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• Advocates viewing an organization from both formal and informal perspectives. and/or – The "fit" between individual and organization :.INTRODUCTION • Introduced by Marvin Weisbord in 1976. . and that this culture can be described in two ways: – The "fit" between organization and environment :. • Identifies six interrelated processes inherent in all organizations. • Focus is on organization as a whole.The extent to which purposes and structure support high performance and ability to change with conditions. • Weisbord notes that process issues usually are systemic (part of the organization's management culture).The extent to which people support or subvert formal mechanisms intended to carry out an organization's purposes.
• Weisbord emphasized the importance of gaps between the formal and the informal aspect of structure and called for action to reduce the gap (this action represents the process side). . • It is important to understand the formal systems (the structure) and the informal systems (the culture) of an organization. so as to function effectively.• The circle encompassing the boxes represents the external environment. • The bi-directional arrows depict the input and output representations.
conflict exists. • People's purposes are some balance between "what we have to do" and "what we want to do" (for growth. • The questions to be asked are: – What is the degree of clarity in the organizational members’ minds regarding the organization’s mission? – What is the extent of support by them for the organization’s mission? . • Ill-defined or overly broad purposes create anxiety. self-expression. When people disagree on priorities. idealism.PUPROSES • When we examine an organization's purposes. • Goal clarity must exist before goal agreement is possible. The result is priorities. and so on). we must be concerned with both the formal goal clarity and the informal commitment to those goals.
. • A consultant must look for the fit between the goal (output) and the structure producing it (formal system). • When we study structure. then notice how the work actually is assigned and performed and how people use or subvert the organizational chart. we need to be aware of the formal organizational chart and the informal ways in which work actually is accomplished (or not accomplished).STRUCTURE • This deals with the adequacy and fitment of the internal structure with the organization’s mission.
• Weisbord discussed relationship in three fold: – Between individuals. units and groups. with whom on what issues. • He stressed on the quality of relationships. which are essential before the model is applied for managing and dealing with conflicts. – Between and among departments. .RELATIONSHIPS • The formal aspects of relationships involve who deals. – Between the person vis a vis his job. the informal aspects involve the quality of those relationships.
and achievement. and the like. one must consider both – The explicit system of salaries. and – The more implicit rewards of how members of the organization respond emotionally to successful task accomplishment and how much support for achievement there is in the system. responsibility. • Having a formal reward system does not guarantee that people will feel or act as if they are rewarded.REWARDS • When examining an organization's rewards or incentives system. . • Studies of motivation indicate that a reward system that pays only salary and fringe benefits is inadequate unless people value their work and perceive in it a chance to grow. wages. bonuses. • The fit between person and organization improves when there is a chance for growth.
policies. systems. if at all. • The formal aspects of helpful mechanisms involve the establishment and management of these functions (for example. .HELPFUL MECHANISMS • Mechanisms are the procedures. and measurement (information). reports. • An effective organization continually revises its mechanisms as the need arises. and measurement systems). rational planning. • The informal aspects involve how well. bulletin boards. and budgeting. planning. committees. these mechanisms are used. control. memos. • Mechanisms typically facilitate problem solving. and so on. that facilitate efforts related to the contents of all the other boxes. budgeting. spaces. meetings. information. This aspect includes corrective feedback. control.
LEADERSHIP • The leader’s main responsibility is to overlook and supervise the effective functioning of all the boxes and maintain a balance among them. • The four essential leadership tasks seem to be – – – – defining purposes. defending institutional integrity. and managing internal conflict. . embodying purposes in programs. • In the area of leadership. one needs to note both what the management responsibilities of the leaders are and how effectively they carry out these responsibilities.
which represents the coordinating function.STRENGHTS AND CRITICISM • • STRENGHTS The model gives due importance to leadership. organizations are too complex to be represented by only six categories. Useful for organizations with less sophistication with respect to their systemic thinking and the larger complexities of organizational dynamics. • • • . Inadequacy: The relationship between ‘purposes’ and other boxes (with exceptions to relationships and structure) are inadequately explained. CRITICISMS Oversimplification: In real life situations. Insufficiency: Deeper and more complicated diagnoses requires more detailed model.