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A management information system (MIS) is a system or process that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively. An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management.
2. Goals of MIS • Provide managers with information • Regular, routine operations • Control, organize and plan better 3. Benefits of MIS • Effective and efficient coordination between Departments • Quick and reliable referencing • Access to relevant data and document • Use of less labour • Improvement in organizational and departmental techniques • Management of day-to-day activities 4. Data Data is the raw material in the production of information. It represents a fact; a number, a statement, or a picture. A single piece of data has no meaning unless the context is understood. 5. Information Information is the data that have meaning within a context. Data in relationships and pattern gives information. Data after manipulation is called information. 6. Knowledge Knowledge is seen as a dynamic human process of justifying personal beliefs as part of an aspiration for the “truth”. Knowledge is the acquisition and even the understanding that one has acquired information. 7. Intelligence Intelligence is the processes and the products that lead to understanding and taking decisions related to reality. Intelligence is a way of manipulating information.
8. Information Technology Information technology (IT) is concerned with technology to treat information. It is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology. (Data, image and voice networks) 9. Information System An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, processes, data, and technology that interact to collect, process, store and provide as output the information needed to support an organization. 10. Transaction Processing System Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) are operations support systems that record and process data resulting from business transactions. Process data resulting from business transactions, update operational databases, and produce business documents. They process transaction in to two basic ways. In batch processing, transactions data are accumulated over a period of time and processed periodically. In real time processing, data are processed immediately after a transaction occurs. 11. Decision Support Systems DSS give direct computer support to managers during the decision making process. For example, an advertising manager may use a DSS to perform a what-if analysis as part of a decision to determine where to spend advertising dollars. 12. Executive Information System EIS provide critical information from a variety of internal and external sources in easy – to – use displays to executives and managers. For example, top executives may use touch screen terminals to instantly view text and graphics that highlight key areas of organizational and competitive performance. 13. System Analyst A systems analyst is responsible for searching, planning co-ordinating and recommending software and system choices to meet an organisation‟s business requirements.
UNIT II 1. System analysis System analysis is a process of investigating a system, identifying problems and using the information to recommend improvements to the system. Here the responsibility includes only requirement determination, not the design of the system. 2. System Design System design is a process of designing a new system based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of the existing system. It is the most crucial phase in the developments of a system. The logical system design arrived at as a result of systems analysis is converted into physical system design. 3. System Analysis Vs System Design System Analysis System analysis describes what a system should do to meet the information needs of users Analyze the resources, products and activities of any information systems presently used Determine the information system capabilities that will meet the information needs of an end user.
System Design Systems design specifies how the system will accomplish this objective
Develop general specification for how input, processing output storage and control activities. Develop detailed specification for user interface products and methods, database structures and processing and control procedures. Document and communicate the logical Document and communicate the detailed input, processing and output storage and specification of the proposed system to control requirements of a proposed new end user. or improved information system 4. DFD A data flow diagram (DFD) is a design tool to represent the flow of data through an information system. A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system, modeling its process aspects. 5. ER Diagram The Entity-Relationship (ER) model is a conceptual data model, capable of describing the data requirements for a new information system in a direct and easy to understand graphical notation. 6. Entities Entities represent classes of objects (facts, things, people,...) that have properties in common and an autonomous existence.
7. Attributes Attribute describe the elementary properties of entities or relationships. For example, Surname, Salary and Age are possible attributes of the Employee entity. Attributes Example
8. Data Dictionary In database management systems, a file that defines the basic organization of a database is called Data Dictionary. A data dictionary contains a list of all files in the database, the number of records in each file, and the names and types of each field.
