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Data Resource Management
• Explain the importance of implementing data resource management processes and technologies in an organization. • Understand the advantages of a database management approach to managing the data resources of a business.
Learning Objectives (continued)
• Explain how database management software helps business professionals and supports the operations and management of a business. • Illustrate each of the following concepts:
– – – – – – Major types of databases Data warehouses and data mining Logical data elements Fundamental database structures Database access methods Database development
3 Section I • Managing Data Resources 5 .
3 Data Resource Management • A managerial activity • Applies information systems technology to managing data resources to meet needs of business stakeholders. 6 .
3 Foundation Data Concepts • Logical Data Elements 7 .
or other symbol – Field • Groupings of characters • Represents an attribute of some entity 8 . numeric.3 Foundation Data Concepts (continued) • Levels of data – Character • Single alphabetical.
3 Foundation Data Concepts (continued) – Records • Related fields of data • Collection of attributes that describe an entity • Fixed-length or variable-length 9 .
3 Foundation Data Concepts (continued) – Files (table) • A group of related records • Classified by – Primary use – Type of data – permanence 10 .
3 Foundation Data Concepts (continued) – Database • Integrated collection of logically related data elements • Consolidates records into a common pool of data elements • Data is independent of the application program using them and type of storage device 11 .
and production databases 12 .3 Types of Databases • Operational – Supports business processes and operations – Also called subject-area databases. transaction databases.
3 Types of Databases (continued) • Distributed – Replicated and distributed copies or parts of databases on network servers at a variety of sites. – Done to improve database performance and security 13 .
3 Types of Databases (continued) • External – Available for a fee from commercial sources or with or without charge on the Internet or World Wide Web • Hypermedia – Hyperlinked pages of multimedia 14 .
or other databases of an organization – Central source of “structured” data – May be subdivided into data marts 15 .3 Data Warehouses and Data Mining • Data warehouse – Stores data extracted from operational. external.
patterns. and trends 16 .3 Data Warehouses and Data Mining (continued) • Data mining – A major use of data warehouse databases – Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations.
3 Database Management Approach • Consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs 17 .
3 Database Management Approach (continued) • Database Management System – Software interface between users and databases – Controls creation. and use of the database 18 . maintenance.
3 Database Management Approach (continued) 19 .
3 Database Management Approach (continued) • Database Interrogation – Query • Supports ad hoc requests • Tells the software how you want to organize the data • SQL queries • Graphical (GUI) & natural queries 20 .
3 Database Management Approach (continued) – Report Generator • Turns results of query into a useable report • Database Maintenance – Updating and correcting data 21 .
forms. reports. or web pages 22 .3 Database Management Approach (continued) • Application Development – Data manipulation language – Data entry screens.
3 Implementing Data Resource Management • Database Administration – Develop and maintain the data dictionary – Design and monitor performance of databases – Enforce database use and security standards 23 .
3 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued) • Data Planning – Corporate planning and analysis function – Developing the overall data architecture 24 .
storage. and dissemination of data to end users – Focused on supporting business processes and strategic business objectives – May include developing policy and setting standards 25 .3 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued) • Data Administration – Standardize collection.
and failures 26 . errors.3 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued) • Challenges – Technologically complex – Vast amounts of data – Vulnerability to fraud.
3 Section II • Technical Foundations of Database Management 27 .
3 Database Structures • Hierarchical – Treelike – One-to-many relationship – Used for structured. routine types of transaction processing 28 .
3 Database Structures (continued) • Network – More complex – Many-to-many relationship – More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests well 29 .
3 Database Structures (continued) • Relational – Data elements stored in simple tables – Can link data elements from various tables – Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or network models 30 .
3 Database Structures (continued) • Multi-Dimensional – A variation of the relational model – Cubes of data and cubes within cubes – Popular for online analytical processing (OLAP) applications 31 .
3 Database Structures (continued) 32 .
3 Database Structures (continued) • Object-oriented – Key technology of multimedia web-based applications – Good for complex. high-volume applications 33 .
3 Database Structures (continued) 34 .
3 Accessing Databases • Key fields (primary key) – A field unique to each record so it can be distinguished from all other records in a table 35 .
3 Accessing Databases (continued) • Sequential access – Data is stored and accessed in a sequence according to a key field – Good for periodic processing of a large volume of data. but updating with new transactions can be troublesome 36 .
3 Accessing Databases (continued) • Direct access – Methods • Key transformation • Index • Indexed sequential access 37 .
3 Database Development • Data dictionary – Directory containing metadata (data about data) • • • • • Structure Data elements Interrelationships Information regarding access and use Maintenance & security issues 38 .
3 Database Development (continued) • Data Planning & Database Design – Planning & Design Process • Enterprise model • Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs) • Data modeling – Develop logical framework for the physical design 39 .
and distribute data & information about their internal operations & external environment? • What roles do database management. data administration. and data planning play in managing data as a business resource? 40 .3 Discussion Questions • How should an e-business enterprise store. access.
3 Discussion Questions (continued) • What are the advantages of a database management approach to organizing. and managing an organization’s data resources? • What is the role of a database management system in an e-business information system? 41 . accessing.
What other kinds of databases are important for a business today? • What are the benefits and limitations of the relational database model for business applications? 42 .3 Discussion Questions (continued) • Databases of information about a firm’s internal operations were formerly the only databases that were considered to be important to a business.
extranets.3 Discussion Questions (continued) • Why is the object-oriented database model gaining acceptance for developing applications and managing the hypermedia databases at business websites? • How have the Internet. intranets. and the World Wide Web affected the types and uses of data resources available to business end users? 43 .
O'Brien. Boston: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin.2004 44 .3 References • James A. George M. Marakas.. Management Information Systems: Managing Information Technology in the Business Enterprise 6th Ed.
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