Registration No.

:- IIMM/DH/1/2007/5516

Answer 2. (a) Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behavior: Every discipline of study has certain set of fundamental concepts. These concepts are a priori. The do not lend themselves to the question ‘why so’. They are something, which have to be accepted and not questioned. They are the foundation stones on which the entire edifice of the discipline is developed. In the discipline of Accountancy the fundamental concept is “for every debit entry there will be a credit entry”. In the natural sciences the fundamental concept is the concept of uniformity of nature. The concept states that if a certain phenomenon takes place under certain situations in Pune it should take place under the same situations anywhere in the world. The discipline of Organizational Behavior has fundamental concepts revolving round the nature of people and the nature of the organization. The concepts dealing with the nature of individual are four. They are: i) ii) iii) iv) Individual differences; Whole person; Motivation i.e. caused behavior. Human dignity.

Individual Differences: Inspite of all the humans being similar every one is different. Every one has a different gift of the nature; different quality of intelligence, different perception and the different ways or behaviour. The concept tells that every person is an entity in him. When it comes to human behavior there can not be a prescriptive solution. Every individual is to be treated differently even though two persons may have the same behavioral problems. The concept also tells the manager that he had better be aware of his own stereotypes. A stereotype is a tendency to attribute the traits of a group to an individual because he belongs to the said group. The Jew genocide can be attributed to this stereotyping. Unfortunately one is not aware as to how these stereotypes influence his behaviour. This concept, therefore, not only tells that a manager should treat every person as an entity in himself but he should also examine his own stereotypes. Whole Person: In the olden days employees were referred to as ‘hands’, implying that the organization hires only the hands of man. Nothing can be farther from the truth. An organization hires not only the hands of an employee but hires complete men with all his pluses and minuses. At the same since a person performs may roles at the same time the happenings in one role are bound to affect the behaviour in others roles of the person. The concept tells the manager than when it comes to behavioral problems, he must also take into account the other roles of the person. If the whole person is to be developed then only the benefits will extend beyond the organization to the entire society. In which the employee lives.

Caused Behaviour (Motivation): The concept reminds the manager of the law enunciated by Newton that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This means the manager, by his own behaviour, can cause and employee behave in a particular way. If he is respectful to his employees they are bound to be respectful to him not otherwise. Human Dignity: This concept is of a different order from the other three because it is more an ethical philosophy than a scientific conclusion. It confirms that people are to be treated differently from other factors of production. Because they are of a higher order, they want to be treated with respect and dignity. When every one, the employee, the manager as the CEO of an organization are engaged in the same pursuit. The pursuit of enabling their organization to achieve the objections for it has come in existence. Thus they are on the equal footing. The concept tells that very person should be respected simply because he happens to be an employee just as the manager is.


Psychologists do not totally agree on how to classify various human motives. It is necessary that he recognizes that the power he has is because of the organization. So is the case of human behaviour. which is not seen. Power motive essentially is the desire to control others. Modern psychologists are prepared to recognize the existence of unconscious behaviour. To Freud human is constantly in conflict with the self. the three constructs of human personality are always conflicting. Out of his extensive research has emerged a clear profile of characteristics of the high achiever. controls the seen part. Achievement motivation can be expressed as a desire to performing in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful in competitive situations. Human behaviour is directed to satisfy these needs or motives. However.Answer. However. The Acievement Motive – n ach David C. needs are recurrent in nature. The specific characteristics of a high achiever are a) moderate risk taking b) need for immediate feedback c) satisfaction with accomplishment and d) preoccupation with the task Affiliatin Motive – n aff This motive is indicative of the need belong to and be accepted by the others. Person who has acquired such power must use it for the good of the organization. a need once satisfied ceases to influence behaviour. McClelland is most closely associated with the study of achievement motive. They have five characteristics. In our discussion of the characteristics of motives we had said that motives are ubiquitous. The concept of coping behaviour says the human changes his behaviour until he gets what he wants. the part of iceberg. In other words he comes to acquire extra constitutional powers. human life is not bed of roses. In an organization because of his competence a person comes to acquire power. If that is so the questions arises as to how a human satisfies his motive. They are (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the need having the highest strength dominates the human behaviour. Many a tines situations arise in such a way that human being does not understand as to what he should do’ or many times his self image is 3 . only a small part of which is visible. A motive is a felt need. The consideration of this motive is important in the discussions of group dynamics. The following is the classification. when a need is satisfied. which is the observable behaviour. it gives rise to a new need. They believe human behaviour is sparked by a motive. According to Freud this is the reason why many a times a human can not verbalize his motivations. some psychologists tend to classify motives according as to whether they are unlearned or learned and whether they are psychologically or physiologically based. The higher the need for affiliation among the members of the group. but not in the sense implicit to Freud. to direct others’ behaviour. The final outcome. the higher is the group cohesiveness. is the product of this conflict. The Power Motive – n pow The leading advocate of this motive was pioneering psychologist Alfred Adler. 2 (b) Freud reasoned that human behaviour is like an iceberg. The power attaches to one’s personal competence. However. In other words he be high on social inhibition also. needs are ubiquitous. His say influences the decisions of his superiors. The behaviour continues on the way leading to need satisfaction.