9. Pseudocode Pseudocode is a compact and informal high-level description of a computer programming algorithm that uses the structural conventions of a programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading. Ex: IF <condition> DO stuff; ELSE DO other stuff; 10. Data flow diagrams A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing. Ex:
11. Data dictionaries A data dictionary is an integral part of a database, which holds information about the database and the data that it stores. 12. Normalisation Database normalization is the process of removing redundant data from the tables in order to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability. 13. Object Modeling Object modeling is the technique for identifying objects within the system environment, and the relationships between those objects. 13. DBMS A collection of programs that enables one to store, modify, and extract information from a database. 14. Database A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. 15. RDBMS RDBMS is a DBMS in which data is stored in tables and the relationships among the data are also stored in tables. The data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to change the table forms. Relation – Table Tuple -Record/Row Attributes - Field/Columns Domain - Set of valid values of attributes Degree -Number of columns in a table Cardinality -Number of rows in a table 16. Primary key The column or set of columns which can uniquely identify every row in a table is termed as a Candidate key. Every candidate key satisfies the following two properties. 1. Uniqueness-No two rows have the same value for the column or the set of columns. 2. Minimality-None of the columns can be removed from the key without violating the uniqueness property. 17. Foreign key It is possible for one table to contain a column, or a set of columns, that contains data elements values drawn from the same domains as the columns that form the primary key of some other table. This column or set of columns is called the Foreign key.
18. Candidate key Candidate key is a column in a table which has the ability to become a primary key. 19. Alternate Key Any of the candidate keys that are not part of the primary key is called an alternate key. 20. Secondary key: Alternate of primary key. 21. Benefits of SDLC Proven framework Facilitates information exchange Defines and focuses roles and responsibilities Pre define degree of precision Enforced planning and control 22. Tools for System Design Flowchart Data Flow Diagram Structured English Decision Table Decision Tree 23. System A system is a group of interrelated components working together towards common goals by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. 24. Object Oriented DBMS An object oriented database management system (OODBMS) is a database management system that supports the modeling and creation of data as objects. 25. SQL SQL often referred as structured query language is a database computer language designed for managing data in relational database management systems and originally based upon relational algebra. 26. Middleware Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. Middleware can be described as "software glue" that binds between the software component.
UNIT III 1. HRIS The Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is a software or online solution for the data entry, data tracking, and data information needs of the Human Resources, payroll, management, and accounting functions within a business. 2. DSS Decision support systems (DSS) are computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSS serve the management, operations and planning levels of an organization and help to make decisions. 3. Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) KM is a process of capturing and making use of firm‟s collective expertise anywhere in business – on paper, in document, in database or in people‟s head. Knowledge management is about connecting people to people and people to information to create competitive advantage. 4. Knowledge Knowledge is nothing but application of data and information; answers "how" questions. Knowledge is the appropriate collection of information, such that its intent is to be useful. 5. Artificial Intelligence The sub-field of computer science concerned with understanding the concepts and methods of human reasoning, and the application of this understanding to the development of computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. 6. Knowledge Gap The difference between what the enterprise requires and what it currently has is called the Knowledge gap. 7. Explicit Knowledge The knowledge that individuals are able to express fairly, easily using language or other forms of communication are called explicit knowledge. 8. Tacit Knowledge Tacit knowledge is difficult to express and formalize and therefore difficult to share. Tacit knowledge is more likely to be personal and based on individual experience and activities.
9. Externalization Externalization involves converting tacit knowledge into explicit forms such as words, concepts, visuals or figurative language. Externalization also helps translate individuals‟ tacit knowledge into explicit forms that can be more easily understood by rest of their group. 10. Internalization Internalization is the conversion of explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge. It represents the traditional notion of learning. 11. Socialization Socialization facilitates the sharing tacit knowledge in cases in which new tacit knowledge is created as well as new tacit knowledge is not created. 12. Routines Routines involve the utilization of knowledge embedded in procedures, rules and norms that guide future behavior. Routines economize on communication more than directions because they are embedded in procedures or technologies. 13. Direction Direction refers to the process through which individuals possessing the knowledge, direct the action of another individual without transferring to that person the knowledge underlying the direction. Direction is the process used when a production worker calls experts to ask them how to solve a particular problem with a machine and then proceeds to solve the problem based on the instructions given the experts. 14. International Information System (IIS): Distributed information systems which support similar business activities in highly diverse environments commonly found across country boundaries is called International Information System. 15. Geographic Information System (GIS) A geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. 16. Characteristics of DSS It integrates data and models so that it is easier for managers to make good decisions It support wide variety of decision making It allows the user to query the system for a specific answer.
