© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 1

GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 1 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Radio Network
GSM Radio Network
Optimisation
Optimisation
February 2006 February 2006
Trainer: Trainer: Mr NeviIIe Hawkins Mr NeviIIe Hawkins
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 2
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 2 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
· · Introduction Introduction
÷ ÷ Definition Definition
÷ ÷ Objectives Objectives
÷ ÷ Types of optimisation Types of optimisation
÷ ÷ Network expansion Network expansion
÷ ÷ Interfacing groups Interfacing groups
÷ ÷ Optimisation strategy Optimisation strategy
· · System basics System basics
÷ ÷ GSM air interface GSM air interface
÷ ÷ Measurements Measurements
· · BSS Parameters BSS Parameters
÷ ÷ IdIe mode IdIe mode
÷ ÷ Measurement fiItering Measurement fiItering
÷ ÷ Power ControI Power ControI
÷ ÷ Locating (Handover) Locating (Handover)
Contents
· ·QuaIity assessment QuaIity assessment
÷ ÷Network performance Network performance
measurements measurements
÷ ÷FieId measurements FieId measurements
· ·Optimisation measures Optimisation measures
÷ ÷Antenna adjustments Antenna adjustments
÷ ÷Frequency and interference pIanning Frequency and interference pIanning
÷ ÷Neighbour Iist pIanning Neighbour Iist pIanning
÷ ÷Common probIems Common probIems
÷ ÷Advanced techniques Advanced techniques
· ·Organisation Organisation
÷ ÷TimetabIes TimetabIes
÷ ÷Teams Teams
÷ ÷Preparation Preparation
÷ ÷Databases Databases
÷ ÷ImpIementation procedures ImpIementation procedures
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 3
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Contents
Introduction
· System Basics
· BSS Parameters
· QuaIity Assessment
· Optimisation Measures
· Organisation
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 4
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Introduction
· Definition
· Objectives
· Types of optimisation
· Network expansion
· Interfacing groups
· Optimisation strategy
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 5
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 5 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Introduction
· Definition
÷ "the process of fine tuning the radio network
cost effectiveIy, to improve the air interface
performance to achieve the desired
performance quaIity targets"
· Objectives
÷ Minimise interference
÷ Achieve specified GOS
÷ Achieve other network quaIity targets
· CaII success rate > 99%
Radio optimisation is an essential process of fine tuning the network in the most
cost-effective manner in order to improve the air interface performance so that it
meets the required network performance quality targets. Radio network optimisation
is a process which is continuous throughout the lifetime of the network but can be
subdivided into categories namely, initial (or pre-launch) and ongoing optimisation.
The main objectives of optimisation are to minimise interference, achieve the
required network quality target (GOS better than 1%), achieve high call success rate
(99% or better), in a cost effective manner.
The results of achieving this include increased revenue and maximum customer
satisfaction.
Ìn order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary to define the key network
performance metrics and the thresholds to be used in the analysis of the network
statistics. Generally two thresholds are defined, the first is an optimisation threshold
which enables worst performing cells to be identified for scheduled remedial work,
while the second is a fault threshold which identifies cells with problems requiring
immediate solution.
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Introduction
· Types of optimisation
÷ InitiaI optimisation
· A good radio network pIanning process may reduce
IeveI of optimisation at this stage
÷ Ongoing optimisation
· Output from this stage shouId be fed back into the
radio network pIanning process
÷ Augments/improves knowIedge of radio network
pIanners
÷ Improves the radio network pIanning
Ìnitial Optimisation is carried out prior to and immediately following system
launch and aims to maximise the ability of the network to deliver service at
a predefined and acceptable level of network performance quality at
commercial launch. Ìt is also carried out immediately following the turn on
of new cells for network expansion.
Ongoing Optimisation is a continuous program that aims to find and cure
problems, and enhance the performance of the network during its
operational lifetime.
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Introduction
· InitiaI optimisation
÷ Takes pIace prior to and immediateIy after
network Iaunch.
÷ Aims to maximise the abiIity of the network to
deIiver service at a predefined and acceptable
IeveI of network performance quaIity at
commercial launch
÷ AIso takes pIace after new ceII additions
For a network roll-out, initial optimisation can sometimes be hampered by the fact
that the network is under loaded. For example, capacity bottlenecks and
increased capacity effects on interference can only be properly evaluated when
the network is fully loaded. Therefore optimisation will continue after commercial
launch, and further adjustments made as traffic grows.
At the initial stage, there is a rapid improvement in network quality due to the fact
that the network quality at that time is heavily influenced by simple problems (such
as neighbour definitions) which are more easily solved. However, when the
network is operational, the problems become more localised and are perhaps not
as easy to solve. Ìn addition, the introduction of major changes or features in the
network may result in reduced quality, but rapid improvements should be realised
following the resolution of such problems.
When new cells are integrated into the live commercial network, initial
optimisation is required to ensure that the parameter settings and handovers to
neighbouring sites are correct and that no new problems are introduced. Ìn this
case, the network is loaded and therefore the optimisation is carried out in such a
way as to minimise negative customer impact.
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Introduction
· Ongoing optimisation
÷ Continuous program during operationaI Iife of
network
÷ Find and cure probIems
÷ Enhance network performance to meet
performance quaIity targets
Ongoing optimisation takes place continuously on a network in order to improve
quality performance with increased traffic loading, provide additional capacity (new
channel additions or network-wide frequency re-tunes) and resolve specific problems
which arise. Both these optimisation functions need a disciplined approach to network
implementation, operation and quality and require well controlled and documented
procedures.
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Introduction
· Ongoing optimisation
÷ Network Expansion
· Increasing the network capacity
· Extending coverage to new areas
÷ ImpIemented in stages or at reguIar intervaIs
· Addition of extra TRXs on existing ceIIs
· Addition of new sites
Expansion is an integral part of the operation of a mobile network. Ìt is driven
primarily by the actual growth of the subscriber base, which in turn is driven by the
marketing strategy and the actual performance of the network as perceived by the
user. Ìt is essential to ensure that there is always enough capacity in the network to
satisfy demand, and therefore, a strategy for network expansion planning is generally
established at the early stages of the life of the network. The additional capacity must
be introduced whilst maintaining and/or improving the quality of the network.
The growth of the radio network is therefore an ongoing process of refinements and
adjustments based on a number of input parameters, most of which are not under
the control of Radio Planning. They include:
· The projected subscriber growth
· The projected Usage in milli Erlangs (mE) per subscriber
· Special Value-added-services
· Special promotion plans
· Types of subscriber equipment used
· The projected number of mobile data users
· Areas in the network requiring coverage improvements as identified by
Marketing, Sales, Operations, Customer Care
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Introduction
· Sources of information
÷ Network statistics
· DaiIy/weekIy - from tooI such as Metrica
÷ ReguIar drive testing
· Using test equipment (TEMS)
÷ Customer compIaints
· Via customer service
÷ InternaI probIem reports
· Generated within the operating organisation
Network stats: is a very good source of information given that the amount of traffic
in the network is high enough to provide reliable statistics. The frequency and level
of detail of the report should also be set to ensure that there is sufficient information
for the groups involved in the optimisation activities, and for management.
Drive testing: while the traffic in the network is still in the early growing stages and
not statistically reliable, it is useful to perform regular drive tests along standard
defined routes. Calls of 2 minute duration should be made to generate data which
can be analysed to obtain relevant stats. This practice should be continued
throughout lifetime of network.
Customer compIaints: Although this is a good source of information, the details
such as location and type of problem are sometimes imprecise. Ìt is preferable not
to have customer complaints because by the time the complaint is received, the
problem has already caused inconvenience to a customer. Ìt is better to find the
problem before the customer does.
Ìnternal problem reports: staff in the organisation are encouraged to use the
network and call to a service desk or answering machine (set up for the purpose) to
lodge any faults they may find with the network (friendly customers!). All problems
can then be forwarded to the optimisation team for investigation (after flitering by
O&M).
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Introduction
· Radio network optimisation
÷ Network Expansion
TraIIic
Quality
For a given quality target, a certain traffic level is achieved. As network traffic
increases, the quality degrades as shown by the blue curve. To get the quality
back to target,
Generally, network capacity can only be increased at regular intervals, not
gradually. To provide additional capacity on existing sites as the number of
subscribers to the service grows, extra radio channels have to be provided within
each base station. When base stations have their full complement of channels,
then existing cells have to be reduced in size by adding new sites. Coverage is
provided to new areas by the integration of new sites. Therefore, site activation
and frequency re-tunes are part of the ongoing system improvement, and all or
parts of the network will need to be optimised after each site integration or
frequency retune process. The network therefore requires ongoing optimisation
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Introduction
· Interfacing groups
Operations Dept
NMC
Field Engineers
OMC
Customer
Service
Center
Sales &
Marketing
Radio Planning
Dept
Umbrella View`
Statistics;PerIormance;Reporting
Problem
Areas &
Cells
Statistics,
Reports & Actual
Coverage Maps
Network
Site Acceptance
Status &
Clears
Customer
Complaints
Customer
Complaints
Change
Requests
Fault Clears
Network
Status
New Plans
Suggestions/Requirements Ior Cell-selection and Acquisition
Production and update oI Predicted Coverage Maps and Problem Areas
Quality Dept
Optimisation
Team
Trouble Reports Statistics, Reports
NPC
The figure above is an idea of the relationships between the various groups in relation
to the Network and to the Customer-facing groups. Ìt may be that Operations also
have direct contact with the customers but in most cases this should not be
necessary.
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Introduction
· Optimisation strategy
Phase1: Preparation
Project pIan, databases,
Team/interfaces, test
equipment, performance
targets/threshoIds
Phase2: CIuster definition
Define cIusters, generate
input data (site data, maps,
pIots, neighbour Iists, BSS
parameters )
Phase3: InitiaI optimisation
Basic site checks, cIuster
verification, network tuning
Phase4: Ongoing optimisation
Measurements, data
anaIysis, soIution proposaI,
soIution impIementation,
verification of soIution
Phase5: Database maintenance
Update aII databases
Feedback resuIts
As required for any successful project, and in particular for network optimisation,
good planning and preparation are essential requirements. The optimisation
campaign may be sub divided into the following stages:
Phase 1: Preparation: definition of project plan, creation of database s, definition of
project team and interfaces, provision of measurement equipment/tools, generation
of performance targets/thresholds, creation of optimisation guidelines
Phase 2: Cluster definition: identification and definition of BS clusters for
optimisation, generation and/or collation of input data for the cluster (site data,
maps, plots, neighbour lists, BSS parameters)
Phase 3: Ìnitial optimisation: site validation (basic site checks), clu ster verification,
network tuning
Phase 4: Ongoing optimisation: diagnostic measurements (to include test data,
metrica statistics, customer complaints), identification of problems and proposal of
solutions, implementation of solutions, verification of improvement in network
performance
Phase 5: Database maintenance: update of optimisation and other plannin g
databases.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 14
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Introduction -review
· Definition
· Objectives
· Types of optimisation
· Network expansion
· Interfacing groups
· Optimisation strategy
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 15
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 15 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· Introduction
System Basics
· BSS Parameters
· QuaIity Assessment
· Optimisation Measures
· Organisation
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GSM basics
Mast &
antennas
MSC
Point of
Interconnection
Base
Transceiver
Station
BTS
Base Station
Controller
BSC
VLR
HLR
AUC
Home Location Register
Authentication
Centre
Mobile
Switching
Centre
EIR
Equipment
Identity
Register
OMC/NMC Operations & Maintenance Centre/
Network Management Centre
POI
Mobile
Station
MS
Visitor
Location
Register
BSS
OSS
NSS
GSM System Architecture
A GSM network is a Public Land Mobile cellular Network (PLMN). Ìt uses a network
of radio transmitters to transmit radio signals over the designated service area. The
radio signals are digitally encoded. This allows more services and greater security
than analogue systems.
The Base Station Subsystem provides the distribution function of the network. The
base transceiver stations provide the actual radio link with the mobiles used by the
subscribers. The BSS has a standard interface so that it is possible to connect to
different types of switching centres
The Network and Switching Subsystem is responsible for handling all the switching
and routing functions. The MSC does the actual switching, whilst the HLR/VLR
store the subscriber data. The AUC and the EÌR provide security of access to the
network.
The Operations Sub System is the operating nerve centre that monitors the various
BSS in the network, whilst the NMC is able to monitor the NSS as well as the
BSSs.
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GSM basics
· GSM Interfaces
TO
PSTN
BSC
Um Radio
Interface
BSS
TRAU
NSS
Abis
Interface
A-Interface
Ater
Interface
PSTN
Interface
The various components in the PLMN are linked either via the air interface
or terrestrial interfaces.
The main interfaces are:
1. Um: radio interface connects the mobile station to the BTSs.
2. Abis interface provides communication between the BTS and BSC.
3. Ater interface connects the BSC to the TRAU.
4. A interface provides communication between the BSS and the NSS, in
particular from the TRAU to the MSC.
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Contents
· System Basics
GSM channeIs
Spectrum aIIocation
Access scheme
Frame structures
PhysicaI channeI
LogicaI channeIs
ChanneI mapping (IogicaI onto physicaI)
÷ Measurements
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GSM Air interface
· GSM standards
÷ 05.01: PhysicaI Iayer on the radio path: generaI
description
÷ 05.02: MuItipIexing and muItipIe access on the
radio path
÷ 05.03: ChanneI coding
÷ 05.04: ModuIation
÷ 05.05: Radio transmission and reception
÷ 05.08: Radio subsystem Iink controI
÷ 05.10: Radio subsystem synchronisation
The GSM standards are available from the Ìnternet. Ìf they were printed out they
would use and enormous a mount of paper. Many are to do with fixed networking
and with detailed protocols. The ones mainly relevant to the radio interface are the
"05 series¨. Ìt is thoroughly recommended that radio planners and optimisation
engineers read the 05 series specifications entirely.
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GSM Air interface
· Spectrum AIIocation
÷ 900 MHz band
÷ 1800 MHz band
890
MHz
915
MHz
935
MHz
960
MHz
MS Transmit BS Transmit
MS Transmit BS Transmit
1710
MHz
1785
MHz
1805
MHz
1880
MHz
The spectrum allocation for Standard GSM 900 Band is
890 - 915 MHz: mobile transmit, base receive;
935 - 960 MHz: base transmit, mobile receive.
The Extended GSM 900 Band, E-GSM (includes Standard GSM 900 band) is:
880 - 915 MHz: mobile transmit, base receive;
925 - 960 MHz: base transmit, mobile receive.
The allocation in the GSM 1800 Band is
1710 - 1785 MHz: mobile transmit, base receive;
1805 - 1880 MHz: base transmit, mobile receive.
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GSM Air interface
· The ARFCN
÷ ChanneI bandwidth is 200kHz
GSM 900 F-DL(n) = 890 + 0.2*n 1 s s s s n s ss s 124 F-UL(n) = F-DL(n) + 45
E-GSM 900 F-DL(n) = 890 + 0.2*n 0 s ss s n s ss s 124 F-UL(n) = F-DL(n) + 45
F-DL(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n - 1024) 975 s ss s n s ss s 1023
GSM 1800 F-DL(n) = 1710.2 + 0.2*(n - 512) 512 s ss s n s ss s 885 F-UL(n) = F-DL(n) + 95
935.2 MHz
(n=1)
200 KHz 200 KHz
890.2 MHz
(n=1)
MS Transmit BS Transmit
45 MHz
Each frequency carrier or channel has a bandwidth of 200kHz. The carrier frequency
is designated by the Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN).
There are 124 channels in the standard 900 MHz band, and 374 in the 1800 MHz
band. (although there are 125 channels in the 25 MHz at 900MHz band and 375 in
the 1800MHz band, the lowest channel is not used to prevent interference with
nearby non-GSM systems).
The Mobile to Base Station path is referred to as the Uplink (UL), and the Base
Station to Mobile path is the Downlink (DL).
Therefore, one ARFCN comprises one Uplink frequency and a corresponding
Downlink frequency.
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GSM Air interface
· Access scheme
÷ TDMA with FDMA
200 kHz
TS0 TS1 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS2
577µ µµ µs
TS0 TS1 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS2
TS0 TS1 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS2
TS0 TS1 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS2
Time
Frequency
f1
f2
f3
f4
TDMA Frame (4.615 ms)
The 200 KHz spectrum is divided in time into 8 slots. Each of the 8 slots is called a
TimesIot, and its duration is 0.577ms.
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GSM Air interface
· TDMA frame structures
÷ TimesIot (15/26 ms)
÷ Frame:
· 8 timesIots (TS0 - TS7)
÷ MuItiframe
· 26 frames (FN0 - FN25)
· 51 frames (FN0 - FN50)
÷ Superframe
· 51 * 26-frame muItiframes
· 26 * 51-frame muItiframes
÷ Hyperframe
· 2048 superframes
The 200 KHz spectrum or frame is divided in time into 8 slots. Each of the 8 slots is
called a TimesIot, and its duration is (15/26ms) 0.577ms. The duration of the frame
is 8*0.577=4.615ms.
Each frame has a unique number called the Frame Number (FN), starting from 0. A
frame structure/hierarchy is important in order to give the BTS an internal clock
system. This clocking system is used for other functions such as network access,
logical channel configuration etc.
A 26-frame multiframe is used to carry Traffic channels (TCH) and associated
control channels (SACCH). The 51-frame multiframe is used for control channels
exclusively.
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GSM Air interface
· TDMA frame structures
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN0
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2 0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN1 FN50
