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English Self-Study You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 on pages

88 and 89. Objective: IELTS Academic Reading

WATER ON TAP
A Eorlg people hod no need
Jo, engineering works to supply their woter. Hunters ond nomods comped neor noturol sources ond populotions were so sporse thot pollution oJ the woter supplg did not pose a serious problem. But os civilised liJe developed ond smoll settlements grew into cities, woter monogement become o mojor concern, not onlU to supply the urbon centres but olso to irrigote the Jorms surrounding them. The solution wos to Jind o wou to roise woter up Jrom the rivers.

to control the Jlood woters "J the Tigris, Euphrotes ond the Nile. Such conols not onlg irrigoted crops
conols

but olso supplied woter Jor domestic purposes, the woter being stored in lorge pottery jors, hond-corried Jrom the river bg household sloves. The remoins the eorliest oqueduct on

"J record hove been pinpointed to the works oJ the Assyrion king ond moster builder Sennocherib (705-681 BC), who developed o 10-mile conol in three stoges, including 18 Jresh-woter courses Jrom the mountoins.
being the Jirst

B Around 5000 BC, primitive ottempts were mode bg the Eggptions. They
used the Perion Wheel, o woter-wheel thot dipped contoiners into a river, liJting up woter os it revolved. Another method wos o simple lever-ond-bucket sgstem colled shodooJ. The

D But we con thonk the Romons

to consider seriouslg the

Jo,

invention

,J the lever, os well os o

the

more occurote explonotion is thot Archimedes wos the Jirst to try to describe in mothemoticol terms the
woy these devices worked.

screw, to liJt woter is oJten ottributed to Archimedes Q87-213 BC) but both devices were without doubt in use thousonds oJ yeors beJore his time. A

C Bg 2000 BC, the rulers

"J Mesopotomio, Bobylonio ond EgUpt hod constructed systems oJ doms ond

sonitotion of their woter supplg. Foced with the prlblem oJ directing-enough woter towords Rome - woter Jrom the Tiber, o muddy, smelly river, wos out q the question they set obout constructing the most extensive sgstem oqueducts in the oncient world. "J These brought the pure woters oJ the Apennine Mountoins into the city, with settling bosins ond Jilters olong the woy, to ensure the wtter's clorit! ond cleonliness. The Jirst, built oround 312 BC during Appius Cloudius Coecus's odministrotion, wos Aquo Appio, oh underground oqueduct obout 10 miles in length.

E The orch revolutionised woter supplg.

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IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

English Self-Study Objective: IELTS Academic Reading

By using it, Romon orchitects could roise oqueducts to the height needed to spon volleys. The Aquo Morcion in Rome - oround 56 miles long with o

dropped. As the door hissed owo!, opening ond closing, he reolised the weight wos displocing oir ond octing

os o piston. This reolisotion

led

10-mile bridged section - wos built by the proetor Morcius in 144 BC, ond wos the Jirst to corrU woter obove ground. Eventuollg, Rome wos served bg eleven linked oqueducts. These kept the citg's tops ond Jountoins running providing on ostonishing 38 million

woter eoch doy. Ports gollons "J these ore still in use, "J severol "J such olthough the construction
mossive woter-supply sgstems declined with the Joll oJ the Romon Empire. For severol centuries oJterwords, springs ond wells provided the moin source oJ

"J

Ctesibius to investigote methods "J moving Jluids olong o pipe using o piston, ond to the Jounding principle hydroulics. Ctesibius's Jorce pump "J pumping high wos not copoble "Jit ploged o vitol volumes oJ woter but port in oncient Greek culture. Among other uses, Jorce pumps droined the bilges oJ the troding ships oJ the time. They were used to extinguish Jires ond they brought to liJe the Jountoins thot groced Alexondrio.
G pumping woterworks were completed in 1562. This pumped river woter to o reservoir suspende d 120Jt obove the Thomes. lt wos then distributed bg grovitg vio leod pipes to surrounding buildings. ln more recent times, mony oqueducts hove been built worldwide. Among them ore the oqueducts supplying woter to Glosgow (35 miles long), Morseilles (60 miles), Monchester (96
miles), Liverpool (68 miles) ond Vienno (144 miles). ColiJornio now hos the most extensive oqueduct system in the

ln London, the Jirst

domestic ond industriol woter.