1. Information Security Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction. 2. Data Validation Data validation is the process of ensuring that a program operates on clean, correct and useful data. It checks for validity, correctness and security of the data. 3. Tampering When a message is sent, sender usually wants it to arrive unaltered. Tampering is altering the message in between the sender and the receiver. 4. Denial of Service Denying the service to the authorized user by the attacker is called denial of service (DOS) 5. Confidentiality Confidentiality is the term used to prevent the disclosure of information to unauthorized individuals or systems. 6. Integrity In information security, integrity means that data cannot be modified without authorization. Example: When a employee is able to modify his own salary in a payroll database. 7. Authenticity The process of ensuring the data, transactions, communications or documents (electronic or physical) are genuine is called authenticity. It is also important for authenticity to validate that both parties involved are who they claim they are. 8. Software testing Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results. 9. Unit testing Unit testing refers to tests that verify the functionality of a specific section of code, usually at the function level. Unit testing is also called component testing. Unit testing is a method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules are tested to determine if they are fit for use
10. Integration testing Integration testing is any type of software testing that seeks to verify the interfaces between components against a software design. Software components may be integrated in an iterative way or all together ("big bang") and testing can be done. 11. System testing System testing tests a completely integrated system to verify that it meets its requirements. 12. System integration testing System integration testing verifies that a system is integrated to any external or third party systems defined in the system requirements. Strategies for integrating components in to a functioning product include the bottom up strategy and top down strategy. 13. Regression testing Regression testing focuses on finding defects after a major code change has occurred. Specifically, it seeks to uncover software regressions, or old bugs that have come back. 14. Acceptance testing Acceptance testing performed by the customer, often in their lab environment on their own hardware, is known as user acceptance testing (UAT). The quality and fitness of the software will be tested by the user. 15. Computer Crimes Computer crime or cyber crime is unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both. Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. 16. Unauthorized access Unauthorized access would therefore mean any kind of access without the permission of either the rightful owner or the person in charge of a computer, computer system or computer network. 17. Hacking Every act committed towards breaking into a computer and/or network is hacking. Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer. They possess the desire to destruct and they get the kick out of such destruction. 18. Trojan Horse It is a program that act like something useful but do the things that are quiet damp. Trojan horse means an unauthorized programme, which passively gains control
over another‟s system by representing itself as an authorised programme. The most common form of installing a Trojan is through e-mail. 19. Virus A program that has capability to infect other programs and make copies of itself and spread into other programs is called virus. Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a computer or a file and then circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on a network. 20. Worm Programs that multiply like viruses but spread from computer to computer occupying the entire space of the computer are called as worms. Worms make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available space on a computer's memory. 21. Email spoofing Email spoofing refers to email that appears to have been originated from one source when it was actually sent from another source. 22. Email spamming Email "spamming" refers to sending email to thousands and thousands of users similar to a chain letter. 23. Email bombing E-mail "bombing" is characterized by abusers repeatedly sending an identical email message to a particular address. This kind of activity refers to sending large numbers of mail to the victim, which may be an individual or a company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing. 24. Data diddling This kind of an attack involves altering raw data just before a computer processes it and then changing it back after the processing is completed. 25. Salami attacks This kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed. E.g. the Ziegler case wherein a logic bomb was introduced in the bank‟s system, which deducted 10 cents from every account and deposited it in a particular account. 26. Logic bombs These are event dependent programs. This implies that these programs are created to do something only when a certain event (known as a trigger event) occurs. E.g.
