LABORATORY MANUAL ON Digital COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Contents

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Experiments to be performed
Study the functioning of PCM. Study the functioning of Delta modulator Study the functioning of Adaptive Delta Modulator Study of Time division multiplexing To study the different channel coding and decoding technique. Generation and reception of ASK Generation and reception of PSK Generation and reception of FSK. To transmit and receive of signals (audio, video, tone ) simultaneously through satellite link. To study PC to PC data transmission through satellite link Study the spectrum of BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK with spectrum analyzer Spreading and dispreading using additive white Gaussian noise generation techniques. (Using MATlab) Transmit different types of signals using a ISDN system Analyze the process of data communication in LAN using LAN trainer and compare the performance different media access techniques

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After the completion of the experiment equipments in their respective positions. pencils. The detailed organization of work within a group should be agreed by the group members themselves. (10) Mobile phones are strictly prohibited inside the laboratory. and to maintain his/her own individual lab record. pens. Every student is required to be familiar with all the aspects of each exercise. properly keep the (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Only one compensatory lab class can be arranged for those students who miss an experiment only on the medical ground. Neither the demonstrator nor the academic supervisors are responsible for missing a lab session.Rules & regulations (1) (2) Each student must contain a lab record for each laboratory module. to participate actively in carrying it out. recording their individual work & results for each experiment. . It is essential to study the lab manual. in detail in advance of each exercise. Keep the equipments with care & use those for intended purposes. Arrive prepared with your lead kits. Students are required to attend the lab sessions. While performing experiments be aware about the electrical supplies. who are required to complete each exercise as a team. Each group typically consisting of five students. You are completely financially responsible for loss or damage to equipments signed out to you. scales & calculator. tools. But missing a single session without explanation will normally mean you that you will be deemed to have extra compensatory lab for that experiment or you will be awarded no marks for that lab session. For most lab modules you will be assigned to a lab group. Any disagreements over the organization of group work should be referred to a demonstrator.

either to the demonstrator or to the supervisor. (12) The student is not allowed to bring his /her shoes.(11) The student has to come to the lab class with proper dress code offered by the institution. and pencils etc. will lead to suspension of the student from the lab classes. pens. bags inside the lab except lab record. (13) Any misconduct by the student.NO 1 2 3 4 5 CATEGORY Viva voce Experiment Record Attendance Discipline TOTAL MARKS MARKS 3 3 2 1 1 10 . which are required for the experiment. LAB PLAN Total experiments to be held Full mark of each experiment No of sub groups in a batch No of students in each group : : : 10 10 : 3 10 Division of mark in each Experiment: SL.

No 1 2 3 4 5 Theory:Equipments Required PCM trainer kit Power Supply CRO Patch Chords Crocodile Chords Specification VCT07 230V AC 50MHz 10:1 -------- . Quantization 3.Encodeing Equipments required Sl. Objective:To observe 1.Grades awarded to the Student: Grade O E A B C D Marks 90 -100 marks 80-89 marks 70-79 marks 60-69 marks 50-59 marks 40-49 marks Experiment-1 Aim of the Experiment:To study the functioning of PCM.Sampling 2.

The instantaneous amplitude of the analog signal at each sampling is rounded off to the nearest of several specific. Trace the signals. represented by logic 1 (high) and logic0 (low). 2. Observe the waveforms for PCM. . The number of levels is always a power of 2 -. voices. This is true no matter how complex the analog waveform happens to be. The output of a pulse code modulator is thus a series of binary numbers. telemetry. Apply the signals to the kit. Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord. To obtain PCM from an analog waveform at the source (transmitter end) of a communications circuit.Pulse code modulation(PCM): PCM is a digital scheme for transmitting analog data. The sampling rate. four. is several times the maximum frequency of the analog waveform in cycles per second or hertz. 4. each represented by some power of 2bits. predetermined levels.At the destination (receiver end) of the communications circuit. 8. that is. This process is called quantization. including full-motion video. 3. Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. These pulses are further processed to restore the original analog waveform. the analog signal amplitude is sampled (measured) at regular time intervals. Connect the circuit. or number of samples per second. These numbers can be represented by three. 32. or six binary digits (bits)respectively. and virtual reality (VR). Using PCM. five. it is possible to digitize all forms of analog data. or 64. 16. music. there are only two possible states. a pulse code demodulator converts the binary numbers back into pulses having the same quantum levels as those in the modulator.for example. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:1. The signals in PCM are binary.