The introduction oJ the Jorce pump in the 16'h Englond in the middle "J extended the centuru greotlu possibilities oJ development oJ wotersupply systems. This pump wos bg no meons o new invention. lt wos in Joct

Ctesibius the broinchild "J "J Alexondrio ond it dotes to the 3'o
century BC. Like oll greot engineers, Ctesibius took his inspirotion Jrom his surroundings. While working on o wog to roise ond lower a mirror in his
by

Jother's borber shop counterboloncing it with a

world. Woter drown Jrom

leod

the Colorodo River's Porker Dom is corried 242 miles over the Son Bernodino

weight, he stumbled on a method "J outomoticollg closing the shop's door

without it slomming. He ron

weighted line Jrom the door over a pulleg ond into o pipe, which slowed the speed ot which the weight

Mountoins, supplying more thon o billion gollons o dog. ln oddition, the 338-mile Los Angeles oqueduct drows woter Jrom the Owens River in the Sierro Nevodo, giving o doilg supplg oJ oround 4 billion gollons.

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IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

English Self-Study DEMIC READING Objective: IELTS Academic Reading

Questions

1-6
for each onswer.

Complete the table below.

ryffi5ru
choose N0 M0RE THAN THREE W0RDS from the passage

Wite your answers in boxes 1-6 on your onswer sheet.

Perian Wheel

o systems of dams and

(a type of water-

canals
2 ........

water . use of force supply 4 ........ pump


dealt with e water pumped

wheel.)

r
ol - ........

water for
and

o system of
aqueducts

(a lever and
bucket system)

r J ........

used for

to reservoir carried to
buildings through

and

invention of

keeping water in

5 ........ led to
aqueducts above ground

6 ........

Questions

7-10

Reading Passage

t has seven paragrophs

labelled A-G.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

write the correct letter A-G in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.

7 8 9
10

an invention that could onty suppl.y Limited amounts of water a reference to a widespread but false beLief
reasons why water-suppty systems needed

to be devetoped

the name of the person responsibte for creating the first known aqueduct

Questions 11-13
Answer the questions below using N0 M0RE THAN THREE W0RDS
Write your onswers

for each onswer.

in boxes L1-13 on your onswer sheet.

tl t2
13

What was Ctesibius trying

to

move?

What did Ctesibius succeed in causing to move? What area of science did Ctesibius help to establ.ish?

actice test

3
IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

English Self-Study

Objective: IELTS Academic Reading

HOWL OF WOLVES
EARS
U

N
A

S HOWLS OF WOVES NEARS US SUBURB


forest land, which is heavily, heavily used by recreationalists like snowmobilers, crosscountry skiers and hunters. This is the classic
case of the quiet recovery of wolves without a

+#*iiI#iiFiJfii=i.d+#**

U B U RB

iii

Phil Miller flies the single-engine plane in a tight circle at an altitude of about 300 feet, listening on his headset to beeping from a wolf 's radio

collar. The animal is somewhere below in a mix of patchy pine forest and low, sparse brush scattered over a snow-covered swamp. lt is a gray day, drizzlingand misty, and after the plane circles a line of pines several times, the wolf is still not visible. Then Mr Miller spots a pair their coats a peppery mix of gray, black and
cinnamon - standing casually under a pine tree, looking for all the world like they are trying to decide whether it's worth going out in the rain. lf they were really worried about the weather,

big fanfare, without big attention.' He added that because the wolves conducted their own repopulation, public reaction had been largely favourable. ln the 1950s, nofthern Minnesota had a remnant population of a few hundred wolves, Dr Treves said. After the Endangered Species Act was passed in1973, the protection

it afforded, along with some forest


regeneration and a change in attitudes, allowed

they might go to the vast Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota, only a two-hour drive away - or a 19O-kilometer trot, no great challenge for a wolf. These wolves are not on Arctic tundra or in the confines of Yellowstone National Park. They are in Wisconsin, not exactly the suburbs, but not the wilderness
either.

the wolves to start growing in number. There are now more than 3,000 wolves in Minnesota,
Michigan and Wisconsin.

The day after flying with Mr Miller, who tracks wolves from the air, I went with Adrian Wydeven as he drove slowly around on sandy

roads looking for wolf tracks in the same forested areas. Mr Wydeven, a mammalian ecologist, has been in charge of the wolf
programme for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources for about 10 years. The talking stopped when we saw tracks in the sand. These were wolf tracks, not the large
dog tracks we had seen earlier. 'lf you look at these tracks,' he said, 'they're more elongated

B ln their quiet way they have shown that wolves


be successful, that they do not necessarily need a highly managed reintroduction programme, as used in Yellowstone, and that they can increase their range without stirring conflict among wolf proponents and opponents. 'Once wolves

do not need pristine

wilderness

to

were thought emblematic of wilderness,' said Dr Adrian Treves, a biologist with the Wildlife Conservation Society in New York who has just published an analysis of what conditions

- a gallop. 'lf he's chasing after a deer, that would make sense,' Mr Wydeven said.
feet

than those other tracks.' He noted that the wolf was not trotting but running, so that both back feet set down at once and then both front

conflict. But the nearly 350 wolves of Wisconsin, in 80 known packs, have shown
that they can cope with people.

are most likely to bring wolves and people into

Stepping into the snow at the side of the road, he added, 'lt looks like the deer veers off a bit

'The wolves,' Dr Treves said, 'have managed to make dens and breed successfully for 25 years

here.' The tracks were fresh. 'l would say less than a day. I would say a few hours. lt could be this morning. There might be just a pair.'

on a lot of private land, on county and state

The road is just a few miles from a cattle operation that has claimed significant

Practice test

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IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

ACADEMIC READIN
English Self-Study Objective: IELTS Academic Reading

depredations from wolves each year. Those attacks on livestock are the central problem in any resurgence of predators, and it is those attacks that Dr Treves has been studying. The state compensates anyone who has suffered loss from wolves. The highest risk, Dr Treves said, was 'at the colonization front' where an expanding wolf population, especially young, inexperienced wolves, comes into contact with people who are unused to coping with wolves. His findings may lead wildlife managers away

on livestock. The more refined the understanding of how wolves and people
interact, the better the chances are for keeping

the public on the side of the wolves. The wolves are doing their part to keep their
population growing. When Mr Wydeven was inspecting the tracks in the road, we came on a spot where the road was all scuffed up with tracks. 'They're milling about here,' he said. I asked whether they might be playing. 'They might be, or they might be mating,' he replied. 'We're still in the breeding season.'
From "Howl of Wolves Nears U.S. Suburbs," byJames Gorman. Copyright @ 2004 by the New York Times Co.

from lethal control, which Dr Treves said

is

inefficient at getting the wolves that are preying

ACADEfvrIC READING

Questions

20-23
THREE W0RDS

Complete the notes below. Choose N0 Questions ltl-26 MORE THAN

from the plssage for each onswer. Wite your onswers fn boxes 20-23 on your onswer sheet. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.
Questions 14-19 may not require an organised Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs A-F.

Wolves in the US
20

one of the nationaI parks Choose the correct heading for each parograph from the list of headings below. o have reproduced i-x in boxes on tand your answer Wite the correct numbersfor some time 14-19 onused by 27 sheet. of various

.... , dS carried out in

..

kinds

Predictable behaviour i 23 Interpretingnot prevent attacks on cattle may ii evidence iii An out-of-date image of wolves iv New problems for wolves v Preventing negative views of wotves Questions 24-26 vi Wolves who may be sheltering Choose THREE letters A-F. vii Understandable reactions Wite your answers in boxes 24-26 on your onswer sheet. viii Contrasting behaviour patterns among wolves Which THREE of the following are mentjoned as new developments concerning wotves ix A largely unnoticed increase in the US? x Damage done by wolves A the ptaces they now inhabit B their abiHty to adapt to climate changes t4 Paragraph A C a change from Uving in packs to liv'ing in smaller groups D their ability to coexist15 Paragraph B with people 16 Paragraph C E the fact that they have benefited from environmental initiatives t7 Paragraph D F a change in the'ir behaviour towards other animats

List of is at a place known as 22 o greatest danger of wolves attackingHeadings

a poticy of

18 19

Paragraph Paragraph

Practice

test

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IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

inexperienced wolves, comes into contact with people who are unused to coping with wolves.

