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INTEGRAL CALCULUS DIFFERENTIATION UNDER THE INTEGRAL SIGN: Consider an integral involving one parameter and denote it as

where a and b may be constants or functions of . To find the derivative of when it exists it is not possible to first evaluate this integral and then to find the derivative, such problems are solved by using the following rules. (A) Let Leibnitzs Rule for Constant limits of Integration: be continuous functions of x and , where a, b are constants and independent of parameter (B) Leibnitzs Rule for Variable Limits of Integration: then

If in the integral satisfies the same conditions, and are functions of the parameter , then

*********************************************************** ** Example 1: Evaluate and hence show that

by using differentiation under integral sign. Solution: Let Differentiate w.r.t by Leibnitzs Rule under integral sign.

then

***************************************************** Example 2: using differentiation under the integral sign, evaluate , Solution: Let

I tegrat g both de w r t og From whe From whe I og The o ut o Examp e 3: Evaluate under integral sign. Solution: Let I =

***************************************************** using the method of differentiation

D ffere t ate w r t a by Le b tz ru e u der

tegra

Let

So v g

by part a fract o

I tegrat g w r t The C

by putt g

og

Examp e 4: Eva uate

***************************************************** tegra g

formu ae: Reduct o formu ae:


A d to eva uate II III
(a )

**************************************************************** I II III
S co d d co

d ffere t at o u der

g the method of

co

co

d With =x

sin

x dx = sin n 1 x. sin x dx

= sin n 1 x.( cos x) ( n 1) sin n 2 x. cos x( cos x) dx = sin n 1 x. cos x + ( n 1) sin n 2 x.(1 sin 2 x)dx = sin n1 x. cos x + ( n 1) sin n 2 xdx ( n 1) sin n x dx n sin n x dx = sin n 1 x. cos x + (n 1) sin n 2 x dx

Or

n sin x dx =

sin n 1 x. cos x n 1 n2 + sin x dx ........... (1) n n

Similarly,

(b)

n cos x dx =

sin x. cos n1 x n 1 + cos n 2 x dx ........... ( 2) n n

Thus (1) and (2) are the required reduction formulae

TO Evaluate

Then

etc

i) ii)

= ( put x = a sin, so that dx = a cos d Also when x = 0, = 0, when x = a, = /2) = = =

iii)

Evaluate

( put x = a tan , so that dx = a sec2 d Also when x = 0, = 0, when x = , =

/2)

= = =
iv) Evaluate x co x dx = = = =

co x

d x co x

.
dx

dx

x co x dx x co x

dx

dx

co 4x dx

dx

dx

v)

Evaluate

co

= = = =

co

x co x d x

co 3 d

3 co 3

(Put 3 = x ; so that 3d = dx. Also

when When

= 0, x = 0 = /6, x = /2

vi)

Evaluate = = =

= (put x = sint so that dx = cost dt, when x = 0, t = 0 when x = 1, t = /2 )

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For the eva uat o of Mathemat ca qua t t e uch a Area Le gth Vo ume a d Surface area we eed the rough graph of the equat o e ther Carte a or parametr c or po ar form depe d g o the tateme t of the prob em We u e the fo ow g theoret ca tep to draw the rough graph

Trac g of Curve :

A) Cartesian Curves: y = f (x) a) Symmetry: i) If the power of y in the equation is even, the curve is symmetric about x- axis ii) If the power of x in the equation is even, the curve is symmetric about y- axis If both the powers x and y are even then the curve is symmetric iii) about both the axis. iv) If the interchange of x and y leaves the equation unaltered then the curve is symmetric about the line y = x v) Replacing x by x and y by y leaves the equation unchanged the curve has a symmetry in opposite quadrants. b) Curve through the origin: The curve passes through the origin, if the equation does not contain constant term. c) Find the origin, is on the curve. If it is, find the tangents at 0, by equating the lowest degree terms to zero. i) Find the points of intersections with the coordinate axes and the tangents at these points. For, put x = 0 find y; and put y = 0, find x. At these points, find , then the tangent is parallel to y axis. If , then the tangent is parallel to x axis.

d) Asymptotes: express the equation of the curve in the form y = f (x). Equate the denominator to zero. If the denominator contains x, then there is an asymptote.

e) Find the region in which the curve lies. f) Find the interval in which the curve is increasing or decreasing.

B) Parametric Form: x=f(t), y=g(t) In this case we try to convert the parametric form into Cartesian form by eliminating the parameter (if possible). Otherwise we observe the following I) Find dy/dt and dx/dt and hence dy/dx. Assign a few values for t and find the corresponding value for x, y ,y. II) III) Mark the corresponding points, observing the slope at these points.