Waveform:- Conclusion:- Experiment-2 Aim of the Experiment:To study the functioning of Delta modulator Objective:Demonstrate the process of Delta modulation Equipments required Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 Theory:Equipments Required DM trainer kit CRO Patch Chords Crocodile Chord Power Supply Specification VCT32 50 MHz 10:1 ----------230V AC .

The comparator simply makes a comparison between the inputs. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:1. 4.When the binary input which is also the transmitted output S0(t) is at the level V(H). The analog signal which is to be encoded into digital data m(t) and its quantized approximation mq(t) are applied to the input of the comparator. 2.When m(t)>mq(t) and a different output V(L) when m(t)<mq(t).Hence the comparator compares m(t) and mq(t) and has one fixed output V(H). Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord. 3.The count direction ie incrementing or decrementing is determined by the voltage levels at the “Command direction command” input to the counter.Delta modulation transmits only one bit per symbol. Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. The digital output of the counter is converted into the analog quantized approximation mq(t) by the D/A Converter. Trace the signals Waveform:- Conclusion:- . Connect the circuit.the counter counts up and when it is at the level V(L) the counter counts down. The up-down counter increments or decrements its count by 1 at each active edge of the clock waveform. Apply the signals to the kit. Observe the waveforms for DM.

Experiment-3 Aim of the Experiment:Study the functioning of Adaptive Delta Modulator Objective:Demonstrate the process of Adaptive Delta modulation Equipments required:Sl.No 1 2 3 4 Equipments Required ADM trainer Kit CRO Patch Chords Power Supply VCT50 50MHz 10:1 230V AC Specification Theory:- .

3.This error can be reduced by using a low pass filter.at the expense of increasing quantizing error. ADM reduces slope error. and the step size becomes progressively larger. Waveform:Trace the signals Conclusion:- . Rather. Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:1. Observe the waveforms for ADM. Otherwise. 4. 2. Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord. the encoder and decoder assume that slope overload is occurring. Connect the circuit. when several consecutive bits have the same direction value. the step size becomes gradually smaller over time. Apply the signals to the kit.Adaptive delta modulation (ADM) or continuously variable slope delta modulation (CVSD) is a modification of DM in which the step size is not fixed.

1 2 3 4 5 Theory:Name of the Equipment TDM kit CRO Patch cords CRO probes Power supply(AC) Specification ST2503 50MHz -------10:1 230V .Experiment-4 Aim of the Experiment:Study of TDM Objective:Analyze the process of time division multiplexing and demultiplexing E quipments required Sl. No.

A device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (MUX). TDM involves sequencing groups of a few bits or bytes from each individual input stream. The aim is to share an expensive resource. Time-division multiplexing:-Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a digital technology. the receiving devices will not detect that some of the circuit time was used to serve another logical communication path. 2. Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord. Apply the input voltage m1(t) as 2v at 1kHz and m2(t) as 3v at 10kHz.Multiplexing: In telecommunications and computer networks. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:1. and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (DEMUX). and in such a way that they can be associated with the appropriate receiver. multiplexing (also known as mixing) is a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. Diagram:- Modulation Demodulation Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. Apply carrier square pulse as 4v at 3kHz. one after the other. If done sufficiently and quickly. . Connect the circuit as shown in the figure.

4.3. Use the demodulation circuit to obtain m1(t) and m2(t) back Waveform:- Conclusion:- Experiment-5 Aim of the Experiment:To study the different channel coding and decoding technique Objective:Analyze the process of channel coding and decoding Technique Equipments required Sl. 1 2 3 Name of the Equipment Channel Coder Kit CRO Patch cords 50MHz -------Specification . Observe the waveforms for PAM-TDM. No.

Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:- Tabulation:Waveform:Conclusion:- Experiment-6 Aim of the Experiment:Study of ASK Objective:Analyze the Generation and reception of ASK Equipments required:Sl. 1 2 3 Name of the Equipment ASK Trainer Kit CRO Patch cords Specification VCT17 50MHz -------- . Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord.4 5 CRO probes Power supply(AC) 10:1 230V Theory:- Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. No.