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN25
0 1 3 4 23 2 24 25 0 1 3 4 2 48 49 50
26-frame MF 51-frame MF
0 1 3 4 23 2 24 25
0 1 3 4 2 48 49 50
51*26-MuItiframe Superframe
25*51-MuItiframe Superframe
0 1 3 4 2 2045 2046 2047
Hyperframe: 2048 Superframes
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Exercise!
· Given
· TDMA frame period = 4.615ms
÷ CaIcuIate the periods for each
· MuItiframe
· Superframe
· Hyperframe
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GSM Channels
· ChanneI types
÷ Defined in GSM 05.02
÷ PhysicaI channeI
· Frequency and timesIot
· HSN and MA and MAIO
÷ LogicaI channeIs
· Speech (e.g. TCH/FS, TCH/HS)
· Data (e.g. TCH/F9.6)
· ControI (e.g. BCCH, SDCCH, SACCH etc)
GSM Specification 05.02 defines all the channel types. There are two
categories: Logical and Physical. Physical channels are defined by the
frequency or frequency sequence and the timeslot number, while logical
channels by the kind of information they carry.
There are various kinds of logical channel, broadly speaking traffic and
control. Traffic may be data or voice traffic. Ìt is not possible to carry data
over a voice channel (unlike with an analogue line).
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GSM Channels
· PhysicaI channeI - Bursts
÷ Information carried on physicaI channeIs is
transmitted in bursts
÷ The moduIation scheme is GMSK
· Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying with BT=0.3
· ModuIation rate is 270.83 kb/s (=1625/6 kb/s)
÷ Corresponds to 156.25 bits in the timesIot
· No ampIitude moduIation
· Gives minimum spectrum requirements
· EnabIes constant output power to be used
Timeslots transmit bursts of data. Five types are defined, four full ones and one
short burst.
A burst is the information or physical content (speech or data) transmitted during
one timeslot - it is a period of the RF carrier that is modulated by a data stream.
Bursts have very precise timing characteristics, so that all network components
know exactly when to transmit and when to receive. The size of the burst depends
on the type of data that is transmitted. One burst contains a maximum of 156.25
bits, the odd 0.25 bit being due to a guard period of 8.25 bits duration (30µs).
Where no data is required to be conveyed, no burst is transmitted and the timeslot
is empty.
Reduction of BTS or MS power will result in bursts of reduced amplitude filling a
timeslot.
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GSM Channels
· PhysicaI channeI - the GSM burst
» Ref: GSM 05.05
dB
t
- 6
- 30
+ 4
8 µs 10 µs 10 µs 8 µs
(147 bits)
7056/13 (542.8) µs 10 µs
(*)
10 µs
- 1
+ 1
(***)
(**)
156.25 bits
A timeslot is divided into 156.25 bit periods. A particular bit period within a timeslot is
referenced by a bit number (BN), with the first bit period being numbered 0, and the
last (1/4) bit period being numbered 156. The bit with the lowest bit number is
transmitted first.
A burst consists of sections as follows:
·A guard period (approx 30µs) to prevent overlapping with adjacent bursts
·A useful part containing information (147 bits)
·A mid amble or training sequence, used by equaliser to calculate multipath delay
and compensate.
Ramp-up and ramp-down takes place in the guard period.This is mandatory for MS
transmission, but the BTS is not required to ramp up and down between adjacent
bursts.
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GSM Channels
· PhysicaI channeI - Bursts
÷ Five types
· NormaI burst (NB)
· Frequency correction burst (FB)
· Synchronisation burst (SB)
· Access burst (AB)
· Dummy burst (DB)
Timeslots transmit bursts of data. There are different kinds of burst associated with
different channel types.
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GSM Channels
· PhysicaI channeI - bursts
NormaI Burst
3 142 3 8
1
/
4
3 39 39 64 3 8
1
/
4
8 41 36 3 68
1
/
4
Frequency Correction
Burst
Synchronisation Burst
Dummy Burst
Access Burst
1 1
TaiI Guard
Period
Extended Training Sequence
3 58
58 26 3 8
1
/
4
Encrypted Data
Encrypted Data Training
Sequence
TaiI
Fixed Sequence
Encrypted Data Encrypted Data
Encrypted Data Synchronisation
Sequence
Extended Guard Period
3 58
58 26 3 8
1
/
4
Encrypted Data
Encrypted Data Training
Sequence
TaiI
NormaI Burst (NB): full burst used for carrying user encrypted data or control
signalling on uplink and downlink. 1 bit on either side of the training sequence are
given the function of "stealing flags¨ to denote if the burst carries data or has been
"stolen¨ to provide urgent signalling channel FACCH.
Frequency Correction Burst (FB): full burst, used in downlink only and is the
simplest burst. All data and training periods are combined into one long period of 142
bits all set to '0'. Ìt is used by a mobile to correct its frequency and demodulate the
synchronisation burst.
Synchronisation Burst (SB): full burst, used in downlink only on the SCH which
transmits frame number and initial identification information (BSÌC) of the cell. The
extended training sequence provides sufficient information for the mobile to attain
frame synchronisation with the BTS and obtain the Timeslot Number (TN) in the
Hyperframe.
Dummy Burst (DB): full burst, used in downlink direction only and has same structure
as normal burst except it does not carry any useful information. The encrypted data is
a known pre-defined series. Ìt is used on the BCCH carrier which has to transmit all the
time to enable mobiles to synchronise and carry out signal measurements for handover
purposes.
Access Burst (AB): the only short burst in GSM, used by the mobile in the uplink to
access the network. The extended guard period of 68.25 bits makes allowance for
burst transmissions from other mobiles.
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GSM Channels
· PhysicaI ChanneI
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TimesIot
156.25 bits
0.577 ms
PhysicaI ChanneI
TDMA Frame
TDMA Frame
Duration: 4.615ms
No.of timesIots: 8
Numbering: 0 - 2 715 647
(25 x 51 x 2048 -1)
TimesIot
Duration: 577us
No.of bits: 156.25
Numbering: 0 - 7
A TDMA Frame consists of the 8 consecutive timeslots [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. The TDMA
frames are numbered rigidly, because different frames carry different channels, for
example a TCH and a SACCH share the same timeslot number and frequency, but
are differentiated through the TDMA frame number sequence that they use.
The PhysicaI channeI is the repetition of a particular timeslot - in this example, TS
1. The repetition of TS 2 would be another physical channel, etc. etc.
Therefore one RF carrier can carry up to 8 simultaneous conversations, in other
words it carries transmissions from 8 different subscribers simultaneously. The
Mobile or base station must transmit the information related to one call in the same
timeslot until the call is terminated.
Each physical channel carries a varying number of logical channels.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 32
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 32 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· PhysicaI channeIs
÷ Frequencies, channeI aIIocation
· CA: the Iist of frequencies aIIocated to a ceII
· MA: the Iist of frequencies aIIocated to a mobiIe
÷ When frequency hopping
· MAI: indexes the Iist of mobiIe frequencies
÷ For each TDMA frame
· MAIO: offset to the MA Index to avoid two TRX in one
ceII using the same frequency
· HSN: Hopping sequence number
Each cell is allocated a set of frequencies. The allocation is stored in the CA (Cell
Allocation). The frequencies may be hopping or not. When frequency hopping, a
mobile will be allocated a set of frequencies called the MA (Mobile Allocation). The
MA will be a subset of the CA.
The hopping sequence generation algorithm is carefully defined in GSM 05.02.
The algorithm itself generates an index (MAÌ) for each TDMA frame, which is used
to look up from the MA list the actual frequency used in each TDMA frame.
Transceivers in one cell using the same MA are each given an offset (MAÌO) to the
index number for each frame. This makes it impossible for two TRX in the same
cell to use the same frequency in the same TDMA frame.
The sequence generation algorithm uses the Hopping Sequence Number (HSN)
and the TDMA Frame Number (FN) to generate the MAÌ. FN is effectively random
for non synchronised BSs, but is the same for the cells on the same site.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 33
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 33 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· LogicaI ChanneIs
÷ Traffic CHanneIs (TCH)
· Speech channeIs
÷ FuII rate traffic channeI for speech (TCH/FS)
÷ HaIf rate traffic channeI for speech (TCH/HS)
· Data channeIs
÷ FuII rate traffic for 9.6 kbit/s data (TCH/F9.6)
÷ FuII rate traffic for 4.8 kbit/s data (TCH/F4.8)
÷ FuII rate traffic for s ss s 2.4 kbit/s data (TCH/F2.4)
÷ HaIf rate traffic for 4.8 kbit/s data (TCH/H4.8)
÷ HaIf rate traffic for s ss s 2.4 kbit/s data (TCH/H2.4)
GSM requires a great variety of information (data and control) to be transmitted in both
uplink and downlink. The concept of logical channels is used to convey the different
types of data. Therefore, to use a given channel is to transmit and receive specific
bursts at specific instants in time and on specific frequencies.
Speech traffic channels may be Full Rate or Half Rate or Enhanced Full Rate. Half
Rate channels only occupy half of each time slot.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 34
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 34 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· LogicaI ChanneIs
÷ Traffic CHanneIs (TCH)
· Data channeIs
TCH
TCH/F TCH/H
TCH/H 4.8
TCH/H 2.4
TCH/F 9.6
TCH/F 4.8
TCH/F 1.2
TCH/F 2.4
The Traffic channels carries either speech or data.
The Full Rate channel carries encoded information at a gross rate of 22.8 kb/s. The
net rate for speech is 13 kb/s, whilst for data, the net rates are 9.6 kb/s, 4.8 kb/s, 2.4
kb/s.
·TCH/F9.6: 9.6 kb/s full rate data
·TCH/F4.8: 4.8 kb/s full rate data
·TCH/F2.4: 2.4 kb/s full rate data
The Half Rate channel have less coding overhead and carry encoded information at
a gross rate of 11.4 kb/s, and net rates of 4.8 kb/s, 2.4 kb/s.
·TCH/H4.8: 4.8 kb/s half rate data
·TCH/H2.4: 2.4 kb/s half rate data
Since 9.6 kbit/s is already slow enough, few people use the 4.8k or 2.4k channels.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 35
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 35 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· LogicaI ChanneIs
÷ ControI channeIs
· Broadcast ChanneIs (BCH)
· Common controI channeIs (CCCH)
· Dedicated ControI ChanneIs (DCCH)
There are a large number of control channels defined for different purposes. The
Control channels (CCH) carry signalling or synchronisation information. There are
three main types of control channels:
BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel: downlink only and are transmitted to all mobiles
CCCH: Common Control Channel: used for a temporary period to make
connections and set up other channels
DCCH: Dedicated Control Channel: used for a temporary period to make
connections and set up other channels
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 36
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 36 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· LogicaI ChanneIs
÷ ControI CHanneIs (CCH)
CCH
DCCH
SDCCH
BCCH
SCH FCCH
BCCH
FACCH
ACCH
SACCH
CCCH
RACH
PCH AGCH
(DL)
(UL)
(DL) (DL)
CBCH
(DL)
(UL&DL)
BCCH: Point to multipoint, unidirectional (Downlink) channel, transmitted at constant power
all the time from the BS. Ìt carries information such as List of frequencies used in cell, cell
identity, location area identity, list of neighbour cells, access control (emergency calls etc.),
power control & DTX information. Ìt includes
CCCH: Point to multipoint, bi-directional (Up & Downlink) channel, used for carrying signalling data for
access management functions. Ìt includes
DCCH: Point to point, directional (Up & Downlink) channel, used for carrying signalling data for call
setup or for measurement and handover purposes. Ìt includes
·SDCCH: Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel, used for data transfer to/from mobile during call
setup, and for transmission of SMS
·ACCH: Associated Control channel, can be associated with either a TCH or an SDCCH, and are used
for the processes associated with those two channels
·SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel, carries timing and power control information
downlink to the mobile, and quality and signal strength measurements uplink to the BS.
·FACCH: Fast Associated Control channel is used to implement user authentication and
handovers. Ìt is transmitted instead of a TCH, and is referred to as burst stealing - the FACCH
steals the TCH burst and replaces it with its own information.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 37
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 37 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· LogicaI ChanneIs: ControI channeIs
÷ Broadcast CHanneIs (BCH)
· Frequency correction channeI (FCCH)
· Synchronisation channeI (SCH)
· Broadcast controI channeI (BCCH)
÷ Common ControI CHanneIs (CCCH)
· Paging channeI (PCH)
· Random access channeI (RACH)
· Access grant channeI (AGCH)
· CeII Broadcast ChanneI (CBCH)
BCCH: Point to multipoint, unidirectional (Downlink) channel, transmitted at constant power
all the time from the BS. Ìt carries information such as List of frequencies used in cell, cell
identity, location area identity, list of neighbour cells, access control (emergency calls etc.),
power control & DTX information. Ìt includes
FCCH, Frequency Correction Channel, consists of bursts which have 142 fixed bits and
enables the Mobile to synchronise to the right frequency for the BS. Ìt is transmitted in frames
immediately before the SCH.
SCH, Synchronisation Channel (DL) consists of regular sequence of bits and enables the
mobile to synchronise on first registration to the right TDMA frame using the frame number
and BSÌC. A timeslot containing the SCH is transmitted once every tenth TDMA frame. There
is an extended training sequence to help identify the cell to which the mobile is registering.
CCCH: Point to multipoint, bi-directional (Up & Downlink) channel, used for carrying signalling
data for access management functions. Ìt includes
PCH: Paging Channel, downlink channel for paging mobiles
AGCH: Access Grant channel , downlink channel used to assign dedicated channel to a
mobile station for setting up calls.
RACH: Random Access channel, an uplink channel used by the Mobile for requesting for a
dedicated control channel when initiating a call.
CBCH: Cell Broadcast Channel, a downlink channel used to transmit broadcast messages to
all mobiles. Ìt is transmitted in the place of an SDCCH - steals SDCCH.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 38
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 38 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· ControI channeIs
÷ Dedicated ControI CHanneIs
· SIow associated controI channeI (SACCH/TF)
· Fast associated controI channeI (FACCH/TF)
· Stand aIone dedicated controI channeI (SDCCH/8)
· SIow associated controI channeI (SACCH/C8)
· Stand aIone dedicated controI channeI, combined
with CCCH (SDCCH/4)
DCCH: Point to point, directional (Up & Downlink) channel, used for carrying signalling data
for call setup or for measurement and handover purposes. Dedicated channels are so called
because they are dedicated to one mobile in dedicated mode (as opposed to idle mode).
Dedicated control channels fall into two categories: There are "stand alone¨ channels and
"associated¨ channels. The stand alone channels can be set up in their own right.
SDCCH: Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel, used for data transfer to/from BS/MS
during call setup, and for transmission of SMS. Messages inc. "Layer 3¨ messages and
indicate commands such as "Assign Channel¨, "Update Location Area¨, etc. The SDCCH
can be combined on the same physical channel as the BCCH and CCCHs, and is time
division multiplexed, or can be allocated an entire physical channel itself, depending on the
traffic requirements.
ACCH: Associated Control channel, can only be associated with either a TCH or an
SDCCH, and are used for the processes associated with those two channels
SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel uses a small number of timeslots
occasionally to carry timing and power control information downlink to the mobile,
and quality and signal strength measurements uplink to the BS.
FACCH: Fast Associated Control channel is used to implement user authentication
and handovers. Ìt is transmitted instead of a TCH, and is referred to as burst stealing
- the FACCH steals the TCH burst and replaces it with its own information. That is, a
FACCH exists when a TCH is temporarily used for SDCCH purposes.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 39
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 39 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· LogicaI ChanneIs
NormaI
Burst
SDCCH
BCCH
CBCH
PCH
AGCH
FACCH
SACCH
Access
Burst
RACH
Dummy
Burst
BCCH FCH SCH
Frequency
Burst
Synchronisation
Burst
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 40
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 40 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· Mapping LogicaI to PhysicaI channeIs
÷ PhysicaI channeI has severaI IogicaI channeIs
· TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF
· FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH
· SDCCH/8 + SACCH/C8
÷ "Non-combined"
· FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4 +
SACCH/C4
÷ "Combined"
· where CCCH = PCH + RACH + AGCH
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 41
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 41 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· ChanneI Mapping: LogicaI to PhysicaI
÷ TCH carrier
· TCH/F + SACCH/TF + FACCH/F
· 24 sIots for TCH/F
· 1 sIot for SACCH
· 1 idIe sIot
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0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN0
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN1
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN25
The TCH configuration comprises 24 TS where TCH/F (speech or user data) is
transmitted. 1 TS for its SACCH (each TCH has an associated SACCH to convey
signalling between MS and BTS in active mode), and 1 TS is idle. The TCH/F
period is 120ms, chosen as a multiple of 20ms in order to obtain some
synchronisation with fixed networks, especially ÌSDN.
Ìf the network sets the "stealing flags¨ in the normal burst, a timeslot can be
stolen and replaced with a FACCH to send urgent signalling data
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 42
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 42 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· ChanneI Mapping: LogicaI to PhysicaI
÷ BCCH carrier (non combined)
· FCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH
÷ 5 TS for FCH
÷ 5 TS for SCH
÷ 4 TS for BCCH
÷ 36 TS for CCCH
÷ 1 TS is idIe
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FN0
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FN1
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN25
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 2
FN50
With non-combined, a separate timeslot is used for eight SDCCH channels and
their SACCHs.
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s
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(1)
SDCCH/4(1)
SDCCH/4(1)
SDCCH/4(1)
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(3)
SDCCH/4(3)
SDCCH/4(3)
SDCCH/4(3)
FCCH
SCH
SACCH/C4/(0)
SACCH/C4/(0)
SACCH/C4/(0)
SACCH/C4/(0)
SACCH/C4/(1)
SACCH/C4/(1)
SACCH/C4/(1)
SACCH/C4/(1)
IDLE
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(0)
SDCCH/4(1)
SDCCH/4(1)
SDCCH/4(1)
SDCCH/4(1)
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(2)
SDCCH/4(3)
SDCCH/4(3)
SDCCH/4(3)
SDCCH/4(3)
FCCH
SCH
SACCH/C4/(2)
SACCH/C4/(2)
SACCH/C4/(2)
SACCH/C4/(2)
SACCH/C4/(3)
SACCH/C4/(3)
SACCH/C4/(3)
SACCH/C4/(3)
IDLE
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
2
F
N
0
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
2 F
N
1
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
2
F
N
2
5
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
2
F
N
5
0
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
2
F
N
1
0
1
S
y
n
c
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r
o
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i
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t
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n