C) Polar curves: r = f( ) a) Symmetry: 1. If the substitution of - for in the equation , leaves the equation unaltered, the curve symmetrical about the initial line. 2. If the power of r are even, the curve is symmetrical about the pole. b) Form the table, the value of r, for both positive and negative values of and hence note how r varies with . Find in particular the value of which gives r = 0 and r = . c) Find tan . This will indicate the direction of the tangent.

d) Sometimes by the nature of the equation it is possible to ascertain the value of r and that are contained between certain limits. e) Transform into Cartesian, if necessary and adopt the method given before. f) Sketch the figure. PROBLEMS FOR TRACING THE CURVES 1. Astroid : It is symmetrical about the x-axis Limits and The curve lies entirely within the square bounded by the lines )

Points: we have

when t = 0 or whe t As t increases From 0 to x +ve and decreases from a to 0 -ve ve and increases numerically from 0 to -a Y +ve and increases from From 0 to 0 to a + ve and decreases From to 0 from a to 0 Portion traced A to B

From

to

B to C

As t increases from to 2, we get the reflection of the curve ABC in the x - axis. , , The values of t > 2 give no new points. Hence the shape of the curve is as shown in the fig.

-X

-Y

Here ox = oy = a

It is symmetrical about the y axis. As such we may consider the curve only for positive values of x or . Limits: The greatest value of y is 2a and the least value is zero. Therefore the curve lies entirely between the lines y = 0 and y = 2a. Points: We have

As increases From 0 to From to 2

x increases from 0 to a increases from a to 2a

Y increases from From to 0 0 to 2 decreases From 0 to from 2a to 0

Portion traced 0 to A A to B

As decreases from 0 to - 2, we get the reflection of the arch OAB in the y , yaxis. Hence the shape of the curve is as in the fig.

X 2. Cardioid: r Fig.,
Initial Line

A cardioids is symmetrical about the initial line and lies entirely within the circle r = 2a. Its name has been derived from the Latin word Kardia- meaning heart. Kardia Because it is a heart shaped curve. ********************************************************************* ***

APPLICATIONS OF CURVE TRACING


I) II) III) IV) Length Area Volume Surface area

Table to find the values:


Quantity Coordinate system

Area, Length ,VolumeThe surface area Length (S) By revolving about the axis of rotation to form solid Volume (V) Surface area (SA)

Area (A)

Cartesian form y = f (x) Where Parametric form x= x(t) y= y(t)

Where

Polar form r=f( ) Where

F d the e t re e gth of the card o d , Also show that the upper The cardioid is symmetrical about the initial line and for its half is bisected by upper half, A o crea e from -a to

Le gth of the curve

= =

= 4a

= 4a

= 8a (sin /2 - sin 0) = 8a

Length of upper half of the curve of the cruve is 4a. Also length of the arch AP from 0 to /3 = =4 = co

= 2a ( half the length of upper half of the cardioids ) Fig.

=4

1.

Find the entire length of the curve

Solution: The equation to the curve is it meets the x axis at x = a Fig. If S1 = the length of the curve AB Then required length is 4S1 S = 4S1 = Now, = = ), the curve is symmetrical about the axis and

S=4 = 4

= = s Fig. =

4 4 6a units

2.

Find the perimeter of cardioid r = a (1+cos).

Solution: The equation to the curve is symmetrical about the initial line. Fig.

The required length of the curve is twice the length of the curve OPA At O, = and at A = 0 Now, r = a(1+cos) s= s= s= s= a co

aco

= 8a units

3.

Find the area of the

= = is given by :

Solution: The parametric equation to the curve x Area = 4

Put

dx = -3a cos2 sin d = = = = 4

when x = 0, = /2 ; when x = a, = 0 -3a cos2 sin d cos2 d

12 12 Sq u t

4. Find the area of the cardioid r = a (1+cos). Solution: The curve is symmetrical about the initial line. Total area = 2 area above the line = 0 A A A A Put /2 = t = = =4 = = = = a is the formula for area in polar curves co

Sq u t

5. Find the area bounded by an arch of the cycloid x and its base. Solution: x for this arch t varies from 0 to 2.

= = =4 =8 = 16 =3 =

since dx =

6. Find the volume generated by revolving the cardiod r = a (1+cos) about the initial line. Solution: For the curve, varies from 0 to

____________________________________________________________________ Find the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the Astroid x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3

Solution: the equation of the asteroid is x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 Volume is obtained by revolving the curve from x = 0 to x = a about x-axis and taking two times the result.