When this occurs a phenomenon known as ‘intra personal conflict arises. 4 . They are a) Role conflict. Intra personal conflicts are three. or the need fulfillment gets continually blocked. b) goal conflict and c) frustration.likely to be criticized by the world.

Rationalization is giving pseudo justification to explain one’s failures. emotional Re-directing pent-up emotions towards persons or the objects unconnected with the source of frustration. replaced by the behaviors acceptable by the society. beliefs “because everybody does it. in the flush of emotions. The increased frequency of fantasizing is a signal that one had better seek some help from a psychiatrist. recommendations of a committee are not implementable because he could 5 . Fantasy Negativism Active or passive resistance A manager saying that the operating unconsciously. Regression is sliding back in terms of one’s chronological age. 5. Defense Mechanism Rationalization Psychological Process Illustration Justifying inconsistent or Padding the expense account undesirable behaviour. however. Regression Aggression transference. A superior getting angry with his subordinate and throwing files at him or a person throwing a pen because of the ink not flowing. As long as a person is in his imaginary castle he is happy but some time or the other he has to come down to the mother earth. are the examples of this defense mechanism. in the adult hood.Answer. mentally. almost always. Aggression is also known as emotional transference. flight or withdrawal is a complete surrender to the problem situation.(a) Defense Mechanisms : 1. The offensive behaviour is. certain patterns of behaviors are learnt during the childhood that are subsequently. Fantasy is temporarily removing one self. by providing acceptable explanation for them. Daydreaming or other forms of imaginative activity provide an escape from the reality and imagined satisfaction. in the adult age. Fantasy is building castles in the air with a view to escaping form the problem situation. The table on the page gives behavioral descriptions of various defense mechanisms. 3. Individual returns to an earlier a A manager shouting at his less mature level of adjustment subordinate. 3. When he comes out of the imaginary world the problem starts pinching him again.e. This is accepting a situation and ceasing any effort to deal with the problem. from the problem situation and losing oneself in the imaginary world where things happen at his behest. The common examples are sour grapes or a bad workman quarreling with his tools. in the face of frustration. Resignation. At an unguarded moment. i.” etc. A superior scolding his subordinate because of something happening at home is the example of this defense mechanism. against the third object or the person that can not retaliate. This is giving vent to the pent up feelings by an offensive behaviour towards a third object or a person unconnected with the source of frustration. 4. Employee daydreams of the day in the staff meeting when he corrects the boss and is publicly acknowledged as the real brain of the company. Roughly rejecting a request from a subordinate after receiving a rebuff from the boss. these childhood behaviors take charge of the personality of the person. 2.

withdrawal.not become a member of the committee. 6 . examination quitting the course. Resignation. flight or Leaving the field where anxiety A student who could not pass an or conflict is experienced.

