Table of Contents

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General Woodwind Information:
Body Alignment Breathing Diaphragm Intercostals Muscles Additional anatomy Sticky pads Causes Pad paper 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Flute Information:
Parts of the Flute Assembly Proper alignment Care Tuning stick/head cork Hand position Left Hand Right Hand Balance Points Embouchure and Tone Production Troubleshooting including parallel relationships Use of air Articulation Single tongue Double tongue Tripple tongue Range of the flute and piccolo How is piccolo different from flute? Fingerings Correct fingerings Common errors Use of Thumb Bb Piccolo 11 French vs Plateau Keys Plated vs Solid Silver Metal vs wood piccolos Intonation tendencies Range Dynamic leve Exterior Temperature 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 1

Instructions to a beginning flutist in detail Curved head joints Advantages Disadvantages Vibrato Teaching Brands High School Professional Method Books Beginner Intermediate Advanced Solos Beginner Intermediate Advanced Ensemble Beginner Intermediate Advanced Handouts Flute Topics Study guide Orchestration Handout Flute Glossary Flute Fingering Chart Trill Chart Flute Playing Requirements Interval Exercise Gariboli Etude Flute Production Quiz Flute Quiz Flute Final

11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13

Clarinet Information:
Assembly and parts Register key Bridge key Care and Cleaning Tone Production Starting a beginner Common problems and solutions Embouchure Reeds 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16

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Tuning Intonation tendencies Articulation Double tonguing Fingerings Registers of the clarinet Clarinet Family Members Vibrato and its use Methods Beginner Intermediate Advanced 17 Solos Beginner Intermediate Advanced Ensemble Beginner Intermediate Advanced Handouts A New Register Orchestration Handout (Two pages) Clarinet Equipment Information Tone Handout Embouchure (Two pages) Clarinet Fingering Chart Clarinet Checklist Common Clarinet Accessories Clarinet Tone Production Quiz Clarinet Playing Final Clarinet Final

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17

Saxamaphone Information:
Saxophone Family Members Inventor Boehm System Care and maintenance Assembly Neck straps Hand position Basic 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20

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Embouchure Basic Tone Production Starting a Beginner Common problems and solutions Tonguing Vibrato Teaching Intonation Dynamics Range Temperature Octave key Thumb position When to use Range of the saxophone Name of range above high F Palm keys Side keys Fingering Bb fingerings Reeds Jazz mouthpieces and reeds Saxophone selection Doubling Methods Solo Ensemble Handouts 22

20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23

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General Woodwind Information:
Body Alignment • have the students stand up and center their weight over the feet. They should be able to push up on their toes without rocking forward or back at all. • then have the students sit as if they are still standing from the waist up. Breathing Inhalation s controlled by the diaphragm, a membrane like muscle that separates your thorasic cavity from your abdominal cavity. The diaphragm is dome shape and flattens upon inhalation. When your lungs fill with air your abdominal muscles push forward to make room, this is what you see when your stomach sticks out when you inhale. Your rib cage is moved by the intercostals muscles, which are attached to your ribs, for the same reason your abdominals move, to make more room. When exhaling, the majority of your air will come from the abdominal region when that runs out you should most likely take another breath, while leaving the rib area for support if possible. • Diaphragm- diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity (with lung and heart) from the abdominal cavity (with liver, stomach, intestines, etc.). In its relaxed state, the diaphragm is shaped like a dome. It is controlled by the phrenic nerve.1 Intercostals Muscles- Intercostals muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs and help form and move the chest wall. Additional anatomy2

Sticky pads Causes • mineral build up on the pads Pad paper • sticky pads can be fixed by replacing the pads • sticky pads can be fixed by using dollar bill to gently rub the pads • sticky pads can be fixed by using cigarette paper to gently rub the pads o make sure you don’t get the cigarette paper with the gummed edges • sticky pads can be fixed by using pad paper to gently rub the pads

1 2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoracic_diaphragm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercostal_muscles