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f
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c
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s

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y

t
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f
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.


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S
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h
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a
n

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.


F
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r

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v
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y

e
i
g
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t

S
D
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T
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f
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t
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a
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e

f
o
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r

S
A
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C
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f
r
a
m
e
s
.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 45
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 45 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· CaII set-up
÷ MobiIe terminated
· PCH used to transmit page to mobiIe in aII ceIIs
within the Location Area in which it was Iast
registered in the VLR
PCH
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 46
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 46 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· CaII set-up
÷ MobiIe terminated
· MobiIe "hears" page and requests communication
on the RACH
PCH
RACH
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 47
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 47 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· CaII set-up
÷ MobiIe terminated
· Base station responds on the Access Grant ChanneI
(AGCH), with detaiIs of a Dedicated ControI ChanneI
(SDCCH)
RACH
AGCH
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 48
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 48 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· CaII set-up
÷ MobiIe terminated
· The SDCCH is used to transfer aII caII set-up
information, e.g. authentication detaiIs, caIIers
number (if enabIed), etc.
SDCCH
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 49
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 49 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· CaII set-up
÷ MobiIe terminated
· On the SDCCH, the mobiIe is toId which traffic
channeI to use (frequency, hopping sequence,
timesIot)
SDCCH
TCH
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 50
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 50 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· CaII set-up
÷ MobiIe originated
· Rather than starting with a "downIink" page, the
mobiIe initiates proceedings on the RACH
RACH
AGCH
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 51
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 51 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels
· CaII set-up
÷ Summary
Paging (PCH) -
mobiIe
terminated onIy
Random Access
Request (RACH)
Access Grant
(AGCH)
CaII setup
(SDCCH)
CaII in progress
(TCH)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 52
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 52 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Channels - Review
· · GSM channeIs GSM channeIs
÷ ÷ Spectrum aIIocation Spectrum aIIocation
÷ ÷ Access scheme Access scheme
÷ ÷ Frame structures Frame structures
÷ ÷ PhysicaI channeI PhysicaI channeI
÷ ÷ LogicaI channeIs LogicaI channeIs
÷ ÷ ChanneI Mapping: LogicaI onto physicaI ChanneI Mapping: LogicaI onto physicaI
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 53
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 53 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· System Basics
÷ GSM ChanneIs
Measurements
· IdIe mode
· Dedicated mode
· RxLev
· RxQuaI
· Radio Link Timer
· Timing Advance
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 54
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 54 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· IdIe mode
· Dedicated mode
· RxLev
· RxQuaI
· Radio Link Timer
· Timing Advance
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 55
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 55 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· DownIink, idIe mode
÷ SignaI IeveI of BCCH carrier frequency
÷ SignaI IeveI of BCCH carrier from 6 neighbours
· UpIink, idIe mode
÷ No measurements
Ìn idle mode it is not possible to measure the Bit error rate. Also, it is not
possible to measure the bit error rate of neighbours in dedicated mode.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 56
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 56 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· DownIink, dedicated mode
÷ SignaI IeveI of serving carrier
÷ SignaI IeveI of BCCH carrier from 6 neighbours
÷ Bit error rate of serving channeI
· UpIink, dedicated mode
÷ SignaI IeveI of serving carrier
÷ Bit error rate of serving channeI
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 57
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 57 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· SignaI IeveI, RxLev
RxLev SignaI
0 < -110dBm
1 -110 to -109dBm
2 -109 to -108dBm
: :
: :
61 - 49 to - 48dBm
62 - 48 to - 47dBm
63 > - 47 dBm
Signal level is represented as RxLev for transmission back to the BSC. The RxLev
actually represents a signal level range, usually 1 dB. Therefore
Signal levels lower than ÷110dBm are reported as RxLev 0, and levels higher than ÷
47 dBm are represented as RxLev 63. Even if a test mobile can measure higher, it is
still reported to the BSC as 63. Signal level higher than ÷110dBm but lower than ÷
109dBm is reported as RxLev1 etc. etc.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 58
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 58 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· Bit Error Rate (BER(), RxQuaI
RxQuaI BER range BER mean
0 < 0.2% 0.14%
1 0.2 to 0.4% 0.28%
2 0.4 to 0.8% 0.57%
3 0.8 to 1.6% 1.13%
4 1.6 to 3.2% 2.26%
5 3.2 to 6.4% 4.53%
6 6.4 to 12.8% 9.05%
7 > 12.8% 18.1%
RxQual of 4, about 2% BER, is about the limit of acceptable voice quality
when not hopping. 5 is unacceptable. Ìn a hopping system RxQual of 6
may still give acceptable speech quality. The error correction coding will
restore the original data to a lower BER.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 59
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 59 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· Measurement reporting
÷ Reported once every (SACCH/TCH-F muItiframe)
· Every 104 TDMA frames = 480ms for TCH
· Every 102 TDMA frames = 471ms for SDCCH
÷ 4 TDMA frames carry SACCH channeI
· Measurements reported on upIink
· Messages sent on downIink
· 2 idIe frames
Measurements made by the MS on the neighbour cells are sent to the
BSC on the SACCH channel.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 60
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 60 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· RxLev SUB and RxQuaI SUB
÷ FuII measurements based on aII timesIots
÷ With DTX not aII TimesIots transmit
÷ SUB Measurements based on 12 timesIots
which aIways transmit
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 61
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 61 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· Radio Link Timer (RLT)
÷ Radio Iink timer counts down from a maximum
vaIue whenever synchronisation is Iost
÷ Timer at BS and MS
÷ When synch is returned counts up in 2's
÷ Maximum vaIue is a settabIe parameter
÷ CaII disconnected when timer expires
· Long timer, fewer dropped caIIs, more wasted
capacity
· Shorter timer, caIIs disconnected unnecessariIy
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 62
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 62 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements
· Measurements
÷ Timing advance
BS Tx
MS Rx
t tt t
1 11 1
t = range / c
MS Tx
3 TS
t tt t
1 11 1 BS Rx
t tt t
2 22 2
t tt t
2 22 2
Different mobiles at different ranges have different propagation times from
and to the BS. Without timing advance the second (dotted) burst
belonging to a closer mobile would interfere with the first. The MS with the
shortest delay should then wait longer to transmit, so that its received at
the MS at the appropriate slot.
Mobiles closer to the BS have their transmission delayed up to 63 bit
periods (232ms), so that all incoming bursts arrive in the correct timeslots
at the BS. The 232ms allows for a round trip delay corresponding to
69.6km, or a range differential of 34.8km. Since there is a guard time
between timeslots, the maximum range for GSM is generally considered
as 35km.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 63
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 63 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
GSM Measurements - review
· IdIe mode
· Dedicated mode
· RxLev
· RxQuaI
· Radio Link Timer
· Timing Advance
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 64
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 64 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· System Basics
BSS Parameters
· QuaIity Assessment
· Optimisation Measures
· Organisation
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 65
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 65 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· BSS Parameters
IdIe Mode Behaviour
÷ Measurement FiItering
÷ Power ControI
÷ Handover (Iocating)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 66
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 66 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle mode behaviour
· PLMN seIection
· CeII seIection
· CeII reseIection
· Location Updating
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 67
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 67 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· PLMN SeIection
÷ At power on, MS first tries to seIect Iast
registered PLMN
÷ If no previous registered PLMN, seIection is
made in
· Automatic mode: uses PLMN Iist in order of priority
· ManuaI mode: seIection is made by user based on
Iist made avaiIabIe by MS
Automatic mode: selection done in following order if available/allowed:
1. Home PLMN
2. Stored list in SÌM in order of priority
3. Other PLMNs with signal strength> -85 dBm
4. All other PLMNs in order of decreasing signal strength
Manual Mode:
MS first tries to select registered or home PLMN. Otherwise, MS will
indicate a list of all available PLMNs from which user selects. User can
reselect any other PLMN at any time.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 68
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 68 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· PLMN SeIection: NationaI Roaming
÷ If roaming permitted, another PLMN in the
home country can be seIected
÷ MS wiII periodicaIIy try to obtain service on its
home PLMN.
· Time period stored in SIM:
÷ 6 mins to 8 hours in steps of 6 mins
÷ No time period indicates no attempts
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 69
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 69 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· CeII SeIection - Where do I camp on ?
· Two strategies
÷ NormaI ceII seIection
÷ Stored Iist ceII seIection/doubIe BA Iist
?
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 70
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 70 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· NormaI CeII SeIection
÷ A ceII is suitabIe if
· it beIongs to seIected PLMN
· is not barred
· does not beIong to Iist of "forbidden LA areas for
roaming"
· CeII seIection criterion is met
÷ CeIIs have normaI or Iow priority
÷ Priority controIIed by CBQ (Ph2) and CB
parameters
Ìf no normal cells available, cells of low priority will be camped
on.
CBQ: Cell Bar Qualify
CB: Cell Bar Access
Behaviour of MS for various combinations of CBQ & CB
CBQ CB At Cell Selection At Cell Reselection
High No Normal Normal
High Yes Barred Barred
Low No Low Normal
Low Yes Low Normal
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 71
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 71 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· CeII SeIection
÷ CeII seIection parameter C1
· EnabIes MS to camp on ceII with which high
probabiIity of communications is possibIe
· Based on signaI strength onIy
· C1 caIcuIated for severaI ceIIs
÷ MobiIe seIects ceII with highest C1
· C1=(Received SignaI LeveI-ACCMIN) -
MAX[(CCHPWR-P),0]
· OnIy ceIIs with positive C1 are considered
CCHPWR: maximum transmitting power that a MS is allowed to use when
accessing the network
P: maximum output power of the MS according to its class.
C1 Criterion is based only on signal strength. Ìt is satisfied if C1>0
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 72
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 72 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· CeII SeIection: ACCMIN
÷ Minimum IeveI for access to the network in idIe
mode
· One for each ceII
· UsuaIIy around the same IeveI as the mobiIe
sensitivity
· Attract roamers by setting to -110dBm at airports
and borders
÷ But phase 2+ picks roaming network at random
provided RxLev > -85 dBm
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 73
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 73 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· Stored List CeII SeIection
÷ MS may have optionaI BA Iist stored in the SIM
÷ Same measurements carried out as for normaI
ceII seIection, but BCCH carriers in stored Iist
are scanned, not neighbours
÷ Speeds up ceII seIection
÷ List updated if MS receives new data
÷ If not successfuI, normaI seIection done
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 74
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 74 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle mode behaviour
· CeII seIection
Monitor BCCH
carrier of
"Camped CeII"
Monitor BCCH
of Neighbours
The mobile is in idle mode except when making a call or switched off!
When in idle mode, the MS is camped on one cell, there is no speech or
data traffic being carried. However, the MS is "listening¨ to neighbour cells
(contained in neighbour list), and sending measurements back to the BSC
via the BS.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 75
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 75 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· CeII ReseIection
÷ MS monitors aII neighbour BCCH carriers and
seIects ceII best ceII
÷ CeII reseIection parameter C2
· C2=C1+CRO - TO * H(PT-T) for PT = == = 31
· C2=C1- CRO for PT = 31
÷ H(x) = 0 for x<0
÷ H(x) = 1 for x> >> >0
· CRO: CeII ReseIect Offset
· TO : temporary negative offset appIied for duration PT
PenaItyTime
· T : Timer starts from zero when ceII pIaced on nbr Iist
The MS always aims to camp on the best server. Cell reselection takes place when
the MS moves from one serving cell to another, or if the propagation characteristics
change to make the current cell not the best server.
C2 also used in Phase 2 for selection of microcells.
TO (dB), negative offset prevents fast moving MSs from selecting cell.
PT (secs), duration for which TO is applied. The value of 31 indicates that CRO is
negated and TO is ignored.
T (secs), timer is reset to zero when cell falls out of list of best six nbrs.
CRO, TO, PT are broadcast on the BCCH of each cell
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 76
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 76 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· Location Updating
÷ Service area divided into Location Areas
· Location Area Identity, LAIs
÷ Process of informing network of the Iocation
of MS
÷ LU performed at pre defined intervaIs
÷ Three types of Locating
· NormaI
· Periodic registration
· IMSI attach/detach