hunger. consequently. Unlike other needs. when satisfied.e Self . is dependent the very survival and continuance of the human race. takes precedence over all other needs. In addition the Alderfer model allows more flexibility and the Herzberg model is useful as an explanation for job satisfaction and as a point of departure for job design. sleep. on the satisfaction of these needs. They are concerned with types of incentives that drive people to attain need fulfillment. they have generally failed to meet the goals of prediction and control of organization behaviour. Maslow based his theory that a need that is not satisfied dominates the behaviour sparking off an activity for its satisfaction. Self Actualization Realization needs Self Esteem i. The process theories are concerned with identifying the variables that go into motivation and more importantly how they are related to one another. nay. belongingness needs Security Needs Physiological Needs Physiological Needs: The fulfillment of physiological needs. but conceptual and methodological problems remain. The expectancy model of Vroom and the extensions and the refinements provided by Porter and Lawler help explain the important cognitive variables and how they relate to one another in the process of work motivation. Since a motivated employee is highly productive and highly quality oriented. the research evidence points outs out limitations. Although such a content approach has logic. the content models have given emphasis to important content factors that were largely ignored by human relationists. There is very little research support for these models’ theoretical basis and predictability. Self worth needs Social i. etc. and can be readily translated in practice. is easy to understand. however. the physiological needs have a tendency of recurrence. As a theory of motivation Maslow reasoned that needs can be structured in a hierarchy.3(b) The content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized.Answer. The trade off for simplicity sacrifices true understanding of the complexity of work motivation. and. in its turn activates the higher need. Physiological needs are finite but are recurrent.e. The Porter Lawler model also gives specific attention to the important relationship between performance and satisfaction. This need. Deprivation – Domination – Gratification – Activation. Fredrick Hertzberg’s two factor theory and Alderfer’s ERG needs theory fall in this category. sex.e. such as thirst. Abraham Maslow theory of need hierarchy: It was Abraham Maslow who thought that human needs that spark off an activity can be arranged in a hierarchy of pre-potency and probability of occurrence. A growing research literature is somewhat supportive of these expectancy models. Unlike the content models these expectancy models are relatively complex and difficult to translate into actual practice. 7 i. An individual may postpone the fulchers alike. This sequence can be denoted as under. The Maslow hierarchy theory. On the positive side. The process theories provide a much sounder theoretical explanation of work motivations. the managers are also interested the cis one of the dimensions of money motive.

etc.Safety Needs: Once physiological needs are met. basically. so long as he is young and working and earning. the provident funds Act etc. But will he able to satisfy needs and fend for himself when he gets old? He must have reasonable ‘safety’ in his old age too. to ensure security for the man in his old age. How much enough is enough security is an ever-present dilemma before the management providing security of jobs to their employees. ‘safety’ needs become important. Too much security makes a man reckless and careless or lazy disobedient and underproductive. the payment of gratuity Act. go. the safety needs look to the future. and other retrial benefits. While physiological needs have a reference to the present. Implicit in the fulfillment of these safety needs is the origin of many labour enactments in India today. is able to satisfy the physiological needs as and when they occur. At the same time insecurity also makes a man under-productive. are satisfied today. clothing. But what about tomorrow? A man. The pension plans. The needs for food. 8 .