even some viruses may be termed logic bombs because they lie dormant all through the year and become active only on a particular date. 27. Web jacking This term is derived from the term hi jacking. In these kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control over the web site of another. He may even mutilate or change the information on the site. This may be done for fulfilling political objectives or for money. 28. Firewalls Firewall is a software or hardware or combination of both that prevents unauthorized users from accessing private networks. The two types of Firewalls are proxies and stateful inspection. 29. Intrusion Detection System It is a device that monitors vulnerable points in network to detect and determine unauthorized intruders. 30. Encryption Coding and scrambling of messages to prevent their access without authorization. 31. Digital signature: Digital code attached to electronically transmitted message to uniquely identify contents and sender. A Digital Signature means authentication of any electronic record by a subscriber by means of an „electronic method.‟ It is using a combination of „Public Key‟ and a „Private Key‟, which convert the message into digital form. A private key will create a digital signature and one can use the public key to verify the digital signature.
32. Digital certificate It is an attachment to electronic message to verify the sender and to provide receiver with means to encode reply
33. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) It is a standard for securing credit card transactions over Internet and other networks. It uses digital certificates, issued to merchants and other business and customers, to perform a series of security checks verifying that the identity of customer or sender of information is valid. 34. Antivirus Virus is program codes that introduce malicious logic into computer systems. Ex: worms, virus, Trojan horse etc. Antivirus software is specially written to defend a system against the threats that malware presents. 35. Biometric Security Biometric authentication uses the unique characteristics of individual users, such as fingerprints or retinal patterns, to grant access to resources. This is typically used in high security situations, such as defense installation. 36. Intranet Intranet is the generic term for a collection of private computer networks within an organization. An intranet uses network technologies as a tool to facilitate communication between people or work groups to improve the data sharing capability and overall knowledge base of an organization's employees. 37. Wireless Network The word wireless is dictionary defined as "having no wires". In networking terminology, wireless is the term used to describe any computer network where there is no physical wired connection between sender and receiver, but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communications. 38. TCP/IP The Protocol used to connect a number different networks designed by different vendors into a network of networks (the "Internet"). IP - is responsible for moving packet of data from node to node. TCP - is responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from client to server. 39. Router A router is a device or, in some cases, software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. 40. DNS Server The Domain Name System (DNS) is a standard technology for managing the names of Websites and other Internet domains. DNS technology allows you to type names into your Web browser like compnetworking.about.com and your computer to automatically find that address on the Internet.
41. Local Area Network A Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media. 42. Wide Area Network A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). 43. Value Added Network VAN is a simple communications network that offers additional services such as message routing and stock quote service. 44. Metropolitan Area Network A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area Networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks (or WAN) and the Internet. 45. Bluetooth Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low-power radio communication to wirelessly link phones, computers and other network devices over short distances. Bluetooth technology was designed primarily to support simple wireless networking of personal consumer devices and peripherals, including cell phones, PDAs and wireless headsets. 46. Software Audit A software audit provides an independent evaluation of software products or processes to ascertain compliance to standards, specifications, and procedures based on objective criteria. 47. Information Ethics Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. 48. Computer Ethics defined as the application of classical ethical principles to the use of computer technology. 49. Intellectual property (IP) IP is a term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which property rights are recognized and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of
intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. 50. Patents A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state (national government) to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention. 51. Copyrights Copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted by the law of a jurisdiction to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. 52. Trademarks A trademark is typically a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or a combination of these elements. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ - for an unregistered trade mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand goods ℠ - for an unregistered service mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand services ® - for a registered trademark 53. Software metrics A software metric is a measure of some property of a piece of software or its specifications. Benefits i. Measurement helps managers to identify, prioritize, track and communicate project issues at all levels within the organization. ii. Metrics can accurately describe the status of software project processes and products. iii. Metrics provides an effective rationale for selecting the best alternatives. 54. Cyber stalking Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization.