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Flute Information:
Parts of the Flute Embouchure hole (Blow hole) Embouchure plate Head Joint Middle Joint Tone Holes Foot Joint Support and its correct usage: Support is the equal opposing forces. it is not possible to under or over support the air stream while playing the flute because there is no apposing force, but it is possible to over or under blow. Assembly: 1. Open your case right side up. 2. Put the head joint into the middle joint with a gentle twisting motion. Twist both the head joint and the middle joint in the same direction. a. Never place your hand on and twist the embouchure plate b. Never place your hand on and twist the keys on the body. 3. Line up the embouchure hole with the center of the tone holes. 4. Hold the assemble head and middle joints and gently twist on the foot joint. Twist both the head joint and the middle joint in the same direction. a. Never place your hand on and twist the keys on the body. b. It is best to hold the foot joint near the end where there are no keys. c. You can hold the foot joint on the naturally closed keys, but be careful not to apply too much pressure and cause damage. 5. Line up the foot joint so the rod is centered with the tone holes a. This placement can be altered slightly depending on the student’s hands. Care: • Always swab instrument after playing • Key savers are acceptable, but should be stored outside the flute • Keeping moist key saver in the flute doesn’t help • Sticky pads can be cleaned with pad paper • Sticky pads can be cleaned with a dollar bill • Sticky pads can be cleaned with alcohol, but is only recommended in emergencies, and never prolonged usage. Prolonged usage can cause the pads to dry out. • Sticky pads can be cleaned with cigarette paper, but make sure you get the kind without the gummed edges. Gummed edges can cause the pads to stick more. • Never make adjustments to the mechanism, professionals should be used for such adjustments. • A non-treated cotton or silk men’s handkerchief can be used in place of the store bought swabs. 6

Tuning stick/head cork • Tuning stick should be included with all instruments when purchases or rented. • Most student models will come with a plastic tuning rod. • A wood tuning rod is recommended for the intermediate to professional instruments. • The purpose of the tuning rod is to gauge proper placement of the head cork. • If the head cork is in the proper location then the line on the tuning rod should be in the center of the blow hole. Hand position 1. Hand position needs to be solid to make sure the player is not pressing down the wrong keys 2. Good hand position will promote speed and dexterity as the player progresses. 3. The player should bring the flute to them; they should not move their head or upper body to meet the flute. o Moving the body or the head can cause tension o Moving the body or the head can cause long term muscle strain. Left hand 1. Start by having the student’s lift up their hands and observe the natural shape their hands make. 2. Have the students expand that shape, in their left hand and rest the body of the flute on the bottom knuckle of their pointer finger. a. The correct balance point should be somewhere between the first key hole and the first finger key. b. Left hand placement can be altered slightly to accommodate the size of the player’s hands. 3. Finger key placement a. The pointer finger should be placed on the first flat key on the body b. Skip one key and place the middle finger on the next key c. the ring finger goes next key d. and the pinky should be placed over long key protruding between forth and fifth key e. The thumb should be placed on the long thumb key which runs parallel to the flute mechanisms Right Hand 1. The end of the flute opposite the blow hole should be balanced on the right hand thumb. 2. Finger key placement a. The pointer finger should be placed two keys after the Right Hand. b. The middle and ring finger should be placed on the two keys immediately following the pointer. c. The pinky key should be placed on the long keys on the foot joint. 3. Don’t lean the flute on the rite index finger. 7

Balance & Balance Points • Special care should be made to balance the flute on the left pointer and right thumb. • Incorrect balance can cause muscle pain. • Incorrect balance can reduce dexterity. Embouchure and tone production: Common Embouchure Problems: 1. The flute is too rolled out. o The tone will be airy o have the student think about using the “poh” syllable o have the student think about focusing the air stream 2. The embouchure is not centered over the blow hole o the tone will be airy o it may be difficult to notice attack and articulation o have the student center their embouchure over the blow hole 3. Overbite o the student will have a hard time producing any tone o have the student think about blowing up o Have the student thing about bringing their lower jaw in if possible. 4. The flute is not parallel to the ground o the tone will be airy o have the student bring end of the flute up and parallel to the floor. o make sure the student’s embouchure is parrall to the flute as well o have the students think about having a pencil in the end of their flute that they don’t want to fall out. 5. The flute is rolled in to far o the tone will be airy o have the student role the flute out o have the student think about blowing across the blow hole, and not into it. 6. The aperture too big or too open. o the tone will be weak o the student may have a difficult time sustaining their tone o have the student use the “poh” syllable to help focus the embouchure 7. The Corners of the mouth are pulled too far back o the tone is thin sounding o have the student try to relax the corners of the mouth make sure they are not attempting to “smile” while they are playing 8. The student is using slow air o The student will have trouble playing high notes