Achievement. Job Enlargement: The following are the principles of job enlargement: 1. the respondent was asked to narrate one incident from his work life about which he was particularly unhappy and another incident from work-life about which he was particularly happy. Job Security. Motivators are those factors. Recognition. 3. 5. In this method. The Horizontal job loading is known as “job enlargement” while vertical job loading is known as “job enrichment”. Thus they are extrinsic to the job. 6. Inter Personal relations with Peers. Adding other tasks to the job. On analyzing the data thus collected Herzberg came to conclusion that there are two sets of factors at the work life. Responsibility Hygiene factors are those factors that by their absence inhibit performance but any addition in them does not increase efficiency or productivity. The following are the hygiene factors and motivators. Status. These are the job context factors that occur at the time of doing the job. These factors are also called as ‘satisfies’. Company policies and administration.e. In collecting data he used the critical incidental method. 10. 2. These are the job content factors that make the job itself a tool of motivation. Advancement.4 (a) Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation: Herzberg extended work of Maslow and developed a specific content theory of work motivation. Inter Personal relations with superiors. Salary. Working Conditions. In 1950’s he conducted a study nothing responses of Accountants and Engineers employed by the firms in and around Pittsburgh. Inter Personal relations with Subordinates. 3. 8. 7. 2. 9 . Possibility of Growth. 4. 5. These factors are also called as dis-stisfiers. Technical Supervision. Hygiene Factors i. 3. dis-satisfaction 1. Work itself. Personal Life. but any addition in them increases efficiency. 6. 9. one set he called “hygiene factors” while the other was called the “motivators”. Motivators i.e satisfaction 1. which by their absence do not inhibit performance. Challenging the employees by increasing the amount of production expected of him. 2.Answer. 4. Removing the more difficult parts of the assignment in order to free the worker.

When talking about the theory of job enlargement in his article “one more time. work. 4. [Harvard Business Review. He. Growth and advancement. the worker himself. Assigning individuals specific or specialized Responsibility. are as under: Principle Motivators involved 1. Rotating the assignments. accountability. handled previously.]. 6.4. tasks. Introducing new and more difficult tasks not Growth and learning. therefore. 3. Making periodic reports directly available to Internal recognition. Increasing Accountability for individual’s own Responsibility and recognition. enabling them to become experts. 10 . advocates job enrichment. Removing some control while retaining Responsibility and Personal Achievement. how do you motivate your employee”. 7. Job Enrichment Principles of Job enrichment according to Herzber. Giving a person a complete natural unit of Responsibility and recognition. 2. Jan-Feb’68] Herzberg talks in arithmetical terms and ultimately comes to conclusion that the theory of “job enlargement” does not gives dividends not for a long period of time. area etc. in his activity 5. work [Module. Granting additional authority to an employee Responsibility and recognition.

training. this need not always be so. In the first situation productivity is high because of the strict management controls and close supervision.Answer. When this happens the productivity also dips. In this situation after sometimes the morale comes down. 4. work habits. Generally it can be said that morale has a positive relationship with productivity. performance goals etc. High productivity involves a combination of ability. The higher the morale the higher is the productivity. However. It also happens in an atmosphere where the people are treated as machines. Morale essentially is akin to job satisfaction. And Curve-C represents high productivity. 11 . Thus in both these situations ultimately morale as well as productivity are at their nadir. It also refers to the preparedness of the groups of the employees to subordinate the individual and the group goals to the goals of the organization.High Job Satisfaction only Line B.chiefly the planning function. Low productivity.High Productivity only Line C Low Productivity In the above graph High Curve-A represents high morale.High Job Satisfaction Productivity Line C. Productivity can be high in spite of morale being low because of the rigid systems and controls imposed by the management. slowly people distance themselves from the Organization because of the disillusionment about the management abilities. as can be seen from the following graph: High Line A Line B Line A.” Morale indicates the happiness of the employees with the organizational environment. (b) According to Morris Viteles “Morale refers to the condition of a group where there are clear and fixed group goals that are felt to be important and integrated with individual goals: where there is confidence in the attainment of these goals and the confidence in the means of attainment in the leader. Curve-B represents high morale and high productivity. In the second situation when morale is high but productivity is low. associates and finally in one self. It represents the integration of an individual with the team and the organization itself. but low morale. In this situation the management is apparently creating discontent in the organization which may blow up in its face. The situations where productivity is higher inspite of morale being low or productivity being lower inspite of morale being high do not last long. Curve ‘A’ above where morale is high but productivity is low indicates the management’s failure in the proper discharge of management functions: .

tabulate and analyze the data. This may be time taking process. These morale surveys involve drafting of questionnaires. interview people.Every manager is always interested in curve ‘B’ indicating high morale as well as productivity. In words a manager must have his fingers on the morale in the Organization. No doubt a manager can know the level of morale in his organization by morale surveys. 12 . Today the morale high but something may go wrong and the morale might start coming down. Instead he may pay due attention to some of the morale indicators that give an idea about the status of morale at a particular time. But morale is not a static phenomenon.

They are Natural Child.(a) The Parent Ego State Sometimes parents treat their children in a loving way. sometimes we may have done what we were told. impatient and greedy.” rational manner. From their Adapted Child. Ego State. however. We call these two aspects the Nurturing Parent (NP) and the Controlling Parent (CP). offer shelter and protection or take care of them in other ways. They gather relevant information. people often react to external demand by. Individuals always oscillate between these ego states depending on the situation. For example. Thus adult Ego State is that part of the human personality that makes him take decisions on the basis of facts. These actions can stand in the way of choosing success. curious. data and analysis of these facts and data. their parent ego state also develops these two major aspects. generate alternatives. Transactions between ego states: One thing must be borne in mind that there can never be a standard personality mix. As a child we probably learned to adapt in different ways. make rules. When we are in our Natural Child. As a grown up.Answer. Little professor also known as creative child and Adaptive child. He likes to make friends. In the adult ego state people attack problems in a “cool-headed. In dealings with other people. He makes a success when put in charge of the work involving contracts or the dealings with the public. A person high on natural child is extrovert. It helps children grow. speak kindly to them. energetic. loving uninhabited. fairness and objectivity characterize the adult Ego State. we transact freely and openly with others. 5. The Natural Child is spontaneous. complying. we may still occasionally react the same way to a project deadline. The Natural Child is not entirely without fault. The Ego State: In this ego state the person acts like a mature adult. Since the main objective of these behaviors is to control the child. It can be self centered. It’s that part of us that feels free and loves pleasures. sulking. they are known to be coming from controlling parent ego state. In the adult state people do not act impulsively or in a domineering way. Because it is only when they are high on adult Ego State that their decisions will be more objective and considered. or Procrastinate by putting off work until the deadline passes. carefully analyze it. Turn back on people with problems. The Natural Child is the Ego State we came into the world with as a newborn baby. As a result we want all executives to be high on adult Ego State. They 13 . The Child Ego State: Just as the parent Ego State has different aspects. Behaviors associated with these feelings are also typical of the Adaptive Child. It’s what comes naturally. At other times parents criticize. so does the child. All this is coming from the nurturing parent Ego State. Try to please everyone in department. and make logical choices. give commands or punish their children. or creating unnecessary stress for them. Because children repeatedly see parents be having in these two major ways and they unconsciously copy these behaviors. It is the Adaptive Child that may. at other times we may have sulked or avoided the situation (by withdrawing or procrastinating).

More important than the Ego State per se is how one Ego State matches or conflicts with another Ego State in interpersonal interaction the transaction. at least for effective interpersonal relations.confront. the T A authors generally stress that all three ego states are necessary for to a healthy personality. The strong implication is. is that the adult state is far superior to the child or parent state. However. The transactions between ego states are at the heart of TA and can be classified into the following. of course. This is what is known as putting the Adult as the Executive of the personality. Although we know that people generally exhibit all three Ego States.      Complementary Trasactions: Crossed Transactions: Ulterior Transactions: Strokes and ganes in TA: The Games People Play: 14 . Introspection. and putting the Adult in charge of the personality and deciding the behavioral requirements of the situation can do this. but one state may dominate the other two. We always change ourselves to suit the situational requirements.

Likewise.(b) Personality factors are extremely important in organizational settings. Research on animals has showed that physical and psychological characteristics can be transmitted through heredity. A consideration of personality differences of focal persons is important for at least three reasons.5. But research on human beings is inadequate to support this viewpoint. Determinants of Personality: The major determinants of personality of an individual can be studied four broad headings (a) Biological. Brain: Another biological factor that influences personality is the role of the brain of an individual. while others invoke sympathy and supportive responses because of their personality features. transmitted by genes in the chromosomes contributed by each parent.Answer. Certain characteristics. are inherited from one’s parents. Biological Factors: Biological factors may be studied under three heads(a) the heredity (b) the brain. psychologists and geneticists have accepted the fact that heredity plays an important role in one’s personality. some people encourage and others discourage free and open communication in view of their personality traits as perceived by their subordinates and associates. while tensions and anxieties and similar circumstances swamp others. primarily physical in nature. peer relations and superior-subordinate relations. Often the ‘wrong’ kind of personality proves disastrous and causes undesirable tensions and worries in organizations. Sometimes. the personality difficulties are the root cause of organizational conflicts and often lead to turnover and job dissatisfaction. Some people arouse hostility and aggression in their associates. The psychologists are unable to prove empirically the contribution of human brain in influencing personality. (b) Cultural (c) Familial (d) Situation. (c) Physical features. However. Personality characteristics tend to produce differential emotional reactions to stress. Preliminary results from the electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) 15 . Heredity: The relative effects of heredity comprise and extremely old argument in personality theory. Some people tolerate severely stressful situations. The costs of such tensions and worries are enormous when we interpret them from the point of view of employee-employer relations. The importance of heredity varies from one personality trait to another.

potentials that are open to him at birth. Self-theory. An individual’s external appearance is proved to be having a tremendous effect on his personality. Handsome or ugly. V. The culture within which a person is brought up is very important determinant of behavior of a person. A person’s physical characteristics may be related to his approach to the social environment. The culture largely determines what a person is and what a person will learn. it must be pointed out. to him.” Socialization initially starts with the contact with mother and later on the other members of the family. III. These-in turn may have impacts on personality development. II. Social Learning theory. IV. Identification process can be examined from three angles: (a) it can be viewed as the similarity of behavior between child and the mode. Normally a child tries to emulate certain actions of his parents. black or whitish will undoubtedly influence the person’s effect on others and in turn. and to their reactions. Type theories. from the enormously wide range of behavioral. Intrapsychic theory. 2. those behavioral patterns that are customary and acceptable according to the standards of his family and social group.research gives indication that better understanding of human personality and behavior migh come from the study of the brain. Socialization Process: The contribution of family and social group in combination with the culture is known as socialization. Identification process: Identification starts when a person begins to identify himself with some other members of the family. at the outset. and (b) it can be looked as the child’s motives or desires to be like the model Researchers have developed a number of personality theories and no theory. Physical features: Perhaps the most outstanding factor that contributes to personality is the physical stature of an individual. Trait theories. 1. 16 . In the words of Mussen “socialization is the process by which and individual infant acquires. Family and Social Factors: In order to understand the effects of a family on individual’s personality. we have to understand the socialization process and identification process. is complete in itself. fat or skinny. will affect the self concept. Personality theories can be grouped under the five heads: I. Cultural Factors: Culture is traditionally considered as the major determinant of an individual’s personality. For instance the fact that a person is short or tall. to the expectancies of others.

17 . It is the organization of inputs through a dynamic inner process. unlike the sensation process. perception is a highly complex and comprehensive process. the “real” sensory world. the perceptual process adds to. In other words.6. Kolasa defines perception as the “selection and organization of material which stems from the outside environment at one time or the other to provide the meaningful entity we experience. They also differ in the methods they use to assess or measure an individual’s personality. feeling. and also the way they relate these constructs to behavior. The perceptual process overcomes the sensual process and the person “sees” the object as stationary. Answer. assemble it is a well as compare it with earlier experience. The perceptual process can be defined as a complicated interaction of selection. which shapes what comes in from the outside environment.(a) Perception Perception is much more complex and much broader than sensation. A simple illustration may be seen by looking at one side of a stationary object. testing and smelling”. and subtracts from. what comes in changes what is inside the individual. for example. and (2) There is organization of stimuli implying that the information that is processed has to be ordered and classified in some logical manner which permits us to assign meaning to the stimuli situations. A few definitions of perception are given below: [1] [2] [3] “It is the process of receiving. Again. the cognitive process may filter. and interpretation of stimuli. By slowly turning the eyes to the other side of the object. organization and interpretation of data. Yet the person perceives the object as stationary. checking. the person probably senses that the object is moving. Although perception depends largely upon the senses for raw data. interpreting.” There are two basic elements in this definition: (1) perception is a process of selection or screening which prevents us from processing irrelevant or disruptive information. Thus. determined by physiological operation. organizing. It involves a complicated interaction of selection. The individual tends to recognize the information.These theories differ markedly in the constructs they propose as forming the structure of the personality. modify or completely change the data. hearing. which have taken place with him over his life span. selecting. which is concerned primarily with basic elementary behavior largely. organization. “I perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments. and reacting to sensory stimuli or data”. a statue or a tree.” “Perception includes all those processes by which and individual receives information about his environment-seeing. This involves the entire history of events.