His findings may lead wildlife managers away English Self-Study from lethal control, which Dr Treves said is inefficient at getting the wolves that are preying Objective: IELTS Academic Reading
Questions

was all scuffed up with tracks. 'They're milling about here,' he said. I asked whether they might be playing. 'They might be, or they might be mating,' he replied. 'We're still in the breeding season.'
From "Howl of Wolves Nears U.S. Suburbs," byJames Gorman. Copyright @ 2004 by the New York Times Co.

20-23

Complete the notes below. Choose N0 MORE THAN THREE W0RDS

from the plssage for each onswer. Wite your onswers fn boxes 20-23 on your onswer sheet.

Wolves in the US
.
may not require an organised

20

.... , dS carried out in

one of the

nationaI parks

o have reproduced for some time on tand used by 27


kinds

..

of various

o greatest danger of wolves attacking is at a place known as 22

a poticy of

23

may not prevent attacks on cattle

Questions

24-26

Choose THREE letters A-F.

Wite your answers in boxes 24-26 on your onswer sheet.


Which THREE of the following are mentjoned as new developments concerning wotves

in the

US?

A B C D E F

the ptaces they now inhabit

their abiHty to adapt to climate changes a change from Uving in packs to liv'ing in smaller groups their ability to coexist with people the fact that they have benefited from environmental initiatives a change in the'ir behaviour towards other animats

Practice

test

93

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IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

CADEfV1IC READING
English Self-Study You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 on poges 94 and 95. Objective: IELTS Academic Reading

MISSION OUT OF CONTROL


Itt not just physicol dcngeru
psychologicot friaion is o

ostronouts have to contend with

b[

are

problem,soys Raj Persoud

On space missions, weightlessness and radiation are often seen as being the key dangers. But there is increasing evidence to show that one of the greatest hazards lies in the crew itself.The hostile sPace environments and the hardware are, of
course, crucial factors in any space mission. But
is the software of the human brain.

and anxiety, worsens. The spacefarers


unusually upset by loud noises

or

unexpected

so

signs

During long missions, space travellers have shown of increased territoriality, withdrawal and

need

for

privacy.

As a result of these sorts of


a a

psychological difficulties, one cosmonaut had

religious experience
missions

that led him to make

information. This is the period when crew members get testy with one another and with the ground crew.There have been reports describing how one crew member did not speak to another for days; there are even rumours of fist fights one over a chess game.Tensions frequently spill over to mission control, as they did in the Skylab strike. One Russian crew aboard a Salyut space station reportedly got so cross with mission control that they shut down communications for
24 hours. According

dangerous, unauthorised spacewalk. Nasa's Skylab

in 1973 and 1974 almost immediately ran into trouble. One astronaut erroneously
changed the control systems while suffering from

A House in

psychological problems. Crew members began the third mission with a schedule that was too strenuous. They

to Henry Cooper, who wrote a book, Spoce, on the loneliness of the longdistance astronaut, at least three missions have been aborted for reasons that were in part psychological. ln the 1976 Soyuz-2l mission to

fell behind in their work

and

became demoralised. On their 45th day in space,

the crew went on strike, refusing to perform scheduled tasks. Disregarding orders was an unusual and dangerous response for astronauts.
After concessions from mission control, the crew
settled down and eventually completed an 84-day
mission.

The Russians have identified three phases in adaptation to space. The first lasts up to two months and is dominated by adjustments to the
new environment. This is followed by increasing
fatigue and decreasing motivation,'asthenia'.What

the Salyut-S space station, the crew was brought home early after the cosmonauts complained fiercely of an acrid odour in the space station's environmental control system. No cause was ever found, nor did other crews smell it;conceivably, it was a hallucination. Coincidentally, the crew had not been getting along. The crew of the Soyuz T- 14 mission to Salyut-7 in 1985 was brought home after 65 days after Vladimir Vasyutin complained that he had a prostate infection. Later, the doctors believed that the problem was partly
psychological. Vasyutin had been getting behind in

his work and was under pressure, having been


passed over

once seemed exciting becomes boring

and

for a flight several times before.

repetitious. Next comes a lengthy period during which the asthenia, which can include depression

Alexander Laveikin returned early from the Soyuz TM-2 mission to the Mir space station in 1987

Practice test

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IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

A(iAFEfvtIC RE/A,DIN
English Self-Study Objective: IELTS Academic Reading
because he complained

of a cardiac irregularity. Flight surgeons could find no sign of it. The

cosmonaut had been under stress

- he had made
partner, Yuri

a couple of potentially serious errors. And he had

not been getting along with his


Romanenko.

indoors by the extreme temperatures. Antarctica has served as one of the primary means of gathering psychosocial data for space missions, according to Dr John Annexstad, a space scientist and ten-time veteran of scientific missions to
Antarctica.