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o while playing in the higher register the student will need to concentrate on using faster air. 9. the student’s embouchure is too wide o the tone will be airy o the student will have a difficult time maintaining their tone o have the student focus on the “poh” syllable. Troubleshooting including parallel relationships • There are two important parallel relationships 1. The flute should be parallel to the ground 2. the blow hole the should be parallel to the embouchure Use of air • slow air speed should be used to produce notes in the lower registers • fast air speed should be used to produce notes in the higher registers • Too much air can cause a double buzz, or no tone at all • not enough air can cause low notes to be produced when higher notes are desired, or in some cases no tone at all. Articulation Single tongue • During single tonguing the tip of the tongue should touch the top of the teeth • think “tee for two” Double tongue • Double tonguing is when the air stream is stopped by the tongue using two different parts of the tongue. • The “tah-kah” or “do-goh” or “da-gah” syllable should be used. This will allow the tip of the tongue and the middle of the tongue to stop their air stream. • Have the student practice tonguing using only the “kah” syllable. • Once the student demonstrates proficiency using only the “kah” syllable add the “tah” syllable. Triple tonguing • Triple tonguing is when the air stream is stopped by the tongue three times. • The “tah-kah-tah” syllable should be used. This will allow the tip of the tongue and the middle of the tongue to stop the air stream three times. Range of the flute and piccolo • See flute orchestration hand out How is piccolo different from flute? • The piccolo flute smaller • The piccolo flute sounds an octave higher than the flute Fingerings Correct fingerings • See fingering chart handout. 9

Common errors D2- first finger must be down Eb2 – make sure you press down the left hand pointer F#’s- ring finger only D3 – make sure you press down the Right Hand pinky keyF G#3 Use of Thumb Bb Thumb Bb sounds better than the normal Bb fingering. Piccolo • fingerings are the same as the flute French vs Plateau Keys • French keys are open hole • Plateau keys are closed hole Inline g key vs offset g Keys • offset g keys the g key is not in line with the other keys o this could be better for some players with shorter fingers. • inline g key the g key is in line with the other keys o this could be more difficult to reach for some players Plated vs Solid Silver • Silver and Nickel plated flutes are common in student model flutes • A good upgrade is to move to solid silver. Metal vs wood piccolos • Most flutes are metal • some prefer wood flutes for a different tone. Intonation tendencies Range • Higher range tends to be sharp • lower range tends to be flat Dynamic level • Louder dynamics tend to be sharp • softer dynamics tend to be flat Exterior Temperature • cold tends to cause the instrument to go flat • flat tends to cause the instrument to go sharp Instructions to a beginning flutist in detail 1. Start by teaching the proper posture the student should have while playing. a. have the students stand up and center their weight over the feet. They should be able to push up on their toes without rocking forward or back at all. b. then have the students sit as if they are still standing from the waist up. 2. Then go over proper breathing 3. Start by playing on the head joints a. demonstrate and explain to the students the proper placement of the head joints and the lips over the blowhole on the lip plate

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b. Demonstrate and explain the “poh” syllable and how it relates to tone production. Have the students start with their lips together and let the air part at the center only. c. it isn’t necessary to introduce tonguing at this point. 4. Once sound production is consistent add the rest of the flute. Curved head joints Advantages • The student’s arms will not need to be extended as far as with normal flutes. Allowing for more comfortable playing. • It also has possible uses on the marching field. Disadvantages • The tone isn’t quite as vibrant. • The curved head joint would have to be special ordered for each flute. Vibrato • Vibrato is produced when the pitch of a given note is varied slightly sharp and flat in a wave like manner Teaching • Start by having the student variant the pitch slightly in quarter notes, then eighths, and so on, by slightly slowing and speeding up the air stream.d • the student should avoid shaking the instrument to produce vibrato • the student should avoid using the throat to produce Brands High School • Miyazawa • Yamaha (up to 3000) • Geminhardt (up to open hole) Professional • Powell • Haynes • Brannen-Cooper • Burkart(piccolos) • Jin Keefe(piccolos) Method Books • Beginner o Learn as You Play Flute (Learn as You Play) by Peter Wastall o Beginner's Book For The Flute by Trevor Wye o Rubank Elementary Method o Progressive Flute Method Book 1 (Progressive) by Andrew Scott • Intermediate o Rubank Intermediate o Young Orchestral Flautist by Atarah Ben-Tovim o Flute Technique by Gareth Morris • Advanced