Location Areas are essential for routing incoming calls efficiently. Ìf all area was
one LA, then a page would have to be sent to all MSs in the network, which would
be inefficient. Ìf each cell were one location area, then the mobile would have to
update its location each time it left the cell area.
Normal locating: initiated by MS when it enters a new LA. Ìf LAÌ in new cell is
different to that stored in MS, then LU takes place. Ìf LU fails (e.g by entering a
forbidden LA), then MS will try to select another cell or return to PLMN selection
state.
Periodic Registration: MS informs network regularly if it is still 'attached', even if a
change in LA does not occur.
ÌMSÌ (Ìnternational Mobile Subscriber Ìdentity) attach/detach: MS notifies network
if it is powered on or off.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 77
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 77 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· NormaI Locating
÷ Incoming caIIs resuIt in paging for mobiIe in aII
ceIIs within one Iocation area
÷ When mobiIe moves Iocation area, it updates
the network
· Large LAs: Much paging traffic (PCH)
· SmaII LAs : Much update traffic (SDCCH)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 78
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 78 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· LAI Periodic Registration
÷ Updates LAI even if mobiIe has not changed
LA
· In case of HLR crash
· In case of Iong periods out of coverage
· In case MS runs out of battery power
÷ ControIIed by parameter T3212
÷ Set from 0.1 hr to 25.5 hrs in 0.1 hr steps
· Shorter for networks with patchy coverage?
· Longer for mature networks?
Periodic Registration: Parameter T3212, a timeout value, determines how
regularly the MS informs network if it is still 'attached'. Ranges from
T3212=1 (6 mins) to T3212=255 (25.5 hrs), in steps of 6 minutes. Ìt is
reinitiated when MS returns to idle mode after being in dedicated mode.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 79
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 79 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· Location Areas
River?
Major road?
LA planning:
Do not put major roads across two location areas, because otherwise
every MS crossing the boundary would have to do an LA update, using up
SDCCH resources.
Do not use rivers or non propagation boundary type features to demarcate
Las.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 80
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 80 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· IMSI Attach/Detach
÷ MS powers on - IMSI attach
÷ MS powers off - IMSI detach
÷ Prevents unnecessary paging of MS
÷ MS can be impIicitIy detached if no updates
received within a supervision period
· Supervision period must be Ionger than periodic
update timer
· Borders between LAs
· CRH ceII reseIect hysteresis
· LU takes pIace onIy if
÷ C2(new ceII) > C2(oId ceII) + CRH
When MS is powered on, ÌMSÌ attach is sent to MSC/VLR. When MS is
powered off, ÌMSÌ detach message is sent. Prevents unnecessary paging
of MS.
Ìf no contact between MS and network for a specified supervision period,
then the MSC will mark the MS as implicitly detached. The supervision
period = Base Time duration BTDM + Guard Time duration GTDM. The
BTDM must be coordinated with T3212 so that the MS is not unexpectedly
removed from network before LU is performed.
For Ph1 mobiles, C1 is used instead of C2 for updates in LA borders.
CRH may be different for each cell, and the one broadcast by the serving
cell is used for calculations.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 81
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 81 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Idle Mode Behaviour
· BSIC
÷ Base Station Identity Code
÷ MS decodes BSIC from the BCCH
÷ EnabIes mobiIe to differentiate between ceIIs
with the same BCCH frequency
÷ Made up of NCC (0-7) and BCC (0-7)
· NCC: normally one per network - for differentiating
networks at internationaI borders
· BCC: aII vaIues avaiIabIe
NCC = Network Colour Code
BCC = Base Station Colour Code
BSÌC coding takes place as part of frequency planning process
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 82
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 82 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· BSS Parameters
÷ IdIe Mode Behaviour
Measurement FiItering
÷ Power ControI
÷ Handover (Iocating)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 83
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 83 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· Measurement preparation
· FiItering
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 84
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 84 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· Measurement Preparation
÷ Radio parameters, signaI strength, quaIity and
timing advance
÷ DownIink measurements by MS are basis for
Locating
÷ UpIink measurements by BS are used for
· MS power controI
· Basic ranking for Ericsson3
· Triggering urgency and intra-ceII handover
÷ Every SACCH muItiframe (480 ms)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 85
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 85 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· Missing measurements
÷ Neighbour not eIigibIe for handover if
consecutive reports missing
÷ MISSNM maximum number of missing
measurements permitted
÷ Missing measurements interpoIated if
reporting resumes before MISSNM report
periods
÷ Measurements on neighbour terminated if
MISSNM exceeded.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 86
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 86 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· FiItering
÷ AppIied to signaI strength and quaIity
measurements
· Smoothes out measurement noise
· FiIters out fading components of duration about
same as fiIter response time
÷ Five fiIter types
· GeneraI FIR
· Recursive straight average
· Recursive exponentiaI
· Recursive 1
st
order Butterworth
· Median
General FÌR filter Ìmplemented as straight average filters
n = filter length in SACCH periods,
wi are weight coefficients, cn are normalisation coefficients
Recursive Straight Average Filter
t is time of arrival of latest measurement report
Maximum computational efficiency (min load on BSC)
Recursive Exponential filter Quick step and impulse response
| = 1- o, o is the filter coefficient
Recursive 1st order Butterworth filter
| = (1- o)/2
¿
=
=
n
i
i i n
strength signal w c rxlev
1
) ¸ (
(
¸
(

¸
÷
+ =
÷
÷
n
strength signal strength signal
rxlev rxlev
n t t
t t
) ¸ ( ) ¸ (
1
t t t
strength signal rxlev rxlev ) ¸ (
1
× + × =
÷
| o
| |
1 1
) ¸ ( ) ¸ (
÷ ÷
+ × + × =
t t t t
strength signal strength signal rxlev rxlev | o
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 87
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 87 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· Median FiIter
÷ SeIects median vaIue from the Iast set of n
measurements
÷ Less sensitive to measurement errors
· Timing Advance FiIter
÷ One type avaiIabIe
÷ Straight average fiIter with Iength specified by
TAAVELEN
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 88
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 88 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· SeIection of SignaI strength fiIters
Filter selection parameter
SSEVALSI, SSEVALSD
Filter Type Filter length, SACCH
periods
1 General FIR 2
2 General FIR 6
3 General FIR 10
4 General FIR 14
5 General FIR 18
6 Recursive straight
average
SSLENSI, SSLENSD
7 Recursive
exponential
SSLENSI, SSLENSD
8 Recursive 1
st
order Butterworth
SSLENSI, SSLENSD
9 median SSLENSI, SSLENSD
SSEVALSÌ : selects filter type during signalling phase (SDCCH).
SSEVALSD: selects filter type during speech/data phase (TCH).
SSLENSÌ: specifies length of SSEVALSÌ filter.
SSLENSD: specifies length of SSEVALSD filter.
Filter parameter settings can be specified separately for serving and
neighbour cells.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 89
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 89 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· SeIection of QuaIity fiIters
Filter selection parameter
QEVALSI, QEVALSD
Filter Type Filter length, SACCH
periods
1 General FIR 4
2 General FIR 8
3 General FIR 12
4 General FIR 16
5 General FIR 20
6 Recursive
straight average
QLENSI, QLENSD
7 Recursive
exponential
QLENSI, QLENSD
8 Recursive 1
st
order
Butterworth
QLENSI, QLENSD
9 median QLENSI, QLENSD
QEVALSÌ : selects filter type during signalling phase (SDCCH).
QEVALSD: selects filter type during speech/data phase (TCH).
QLENSÌ: specifies length of QEVALSÌ filter.
QLENSD: specifies length of QEVALSD filter.
Filter parameter settings can be specified separately for serving and
neighbour cells.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 90
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 90 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Measurement Filtering
· Initiation of fiIters
÷ When fiIter is not fiIIed, it is modified
÷ FiIter operates as straight average
· AII except median
· FiIter Iength equaI to number of avaiIabIe
measurements
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 91
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 91 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· BSS Parameters
÷ IdIe Mode Behaviour
÷ Measurement FiItering
Power ControI
÷ Handover (Iocating)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 92
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Power Control
· Aim is to reduce transmit power to
minimum necessary for good reception
Tone it down!
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 93
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 93 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Power Control
· Benefits
÷ Reduces interference
· CIoser frequency reuse, hence capacity increase
÷ Minimises battery consumption
· Improves taIk time of mobiIes
÷ Maximise battery backup consumption
· Improves standby time for BTS power suppIy
÷ Minimises receiver saturation
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 94
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 94 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Power Control
MS Power controI MS Power controI
· · BTS Power controI BTS Power controI
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 95
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 95 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· PossibIe on TCH & SDCCH
÷ PC on SDCCH enabIed by SDCCHREG
÷ Measured UL signaI strength and quaIity
vaIues sent to BSC in Measurement ResuIt
message
÷ Minimum reguIation intervaI between two
power controI instructions is REGINT
SDCCHREG parameter enables power control
PC command is given every REGÌNT SACCH period. A new command is
sent only if different from previous one.
REGÌNT cannot be less than one SACCH period (480ms). MS can
change power output 8 times in one SACCH period (i.e. every 13th TDMA
frame). Power is changed in 2dB steps, giving a total of 16dB change in
one SACCH period.
Data Description Source
Signal Strength UL Full set (no DTX) BTS
Signal Strength UL Subset (DTX enabled) BTS
Quality UL Full set (no DTX) BTS
Quality UL Subset (DTX enabled) BTS
Power level used by MS MS
DTX used by MS or not MS
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 96
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 96 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· Two modes of operation
÷ InitiaI reguIation: on assignment of new
channeI and at handover
· MS power reduction onIy, done very quickIy
· Short initiaI signaI strength measurement fiIter
÷ INILEN measurements needed
· No quaIity input
÷ Stationary reguIation: normaI mode
· FiIter Iength SSLEN Ionger than INILEN
· Measurements start at same time as initiaI fiIter
Ìnitial Regulation: prevents receiver saturation, especially if MS close to
BS. Ìnitial regulation performed only after initial filter is filled ÷ and ÌNÌLEN
measurement reports available.
Stationary Regulation: will only take place after an initial regulation has
been performed.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 97
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 97 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· Three process stages
÷ Measurement preparation
· Missing measurements estimated
· SeIection of fuII or sub set
÷ Measurement fiItering
· FiItering of measurements to remove temporary
variations
÷ Power change caIcuIation
· Power step change vaIue caIcuIated, based on
received quaIity. First unconstrained vaIue, then
constraints appIied.
Measurement filtering: determines if minimum signal strength is received.
Quality filtering is average of predetermined number of samples.
Power change calculation: two stages, unconstrained, constrained with
power step size and MS power range.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 98
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 98 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· Measurement preparation
÷ Estimation of some missing measurement
· missing signaI vaIue = Iowest(vaIue before Ioss,
vaIue after Ioss).
· missing quaIity vaIue = worst (vaIue before Ioss,
vaIue after Ioss).
÷ SeIection of measurement set
· FuII set used if DTX not enabIed
· Subset used if DTX enabIed
Ìf DTX is not enabled, full set is used, but if DTX is enabled, then subset
measurements used. Full set always used for SDCCH
MS will continue to use DTX in a new cell when HO occurs, even if new cell does
not use DTX. The period of use in new cell is set by DTXFUL.
Ìf measurement result missing at next pc command, no extrapolation done for
missing signal level and quality measurements, until next set of measurement
result received. Then
missing signal value = lowest( value before loss, value after loss).
missing quality value = worst (value before loss, value after loss).
Estimation of missing MS power level is always done ÷ set to highest known value
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 99
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 99 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· Measurement FiItering
÷ SignaI strength:
· INIDES, target UL vaIue is caIcuIated first
· SScomp=(1/SSLEN)E EE E[SS +MSTXPWR-PWRused)]
÷ QuaIity:
· QDESUL is the target UL quaIity
· Q_Ave, the fiItered rxquaI vaIue is average of QLEN
sampIes
· QDESUL and Q_Ave can be transformed into C/I
vaIues QDES_dB and Q_Ave_dB
Signal Strength
SScomp: signal strength that would have been received by BTS if no
power control is enabled, ie compensated for power reduction regulation.
Really is path loss estimation!!
SS = actual signal strength received by BTS
PWRused = MS output power during measurement period
MSTXPWR = maximum MS output power
SSLEN = filter length (number of samples) for stationary filter.
Quality
Quality is measured in rxqual dtqu units (deci-transformed quality units).
dtqu = rxqual*10, ranging from dtqu=10 to 100.
Q_Ave_dB and QDES_dB are estimated C/Ì values, transformed as
Q_Ave_dB = 32 ÷ 10*Q_Ave/25
Q_DES_dB = 32 ÷ 10*QDESUL/25
Each rxqual = 4 dB
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 100
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 100 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· Power Order CaIcuIation
÷ InitiaI phase: unconstrained power order pu
· pu = MSTXPWR - o oo o(SScomp -SSDES)
÷ SSDES is target UL signaI strength
· "One-shot" stage for achieving the correct power
after channeI assignment
· No quaIity parameter invoIved
LCOMPUL : path loss compensation factor (0-100%), 0=no regulation
QCOMPUL: quality deviation compensation factor (0-60%)
Normally, PC is a function of signal strength or quality. However, in the
Ericsson case, PC function is made to be a combination of both.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 101
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 101 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· Power Order CaIcuIation
÷ Stationary phase
· For tracking propagation variations
÷ IncIudes signaI strength and quaIity parameters
· pu is the absoIute power IeveI
pu = MSTXPWR - o oo o(SScomp -SSDES) -
| || |(QDES_dB - Q_Ave_dB)
÷ o oo o = LCOMPUL/100
÷ | || | = QCOMPUL/100
· dpu is the Power reguIation reduction,
dpu = LCOMPUL/100*(SScomp -SSDES) -
QCOMPUL/100*4/10*(Q_Ave - QDESUL)
LCOMPUL : path loss compensation factor (0-100%), 0=no regulation
QCOMPUL: quality deviation compensation factor (0-60%)
Normally, PC is a function of signal strength or quality. However, in the
Ericsson case, PC function is made to be a combination of both.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 102
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 102 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· ExampIe, power order caIcuIation
· Let SSDES = -90dBm, SScomp= -64dBm,
LCOMPUL=50, QDESUL=10 (rxquaI=1) ,
Q_Ave=40, QCOMPUL=60
Then
· Pt1 = 50/100(-64 + 90) = 13 dB
· Pt2 = 60/100*4/10*(40-10) = 7.2
· dpu = 13 - 7.2 = 5.8 dB power reduction
÷ ÷ Exercise: How to prevent power reduction Exercise: How to prevent power reduction
with poor quaIity? with poor quaIity?
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 103
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 103 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
MS Power Control
· Power order constraints
÷ constraints are appIied if unconstrained power
order exceeds dynamic range
· Power step size Iimitation: 16dB maximum aIIowabIe
in one SACCH period
· MS Power range: depends on MS power cIass.
ReguIation intervaI ranges from MSTXPWR down to
minimum power IeveI of MS
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 104
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 104 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Power Control
· · MS Power controI MS Power controI
BTS Power controI BTS Power controI
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 105
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 105 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
BTS Power Control
· Power order constraints
÷ Not possibIe on downIink BCCH carrier
÷ PossibIe on TCH & SDCCHs
· PC on SDCCH enabIed by SDCCHREG
· Measured DL signaI strength and quaIity vaIues sent
to BSC in Measurement ResuIt message
÷ Minimum intervaI between two power controI
commands is REGINTDL
÷ Maximum power change is 30dB
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 106
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 106 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
BTS Power Control
· Measurement preparation
÷ Output power IeveI conversion
÷ SeIection of fuII or sub data set
÷ SignaI strength and quaIity compensated for
use of frequency hopping
· Measurement fiItering
÷ ExponentiaI non-Iinear fiIters used to eIiminate
temporary variations
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 107
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 107 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
BTS Power Control
· Power Order CaIcuIation: three steps
÷ CaIcuIate two basic power orders pu1, pu2
· BSTXPWR, SSDESDL, SSbstxpwr, QDESDL,
Qbstxpwr, o oo o1, o oo o2, | || |1, | || |2, LCOMPDL, QCOMPDL
· pu = max (pu1, pu2)
÷ AppIy power order constraints
÷ Convert constrained power order from dBm
scaIe to PLused
· PLused = 0, fuII power
· PLused = 15, 30dB power down
SSDESDL: target value for DL signal strength
QDESDL: target value for DL quality
BSTXPWR:BTS output power on all non BCCH frequencies.
BSPWRMÌN: minimum allowed BTS output power for non BCCH freqs.
SS/Qbstxpwr: signal strength/quality that would be received without use of
power control.
Ìf unconstrained power is outside dynamic range, then Power order
constraints applied. There are two possible cases
Ìf unconstrained power > BSTXPWR, then pu=BSTXPWR
The lowest pu = max(min BTS output power, BSTXPWR-30, BSPWRMÌN)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 108
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 108 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
BTS Power Control
· Power Order CaIcuIation: three steps
÷ CaIcuIate two basic power orders pu1, pu2
· BSTXPWR,
· SSDESDL, SS
bstxpwr
,
· QDESDL, Q
bstxpwr
,
· o oo o1 = LCOMPDL/100, o oo o2 = 0.3
· | || |1 = QCOMPDL/100, | || |2 = 0.4
· pui = o oo oi *(SSDESDL - SS
bstxpwr
) - | || |i *4/10*(Q_Ave -
Q
bstxpwr
)
· pu = max (pu1, pu2)
÷ ÷ Exercise: settings to avoid power reduction on Exercise: settings to avoid power reduction on
bad quaIity bad quaIity
SSDESDL: target value for DL signal strength
QDESDL: target value for DL quality
BSTXPWR:BTS output power on all non BCCH frequencies.
BSPWRMÌN: minimum allowed BTS output power for non BCCH freqs.
SS/Qbstxpwr: signal strength/quality that would be received without use of
power control.
Ìf unconstrained power is outside dynamic range, then Power order
constraints applied. There are two possible cases
Ìf unconstrained power > BSTXPWR, then pu=BSTXPWR
The lowest pu = max(min BTS output power, BSTXPWR-30, BSPWRMÌN)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 109
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 109 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· BSS Parameters
÷ IdIe Mode Behaviour
÷ Measurement FiItering
÷ Power ControI
÷ Handover (Locating)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 110
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 110 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Introduction
· Ericsson 1
· Ericsson 3
· Urgency conditions
÷ QuaIity
÷ Timing Advance
· AuxiIiary functions
÷ Intra-ceII handover
÷ HierarchicaI ceII structures
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 111
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 111 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Locating AIgorithm
÷ Works out conditions for handover decisions
for MS in active mode
÷ Inputs to aIgorithm are
· SignaI strength measurements
· QuaIity measurements
÷ Output is Iist of candidate ceIIs for handover
· CeIIs are ranked and sorted in descending order of
preference for handover
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 112
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 112 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Basic CeII Ranking
÷ Two aIgorithms
· Ericsson 1: signaI strength & path Ioss
· Ericsson 3: signaI strength onIy
÷ Common process stages
· Correction for base station output power
÷ different IeveIs possibIe on BCCH/TCH carriers
· CaIcuIation of minimum signaI strength
÷ ThreshoIds MSRXMIN (DL) and BSRXMIN (UL)
÷ SSmin = min (MSRXMIN, BSRXMIN)
· AppIication of signaI strength penaIties
What happened to Ericsson 2 ???
Algorithms aim to let TCH carriers control cell borders.
Corrected signal strength SS_DLn in neighbour cell n: for different output powers
between BCCH (BSPWR) and other carriers BSTXPWR:
SS_DLn = rxlevn + BSTXPWRn ÷ BSPWRn
Minimum signal strength conditions:
SS_DLn >= MSRXMÌNn
SS_ULn >= BSRXMÌNn
Where SS_DL is estimated by calculating DL path loss and subtracting from
maximum MS output power.
SS_ULn = min(P,MSTXPWRn) ÷ (BSTXPWRn ÷ SS_DLn)
Penalties are added to make it more difficult to handover to unsuitable cells. This is
done by subtracting a signal value from the signal strength estimate for the
unwanted cell, making it look worse than it really is. Penalties are applied for