The amplitude of an analog carrier signal varies in accordance with the bit stream (modulating signal). In the modulated signal. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure. This low level represents binary 0. We can think of a carrier signal as an ON or OFF switch. Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. Both ASK modulation and demodulation processes are relatively inexpensive. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Diagram:- (Modulation) (Demodulation) Procedure:1. For LED transmitters. . etc. Laser transmitters normally have a fixed "bias" current that causes the device to emit a low light level. distortions. Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord. propagation conditions on different routes in PSTN. keeping frequency and phase constant. Apply the input voltage m (t) as 500Hz. thus giving OFF/ON keying operation and hence the name given. The ASK technique is also commonly used to transmit digital data over optical fiber. binary 1 is represented by a short pulse of light and binary 0 by the absence of light.4 5 CRO probes Power supply(AC) 10:1 230V Theory:Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. Apply carrier square pulse as 1kHz. Like AM. while a higher-amplitude light wave represents binary 1. The level of amplitude can be used to represent binary logic 0s and 1s. 2. logic 0 is represented by the absence of a carrier. ASK is also linear and sensitive to atmospheric noise.

3. No. Observe the waveforms for ASK 4. 1 2 3 4 Name of the Equipment PSK Trainer Kit CRO Patch cords CRO probes Specification VCT21 50MHz -------10:1 . Waveform:- Conclusion:- Experiment-7 Aim of the Experiment:Study of PSK Objective:Analyze the Generation and reception of PSK Equipments required:Sl. Use the demodulation circuit to obtain m(t) back.

Alternatively. instead of using the bit patterns to set the phase of the wave. Apply the input voltage m (t) as 500Hz. or modulating. Diagram:- . the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave).Any digital modulation scheme uses a finite number of distinct signals to represent digital data. Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord. This requires the receiver to be able to compare the phase of the received signal to a reference signal — such a system is termed coherent (and referred to as CPSK). Use the demodulation circuit to obtain m(t) back. it can instead be used to change it by a specified amount. it is termed differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). which is designed specifically for the symbol-set used by the modulator. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:1. Each pattern of bits forms the symbol that is represented by the particular phase. Apply carrier square pulse as 1kHz. Observe the waveforms for PSK 4. Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure. Usually.5 Theory:- Power supply(AC) 230V Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing. thus recovering the original data. Since this scheme depends on the difference between successive phases. The demodulator then determines the changes in the phase of the received signal rather than the phase itself. PSK uses a finite number of phases. determines the phase of the received signal and maps it back to the symbol it represents. DPSK can be significantly simpler to implement than ordinary PSK since there is no need for the demodulator to have a copy of the reference signal to determine the exact phase of the received signal (it is a non-coherent scheme). each assigned a unique pattern of binary digits. The exact requirements of the particular scenario under consideration determine which scheme is used. 3. each phase encodes an equal number of bits. it produces more erroneous demodulations. In exchange. 2. The demodulator.

Objective:- .(Modulation of PSK Signal) (Demodulation of PSK Signal) Waveform:- Conclusion:- Experiment-8 Aim of the Experiment:Study of FSK.

Use the demodulation circuit to obtain m(t) back. Binary FSK is a form of constant amplitude angle modulation. Observe the waveforms for FSK 4. corresponding to the digital values 0 and 1 (see diagram) is the primary method used by low-speed modems. It is thus a type of modulation.Connect the circuit as shown in the figure. Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord.FSK is a low performance type of digital modulation.Analyze the Generation and reception of FSK. 2. BFSK uses a pair of discrete frequencies to transmit binary (0s and 1s) information. the "1" is called the mark frequency and the "0" is called the space frequency Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:1. 1 2 3 4 5 Name of the Equipment FSK Trainer Kit CRO Patch cords CRO probes Power supply(AC) Specification VCT18 50MHz -------10:1 230V Theory:frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method for representing digital data with analog signals by using a change in the frequency of the carrier to represent information. FSK with two frequencies. Apply the input voltage m (t) as 500Hz. No. Waveform:- . Apply carrier square pulse as 1kHz. With this scheme. 3. Equipments required:Sl.