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o Rubank Advanced Method Solos Beginner o Academy Collection arr. Nicholas & Vallis-Davies Intermediate
o Classical Favorites Belwin Master Solos

Advanced
o

Ensemble Beginner o Handel Menuet & Bouree, from Fireworks Music Intermediate o Arbeau & Kirkpatrick Ding Dong Merrily on High Advanced o Tchaikowsky Trepak, from Nutcracker Suite Handouts Flute Topics Study guide Orchestration Handou Flute Glossary Flute Fingering Chart Trill Chart Flute Playing Requirements Interval Exercise Gariboli Etude Flute Production Quiz Flute Quiz Flute Final

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Clarinet Information:
Assembly and parts Assembly 1. Grease corks if necessary 2. Hold the lower section of the body in your right hand, and uppers section of the body in your left hand. • press down the tone hole rings on the upper section • gently twist the section in the same direction aligning the bridge key 3. Hold the two connected sections in your right hand. Pressing down the tone hole rings of the lower section gently twist with your left hand. 4. Hold the clarinet in your left hand, and twist the barrel and mouthpiece on with your right hand. Remove the metal cap and ligature before putting on the mouthpiece. Align the flat side of the mouthpiece with the register key on the back of the clarinet. 5. Put on the ligature, and slide the reed behind it. Center your reed on the lat part of the mouthpiece wt holy a hairline of mouthpieces visible above the reed. Tighten the screw son the ligature only until snug. over tighening can damage your ligature. Register key • The register key is the open key on the back of the upper section of the body of the clarinet • The register key should be pressed with the left hand thumb • The register key pops the sound of a fingering up a 12th. Bridge key • The bridge key is the key that crosses the upper and lower body sections on the clarinet. • The bridge key should be pressed while assembling the clarinet to prevent damage. Care and Cleaning • After playing you should always swab out the clarinet. Swabbing the clarinet will help preserve the pads. • All clarinet players should have a reed case which will hold 4 reeds • Key savers are acceptable, but should be stored outside the flute • Keeping moist key saver in the flute doesn’t help • Sticky pads can be cleaned with pad paper • Sticky pads can be cleaned with a dollar bill • Sticky pads can be cleaned with alcohol, but is only recommended in emergencies, and never prolonged usage. Prolonged usage can cause the pads to dry out. • Sticky pads can be cleaned with cigarette paper, but make sure you get the kind without the gummed edges. Gummed edges can cause the pads to stick more.

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Never make adjustments to the mechanism, professionals should be used for such adjustments. • A non-treated cotton or silk men’s handkerchief can be used in place of the store bought swabs. Tone Production Starting a beginner 1. open the case and remove the bell 2. remove the lower part of the body 3. grease the cork if dry 4. place cork end into the bell 5. remove the upper section of the body from the case 6. grease the cork if dry 7. place the cork e of the upper section into the lower section, 8. align the open keys into a straight line while pressing the bridge key 9. place the barrel onto the top of the upper portion of the body 10. then place the mouth piece into the barrel 11. algin the open keys 12. align the reed so that the tip is even with the tip of the mouthpiece, make sure that it completely covers the hole on each side 13. slide the ligature over the mouthpiece and reed and pit it down toward the barrel. the top of the ligature should be just below the cut of the reed 14. Tightening the ligature will vary depending on the brand and design, but generally tighten the bottom screw first then the upper holding the reed in place, but allowing it to vibrate Common problems and solutions • The student’s reed is too hard o stuffy sound, unable to produce tone, very resistant o have the student try using a softer reed • The student’s reed is too soft o the sound is bright, with a slight buzz, high notes choke off o have the student try a harder reed • The student is using too much mouth piece o high notes are difficult to play o have the student try not putting so much mouthpiece into their mouth • The student’s lower lip isn’t covering the teeth o the sound is bright and the lower notes don’t sound good o have the student use their lower lip to cover the bottom teeth • The student is using too little mouthpiece in mouth o the sound is softer and the high notes are difficult to play o have the student take more of the mouthpiece into their mouth • The student is puckering the lips to much o the sound is muffled o have the student not pucker as much 14

o have the student think about not bunching up their embouchure • The student’s the clarinet is held to far up o the sound is bright and sharp o have the student bring the end of the clarinet closer to the body o the ideal angle is between 30 and 40 degrees. • The corners of the student’s mouth is pulled to far back o the sound is airy and air is leaking out of the embouchure o have the student not pull back the corners of their mouth so much o tell the student not to smile while playing • The student is puffing the cheeks o there is a delay in the initial sound production and a bright tone o have the student concentrate on not puffing out their cheeks. • The clarinet is being held to close to the body by the student o the sound is bright and sharp o have the student bring the end of the clarinet away from the body o the ideal angle is between 30 and 40 degrees. Reeds Recommended Beginner Brands • Rico Royal (strength 2, 2 ½, or 3) • Vandoren (strength 1 or 1 ½) Recommended Intermediate: • Vandoren (strength 2 or 2 ½) • Vandoren V-12 (strength 2 or 2 ½) Recommended Advanced: • Vandoren (strength 3, 3 ½, or rarely 4) • Vandoren V-12 (strength 3, 3 ½, or rarely 4) • Rico Grand Concerts (strength 3 or 3 ½) Tuning • Lengthen the tube by pulling out the barrel to tune throat tones. • lengthen the tube by pulling between the body joints to tune higher notes Articulation • The tip of the toung shoud touch the tip of the reed. Double tonguing • Often sloppy and not recommended Fingerings • keep fingerings in the same hand if possible • Avoid sliding if possible. • Use alternate Bb/f# for chromatic passages • Use only one finger only if possible (low FEF) Registers of the clarinet • clarimeau- lowest not to Bb 15

• clarion - from b in the staff to c above the staff • altissimo – c# above the staff to the highest note possible Clarinet Family Members • Bb Clarinet – transpose one whole step up • Bb Bass Clarinet - transpose one whole step up • Bb Contra Bass Clarinet - transpose one whole step lower • Eb Alto clarinet – transpose up major 6th • Eb soprano – transpose up major 6th Vibrato and its use • Vibrato is not used in traditional classical clarinet playing. Methods Beginner • Rubank Elementary Method Intermediate • Celebrated Method for the Clarinet by Klose Advanced • Celebrated Method for the Clarinet by Klose Solos Beginner • Disney Solos - Bb Clarinet Intermediate • C. Rose: 32 Etudes For Clarinet Advanced • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Concerto For Clarinet, K. 622 Ensemble Beginner • Mozart Ave Verum, from String Quintet, op 13/5 Intermediate • Bach Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring Advanced • Bach Air on the G String Handouts A New Register Orchestration Handout (Two pages) Clarinet Equipment Information Tone Handout Embouchure (Two pages) Clarinet Fingering Chart Clarinet Checklist Common Clarinet Accessories Altissimo Handout Clarinet Tone Production Quiz Clarinet Playing Final