handover failure, bad quality urgency handover and excessive timing advance. A
penalty is removed after the penalty duration has expired.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 113
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 113 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Sufficient LeveI Condition
· ThreshoId separating Iow signaI strength ceIIs from
high signaI strength ceIIs
high signal
strength
low signal strength
DL min level
UL min level
DL effective sufficient level
UL effective sufficient level
B
A
Cells satisfying minimum condition are processed for sufficient condition.
Calculation of sufficient level: s=serving cell, n=neighbour cell
SS_DLn >= MSRXSUFFn ÷ TROFFSETn,s + TRHYSTn,s
SS_ULn >= BSRXSUFFn ÷ TROFFSETn,s + TRHYSTn,s
Solid lines in diagram represent final combined UL and DL condition.
Sufficient level for a serving cell may be different in relation to each
different neighbour cell. Setup shown in diagram is valid only for BS pair
A,B. Ìt would be different for BS pair A,C.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 114
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 114 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Ranking - signaI strength (K) criterion
÷ SignaI strength reIative to sufficient IeveI
· K-ceIIs = Low signaI strength ceIIs,
÷ K vaIues are
÷ K_DLn,s = SS_DLn,s - MSRXMINn,s
÷ K_ULn,s = SS_ULn,s - BSRXMINn,s
· Effective K vaIue is minimum of UL and DL K vaIues
modified by KHYST and KOFFSET
÷ K ranking
· K_RANKn= min(K_DLn, K_ULn) - KOFFSETn,s -
KHYSTn,s
· CeIIs are ranked with the highest K_RANK first
To rank the serving cell as K or L, the sufficient level is evaluated with
respect to the best neighbour n1. Ìf K-cell, then it is ranked with the other
K-cells. Otherwise, it is ranked with the L-cells.
KHYST is used to decrease ranking values to underrate neighbour cells ÷
to prevent ping pong handovers. Defined for a pair of cells and is always
symmetrical KHYSTa,b = KHYSTb,a
KOFFSET if positive decreases ranking value and if negative increases
ranking value. The cell border is displaced AWAY from cell with positive
value, and moved TOWARD the cell with a negative value. Ìt is defined
anti-symmetrical for a pair of cells: KOFFSETa,b = -KOFFSETb,a
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 115
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 115 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Ranking - path Ioss (L) criterion
÷ Path Ioss is assumed symmetricaI
· AppIied to high signaI strength ceIIs
÷ Path Loss vaIues
· p_Ln,s = BSTXPWRn,s - SS_DLn,s
÷ L ranking vaIues
· L_RANKs = p_Ls
· L_RANKn = p_Ln + LOFFSETn,s + LHYSTn,s
· CeIIs are ranked with the Iowest L_RANK first
LHYST and LOFFSET have the same properties as the K counterparts.
Path Loss criterion is independent of BS and MS power ratings. Ìt
facilitates transfer of calls from big cell (strong interference) to small cells
(less interference). L-criterion should lower overall statistical interference
in network
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 116
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 116 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Basic Ranking Candidate List
L-cells list
K-cells list
Best cell
Worst cell
Highest L-Rank
(lowest path loss)
Lowest L-Rank
Highest K-Rank
(highest signal level)
Lowest K-Rank
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 117
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 117 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Ericsson 3
÷ Considers onIy signaI strength
÷ Ranking vaIues
· RANKs = SS_DLs
· RANKn = SS_DLn - OFFSETn,s - HYSTn,s
where
· HYST = LOHYST if rxIevDL
S
< HYSTEP
· HYST = HIHYST if rxIevDL
S
> >> > HYSTEP
· HYSTEP indicates Low or High signaI strength for
serving ceII
The effects of OFFSET and HYST are similar to those described for
Ericsson1.
HYSTEP specifies when signal strength is high or low for serving cell.
When high, a larger hysteresis value can be allowed than when it is low, in
order to reduce the number of handovers.
LOHYST and HÌHYST are symmetrical and OFFSET is anti-symmetrical,
defined for a pair of cells. HYSTEP is a cell parameter.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 118
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 118 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Urgency Condition: Bad QuaIity
÷ Handover is initiated when rxquaI exceeds
specified threshoIds, even if the IeveI is good
· rxquaIUL > QLIMUL or
· rxquaIDL > QLIMDL
÷ Handover is aIIowed to ceII of Iower ranking,
but not to ceII with worse quaIity.
· BQOFFSET, appIied to K-rank and L-rank vaIues,
defines how far from nominaI border MS can be to
quaIify for the quaIity handover.
When BQ urgency exists, unsuitable neighbours are removed from candidate
list. Signal strength of serving cell is compared with signal strength of
candidates, and those cells with large differences are removed from the list.
Ericsson1
Ìf K_RANKn ÷ K_RANKs < -KHYSTn,s ÷ BQOFFSETn,s remove n.
Ìf L_RANKn ÷ L_RANKs > LHYSTn,s ÷ BQOFFSETn,s remove n.
Ericsson3
Ìf RANKn ÷ RANKs < -HYSTn,s ÷ BQOFFSETn,s remove n.
Ìf BQ urgency handover performed, a penalty value PSSBQ and penalty
duration PTÌMBQ are applied to prevent immediate handover back to the old
cell.
A B
Hysteresis corridor
BQ urgency
HO prohibited
BQ urgency region
BQOFFSETb,a
Nominal cell border
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 119
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 119 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Urgency Condition: Timing Advance
÷ Timing advance (TA) can be used as a soft ceII
Iimiter, to force smaII ceIIs
÷ TALIM is the defined ceII Iimit, maximum (63
bits or 35 km).
÷ TA urgency occurs if TAs > >> > TALIM
÷ Urgent handover is performed to neighbour
ceIIs where TAn < TALIMs
÷ If no suitabIe candidate found, caII remains on
serving ceII
Ìf TA urgency handover performed, a penalty value PSSTA and penalty
duration PTÌMTA is applied to prevent immediate handover back to the old
cell.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 120
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 120 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· AuxiIiary network functions
÷ Assignment to another ceII
÷ HierarchicaI ceII structures
÷ Dynamic overIaid/underIaid subceIIs
÷ Intra-ceII handover
÷ Extended range
÷ CeII Ioad sharing
Assignment to another cell: performed only a certain period after
immediate assignment.
where a better cell other than the serving cell is found, this cell is first in
the locating candidate list, and setup is "assignment to better cell¨.
where congestion exists on serving or better cell, "assignment to worse
cell¨ can be made.
Hierachical cells: Up to three layers, used for directing traffic from higher
to lower layers. Higher layers to pick up traffic when congestion or
coverage problems occur.
Overlaid/Underlaid: for increasing traffic capacity. Overlaid cell serves
smaller area, smaller re-use distance possible.
Extended Range: allows cells with radius up to 72 km.
Cell Load Sharing: enables traffic load sharing during peak traffic when
traffic load exceeds a defined threshold. All calls close to border to cells
with low load (below defined threshold) become load sharing candidates.
The ranking values for candidate neighbour cells are recalculated using
reduced hysteresis values.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 121
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 121 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· Intra-ceII handover
÷ Try to find another frequency and/or timesIot
in the same ceII with better quaIity
÷ OnIy if RxQuaI is bad AND RxLev is good
· RxQuaI_UL/DL > QOFFSETUL/DL +
FQSS(RXLEV_UL/DL +SSOFSETUL/DL)
÷ RxLev_DL/UL = actuaI measured signaI strengths, no
pc compensation
÷ FQSS = quaIity vs signaI strength function
÷ Does not work for:
· BCCH downIink
· Random frequency hopping
QOFFSETUL/DL: quality offset parameters uplink/downlink
SSOFSETUL/DL: signal strength offset parameters uplink/downlink
FQSS table
RXLEV rxqual
·÷30 inIinity
31 60
32-35 59
36-38 58
39-41 57
42-45 56
46-48 55
49-52 54
53-55 53
56-58 52
59-62 51
~÷63 50
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 122
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 122 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Locating
· HierarchicaI ceII structures
÷ Up to three ceII Iayers
· Can be configured as an umbreIIa Iayer over a
microceII Iayer
· DuaI band network can be configured as different
Iayers
÷ Aim to carry most traffic on the smaIIer/Iower
Iayer ceIIs.
÷ Handover to a higher Iayer if Iower Iayer
congested or coverage probIems exist
÷ CeIIs in different Iayers ranked separateIy
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 123
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 123 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
BSS Parameters - review
· IdIe mode behaviour
· Measurement fiItering
· Power ControI
· Handover (Locating)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 124
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 124 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· System Basics
· BSS Parameters
QuaIity Assessment
· Optimisation Measures
· Organisation
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 125
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 125 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· QuaIity Assessment
Network Performance Measurements
· Use of statistics
· Traffic
· BIocking
· Dropped caIIs
· Noisy caIIs
· CaII success rate
· Handover causes
÷ FieId Measurements
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 126
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 126 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network performance stats
· Use of statistics
· Traffic
· BIocking
· Dropped caIIs
· Noisy caIIs
· CaII success rate
· Handover causes
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 127
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 127 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
· Introduction
÷ Counters are avaiIabIe from the OMC, eg:
· Traffic voIume
· BIocking rates
· RxQuaI
· RxLev
· Handover success
· Dropped caIIs. etc etc..
÷ EvaIuated by ceII, BSC, MSC etc
÷ Software is avaiIabIe to process counters
This is a very good source of information given that the amount of traffic in the
network is high enough to provide reliable statistics. Ìn order to facilitate the
identification and resolution of problems, it is important to determine the key
system metrics to monitor. The frequency and level of detail of the report should
also be set to ensure that there is sufficient information for the groups involved in
the optimisation activities, and for management. Ìmportant key metrics which
should be considered include call success rate, blocking (TCH and SDCCH), call
setup and handover success.
The performance monitoring tool will produce regular statistics reports for each
cell for the previous 24 hours. The metrics will be calculated for the busy hour for
each cell.
Different operators offer different counters. E.g. some count number of RxQual=5,
others count noisy calls, or noisy call minutes.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 128
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Network Performance Stats
· Types of threshoIds
÷ Target
· Desired/specified threhoId
÷ Optimisation
· LeveI at which improvement is required
÷ FauIt
· LeveI indicating serious probIem requiring
immediate rectification
The key performance parameters are monitored against a set of thresholds:
Target, optimisation and fault thresholds
The Target threshoId is defined as the level that enables the customer to initiate
and complete a call successfully with good quality.
The Optimisation threshoId is defined as the level for a performance indicator
which requires some improvement. This threshold will focus attention on the worst
performing cells and optimisation activities are scheduled along with any others
and implemented as necessary.
The FauIt threshoId is defined as the level for a performance indicator which
represents a serious problem and is considered to be a fault condition. Ìt therefore
requires an immediate solution and the necessary optimisation activities should be
scheduled with greater priority.
The thresholds may change depending on the maturity of the network, and should
be periodically reviewed.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 129
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 129 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
Metric Definition Target
threshold
Optimisati
on
threshold
Fault
threshold
Comments
Call attempts Number attempts to start a
speech, dat or Iax call.
400 Ior
signiIi canc
e
N/A N/A Used to evaluate the signiIicance oI
other metrics
Setup success rate Number o I successIul TCH
call setups out oI call
attempts.
96° 92° 80°
Call completion suc cess
rate
Calls which, once set up
are successIully con cluded
98° 92° 80°
Dropped call rate 1 - Call completion suc cess
rate
2° 8° 20°
TCH RF- loss rate ° Calls dropped only due to
interIerence or lack oI
signal (Radio Link Timeout
and handover timeout)
2° 8° 20° Pointer to coverage holes, or to
interIerence caused by a bad
Irequency plan, or to an
RxLe vAccessMin which is too low,
or RTL too short.
SDCCH RF- loss rate °SD CCH channels
dropped only due to
inter Ierence or lack oI
signal
2° 8° 20° Pointer to coverage holes, or to
interIerence caused by a bad
Irequency plan or to an
RxLe vAccessMin which is too low.
Also includes Iailed LAC up dates.
TCH blocking rate Failed TC H assignments
because all TCHs are in use.
1° 2° 20° An indication oI whether there are
suIIicient transceivers on the cell.
Normally the network should have
been extended to cope with traIIic
growth beIore blocking is
experi enced.
SDCCH blocking rate Fa iled SDCCH assign ments
because all TCHs are in use.
0.5° 1° 5°
Intra cell HO success rate Handovers between
timeslots on the same cell
96° 90° 80°
Inter cell HO success rate 96° 90° 80°
TCH traIIic Busy hour traIIic in Er langs,
average oI the 5 daily
busiest hours in the last
week.
N/A N/A N/A Used to weight the metrics and to
plan growth. (See traIIic planning
guidelines).
Metr ic Definition Target
thres h old
Optimis a ti
on
threshold
Fault
thres h old
Comments
Call attempts Number attempts to start a
speech, dat or Iax call.
400 Ior
signiI i canc
e
N/A N/A Used to evaluate the signiIicance oI
other metrics
Setup success rate Number o I successIul TCH
call setups out oI call
attempts.
96° 92° 80°
Call completion su c cess
rate
Calls which, once set up
are successIully co n cluded
98° 92° 80°
Dropped call rate 1 - Call completion su c cess
rate
2° 8° 20°
TCH RF - loss rate ° Calls dropped only due to
interIerence or lack oI
signal (Radio Link Timeout
and handover tim e out)
2° 8° 20° Pointer to coverage holes, or to
interIerence caused by a bad
Irequency plan, or to an
RxLe vAccessMin which is too low,
or RTL too short.
SDCCH RF - loss rate °SD CCH channels
dropped only due to
inter Ierence or lack oI
signal
2° 8° 20° Pointer to coverage holes, or to
interIerence caused by a bad
Irequency plan or to an
RxLe vAccessMin which is too low.
Also includes Iailed LAC u p dates.
TCH blocking rate Failed TC H assignments
because all TCHs are in use.
1° 2° 20° An indication oI whether there are
suIIicient transceivers on the cell.
Normally the network should have
been extended to cope with traIIic
growth beIore blocking is
exper i enced.
SDCCH blocking rate Fa iled SDCCH assig n ments
because all TCHs are in use.
0.5° 1° 5°
Intra cell HO success rate Handovers between
timeslots on the same cell
96° 90° 80°
Inter cell HO success rate 96° 90° 80°
TCH traIIic Busy hour traIIic in E r langs,
average oI the 5 dail y
busiest hours in the last
week.
N/A N/A N/A Used to weight the metrics and to
plan growth. (See traIIic planning
guidelines).
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 130
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 130 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
· Significance of statistics
÷ BinominaI distribution
· Ask 10 peopIe if they are married
· 5 say yes
· Are 50% of aII peopIe married?
· 45% to 55%?
· Chance that 40% or 60% are married.
To have a resolution of 1% in the call success rate would require 100
samples. However, there is still a distribution of the measured results
around the true probability.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 131
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 131 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
· Significance of statistics
÷ BinominaI distribution
Confidence of 1%accuracy for given number of caIIs
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
90.0%
100.0%
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Number of CaIIs
C
o
n
f
i
d
e
n
c
e