.Conclusion:- Experiment-9 Aim of the Experiment:To transmit and receive of signals (audio. tone ) simultaneously through satellite link. video.

is passed through a base band processor. mobile reception equipment in aircraft. as is the case with television broadcasts. Satellite receivers on the ground include direct-to-home (DTH) satellite equipment. and the transponder. satellite telephones. as in the case of a long distance phone call. where it is received and reamplified by Earth stations and terminals. the ground station's uplink is then downlinked over a wide region. and is composed of three separate units. and handheld devices. The satellite then receives and amplifies the signal and retransmits it back to Earth. Transmitted Data A typical satellite link involves the transmission or uplinking of a signal from an Earth station to a satellite. a broad band receiver. works in the reverse fashion as the uplink. namely the fuel system. an input multiplexer. wherein the satellite is equipped with cameras or various sensors. or receiving station. The ground station's job is two-fold. Still another use for satellites is observation. and it merely downlinks any information it picks up from its vantage point. the primary task is to receive signals from a ground station and send them down to another ground station located a considerable distance away from the first. ultimately converting signals received through the parabolic antenna to base band signal. Another use of the satellite is when. The primary role of a satellite is to reflect electronic signals. The transponder includes the receiving antenna to pick-up signals from the ground station. an up converter. or transmitting station. This relay action can be two-way. and through a parabolic dish antenna up to an orbiting satellite. .Video and Tone signals Equipments required:i) Satellite Transponder ii) Data for Transmission Theory:Satellite communications are comprised of 2 main components: The Satellite The satellite itself is also known as the space segment.Objective:Analysis of transmission of Audio. The Ground Station This is the earth segment. terrestrial data in the form of base band signals. and a frequency converter which is used to reroute the received signals through a high powered amplifier for downlink. a high powered amplifier. In the case of an uplink. the satellite and telemetry controls. so that it may be received by many different customers possessing compatible equipment. In the case of a telecom satellite. In the case of a downlink.

2. Observe the data for transmitted and received signals Conclusion:- Experiment-10 Aim of the Experiment:- To study PC to PC data transmission through satellite link Objective:Equipments required i) Satellite Transponder ii) PC for Data Transmission Theory:- Satellite communications are comprised of 2 main components: .Block Diagram:- (SATELLITE TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER) Precaution:Don’t give the power supply if the connections were properely made. Switch off the power supply after the experiment Procedure:1. Don’t touch the uncovered part of patch cord. Setup the kit as shown in the diagram and transmit the data. 3. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure.

and through a parabolic dish antenna up to an orbiting satellite. as is the case with television broadcasts. the satellite and telemetry controls. so that it may be received by many different customers possessing compatible equipment. In the case of an uplink. is passed through a base band processor. or transmitting station. a high powered amplifier. an up converter. ultimately converting signals received through the parabolic antenna to base band signal. and it merely downlinks any information it picks up from its vantage point. The ground station's job is two-fold. wherein the satellite is equipped with cameras or various sensors. an input multiplexer. and a frequency converter which is used to reroute the received signals through a high powered amplifier for downlink. Transmitted Data . Still another use for satellites is observation. works in the reverse fashion as the uplink. as in the case of a long distance phone call. or receiving station. terrestrial data in the form of base band signals. The Ground Station This is the earth segment. namely the fuel system. a broad band receiver.The Satellite The satellite itself is also known as the space segment. Another use of the satellite is when. and is composed of three separate units. The transponder includes the receiving antenna to pick-up signals from the ground station. In the case of a telecom satellite. This relay action can be two-way. the primary task is to receive signals from a ground station and send them down to another ground station located a considerable distance away from the first. and the transponder. In the case of a downlink. the ground station's uplink is then downlinked over a wide region. The primary role of a satellite is to reflect electronic signals.