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Clarinet Final

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Saxamaphone Information:
Saxophone Family Members Alto Sax – Eb – up major 6th Tennor Sax – Bb – up whole step Bari Sax – Eb – up a major 6th contrabass sax – C – no transposition soprano sax – Bb – up whole step c melody sax – C – up a major 6th o Invented by Adolf Sax Boehm System “Is in its original sense a system of keywork for the flute, created by inventor and flautist Theobald Boehm in the 1830s and 1840s. A key system inspired by Boehm's for the clarinet family also is known as "Boehm system" although it was not developed by Boehm himself. The basic premise behind the Boehm system is that the tone holes, the openings where the various notes are emitted from a musical instrument, should be located at the proper points on the body of the instrument, rather than where they can conveniently be covered by the player's fingers. From the advent of simple wind instruments, these openings could be so inconvenient that some needed to be covered by portions of the hands other than the fingers. And, on instruments not yet adapted to the Boehm system, elaborate work-arounds, such as the lengthy tone holes in the upper, or wing, joint of the bassoon, have to be provided. While such workarounds can enable an in tune instrument in the case of smaller instruments, large instruments (such as bass clarinets, contrabassoons and saxophones) cannot be so accommodated. Either the tone holes are too large to be covered by the fingers or the operation of the keywork becomes so cumbersome than the instrument is awkward to operate. Generally, the larger the instrument the greater the need for compromise on intonation. Theobald Boehm felt that a musical instrument would best benefit from a rational approach that would first consider the regularity of the fundamental scale of the instrument, and only once that had been determined were the measures taken to close those holes. He chose the traverse flute as the instrument to test his theory. In the case of the Boehm flute, Boehm adapted a system of axle mounted keys with a series of "open rings" (called brille in German, as they resembled the type of eyeglass frames common during the nineteenth century) that were fit around other tone holes, such that the closure of one tone hole by a finger would also close a key placed over a second hole. Through careful experimentation over a number of years, Boehm perfected his take on the flute, with the instrument gradually displacing virtually all other flutes during the second half of the nineteenth century. While non-Boehm flutes are still made in limited numbers, they are primarily restricted to non-

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ensemble situations such as folk music, where tuning and regularity of tone are not considered as critical. Boehm did work on a system for the bassoon, and Boehm-inspired oboes have been made, but non-Boehm systems remain predominant for these instruments.” 3

Figure 1. eattle musician Jay C. Easton with 10 members of the saxophone family (from largest to smallest: contrabass, bass, baritone, tenor, C tenor, alto, F mezzo-soprano, soprano, C soprano, sopranino)4

3 4

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boehm_System http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxophone

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Care and maintenance • After playing you should always swab out the saxophone. Swabbing the saxophone will help preserve the pads. • All saxophone players should have a reed case which will hold 4 reeds • Key savers are acceptable, but should be stored outside the flute • Keeping moist key saver in the flute doesn’t help • Sticky pads can be cleaned with pad paper • Sticky pads can be cleaned with a dollar bill • Sticky pads can be cleaned with alcohol, but is only recommended in emergencies, and never prolonged usage. Prolonged usage can cause the pads to dry out. • Sticky pads can be cleaned with cigarette paper, but make sure you get the kind without the gummed edges. Gummed edges can cause the pads to stick more. • Never make adjustments to the mechanism, professionals should be used for such adjustments. • A non-treated cotton or silk men’s handkerchief can be used in place of the store bought swabs Assembly 1. Open your case right side up. Put the thin end of the reed inside your mouth to moisten it. Grease the cork on the neck if necessary 2. Put the neck strap around your neck. Hook the body of the instrument to neck strap. Remove the end plug. 3. Put the mouthpiece on the necks so that half of the cork is exposed. The flat side of the mouthpiece should be on the bottom side. 4. Put on the ligature, and slide the reed behind it. Center your red on the flat part of the mouthpiece with only a hairline of mouthpiece visible above the reed. Tighten the screws on ligature only until snug. Over tightening can damage your ligature. 5. Put the neck onto the body carefully aligning the connecting lever. Tighten the neck screw. Neck straps • Neck straps are important to help promote proper posture • Neck straps are important to help promote proper hand position • Neck straps help prevent long term physical damage to joints Hand position Basic • Both hands should be kept in a natural arched position. • Place the left hand pointer, ring, and middle fingers on the indented keys on the top of the saxophone • Place the right had pointer, ring, and middle fingers on the indented keys on the bottom of the saxophone. Embouchure Basic