they are called ideologies. They give us an interpretation and a justification for our practices. It is a interesting thing about human behavior that some of the beliefs that we hold most tenaciously with the strongest feelings are not readily subject to proof or disproof. which one rejects. For example. and those events in the marketplace do and should determine what is produced. Although these ideologies are difficult to verify. Like religion. are emotionally neutral. For example. There are ideologies pertaining to all the major institutions of society. a favorable attitude toward the religion may involve beliefs that the religion helps to curb delinquency. for example. a belief that the world is round is a judgment about its form. They give us an interpretation and a justification of reality. that people will work primarily out of a desire to serve others. Many of our beliefs. have great confidence in them. we feel strongly about them and. the law. of course.Answer. is a set of beliefs that a free enterprise economy is maximally productive. or that public ownership of all utilities is necessary for the common good. A belief is a judgment about something. that competition in the long run brings down prices and raises quality.(b) Attitude. Related to this is a disbelief system the set of beliefs. and the economic system. When beliefs become organized into systems. 18 . that people who stay away from temples are unhappy and immoral. The capitalist ideology. such as the family. they are matters of faith.6. the government. Belief & Ideology. An individual committed to capitalist ideology would disbelieve that industry can be run efficiently without the profit system. those worshippers are better citizens than are non-devotees. and so on. as long as things go well. others are definitely favorable or unfavorable toward some object.

and resistance level begins to decline irreversibly the organism collapses.(c) Stress & State of Exhaustion. signs of alarm reaction reappear.Answer. 19 . A diagrammatic view of these stages is shown in the figure below.6. Adaptation energy is exhausted.

Level of Resistan 20 .

psychological and or behavioral deviations. resulting in fight or fly mechanism. The concept of General Adaptation Syndrome is. He can neither fight physically with the superior nor leave the place of work. not given weightage in relation to human organisms. According to him “stress is a non specific response of the body to situation”.” “Stress is an adaptive response to and external situation that results in physical. Stress Definitions: Different definitions of stress occur. Seyles. gives the best definition an expert in stress management. an expert in stress management. physical emergency there is none. The adrenaline in metabolized. not given weightage in the present days. The other definitions of stress are “Stress is a physiological abnormality at the structural or bio-chemical level caused by overloading experiences. These metabolic changes act on various balancing and self-correcting mechanisms of the body. Even all his body functions race up to meet the emergency. In any of these situations. therefore. pleasant or unpleasant situations. It is important to remember that the body chemistry does not distinguish between the anxiety causing. However. Dr. The concept of General Adaptation Syndrome is. This additional burst of energy is not only useless for him but is harmful. therefore. the body response is the same.” 21 . the latter’s body chemistry acts in the same way it did in the cave man when he was threatened by a tiger. The result is the psychosomatic diseases.One of the major shortcomings of this theory is that thte related research was carried out on animals where the stressors are usually physical or environmental and this is not always the case in relation to human organisms. Whenever a superior scolds a subordinate.