Connect the circuit as shown in the figure. satellite telephones.A typical satellite link involves the transmission or uplinking of a signal from an Earth station to a satellite. Block Diagram:- (Satellite transmitter and receiver for PC) Precaution:Procedure:1. where it is received and reamplified by Earth stations and terminals. and handheld devices. QPSK with spectrum analyzer Objective:- . Satellite receivers on the ground include direct-to-home (DTH) satellite equipment. Observe the data for transmitted and received signals Conclusion:- Experiment-11 Aim of the Experiment:- Study the spectrum of BPSK. Transmit the data from PC to the transponder. 2. The satellite then receives and amplifies the signal and retransmits it back to Earth. mobile reception equipment in aircraft. 3.

as sahown at right on the characterstics constellation for this modulation type. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name of the Equipment BPSK Trainer Kit QPSK Trainer Kit CRO Patch cords CRO probes Power supply(AC) Specification VCT18 VCT29 50MHz -------10:1 230V Theory:In binary phase shift keying (BPSK)the transmitted signal is a sinusoid of fixed amplitude .B.the four phase are labeled {A. Precaution:Procedure:Waveform:Conclusion:- .D}corresponding to one {0.QPSK Signals Equipments required Sl.Analysis of the spectrum of BPSK.180.it has one fixed phase when the data is at one level and when the data is at the other level the phase is different by.C.270}degree.90. If the sinusoid is of amplitude A it has a power ps=(1/2)a2 so that a= The term ‘quadrature ‘implies that there are four possible phases (4PSK)wchich the carrier can have at a given time . No.

The ratio (in dB) between the spread baseband and the original signal is called processing gain.i. by several orders of magnitude .e an RF communications system in which the baseband signal bandwidth is intentionally spread over a larger bandwidth by injecting a higher frequency signal. Typical spread-spectrum processing gains run from 10dB to 60dB. A despreading operation reconstitutes the information into its original bandwidth.) Diagram:- . the same code must be known in advance at both ends of the transmission channel. simply inject the corresponding spreadspectrum code somewhere in the transmitting chain before the antenna (receiver). As a direct consequence. and appears as noise. Obviously. To apply a spread-spectrum technique.) The effect is to diffuse the information in a larger bandwidth. the code should be known only by those two parties. (That injection is called the spreading operation. which occurs when a key is attached to the communication channel. (In some circumstances. energy used in transmitting the signal is spread over a wider bandwidth. Conversely.Experiment-12 Aim of the Experiment:Spreading and dispreading using additive white Gaussian noise generation techniques. you can remove the spreadspectrum code (called a despreading operation) at a point in the receive chain before data retrieval. (Using MATlab) Objective:Equipments required i)Spread spectrum trainer kit Theory:The term "spread spectrum" refers to the expansion of signal bandwidth.

(Spread Spectrum communication System) (Spread spectrum dispreading techniques) Precaution:Procedure:1. 2. Conclusion:- Experiment-13 Aim of the Experiment:- Transmit different types of signals using a ISDN system Objective:- . Apply carrier square pulse as 1kHz. 3. Apply the input voltage m (t) as 500Hz. 4. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure. Observe the waveforms for Spreading and De-Spreading.Trace the waveforms.

It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines. Channel bonding can achieve a greater data rate. where ISDN typically provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s in both upstream and downstream directions. There are several kinds of access interfaces to ISDN defined as Basic Rate Interface (BRI). in any combination of data. and packet-switched connections (for data). resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can provide.Integrated services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections. in increments of 64 kilobit/s. and fax. That means an ISDN line can take care of most people's complete communications needs. and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data). video. the phone system was viewed as a way to transport voice. Multiple devices can be attached to the line. Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN). and used as needed. Diagram:- Precaution:- . A major market application for ISDN in some countries is Internet access. with some special services available for data. Prior to ISDN. data. which also provides access to packet switched networks.Equipments required i) ISDN trainer kit Theory:Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (ISDN) is a set of communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice. typically the ISDN B-channels of 3 or 4 BRIs (6 to 8 64 kbit/s channels) are bonded. ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system. video. over a single line. voice. designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires. adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system.

3.Procedure:1. Apply the input voltage m (t) as 500Hz. Apply carrier square pulse as 1kHz. Observe the waveforms for ISDN Communication Conclusion:- Experiment-14 Aim of the Experiment:- Analyze the process of data communication in LAN using LAN trainer and compare the performance different media access techniques Objective:Equipments required Theory:Precaution:Procedure:Tabulation:Waveform:Conclusion:- . 2. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure.