy is determined by the DAC used. ±5 V. Extended cable reach and diagnostics to debug wire breaks provides system designers signiﬁcant value.5 mA per ch @ 25 Mbps SN65HVD255/6/7 (Turbo CAN transceiver): Fast loop times with up to 2-Mbps data rate. for achieving the fastest settling times and Electrical Isolation Communication Fieldbus IN Control Backplane 24 V Field Side TI signal chain solutions speeds. Hot pluggable without data corruption TLK105/TLK106/TLK110 (10/100 industrial Ethernet PHY): Low and deterministic latency for real time. etc. PROFIBUS®. Current-loop outputs typically range from 4–20 mA while voltage outputs range from 0–5V. Other Fieldbuses Sensor Actuator PLC Comm Module Sensor 4–20 mA HART. Finally. The output must be picked based on speed. Machine Vision. Reduced loop time improves timing margin.11 RTU Gateway PLC Data Acquistion PLC Device (Field) Level Actuator Sensors & Actuators – Digital/Analog IEEE 802. Low propagation delay: 7 ns. JFET op amp REF5020 + OPA365 precision voltage reference + high-speed. 4 nV-s glitch energy • 12.) and Ethernet based. low-noise. 0–10 V. Newer products integrate the DAC and XTR to minimize board space and optimize power. output voltage level and power. Selecting the right reference and pairing it with the right buffer can impact system performance. Next generation for HVD251 and HVD1050.and 14-bit serial and parallel options provide ﬂexible upgrade / downgrade path DAC8562 family • 16-/14-/12-bit family of dual-channel. Special features: I/O level shifting (HVD256). R-2R multiplying DACs should be used. Resistor string-based DACs are small. 0–10 V. ultra-small package (3×3 mm) • Wide temperature range (-40°C to 125°C) XTR300 • Industrial analog current/voltage output driver • User-selectable: voltage or current output – Design ﬂexibility • Separate driver and receiver channels • Digital output selection. ±5V and ±10V. In addition. low-power and low-voltage DACs • Integrated precision reference (4 ppm/°C drift). TI’s XTR industrial drivers are excellent for implementing 4–20 mA current loops. Others Drives IEEE 802. bus redundancy (HVD257) PLC/PAC Comm Module Comm Module HMI DCS/SCADA Industrial Ethernet. R-2R DACs are a good choice. Module RS-485 Comm Module CNC. Integrated Enterprise Level PC Network TI interface products for PLC digital isolation on the interface transceivers is highly desirable to reduce board space. Life span > 25 years @ 125ºC. ±5 V. Extended cable reach (up to 150 m).5V with up to 6× gain eliminates need for external gain circuitry • 10-μs settling time. RS-485. 0–10V. ±10 V PLC: Connectivity Interface There are a number of ﬁeldbus options – both serial (RS-485. settling time. digital isolator): Signaling rate above 50 Mbps.15. Low power consumption: 2.5V DACs • Wide voltage range of ±16. the interface between the DAC and the controller can be digitally isolated either by using optocouplers or TI isolators built with capacitive technology. Comm IO-Link. inexpensive and inherently monotonic. error ﬂags.4 Sensor Sensor Wireless Sensors Actuator Field Network Intelligent Sensors & Actuators Controller Ofﬁce Network Network Control Level . single-supply railto-rail op amp DAC161S055 16-bit rail-to-rail output DAC with external voltage reference DRV110 current driver for solenoid loads DC/DC Converter Isolated Power DC/DC Converter Power Management: Exists on All Modules Isolated Power Group Isolated Analog Output Module ffer Buffer VREF AMP Protection To Field Acutators I/V Driver 4–20 mA Interface Controller Digital Isolation DAC AMP Protection Voltage Driver 0–5 V. 32-pin QFN packages (TLK105/TLK106) ISO1050 (isolated CAN transceiver): Integrated CAN and isolation for easy system integration. CAN. Some products allow the designer to make the output programmable to be either a voltage or current. For higher resolution and for applications requiring higher linearity like openloop valve control. Automation Server Ethernet ISO1176/76T (isolated RS-485 PROFIBUS transceiver): Reduced components and board space. Lower power than optocouplers ISO7420E/20FE (low-power dual-channel. DAC8718 family • 16-/14-/12-bit family of 8-channel bipolar ±16. CAN. The linearity. RRO. DeviceNet. and monitor pins OPA140 11-MHz.
