Recruitment & Selection and the Management of Change

Chapter 4 of Thornhill et al Management of Change MBA 642 Robin Snell

Chapter Coverage
A. Case Study of ‘Protection Royale’ B. Defining recruitment & selection. C. The ‘traditional’ model of recruitment & selection. D. A ‘strategic’ model of recruitment & selection and the challenges it faces. E. Where strategic R&S fits with higher-level strategies F. Strategic R&S when higher levels of strategy have already been decided (planned change) G. Strategic R&S when higher levels of strategy are still undecided (uncertain, unpredictable futures)

psychometric testing references • But the job became harder as products diversified and become more complex 3 . • Recruitment was by replacement: – – – – – – advertise in the trade press use specialist recruitment agencies recommendations from existing staff shortlist from applications interviews. The case of Protection Royale • The focus is on the Financial Consultancy Division of this insurance company • There had been very low turnover among the sales consultants whose job had been to market the company’s insurance products to insurance brokers.A1. roles plays.

. the company lost its position in the marketplace • There was a big shake-up • The company recognised the need to have a more focused product range and highperforming staff who could persuade brokers that these were worth selling on to clients. 4 . Protection Royale.• Customers lost confidence.. • A new person specification emerged: – excellent product knowledge – influential and persuasive – negotiation skill A2.

• A crisis became apparent 5 . • Furthermore. ‘unsuitable’ or ‘possible’. but failed.A3. legislation introduced in 1994 required financial sales practitioners to hold various qualifications • Therefore there was a big reduction in eligible people within the external labour market... Protection Royale . • Existing staff were deemed either ‘suitable’. many left • Line managers tried to head-hunt replacements.

• A matrix of selection methods (e. Application form. psychometric testing. Protection Royale .A4... testing of job knowledge/ skills/attitudes. 6 . simulations. references) and competencies. presentations.g. interviews. • ‘Recruitment champions’ were appointed • Line managers and HR specialists were given performance indicators relating to recruitment objectives • A new search for direct recruits and for trainees.

followed by screening interviews • Assessment centre based selection • Appointment of an induction manager • Thorough procedural knowledge training for all those involved in the recruitment and selection process. • National advertising • 7 day ‘phone-in’ interviews. Protection Royale. 7 ...A5.

B1. Defining Recruitment & Selection Recruitment • Defining the vacancy (the job or role to be filled) • Identifying relevant personal attributes correlated with effectiveness (person specification) • Searching for and attracting relevant applicants Selection • Assessing candidates • Narrowing down the field • Making the final decision 8 .

reinforced by socialisation B2. and commitment. except at the lowest level.• Internal recruitment: meets manpower requirements from the existing stock of employees. – Internal recruitment may be vehicle for establishing ‘cultural fit’. External Recruitment • External recruitment: meets manpower requirements by recruiting from outside – May be used as a symbol that ‘times are changing’ 9 . morale. Internal vs.

Traditional Recruitment & Selection Model (p. peers. 96) • Vacancy • Job description • Personnel specification • Publicise vacancy • Shortlist • Interview • Select • Offer accepted? • References • Appoint • Engage and induct • • • • Fits people to existing jobs Not a vehicle for change Reflects the status quo Over-emphasis on the interview as a selection tool • Neglects the interests of customers.C. providers • Needs adapting! 10 .

Strategic Recruitment & Selection (see p. 115) • Linked to corporate strategy • Integrated with other HR strategies • Front-loaded investment • Strategic job analysis • Incorporate core values R&S • Continuous improvement • Represent all stakeholder interests • Reliable. valid selection methods • Job previews 11 .D1.

Challenges to Strategic Recruitment & Selection • Expensive • Short-term orientation/pressures • Often the lack of clear or coherent corporate strategy • Difficulty validating selection decisions The authors urge companies to embrace strategic recruitment & selection nonetheless 12 .D2.

Training & Devel.g.g. focus on innovation. Structural (e. e. Functional (HR) Other functions Culture Recruitment. cost reduction. Rewards Downsizing 13 .Operating procedures Downstream (top down) integration 3. delayering. Levels of Strategy 1. Corporate Long term. & Selection. etc) 2.Upstream (bottom-up) integration E. Performance Mgt. big decisions. decentralisation) .

Human Resource Planning seeks to provide human resources for envisaged FUTURE jobs • Recruits will be selected on those attributes that are judged necessary for successful future performance 14 . Recruitment & Selection and PLANNED/PREDICTABLE Change • When the strategists believe that the future is predictable.F1.