_____________________________________________________________________ ___ Problems for practice: 1. Find the surface area of r = a (1 - cos) 2. Find the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the cissoid about its asymptote. 3. Find the length between [0, ] of the curve co .

____________________________________________________________________

Find the surface area of solid generated by revolving the astroid about the axis.

Solution: The required surface area is equal to twice the surface area generated by revolving the part of the astroid in the first quadrant about the axis. Taking x Surface area = =4 4 a t 3aco t we have,

= 4

t co t dt

Put z = sint

3aco t

dt

7. Find the surface area of the solid generated when the cardioid r = a (1+cos) revolves about the initial line.

Solution: The equation to the curve is r = a (1+cos). For the upper part of the curve, varies from 0 to Put x = r cos, y = rsin Surface area = = = = = 16 a
2

co

UNIT IV:

Scalar and Vector point functions:

VECTOR CALCULUS

(I)

If to each point p(R) of a region E in space there corresponds a definite

scalar denoted by f(R), then f (R) is called a scalar point function in E. The region E so defined is called a scalar field. Ex: a) The temperature at any instant b)The density of a body and potential due to gravitational matter. (II) If to each point p(R) of a region E in space there corresponds a definite vector denoted by F(R), then it is called the vector point function in E. the region E so defined is called a vector field. Ex: a) The velocity of a moving fluid at any instant b) The gravitational intensity of force. Note: Differentiation of vector point functions follows the same rules as those of ordinary calculus. If F (x,y,z) be a vector point function then

( 1) Vector operator del ( ) The operator is of the form

GRADIENT, DIVERGENCE, CURL (G D C) Gradient of the scalar point function: It is the vector point function f defined as the gradient of the scalar point function f and is written as grad f, then grad f = f =

DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR POINT FUNCTION The divergence of a continuously differentiable vector point function F(div F)is defined by the equation

CURL OF A VECTOR POINT FUNCTION

The curl of a continuously differentiable vector point function F is defined by the equation cur F

cur F

cur F

DEL APPLIED TWICE TO POINT FUNCTIONS Le being vector point functions, we can form their divergence and curl, whereas being a scalar point function, we can have its gradient only. Then we have Five formulas: d v grad f 3

PROOF: (I) To prove that

cur grad f

(II) To prove that

f f

(III) To prove that

(IV) To prove that

(V) To prove that We have by (IV) which implies

Ex: A particle moves along the curve components of velocity and acceleration at t=2 in the direction of Solution:

find the

Orthogonal curvilinear co-ordinates

Let the rectangular co-ordinates (x,y,z) of Any point be expressed as co ordinates function of (u,v,w), So that x = x(u,v,w),y = y(u,v,w),z = z(u,v,w) ..(1) Suppose that (1) can be solved for u,v,w in terms of x,y,z i,e u = (x,y,z), v = v(x,y,z),w = w(x,y,z) .(2) We assume that the functions in (1) and (2) are single valued functions and have continuous partial derivatives so that the correspondence between (x,y,z) and (u,v,w) is unique. Then (u,v,w) are called curvilinear co-ordinates curvilinear co of (x,y,z). Each of u,v,w has a level of surface through an arbitrary point . t bitrary The surface surface through are called co co-ordinate

Each pair of these co-ordinate surface intersects In curves called the co co ordinate coordinate curves. The curve of intersection of will be called the w w-curve, for

only w changes along this curve. Similarly we define u and v-curves. v curves. In vector notation, (1) can be written as R = x(u,v,w)I + y(u,v,w)J + z(u,v,w)K

The co-ordinate curves for are rays perpendicular to the Z-axis; for axis; horizontal circles with centers on the Z-axis; for z lines parallels to the Z-axis. Z axis; Z x = cos ,

y = sin , z=z

So that scale factors are

h1=1, h2 = , h3= 1. Also the volume element dV= d d dz.

2) Spherical polar co-ordinates: Let p(x,y,z) be any point whose projection on the xy-plane is Q(x,y) . plane Then the Spherical polar co-ordinates of p are . The level surfaces are respectively spheres such that r = op,

axis Z about O, cones about the Z-axis with vertex at O and planes through the Z-axis. The co-ordinate curves for r are rays from the origin; for , vertical circles with ordinate , centre at O (called meridians); for , horizontal circles with centres on the Z , Zaxis. x = OQ cos = OP cos(90-)cos )cos = r sin cos, y = OQ sin = r sin sin z = r cos

So that the scale factors are Also the volume element