PROFIBUS®. and 6 I2C • Two integrated CAN controllers and USB OTG Delﬁno™ ﬂoating. development platforms and software tools in addition to support which quickens time to market are highly desired. with scalable performance • Support for safety-critical applications up to IEC 61508 SIL-3 • Three integrated CAN controllers • Powerful Cortex-R4F ﬂoating-point CPU • Up to 2 MB of integrated Flash memory • Support for safety-critical applications up to IEC 61508 SIL-3 • Three integrated CAN controllers • Powerful Cortex-R4 CPU • From 384 KB up to 3 MB of integrated Flash memory capabilities and need higher loop rates along with advanced control algorithms to handle multiple functional domains like logic. UARTs.5 MB of Flash LM4Fx • Up to 120 GPIOs that can drive over 600 mA • Up to 8 UARTs. TI processors for PLC • Sitara AM335x ARM Cortex-A8 Processor • Multiple industrial communication standards integrated with application processor • Two development tool options: $99 USD Industrial Communications Engine (ICE). 0. Ethernet/IP™. Most industrial Description Sitara™ ARM® Cortex™-A8 processors with integrated industrial communications support TMS570 ARM Cortex-R4F-based microcontroller for safety-critical applications up to 160 MHz and 2-MB Flash RM4x ARM Cortex-R4-based microcontroller for safety-critical applications up to 220 MHz and 3-MB Flash Device Series AM335x AM3517 control applications need simple. multiple SPI ports.com/automation . For applications which push Key Benefits • Integrated industrial communications support including: EtherCAT®. Up MSP430F5xxx / F6xxx • Fast / ULP FRAM non-volatile memory to 25 MHz. and more. PID control and motion. PROFINET®. 4 SPI. easy-to-use tools Stellaris® ARM Cortex-M4Fbased MCUs up to 80 MHz and 256-kB Flash C2000™ 32-bit real-time MCUs up to 300 MHz. $895 USD Industrial Development Kit (IDK) • Robust software options including: SYS/BIOS™ real-time kernel and application stacks for industrial communication standards • Includes parts listed to the left TMS570LS2x RM42x RM46x RM48x MSP430™ 16-bit ultra-lowMSP430F2xxx / F4xxx • 10 – 24-bit ADC / op amps / DACs power microcontroller family. Ethernet enables integration of ﬁeld devices to the corporate enterprise network. CANOpen®.5-kB – 512-kB NVM MSP430FR57xx • Low-cost. including dualcore C28x + ARM Cortex-M3 devices with up to 1.with integrated communications interfaces point C28x + ARM • Support for Power Line Communications Cortex-M3 standards www.PLC: Processor Processor To support the processor. POWERLINK. SERCOS-III. These include fault diagnostics. TI provides solutions to address all these needs. Connectivity options ranging from Ethernet ports to UARTs to simple SPI ports are required. integrated analog peripherals like ADCs and PWM outputs which perform similar functions to DACs.ti. low-cost PLCs with lots of digital I/O and integrated functions.• IEC61131-3 programming with CoDeSys point series • Integrated real-time control peripherals coupled Concerto™ ﬂoating. higher-performance MPUs (Micro Processing Units) are needed. watchdog timers. MCUs (Micro Controller Units) are a good choice for these applications. low power.