F2. 15 . Recruitment & Selection and PLANNED/PREDICTABLE Change We now consider strategic R&S under 3 conditions: F3a/b When corporate strategy has been decided F4 When desired organisation structure is known F5 When management has decided what assumptions it will make about employee motivational attitude and trustworthiness.

for an INNOVATION corp. the patterns would be different 16 .g. strategies.• Here the objective of recruitment & section would be to recruit people who will enhance the org. • E. strategy. Recruitment & Selection flowing down from Corporate Strategy • For a QUALITY ENHANCEMENT or COST REDUCTION corp. the company would seek to recruit people with: – – – – – – – highly innovative behaviour preference/ability for co-operative behaviour relatively high risk taking tolerant of uncertainty moderate concern for quality of output balanced orientation toward process and results longer-term focus F3a.’s capacity to deliver its corporate strategy.

Employee Behaviour Continua Relevant to Corporate Strategy • Innovation (lo to hi) • Job/org involvement • Self-autonomy (lo to hi.F3b.) narrow) • Risk taking • Time focus (long/short term) • Adaptability to change • Comfort with certainty • Concern for quality • Concern for quantity • Concern for outcomes Responsibility preference (avoids vs. seeks) 17 . • Skill base (broadetc.

F4. Recruitment & Selection Flowing down from Organisation Structure • Mgt competencies required in Behaviours Organic organisations required in • info search managers in • concept formation Organic • conceptual flexibility Organisations: • interpersonal search networking • managing interaction team building • developmental orientation • self confidence information retrieval • proactivity innovative problem • achievement orientation (These may be needed by nonsolving managers too) • • • • 18 .

Recruitment & Selection Flowing .down from a desire to recruit Theory Y employees The target candidates would be • committed to the job • accepting of change • flexible Their precise qualities would depend on the context and circumstances that are envisaged 19 F5.

G1. Recruitment & Selection and uncertain/UNPREDICTABLE Change • When the higher level strategies are undetermined and uncertain. Strategic R&S seeks to provide new people who can help to shape future strategies and help the organisation to be more FLEXIBLE 20 .

Recruitment & Selection and Uncertain/UNPREDICTABLE Change We now consider strategic R&S under 3 conditions: G3 When corporate strategy has NOT been decided G4 When desired organisation structure is NOT known but will be built around teams G5abcd When management has decided that it wants employees who will lead change and contribute to strategy development. whatever their level in the company 21 .G2.

G3. Recruitment & Selection driving Corporate Strategy • There is a business case for building more DIVERSITY into organisations – enhances creative capability – greater flexibility in global markets – more widely equipped to face unpredictable challenges 22 .

G4. Recruitment & Selection driving Org. Structure e.g. • Therefore look for people: • • • • • • • • who are dependable have interpersonal skills are self-motivated have integrity have leadership potential are assertive tolerate ambiguity are able to cope with stress • Make recruitment a two-way process • Involve existing team members in the final selection 23 . Recruiting people in order to help reconfigure the organisation as delayered and TEAM-BASED rather than tall. that is sensitive to environmental change and constantly changes and adapts through continuous learning – attributes that are required to enable change to happen. i. Recruitment & Selection and Unplanned/Unpredictable Change (Future Imperfect) • When the strategists believe that the future is UNPREDICTABLE.G5a. numerous changes are likely to systems of recruitment and development • Transformational criteria: – ability to work in the ‘learning organisation’ . change agent competencies – leadership traits 24 . Human Resource Planning seeks to provide human resources for jobs that cannot be prescribed • Continuous modifications are expected as the future unfolds.

G5b. Necessary Characteristics for Workers in a ‘Learning Organisation’ Desired traits • Experiments • admits mistakes • open • encourages ideas • makes joint decisions Undesired traits • Cautions • rationalises mistakes • defensive • discourage ideas • dominates 25 .

G5c. 26 . Necessary Qualities of Change Champions & Change Agents • • • • • • Take calculated risks Good product knowledge & technical skills Good motivation & work attitudes Achievement-oriented Good people skills and communication skills. Probably require political skills and sensitivities to survive organisational politics games.

Qualities of Transformational Leaders – Provides vision – Generates respect. trust & pride • Inspiration – Conveys high expectations • Intellectual stimulation – Promotes rational approaches to problem solving • Individualised consideration – Individual needs are addressed through personalised approaches 27 .• Charisma G5d.

Defining recruitment & selection. unpredictable futures) 28 . Case Study of ‘Protection Royale’ B.We Covered (recap) A. A ‘strategic’ model of recruitment & selection and the challenges it faces. Strategic R&S when higher levels of strategy have already been decided (planned change) G. Where strategic R&S fits with higher-level strategies F. D. E. Strategic R&S when higher levels of strategy are still undecided (uncertain. C. The ‘traditional’ model of recruitment & selection.

Cost reduction 2. How might recruitment and selection contribute to culture change programmes? 29 .QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Using the behaviour continua on slide 17. Quality enhancement b. please indicate the employee behaviours that are most appropriate to corporate strategies based on a.

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