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• Similar to clarinet embouchure, think “ooo” or more forward Tone Production Starting a beginner 15. open the case and remove the bell 16. remove the lower part of the body 17. grease the cork if dry 18. place cork end into the bell 19. remove the upper section of the body from the case 20. grease the cork if dry 21. place the cork e of the upper section into the lower section, 22. align the open keys into a straight line while pressing the bridge key 23. place the barrel onto the top of the upper portion of the body 24. then place the mouth piece into the barrel 25. algin the open keys 26. align the reed so that the tip is even with the tip of the mouthpiece, make sure that it completely covers the hole on each side 27. slide the ligature over the mouthpiece and reed and pit it down toward the barrel. the top of the ligature should be just below the cut of the reed 28. Tightening the ligature will vary depending on the brand and design, but generally tighten the bottom screw first then the upper holding the reed in place, but allowing it to vibrate Common problems and solutions • The student’s reed is too hard o stuffy sound, unable to produce tone, very resistant o have the student try using a softer reed • The student’s reed is too soft o the sound is bright, with a slight buzz, high notes choke off o have the student try a harder reed • The student is using too much mouth piece o high notes are difficult to play o have the student try not putting so much mouthpiece into their mouth • The student’s lower lip isn’t covering the teeth o the sound is bright and the lower notes don’t sound good o have the student use their lower lip to cover the bottom teeth • The student is using too little mouthpiece in mouth o the sound is softer and the high notes are difficult to play o have the student take more of the mouthpiece into their mouth • The student is puckering the lips to much o the sound is muffled o have the student not pucker as much o have the student think about not bunching up their embouchure • The corners of the student’s mouth is pulled to far back

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o the sound is airy and air is leaking out of the embouchure o have the student not pull back the corners of their mouth so much o tell the student not to smile while playing The student is puffing the cheeks o there is a delay in the initial sound production and a bright tone o have the student concentrate on not puffing out their cheeks.

Tonguing • The tip of the tongue should touch the tip of the teeth • Anchor tonguing is also acceptable, but probably shouldn’t be taught Double tonguing  Double tonguing is possible, but not recommended Vibrato • Vibrato is produced when the pitch of a given note is varied slightly sharp and flat in a wave like manner Teaching • Start by having the student variant the pitch slightly in quarter notes, then eighths, and so on, by slightly slowing and speeding up the air stream. • the student should avoid shaking the instrument to produce vibrato • the student should avoid using the throat to produce Intonation Dynamics  Louder dynamics goes flat  softer dynamics goes sharp Range  low register goes flat  thigh register is flat Temperature  cold goes flat  hot goes sharp Octave key Thumb position  The thumb should be held at 2 o’clock When to use  The thumb key should only be pressed for fingerings above D in the staff. Range of the saxophone  Low Bb to G above for high school  much higher for professional Name of range above high F  Altisimo Palm keys  The palm keys are the flat keys in the right hands. Side keys

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 the side keys are the flat keys in the left hand Fingering f#/Gb – R1, R2, R3, L1, fork, should be used chromatic passages including f and f# side c – R1, side 2, should be used Top f key High f# High g on soprano Bb fingerings 2 best 3 alternates bis key locations and use Reeds Recommended Beginner Brands • Rico Royal (strength 2, 2 ½, or 3) • Vandoren (strength 1 or 1 ½) Recommended Intermediate: • Vandoren (strength 2 or 2 ½) Recommended Advanced: • Vandoren (strength 3, 3 ½, or rarely 4) • Rico Grand Concerts (strength 3 or 3 ½) Jazz mouthpieces and reeds Mouthpiece Myer Reeds Vandoren Java Doubling  Doubling is recommending for all saxophone players  Saxophone isn’t commonly used in classical situations so being flexable will help long term work Methods Beginner • Rubank Elementary Method Intermediate  Rubank Intermediate Method Advanced  Rubank Advanced Method Solo Beginner  Bach Menuet in G, from the Anna Magdelena Notebook Intermediate  Beethoven Beloved from Afar, op 98/6 Advanced  Desenclos Prelude Cadence et Final

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Ensemble Beginner  Niehaus Rapid Transit Advanced  Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Handouts        Saxophone playing test requirements (10 pages) Saxophone Intonation Pitch and Intonation (2 pages) Alternate Fingering Exercises (3 pages) Saxophone Range Career Management Saxophone study Guide

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