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
I
i
t
y
2%
5%
10%
20%
Dropped caII rate
Confidence of 1% accuracy for given number of caIIs
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
90.0%
100.0%
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Number of CaIIs
C
o
n
f
i
d
e
n
c
e

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
I
i
t
y
2%
5%
10%
20%
Dropped caII rate
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 132
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Network Performance Stats
· Significance of statistics
÷ Hundreds of sampIes must be taken to be 90%
confident of onIy a ±1% toIerance
÷ Combine Busy hour statistics for the whoIe
week
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 133
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 133 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
· Traffic
÷ Traffic voIume must incIude time period
÷ Busy hour normaIIy
· eg 3 busiest hrs of the week
÷ First work out when is the busy hour
· Requires aII-day measurements
÷ TCH traffic and SDCCH traffic
÷ Busy hour important for ALL statistics
The determination of the busy hour is important for all statistics. Many
problems only manifest when load is high. Exception: downlink BCCH
interference.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 134
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Network Performance Stats
· Traffic
÷ Forecasting
÷ WeekIy busy hour traffic extrapoIated
T
r
a
f
f
i
c
Time
Ìndividual cells can have forecast traffic growth estimated before the traffic
is combined into a traffic map.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 135
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Network Performance Stats
· Traffic
÷ Forecasting
÷ LocaI growth or nationaI growth?
T
r
a
f
f
i
c
Time
Ìndividual cells might have a significantly different prognosis than the
overall growth forecast. For example a high traffic cell might cover the
operator's headquarters. Fast early growth, but now saturated.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 136
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Network Performance Stats
· Traffic
÷ Forecast 3 months ahead for TRX count
· Procurement
· Frequency pIanning
÷ Forecast 12 months ahead for site count
· PIanning
· Acquisition
· BuiId
The frequency planning of the next turn-on-cycle will require as an input
the amount of traffic in each cell. The cell capacity will need to last until
the turn-on-cycle after that. A margin for error must be included.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 137
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Network Performance Stats
· BIocking rate
÷ Must be measured in the BH
· Traffic measurements required first
· TCH bIocking and SDCCH bIocking
÷ Need to know:
· Number of CaII Attempts
· Number of SuccessfuI TCH (or SDCCH) seizures
÷ UtiIisation
· % of TCH in use
Ìn a frequency hopping system it may be that hard blocking does not
occur, only soft blocking.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 138
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Network Performance Stats
· Dropped caIIs
÷ Various causes for this:
· Poor BER (Radio Link Timeout - RF Loss)
· DeIiberate disconnection (eg maximum range)
· Hardware probIems
· Fixed network probIems
· Lots of obscure counters!
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 139
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Network Performance Stats
· Noisy caIIs
÷ RxQuaI measurements
· What is the definition of a noisy caII?
÷ e.g. 10% of RxQuaI > >> > 4
· CIassify individuaI caIIs within the ceII to identify
probIem ceIIs
· AIternativeIy, determine by using aII RxQuaI
measurements taken over a measurement period
(upIink and downIink)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 140
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Network Performance Stats
· CaII success rate
÷ Service (coverage)
÷ No bIocking
÷ No RF Loss or other drop
÷ Not defined as noisy
÷ From the network it is not possibIe to see caII
attempts which faiI due to no coverage.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 141
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Network Performance Stats
· CaII success rate
÷ Target for a new (or newIy expanded) network:
90% for each ceII
95% for each BSC
÷ Target for a mature network:
96% for each ceII
98% for each BSC
The target performance of course needs to be met in the busy hour.
Averaging over the whole day is cheating!
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 142
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 142 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
· CaII success rate
÷ Report to the responsibIe engineer on a
weekIy basis:
· Any ceIIs in engineer's area not meeting the target
· Or the 10 worst ceIIs in engineer's area
· (First remove ceIIs whose poor performance is due
to a known hardware probIem)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 143
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 143 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
· Handover causes
÷ Power Budget (L-criterion) shouId be dominant
(90%)
÷ SignaI IeveI (K-criterion) onIy for indoors
÷ QuaIity cause shouId be rare
÷ Distance cause onIy in ruraI areas
÷ UpIink and DownIink causes
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 144
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 144 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network Performance Stats
· Link baIance
÷ ImbaIance in statistics (eg noisier upIink than
downIink) can be caused by Iink imbaIance
· Can carry out detaiIed measurements of cabIes,
combiners, output powers, sensitivities, diversity
gains, etc
· Can anaIyse NPC data or A-bis traces.
The A-bis interface is between the BS and the BSC. Possible to record all
RxQual measurements for the cell in uplink and downlink. Ìmprt these into
Excel and perform regression analysis.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 145
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 145 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Network performance review
· Use of statistics
· Traffic
· BIocking
· Dropped caIIs
· Noisy caIIs
· CaII success rate
· Handover causes
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 146
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 146 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· QuaIity Assessment
÷ Network Performance Measurements
FieId Measurements
Measurement Equipment
Statistics
AnaIysis
CaII Logging Equipment
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 147
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 147 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Field measurements
· Measurement kit
· Statistics
· AnaIysis
· CaII Iogging equipment
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 148
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 148 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Field Measurements
· Measurement kit
Rooftop antenna
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 149
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Field Measurements
· Measurement kit
÷ Engineering enabIed mobiIe
· Records downIink measurements every 480 ms in
dedicated mode
· Serving ceII:
÷ BCCH, BSIC, RxLev, RxQuaI, TA
÷ Layer three messages
· Neighbour ceIIs
÷ BCCH, BSIC, RxLev_N
÷ GPS receiver
· Location of every measurement
· EnabIes dispIay on a map
Engineering mobiles manufactured by SAGEM, Ericsson, Nokia etc. These
mobiles have special engineering software (not available to Joe Bloggs on the
street) that is used for measuring the relevant data. They do not have storage
capabilities, therefore, data collected must be stored elsewhere.
Known test mobiles include:
- Nokia: 8148, PT11
- Ericsson: TEMS pocket
- SAGEM: OT35
- Nortel: 1822
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 150
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Field Measurements
· Statistics
÷ CaII success rate
÷ ProbabiIity of coverage
· SignaI above required threshoId, NOT above median
pIanning IeveI
· Check "indoor coverage" with a 20 dB attenuator
÷ post processing RxLevs wouId have to take into
account DL power controI
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 151
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Field Measurements
· Data anaIysis
÷ Dropped caIIs
÷ In-buiIding Coverage
RxLev > -90 dBm
÷ (= -102 + 18 - 6 = -90dBm)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 152
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Field Measurements
· RxQuaI
÷ AcceptabIe <= 4
÷ UnacceptabIe >= 5
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 153
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Field Measurements
· Outdoor coverage
÷ RxLev > >> > -108 dBm
÷ (-102 - 6 dB = -108 dBm)
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 154
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Field Measurements
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 155
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Field Measurements
· Dropped caII - interference
Ìn this example the signal level is reasonably good, while the RxQual is
bad, indicating an area of interference led to the call dropping.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 156
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 156 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Field Measurements
· Dropped caII - coverage
The serving signal drops very low, and the signals from neighbouring cells
are also low, so there is no opportunity for a handover. Ìn the low signal,
the BER becomes high and the call drops.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 157
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Field Measurements
· Dropped CaII - Unexpected reIease
Ìn this example the signal level is adequate, and the BER remains low.
Nevertheless the call is terminated by a network command.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 158
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Field Measurements
The Layer 3 messages indicate that the call dropped because there were
no channels available on the target cell during a handover. The mobile fell
back to the original cell, which eventually became unusable
.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 159
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 159 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Field Measurements
· CaII Iogging equipment
÷ Test mobiIe (eg TEMS) in taxis, buses and
empIoyees cars, making repeated caIIs
· 2 minute caII every 2.5 minutes
· Data deIeted if caII is successfuI
· If caII drops within two minutes, caII into computer
via modem and downIoad data for anaIysis
· StatisticaI resuIts incIuding no service areas
This method of data collection is sometimes used to collect data, in
addition to regular drive testing, or when the network needs to be " loaded¨
for specific investigation. Ìt requires finding friendly customers that will
agree to having the equipment installed in their vehicles for long periods of
time. Ìt is quite subjective in that the measurement routes are defined by
the daily routine of the vehicle in which the kit is installed. However, it is
highly likely that the calls will be made where there is potential "people
traffic¨.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 160
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Field measurements - review
· Measurement kit
· AnaIysis
· Statistics
· CaII Iogging equipment
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 161
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 161 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· System Basics
· BSS Parameters
· QuaIity Assessment
Optimisation Measures
· Organisation
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 162
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 162 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· Optimisation Measures
Antenna Adjustments
÷ Frequency & Interference PIanning
÷ Neighbour List PIanning
÷ Common ProbIems
÷ Advanced Techniques
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 163
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Antenna adjustments
· TiIt
· EIectricaI and mechanicaI tiIt
· Side-Iobes and nuIIs
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 164
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 164 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Antenna adjustments
· TiIt - LL003:C and LL001:B are co-channeI
Plots from Quantum, courtesy of Quotient
A problem with automatic frequency planning tools is that they strictly
apply the input thresholds given by the user, or at least take them into
account. However, in certain circumstances the thresholds may not be
appropriate.
Ìn this example, cell LL001:B is co-channel with LL003:B, but they appear
very close together. The size of LL001:B however, makes even a
relatively large interference area only a small percentage of the area, or
possibly a small percentage of the traffic.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 165
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 165 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Antenna adjustments
· TiIt -AFP toIerates interference (<10% of traffic?)
Plots from Quantum, courtesy of Quotient
Ìn this case a relatively large area of interference only affects a small number of
Erlangs. However the area affected is a short stretch of very important road. Ìn
addition, the prediction radius for LL003 does not appear to be large enough.
Other interference exists, which is not shown on the plot.
The network needs to be optimised to remove this interference in the BCCH layer.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 166
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 166 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Antenna adjustments
· TiIt (4 degrees eIectricaI)
Plots from Quantum, courtesy of Quotient
Replacing the antenna with one that has 4 degrees of electrical tilt
reduces the interference to LL001 so that the important road is no longer
affected.
Now it is important to predict the side effects.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 167
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 167 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Antenna adjustments
· TiIt (4 degrees eIectricaI)
÷ Check side effects
Coverage compromised?
Plots from Quantum, courtesy of Quotient
Tilting the beam has reduced the interference, but has also reduced the
signal level closer to the site and a couple of coverage holes have
appeared.
Can the other road tolerate a lower signal in order to give the first road
interference free coverage?
Maybe a 2 degree tilt would have been sufficient?
Perhaps a combination of tilt and a change in azimuth a few degrees to
the south would give both roads good quality.
A better solution might have been to substitute a new BCCH frequency in
either of the two cells. However this might just move the interference to
somewhere else.
Ìt is the cell planner / optimiser who must make the decisions regarding
the trade offs. This is why it is better that optimisers and cell planners are
the same people.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 168
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 168 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Antenna adjustments
· SideIobes
÷ In the verticaI pattern of most antennas are
sideIobes
· Too much tiIt can start to increase interference again
· NuIIs
÷ The nuII in the verticaI pattern is best pointed
towards the horizon
÷ NuIIs beIow the horizontaI can cause coverage
hoIes cIose to the site
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 169
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 169 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Antenna adjustments - review
· TiIt
· EIectricaI and mechanicaI tiIt
· Side-Iobes and nuIIs
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 170
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 170 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· Optimisation Measures
÷ Antenna Adjustments
Frequency & Interference PIanning
÷ Neighbour List PIanning
÷ Common ProbIems
÷ Advanced Techniques
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 171
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Frequency planning
· CeII pIanning practice
· BCCH carrier pIanning and optimisation
· Non-BCCH carriers
· Frequency hopping
· Interference reduction
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 172
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 172 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Frequency planning
· CeII pIanning practice
÷ Many "optimisation" probIems are in fact due
to poor ceII pIanning
÷ Optimisation is a question on fine tuning the
capacity / quaIity tradeoff
Q
T
Expansion
Optimisation / better pIanning
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 173
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 173 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Frequency planning
· CeII pIanning practice
÷ ProbIems when
· Interference not contained
· One ceII carries too much traffic
· Inappropriate position of ceII boundaries
· MuItipIe servers
· Imprecise service area
÷ AII the above wiII affect the quaIity for a given
traffic Ioad (or the traffic Ioad for a given
quaIity)
· by making frequency pIanning harder
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 174
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 174 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Frequency planning
· BCCH carrier pIanning
÷ For BCCH carriers downIink interference
aIways present
÷ Frequency pIan must be interference free
÷ Interference can be removed by changing the
frequency pIan
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 175
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 175 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Frequency planning
· Non-BCCH carriers
÷ Interference affected by DTX, PC and Ioad
÷ PC more effective if most traffic is near the site
÷ Frequency pIanning reIativeIy easy (1/3 or 1/1)
÷ Main issue is traffic pIanning
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 176
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 176 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Frequency planning
· Frequency hopping
÷ With 1/3 or 1/1, and fractionaI Ioad: swapping
frequencies does not remove interference
÷ Important to Iimit interference for aII ceIIs
÷ New site? Surrounding ceIIs shouId aII have
down-tiIts reviewed.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 177
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 177 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Frequency planning
· Interference reduction
÷ Antenna tiIt
÷ Reduced height
÷ Reduced power
÷ Terrain or cIutter containment
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 178
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 178 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Frequency planning - review
· CeII pIanning practice
· BCCH carrier pIanning and optimisation
· Non-BCCH carriers
· Frequency hopping
· Interference reduction
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 179
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 179 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· Optimisation Measures
÷ Antenna Adjustments
÷ Frequency & Interference PIanning
Neighbour List PIanning
÷ Common ProbIems
÷ Advanced Techniques
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 180
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 180 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour list planning
· Too many neighbours
· Too few neighbours
· Automatic neighbour pIanning
· Undefined neighbour reporting
· DoubIe BA Iists
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 181
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 181 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour lists
· Too many neighbours
÷ ImpossibIe adjacent channeI pIanning
÷ Co-channeI pIanning made difficuIt
÷ Inappropriate handovers to distant ceIIs
÷ Less accurate neighbour RxLev
measurements
Update neighbour lists in cells
surrounding a new site!
The time for neighbour measurements is fixed within the SACCH
multiframe. More neighbours means fewer samples are taken of each
neighbour's signal level. There is an opportunity for measurement once
every TDMA frame, so 104 measurements every 480 ms.
For example, 6 neighbours : 17 samples per neighbour per measurement
report. 26 neighbours is only 4 samples per neighbour per measurement
report.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 182
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 182 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour lists
· Too few neighbours
÷ No handover
÷ IdIe mode probIems when returning to
coverage
The problems of missing neighbours are obvious. Perhaps for this reason
most networks seem to have too many neighbour relationships.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 183
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 183 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour lists
· Automatic neighbour pIanning
÷ Measure Iength of common boundary
÷ Determine area of overIap
· OverIap defined as where 2
nd
(or n
th
) server is Iess
than X dB beIow the best server
÷ Second method preferred
÷ ManuaI fine tuning normaIIy necessary:
not too bad in a mature network
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 184
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 184 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour lists
· Undefined neighbour reporting
÷ Vendor feature
÷ Heavy processing Ioad
÷ MobiIe reports ALL ceIIs measured, not just
neighbours
÷ Post processing statisticaIIy identifies
neighbours which were missed in pIanning
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 185
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 185 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour lists
· DoubIe BA Iists
÷ ProbIem:
· When coverage is "Iost" mobiIe Iooks for Iast used
BCCH
· In a vehicIe coverage might be recovered some
distance away
· "OId" ceII stiII gives sufficient signaI
· "New", IocaI ceIIs are not neighbours of the oId ceII
· If a caII is started it wiII soon drop
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 186
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 186 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour lists
· DoubIe BA Iists
÷ SoIution:
· Long neighbour Iists
· Bad idea!
· Two neighbour Iists
÷ IdIe mode
÷ Dedicated mode
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 187
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 187 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Neighbour list plan - review
· Too many neighbours
· Too few neighbours
· Automatic neighbour pIanning
· Undefined neighbour reporting
· DoubIe BA Iists
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 188
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 188 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· Optimisation Measures
÷ Antenna Adjustments
÷ Frequency & Interference PIanning
÷ Neighbour List PIanning
Common ProbIems
÷ Advanced Techniques
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 189
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 189 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· Interference
· Missing neighbours
· MuItipIe servers
· BIocking
· FaiIed handovers
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 190
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 190 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· Interference
÷ Specific ceIIs:
· TiIt
· Height
· Re-pIan
÷ GeneraI, Iimits capacity for given quaIity
· Need to identify "jamming" frequencies and ceIIs
· Change CA Iists so that "jamming" ceIIs do not
aIways interfere with the same other ceIIs
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 191
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 191 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· Missing neighbours
÷ NormaIIy not an "obvious" neighbour
÷ A terrain effect makes a distant ceII the onIy
server
÷ Since the distant ceII is not a neighbour, the
caII drops, or is noisy
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 192
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 192 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· MuItipIe servers
÷ No dominant server
· MobiIe is IikeIy to choose a ceII which is not pIanned
for use at that Iocation
÷ Interference IikeIy (especiaIIy BCCH)
· Frequency pIan assumed a different ceII
÷ Many "ping pong" handovers
· Measurements etc take time to settIe after a
handover
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 193
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 193 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· BIocking
÷ SoIution, extra TRX
· BUT, what about frequency pIan?
÷ Not reIevant in a soft-bIocking network
· In a FH network interference happens first
· UNLESS many fewer TRX than frequencies
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 194
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 194 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· BIocking
÷ PIan capacity so that number of ErIangs
< 40% of Number of Frequencies x 8
· Exceeding this causes interference to OTHER
ceIIs
· One or two ceIIs might exceed Iimit, if others are
Iess than Iimit
· WeII contained ceIIs may carry more traffic
Ìn a hopping network, the consequence of too much traffic in a single cell
will be interference in other cells. This is directly opposite to what
happens in a non-hopping network, where extra traffic leads to blocking in
the high traffic cell.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 195
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 195 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· FaiIed handovers
÷ Target ceII congestion
· ReIieve congestion in target ceII
· Stretch source ceII to overIap more
÷ MobiIes moving faster than handover timing
· Speed up handovers
· Design more overIap
÷ Rapid fieId drop
· Speed up handovers
· Design more overIap
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 196
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 196 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· TroubIe shooting
÷ QuaIity reIated
Poor
QuaIity
RxLev RxQuaI
Other
Coverage
HoIe
Antenna
System
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
Co/Adj
Interference
Other
Interference
Time
Dispersion
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
System
ProbIem
Bad Handset
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 197
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 197 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· TroubIe shooting
÷ Handover probIems
Handover
ProbIem
CeII
Dragging
Handover
FaiIure
Ping- Pong
Handovers
Neighbour
List
Hysteresis
Interference
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
Neighbour
List
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
System
ProbIem
No Best
Server
Neighbour
CeII Data
Hysteresis
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
Congestion
Bad
RxLev/RxQuaI
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 198
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 198 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems
· TroubIe shooting
÷ CaII setup
Dropped
CaIIs
RxLev RxQuaI
Other
Coverage
HoIe
Handover
ProbIem
Antenna
System
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
Co/Adj
Interference
Other
Interference
Time
Dispersion
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
BTS/Radio
ProbIem
System
ProbIem
BSS
Parameters
Bad Handset
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 199
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 199 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Common problems - review
· Interference
· Missing neighbours
· MuItipIe servers
· BIocking
· FaiIed handovers
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 200
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 200 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· Optimisation Measures
÷ Antenna Adjustments
÷ Frequency & Interference PIanning
÷ Neighbour List PIanning
÷ Common ProbIems
Advanced Techniques
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 201
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 201 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Advanced techniques
· Dynamic frequency pIanning
· Smart antennas
· UnderIay/OverIay
· DuaI band networks
· NationaI roaming
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 202
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 202 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Advanced techniques
· Dynamic frequency pIanning
÷ Use OMC data to auto-optimise a frequency
pIan
÷ BCCH neighbour measurements
÷ On hopping frequencies these neighbours are
aIso interferers
÷ Don't necessariIy use 1/3 pattern with groups
· CouId have more of an ad-hoc pIan
Some advanced frequency planning ideas with application particularly to
hopping networks are in the "research¨ phases. Many different ideas are
being put forward, as can be established by visiting the conferences.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 203
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 203 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Advanced techniques
· Smart antennas
÷ EIectricaIIy steerabIe beam patterns
÷ Steer a nuII towards an interferer
÷ Antennas themseIves expensive
÷ ControI a nightmare
· Each mobiIe Iink has a different interferer
· With FH each TDMA frame is a different interferer
· More potentiaI for CDMA systems
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 204
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 204 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Advanced techniques
· UnderIay / overIay
÷ Handover from inner to outer ceIIs using
speciaI aIgorithm (interference triggered)
÷ Estimated 30% extra traffic
· IF traffic density is highest cIose to the sites
D
R
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 205
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 205 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Advanced techniques
· DuaI band networks
÷ 1800 MHz for capacity in cities
÷ 900 MHz for coverage in ruraI areas
÷ Coverage footprints different
÷ CeII seIection and handover shouId favour
1800MHz ceIIs where possibIe
÷ Issue: one or two BCCHs per ceII?
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 206
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 206 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Advanced techniques
· NationaI roaming
÷ 1800MHz mobiIe seIects 900MHz network when
home network not avaiIabIe
· ExactIy Iike internationaI roaming
· Need to reseIect back to home network when
possibIe
÷ Handover to 900MHz ceII when 1800MHz
handover not possibIe
· OnIy IeveI triggered handover
· Use priority handovers to favour 1800MHz ceIIs
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 207
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 207 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Advanced techniques - review
· Dynamic frequency pIanning
· Smart antennas
· UnderIay/OverIay
· DuaI band networks
· NationaI roaming
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 208
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 208 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contents
· System Basics
· BSS Parameters
· QuaIity Assessment
· Optimisation Measures
Organisation
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 209
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 209 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· TimetabIe
· Teams
· Preparation
· Databases
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 210
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 210 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· TimetabIe
÷ Coverage / capacity pIanning
÷ Frequency pIanning
÷ Neighbour pIanning
÷ Parameter pIanning
÷ "On-air"
÷ Intensive optimisation
÷ Ongoing optimisation
Networks undergoing regular expansion normally mature from the chaotic
early days into a regular cycle of "long term planning¨ ÷ "short term
planning¨ ÷ "optimisation¨.
New sites are integrated into the network at regular, or at least pre-agreed
intervals, followed by a short period of very intensive optimisation work to
convert the planned network into one which meets the quality targets
while carrying the planned amount of traffic.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 211
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 211 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· TimetabIe
Turn-on-
date
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
i
e
s