IQ 500-nA with pin-selectable. synchronous solution • Low IQ: 500nA • 150-mA. LDO reg.and low-side switches • Constant on-time control • Small MSOP10 or SON10 (3×3-mm) packages • Choose MOSFET to optimize performance • Refer to PMP4626 • Provides circuit protection and current limit • Supports any switching or linear regulator with an available feedback node • Simple design with adjustable gain and bandwidth 4. using LDOs with good PSRR (power supply rejection ratio) to supply the precision analog circuitry will reduce the power supply ripple and preserve system accuracy and resolution. 2.com/automation .8-mm QFN package • Meets Class B radiated emissions • Frequency synchronization • Small solution footprint (80 mm2) • High efﬁciency across entire load range • Fast AC line and load transient response • Ideal for powering Stellaris® processors • High efﬁciency across entire load range • Small total solution footprint (<60 mm2) • Wide 9-V to 100-V input range • Integrated 100-V.5/2. DCS-Control topology. 15-W negative output voltage power module 7-V to 50-V input.3/5-Vin isolated DC/DC converter ±36-V.5/1.5-V to 60-V input. DCS-Control™ topology. 150-mA high voltage. low drop-out linear regulator High-power/high-efﬁciency Power-over-Ethernet PD solution TPS7A4700 TPS7A3301 TPS2378/9 • Integrates PoE interface and DC-DC controller TPS23751/2/4 • 25-W operation. 0. very low IQ • High efﬁciency. power good 100-V. Low-dropout regulator with pin-selectable dual-voltage level output • No optocoupler required • Primary side feedback allows input/output voltage combinations with the same transformer • Stable with 2. ultra-low-noise LDOs Device Series TPS54060A/ 160A/260/ 360 TPS54062/1 TPS78001 Key Benefits • 12-/24/48-V support plus transients • Small size and low IQ • Refer to PMP5863 • Very small size.8 V to 18 V • Adjustable threshold: Down to 400 mV • Open-drain outputs for over.TPS75005 tors and triple voltage rail monitor Window comparator for over and under voltage detection TPS3700 +3-V to +36-V input. Finally.7-V to 60-V synchronous step-down converters 150-mA. 1-A step-down converter.5-A step-down converter with SNOOZE mode. ultra-lowpower. Picking a DC-DC converter with a large input range will protect against supply transients. 1-A low noise. and F280x/F2801x • Wide supply voltage range: 1. adj. high. boost or SEPIC Precision current limiter TPS84250 TPS62150 TPS62175 LM5017 TPS40210 LMP8646 www. DC-DC converters 50-mA / 200-mA 4. TI power management for PLC Description 3. soft-start.5-A stepdown power module 17-V supply. low drop-out linear regulator –3-V to –36-V input. 600-mA synchronous stepdown regulator with integrated high-side and low-side MOSFETs 4.4 μVrms and 72-dB PSRR • Reduces noise from switchers generating ± Vout • Optimized to supply TI’s C2000 MCU series: F2833x (Delﬁno™).. dual-level output voltage 2-W.and under-voltage detection • Input voltage range: +3 V to +36 V • Output voltage noise: 4.5-A. This is done on a per channel basis or by isolating groups of channels from each other and from the control side. F281x. The design can be customized for performance and cost by using a DC-DC converter and discrete components or pre-built isolated DC-DC converter modules can be used.5-V–52-V PWM controller for isolated ﬂyback. 3. the ﬁeld side which interfaces to sensors is electrically isolated from the control side.ti. F2823x.5/3.17 μVRMS (10 Hz to 100 kHz) • Power supply ripple rejection: 82 dB (100 Hz). pin-selectable frequency. power good 28-V supply.2-μF ceramic capacitor • Low noise with 15. high efﬁciency • Robust process to withstand surges and over-currents TPS84259 • Small 9×11×2. 1-A low noise (4 μVRMS). high PRSS. 500-mA low-dropout regula.5 to 40-V input.8-mm QFN package • Meets Class B radiated emissions • Frequency synchronization • Small 9×11×2. high PRSS. Other considerations include high efﬁciency and integration along with smaller packages.PLC: Power Power To protect against transients and ground loops. 0. ≥ 55 dB (10 Hz to 10 MHz) • Input voltage range: –3 V to –36 V • Output voltage noise: 16 μVRMS (10 Hz to 100 kHz) • Power-supply ripple rejection: 72 dB (10 kHz) TPS55010 TPS7A4901/ TPS7A30xx Dual.
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