The same psychological phenomena curse men and women on expeditions to remote places.

lsolation and sensory deprivation are the


common denominators, whether the mission is in

During the first few months of an Antarctic mission, interpersonal problems dont play a major part. The problem arises, says Dr Annexstad, after the initial shock and awe of the
environment wear off, and crew members get to know their surroundings a little better. Then they

the Arctic wastes or the realm of the deep, causing a series of symptoms heightened anxiety, boredom, depression, loneliness, excessive fear of danger and homesickness. The scientists and support staff who work in
Antarctica have been studied by DrJoannaWood

to rebel against authority and each other.ln one ice base, anxiety episodes increased from 3 during the first four months to l9 during the last
begin

of the National Space


behave

Biomedical Research

lnstitute in Houston, who also studies how crews

in a special test chamber.'After a few

four.ln a study of personnel who wintered over in the Antarctic, 85 per cent reported periods of significant depression,65 per cent had periods of anger or hostility,60 per cent suffered from sleep disturbance, and

months, you get tired of looking at the same faces. People frequently have behaviours that might be

cognition. During

endearing in the larger society, but when you're


living with

53 per cent had impaired the 1977 lnternational Biomedical Expedition to Antarctica, a l2-man

it

day after day it's an annoyance.'

adventure lasting 72 days, bickering became such

This continent,the lastto be explored by humans,

a problem that psychologists accompanying the


expedition had to intervene. Antarctic literature is full of stories about teammates who stopped talking to one another or even fought - one concerns a cook with a meat cleaver facing off against an engineer brandishing a fire axe.

is the coldest, windiest and driest land mass.


Because of the extreme environment, researchers

must'winter over' for six months out of the year. During this period, there is little contact with the outside world and groups tend to be confined

Practice

test

8
IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1

English Self-Study DEfvlIC READING Objective: IELTS Academic Reading


Questions

27-29
from Reading Passage 3.

Complete the sentences below with words taken Use N0 M0RE THAN THREE W0RDS

for each onswer.

Wite your answers in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet.

27 28 29

Space travetlers on long mjssions demonstrate the des'ire

Astronauts can get into a state ..... after two months in space. psychotogical problems on both space missions and expeditions The causes of to remote places are ... together with

called

to have some

..

Questions

30-35 30-35) ond the list of space missions it refers to.


below.

Look at the statements (Questions Write the correct letter

Match each statement with the space mission

A-D in

boxes 30-35 on your onswer sheet.

NB You moy use any letter more than once.

30 31 32 33 34 35

Two of the astronauts had a bad relationship with each other.

to carry out their duties. One of the astronauts did not complete the mission. One of the astronauts had faited to be selected for previous miss'ions. One of the astronauts made a mistake with the equipment. The astronauts percejved something that may not have existed.
The astronauts decided not

List of Space Missions

A Skyl.ab B Soyuz-21 C Soyuz T-14


Questions

D Soyuz TM-2

36-40

Complete the summary below using words from the box.


Write your answers in boxes 36-40 on your onswer sheet.

Antarctic missions
According to Dr fohn Annexstad, relationships are not an important factor during the first part of a mission because crew members lack 36 ..... with their environment and have a feeling of 37 After this, there is less 38 .. ... from crew members and the number of events caused by 39 .. ... increases enormously as the mission continues. According to some stories, relationships can even result in 4O ..... involving crew members.
expectation
sympathy
boredom

cooperation

improvement error vio[ence confidence envy

discussion
careLessness

fami[iarity
disappointment
misunderstanding

determination
amazement

involvement tension

failure

competition

Practice test

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IELTS Reading Self-Marking Practice Exam 1