1. e-business Electronic business, commonly referred to as "eBusiness" or "e-business", or an internet business, may be defined as the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. It constitutes the exchange of products and services between businesses, groups and individuals. 2. Models / Types of E-Commerce 1. Business to consumer (B2C) 2. Business to Business (B2B) 3. Business to Government (B2G) 4. Consumer to consumer (C2C) 5. Consumer to business (C2B) 3. E-Business VS E-Commerce E-Commerce E-commerce describes the process of buying, selling, transferring or exchanging products, service, and or information via computer networks including the internet. E-Business Compared with e-commerce, ebusiness is more generic term; it refers not only to information exchanges related to buying and selling but also to servicing the customers and collaborating with business partners, distributors and suppliers. E-commerce can take several forms E-business encompasses sophisticated depending on degree of digitization. B2B interactions and collaboration The degree of digitization relates to: activities at a level of enterprise The product applications and business process. The process The delivery agent
4. M-Commerce It refers to use of mobile devices for conducting the business transactions. 5. Objectives of e-governance To support and simply governance for all stakeholders - government, businesses and citizens To increase the efficiency and speed in a transparent manner To interconnect citizens, businesses and government to save significant cost Citizens have access to information and knowledge about the political.
6. ERP ERP or Enterprise Resource Planning systems are software systems for businesses management encompassing modules supporting functional areas such as sales and marketing, finance, production, distribution accounting, human resource management, maintenance, inventory management, project management, transportation and e-business etc 7. ERP Packages ERP is a commodity -- product in the form of software SAP, Oracle Applications, PeopleSoft, JD Edwards, Greatplains etc. are world‟s leading ERP packages The market leader is “SAP” 8. Merits of ERP Ensure quicker processing of information and reduce the burden of paperwork. Serving the customers efficiently by way of prompt response and follow up Disposing Queries immediately and facilitating payment from customers Help to control data and facilitates the necessary contacts to acquire the same. 9. SCM - Supply Chain Management A supply chain is a system of organisations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer 10. Datawarehousing A data warehouse (DW) is a database used for reporting and analysis. Data warehousing is storing data effectively so that it can be accessed and used efficiently. A data warehouse is a centralized database that captures information from various parts of an organization's business processes. 11. DataMart: A departmental data warehouse that stores only relevant data. 12. Operational Data Stores (ODS): A type of database often used as an interim area for a data warehouse, especially for customer information files 13. MetaData: Data about data. In a data warehouse, metadata describe the contents of a data warehouse and the manner of its use.
14. Extraction, Transformation, and Load (ETL): A data warehousing process that consists of extraction (i.e., reading data from a database), transformation (i.e., converting the extracted data from its previous form into the form in which it needs to be so that it can be placed into a data warehouse or simply another database), and load (i.e., putting the data into the data warehouse) 15. Data Mining Data Mining is an analytic process designed to explore data in search of consistent patterns and systematic relationships between variables, and then to validate the findings by applying the detected patterns to new subsets of data. The ultimate goal of data mining is prediction. 16. Business Intelligence Business intelligence is the processes, technologies, and tools that help us change data into information, information into knowledge and knowledge into plans that guide organization. 17. List various Business Intelligence tools Spread sheets Reporting and querying OLAP Digital Dashboards Data mining Process mining 18. Pervasive Computing Pervasive Computing means “Convenient access, through a new class of applications, to relevant information with the ability to easily take action on it when and where you need to.” It refers to visionary new ways of applying information and communication technologies to our daily lives. 19. CMM-Capability Maturity Model The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM) is a framework that describes an evolutionary improvement path from an ad hoc, immature process to a mature, disciplined process. The CMM covers practices for planning, engineering, and managing software development and maintenance. 20. Flat File Flat files are data files that contain records with no structured relationships. Additional knowledge is required to interpret these files such as the file format properties.
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