a
n
d

p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
Drop-
dead-
date
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
v
e

o
p
t
i
m
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
3

m
o
n
t
h

T
r
a
f
f
i
c

f
o
r
e
c
a
s
t

a
n
d

T
R
X

c
o
u
n
t
1
2

m
o
n
t
h

T
r
a
f
f
i
c

f
o
r
e
c
a
s
t

a
n
d

B
S

c
o
u
n
t
N
e
w

B
S

P
I
a
n
n
i
n
g
Ongoing optimisation
After a new turn on cycle a new frequency plan, neighbour plan and BSS
parameter plan will be loaded into the network. To avoid negative impact
on customers this is often done on a Friday night. Ìmmediately following
this is a period of intensive optimisation. Often it will involve working the
whole weekend,, inn an attempt to ensure that on the Monday morning the
initial call success rate target is met. (90% worst cell, 95% average)
Ongoing optimisation will continue after this intensive optimisation period
in order to raise the CSR to 95% in the worst cell and averaging better
than 98%. However, the attention of the radio engineers will shift to
longer and medium term expansion planning until the time comes to
prepare for the next turn on cycle.
The "drop dead date¨ is the final date at which sites must be listed for
inclusion in the next ToC. After this the traffic and frequency planning
activity will depend on having a stable network plan.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 212
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 212 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· Teams
÷ QuaIity
· Independent assessment of network quaIity
· Drive tests
· Network performance data
÷ Radio pIanning / Optimisation
· IdeaIIy within the same department
· One person/smaII team responsibIe for an area of 50
to 100 sites
NB these functions are often organised differently within different
operating companies (also at different times), but the basic functions
remain.
The quality department will monitor the network and report areas requiring
attention to RF. Ìndependent monitoring encourages RF to chase targets.
Radio planning and optimisation ought to be within the same department,
since all decisions in this area require trade-offs between quality
(traditionally optimisation) and capacity (traditionally planning).
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 213
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 213 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· Teams
÷ Drive testing
· Drivers and technicians/navigators
· Resource avaiIabIe for QuaIity and Radio dept.
÷ Operations
· ImpIementation of BSS parameters
· Maintenance issues
· DeIivery of statistics
÷ ImpIementation
· BuiId of new sites
· InstaIIation of TRX upgrades
· Changes to antenna configurations
Drive test resource might be independent or in the quality department or in
the RF department.
Operations, often have responsibility for the OMC. Their function is
maintenance of the network, but this will often overlap with optimisation.
The obvious area is where parameter changes are necessary.
Ìmplementation will be making changes to antennas where necessary.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 214
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 214 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· Preparation
÷ CIuster definition
· Optimise manageabIe bits of the network
· Edge of cIuster shouId be an unchanged area
÷ BS testing
· New sites shouId be tested for fauIts BEFORE
optimisation
÷ Antennas connected correctIy
÷ Parameters set correctIy - neighbours / BCCHs
An optimisation area, or cluster must be defined, so that a team can manage its
work well. Ìdeally the network expansion and rollout will be organised so that the
surrounding area will be not require optimising at the same time.
Many so called "optimisation problems¨ turn out to be hardware and software
faults, incorrectly connected antennas or simple typos. Soon after the integration
of new sites, they should be tested for functionality and correct configuration.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 215
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 215 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· Preparation
÷ QuaIity assessment
· Identify and Iocate probIems
÷ Sources of data
· Network performance statistics
· Drive tests
· Customer compIaints
The first step in both the intensive optimisation stage and in the ongoing
optimisation will be to identify the locations of network problems. Different methods
of doing this each have their advantages and disadvantages.
Network Performance Stats take time to collect and optimisation is usually
scheduled for low traffic periods
Drive tests only measure downlink, unless linked to A-bis traces, which can be
tedious.
Customer complaints normally come after the end of the weekend, rather than
early in the optimisation campaign, where it is desired to find all the problems.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 216
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 216 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· Databases
÷ PIanning tooI
· Current network situation
· History
· PIans
÷ Network
· Live database of parameters
· Antenna tiIts and site Iocations
Database integrity is often difficult to maintain during an optimisation
event. The problem is that settings and parameters are changing so
quickly that it is sometimes difficult for the databases to keep up.
A direct link from planning tool to OMC can help. Ìn the absence of this,
and certainly for antenna changes, a disciplined change request
procedure is required.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 217
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 217 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· Databases
÷ Measurements
· Large amounts of data
· CataIogue to match with correct history database in
pIanning tooI
÷ Optimisation database
· History of aII optimisation probIems and soIutions
· "TroubIe ticket" system
· ProbIems shouId be formaIIy cIosed
· Library of common probIems for future heIp
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 218
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 218 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· Databases
÷ Optimisation database exampIe
ProbIem Input
- Operations
- Qual. measurements
- Custumer Complains
- Employee
Problemreports
DCS-
Measurement
datas
-Logical Connection of
the Measurement data to
the Optimisation
Problem
- Measurement data
DCS-
Measurement
Request
- Optimisation ProbIem
- Opt. Project Managment
- Measurement Requests
- Para.Change request forms
- OptimisationprobIem SoIutions
Optimisation
-database
Problemerfassung
Change
Requestform
Optimisation
Reports
To
Measurement
team
- To Fieldengineers
- To OMC
- To Radioplanning
Ìnternal in
Optimisation
Projekt Reports
Ìnternal in
Optimisation for
Proplemmanagement
DB Output
DB-Management
Map Ìnfo Geographical
Problemdisplay
The optimisation database should be multi-user with a number of functions including:
· Storage of information on problem originator
· Prioritisation of problems
· Logical connection of problems to Optimisation areas
· Grouping of problems to a master/main problem
· Storage of problem resolution measures
· Printing of Change Requests and Measurement Requests
· Historical record of Problems
· Attachment of Win-files (pictures, documents) to a problem
The database could be configured as required, local to each region, which means
that access will not be possible from another region or from a different location within
the region. Each optimisation problem would still have a unique problem number,
each new number being automatically assigned by the database. All measurement
and change requests, optimisation and project reports will be generated in paper
form.
An administrator should be appointed to maintain the database, thereby ensuring the
integrity over the lifetime of the network.
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 219
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 219 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
· ImpIementation procedure
÷ Identification of probIems
÷ AIIocation of drive routes
÷ AnaIysis of data
÷ SoIution of probIems
· Check out side effects!!
· Use pIanning tooI
· Liaise with other RF teams
÷ ImpIementation of soIution
÷ Verify soIution
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 220
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 220 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Organisation
0pt|m|sat|on
Optimisation Guidelines Optimisation Database
Ìnput Data collection:
Metrica Statistics,
Drive Test Measurements
Customer Complaints
Cluster Definition
Ìnitial Site Validation
Data Analysis/
Problem Ìdentification
Solution Recommendation
and Ìmplementation
Validation of Solution
Ìn a nutshell, the organisation that is established for optimisation is required to carry
out these processes
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 221
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 221 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Finally
· Take action ...
· Go optimise with confidence!
© ChiIderIey SoIutions 2002 222
GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.4 Page 222 © TeIecom network ConsuItants Ltd 2002
Contact details
TeIecom Network ConsuItants
HighfieId House
90 West Drive
HighfieIds CaIdecote
Cambridge CB3 7NY
TeI: +44 1954 210841
Fax: +44 1954 210840
EmaiI: enquiries@tnc-Itd.com
Web: www.tnc-Itd.com

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