# PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

List and explain the methods or strategies that a teacher will use to enhance his/her teaching.

Method of teaching is an organization and application of teaching technique, teaching materials, teaching aids and supplementary materials by the teacher, with the aim of achieving the teaching and learning objectives. Teaching methods or strategies generally include teacher-centered, pupil- centered and material-centered strategies.

A number of teaching methods have been designed which can be used as teaching methods for mathematics. Some of them are listed below: 1. QUESTIONING METHOD Questioning method is often used in almost all stages of teaching in mathematics and so far the most useful and effective method to test knowledge learned as well as to generate new knowledge or learning. The aims and uses of the questioning method for learning mathematics are explained below: • It motivates pupils to recall the concept learned through the set induction so that it can be related to the new concept in the following lesson.

It also can be used to guide pupils to use their thinking ability to forward some related questions to solve certain mathematical problems.

• It sharpens the pupils’ mind by forwarding appropriate questions for their mental training. • It is used to guide pupils in inquiry-discovery activities so that they will eventually be able to make accurate summary or conclusion.

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PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

The following table shows some mathematics questions that follow the Bloom’s Taxonomy:Level 1. knowledge (facts) 2. Understanding 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation Examples of mathematics questions (i) What is the formula for the area of a triangle? (ii) What is the product of 3 x 5? (i) Use the number line to find the sum of 3 + 15 (i) A field with length 551m and breadth 310m is to be fenced by using wires. What is the total length of the wires used? (i) List out all the common characteristics between a cuboid and a cube (i) If 4 x 6 = 24 6 x 4 = 24 complete a x b = (i) show that (a + b) +c = a + (b + c)

2. PRACTICAL WORK (ACTIVITY) METHOD Practical work can be defined as a type of activity. Using practical work as a method of teaching is a method used to train pupils to use teaching aids for them to learn mathematics concepts or facts. Practical work method is a popular method which has been widely used in schools. The followings are some examples of mathematics activities which can be carried out in the classroom:

Guide pupils to cut or fold papers or manila cards into few equal parts to learn the concept of fraction. Make geometrical models such as a cuboid, cube, cylinder and others to master the characteristics of solid geometry. Play “make the price” – provide pupils with a choice of small items that have been labeled with a price. Provide them with a bag of real coins and a recording sheet that has been divided into 4 sections. Pupils choose an item and label price on recording sheet. Pupils create at least 3 different
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PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

coins combinations that equal the price, recording by drawing combinations. • Use measuring instruments such as ruler, weighing scale and measuring cylinder to master the skill and concept of length, weight and volume of liquid. By using this method, it would give confidence to the pupils in the learning of mathematics. It is easier for the pupils to understand as well as to remember the mathematical concepts and skills through their own practical experience. In addition, playing mathematical game by using relevant learning aids, pupils will enjoy pleasant experience during learning mathematics.

3. INDUCTION METHOD The induction method is generally used to derive certain mathematics principle, theorem, formula based on the study of specific mathematics examples. This method required pupils to study mathematics examples, then to make comparison and analysis until a generalization is derived. For example, in order to derive the commutative law in the operation of multiplication, pupils are given several pairs of example; follow by common characteristics to obtain a general idea.

The following figure illustrates the teaching and learning process, using the induction method to obtain the commutative law a x b = b x a
3 x 5 =15 5 x 3 = 15

3x5=5x3 6x7=7x6

axb=bxa

6 x 7 = 42 7 x 6 = 42

4. INQUIRY-DISCOVERY MODEL
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As in the inquiry and discovery method, it covers activities such as planning, investigating, analyzing and discovering. Learning by means of this method needs skills such as making comparison and looking for similar characteristics to formulate a certain generalization. Figure below summarizes the learning process by using the inquiry discovery method:
Identify the research topic Plan the strategy for solving problem Collect related information Study and analyze the information Derive generalization or conclusion

For example, pupils can discover the formula of area of a rectangle by using this method. Pupils are given a few rectangles of different sizes and arranged by drawing a number of squares with measurement 1cm x 1cm in each of them.

2cm 3cm A 5cm C

3cm 4cm B

3cm

Then pupils are guided to count the number of squares in each rectangle to obtain its area. Pupils are then guided to use the information obtained from the above activity to complete the following table. Rectangle A B C Area of rectangle by counting the squares 6cm2 12cm2 15 cm2 Length (l) 3 4 5 Breadth (b) 2 3 3 Lxb 6 12 15

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PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

Pupils are required to check and analyze the information recorded in the table. Through discussion and comparison between the area of rectangle derived from counting the number of squares and from the product of length and breadth, pupils will finally discover the formula of rectangle as follow: Area of rectangle = length x breadth

5. COOPERATIVE LEARNING The term cooperative learning is actually the combined effort of a group of pupils, who usually learn together to achieve certain learning objective in class. During the process of cooperative learning, pupils will gather together to interact and help one another in their learning activities. In other words, cooperative learning is actually a teaching strategy and method whereby a teacher supervises and guides pupils in a group which consists of pupils with mixed abilities, to work together and help one another to work out a certain assigned mathematics course work or project. For example, pupils are asked to collect data based on pupils’ interests (favourite books, foods, drinks etc) then they have to construct appropriate

graphs and compose a paragraph explaining the results of the data collection and display it in the classroom.

6. PEER TUTORING Teachers can simultaneously engage all pupils in learning and practicing basic maths or problem skills using peer tutoring. Peer tutoring is an instructional
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strategy that consists of pairing pupils together to learn or practice an academic task. The pairs of pupils can be of the same or differing ability or/and age range. Peer interaction can have a powerful influence on academic motivation and achievement. Examples of mathematics content suited for peer tutoring include addition, subtraction, multiplication, number concepts, measurement and fraction.

For example: Apples Picked at the Orchard: How many apples did Natalie pick? Natalie Raj Tamara Josh Each stands for four apples.

Tutor: The purpose of this lesson is to read, to identify parts of a chart and to interpret information from a chart in order to solve a problem or answer a question. (Tutor states the learning objective.) Tutor: Look at the chart and tell me what you see. Tutee: Apples and names of people. Tutor: Good! What is the title of this chart? Tutee: Apples Picked at the Orchard Tutor: Do you know what orchard means? (Explain words that are unfamiliar to students to make the exercise more meaningful.) What does the picture of the apple below the chart show? Tutee: The picture of the apple stands for 4 real apples. Tutor: What do 2 apples and 3 apples show you?

Tutee: 2 apples mean Tamara has 8 apples and 3 apples means that Raj has 12 apples. Tutor: How do you know that? Can you show me with a picture or tallies?
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PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3 Tutee: For one apple, I have 1 1 1 1. That is 4. For 2 apples, I have 11111111. That is 8. Tutor: What does the mean?

Tutee: I think it means that she ate the apples. Tutor: What does the question on the right ask you? Tutee: It wants to know the number of apples Natalie picked. Not the number of apples she ate. Tutor: So what is your answer? Tutee: 4 apples since one apple stands for 4 apples.

7. USING INTERNET

Internet is the abbreviation of internetwork in English. It functions as a connecting net, which is a kind of communication system enabling computer users to communicate globally with others. Therefore, mathematics teachers should attempt to master the skills of using internet so as to obtain current information on mathematics development and the latest pedagogy in teaching. Besides, teachers can utilize the computer skill to guide pupils to use internet to search and receive education information and interactive learning.

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