Leadership behaviour typically.6. Autocratic. Negative leadership gets acceptable performance in many situations. based on threats and punishment. Participative leadership style: 22 . but one style tends to be the dominant one. The leaders take full authority and assume full responsibility. They are bosses more than leaders. not separately. Some employees have expectations of autocratic leadership. Autocratic leadership style: Autocratic leaders centralize power and decision making in them.(d) Leadership & its styles. because an autocratic leader can choose to give rewards to employees. To get work done. who are supposed to do what they are told. which is the total pattern of leaders’ actions in relation to followers. but it has high human costs. They display authority in the false belief that it frightens everyone into productivity. but it can be positive. Leader behaviour is the mixture of all three styles over a period of time. Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people. skills. etc. is negative. The result is that they feel a certain amount of security and satisfaction with this type of leader. they hold over their personnel such penalties as loss of job. participative. and attitudes. but they are discussed separately to clarify differences among them. It represents their philosophy. They structure the complete work situation for their employees. Each style has its benefits and limitations. The styles that are discussed hereunder are used in combination. reprimand in the presence of others. and free rein leadership styles: The way a leader uses power establishes the type of style. in which the style becomes “benevolent-autocratic”.Answer. Leadership Styles: Leadership is practiced by leadership style.

In an organizational setting such a leader happens to be a bystander. 2) Supportive Leadership: The leader is friendly and approachable and shows a genuine interest for subordinates. Managerial Grid Styles: One very popular approach to identifying leadership styles of practicing managers is Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid. according to this path-goal theory is closely related to motivation. and House and Mitchel later refined it. high level of directive leadership may impede effective performance. Employees are informed about conditions requiring decisions. Free-rein leaders avoid power and responsibility. of the University of Toronto initially developed this theory. a directive leader may complement the task by providing the necessary guidance and psychological structure for his followers. They depend largely upon the group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems. The following figure-shows that the two dimensions of the grid are concern for people along the vertical axis and concern for production along the horizontal axis. on the one hand.(e) Path Goal Theory of Leadership. He happens to be there because of his organizational appointment. A free rein leader is the one who abdicates all his decision making responsibilities and prerogative in favor of his follower. personal goals and paths to achievement of these goals. on the other. Participative leaders decentralize authority. There is no participation by the subordinates. because they arise from consultation with followers and participation by them. Participative decisions are not unilateral. It is based on the notion that a leader ‘behaviour motivates and satisfies his followers to such an extent that it promotes the attainment of the follower’s’ goals and clears the path to attainment of these goals. The leader and group are acting as one unit. Robert House. 23 . This style of leadership has its most positive effect on the satisfaction of followers who perform tasks that are full of stress. It uses expectancy framework work from motivation theory of Vroom. satisfaction and performance. When the demands of task on hand are ambiguous or when organizational procedures. rules and policies are not clear. According to the authors of the theory there are four basic or major styles of leadership behaviour: 1) Directive Leadership: Here the subordinates know exactly what is expected of them and the leader gives specific directions. It is called ‘path-goal approach’ because its primary concern is the leaders ‘influence on his followers’ perception of their work goals. and the power. Whereas autocratic leaders control through the authority they possess. Free-rein leadership style: On the continuum of leadership style free rein style is the extreme. participative leaders exercise control mostly by using forces within the group. The leader plays only a minor role. When the demands of the task are clear to the followers. Leadership. The leader believes that his people are as desirous of contributing to the organizational efforts as well as they have requisite capacities.Participative leadership style is expression of leadership style is expression of leader’s trust in the abilities of his subordinates. as with the autocrat. which encourage them to express their ideas and suggestions. the theory attempts to explain the impact that leader behaviour has on followers’ motivation.6. Answer. He fails to guide. In essence. and are frustrating and unsatisfactory or unsatisfying. motivate and develop his subordinates.

non-repetitive tasks the higher the achievement orientation of the leader the more confident they would be that their efforts would pay-off in effective performance. For followers performing ambiguous. Contrary would be the case. The path goal theory suggests that these various styles can be and actually are used by the same leader depending on the characteristics of the subordinates and the environmental pressures.3) Participative Leadership: The leader asks for and uses suggestions from subordinates but takes the decision by himself. 4) Achievement-oriented Leadership: The leader sets challenging goals for subordinates and shows confidence in them to attain these goals and perform well. when followers perform unambiguous and repetitive tasks. 24 .

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