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Étienne-Louis Boullée (February 12, 1728 – February 4, 1799) was a visionary French neoclassical architect whose work greatly influenced contemporary architects and is still influential today.
Born in Paris, he studied under Jacques-François Blondel, Germain Boffrand and Jean-Laurent Le Geay, from whom he learned the mainstream French Classical architecture in the 17th and 18th century and the Boullée, Deuxieme projet pour la Bibliothèque du Roi (1785) Neoclassicism that evolved after the mid century. He was elected to the Académie Royale d'Architecture in 1762 and became chief architect to Frederick II of Prussia, a largely honorary title. He designed a number of private houses from 1762 to 1778, though most of these no longer exist; notable survivors include the Hôtel Alexandre and Hôtel de Brunoy, both in Paris. Together with Claude Nicolas Ledoux he was one of the most influential figures of French neoclassical architecture.
It was as a teacher and theorist at the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées between 1778 and 1788 that Boullée made his biggest impact, developing a distinctive abstract geometric style inspired by Classical forms. His work was characterised by the removal of all unnecessary ornamentation, inflating geometric forms to a huge scale and repeating elements such as columns in huge ranges. Boullée promoted the idea of making architecture expressive of its purpose, a doctrine that his detractors termed architecture parlante ("talking architecture"), which was an essential element in Beaux-Arts architectural training in the later 19th century. His style was most notably exemplified in his proposal for a cenotaph for the English scientist Isaac Newton, which would have taken the form of a sphere 150 m (490 ft) high embedded in a circular base topped with cypress trees. Though the structure was never built, its design Boullée, Cénotaphe à Newton (1784) was engraved and circulated widely in professional circles. Boullee's Cenotaph for Isaac Newton is a funerary monument celebrating a figure interred elsewhere. Designed in 1784, for all its apparent originality, it actually derives from contemporary archaeology. The small sarcophagus for Newton is placed at the lower pole of the sphere. The design of the memorial creates the effect of day and night. The effect by night, when the sarcophagus is illuminated by the starlight coming through the holes in the vaulting. The effect by day is an armillary sphere hanging in the center that gives off a mysterious glow. For Boullée symmetry and variety were the golden rules of architecture.
which mostly comprised designs for public buildings on a wholly impractical grand scale. The garden front has a colossal order of pilasters raised on the high basement occupied by the full height of the ground floor. Some of his work only saw the light of day in the 20th century. Flanking doors in the corners of the courtyard have isolated architraves embedded in the wall above their plain openings. were discussed in the issue of L'Avant-coureur for 21 January 1761. Boullée's fondness for grandiose designs has caused him to be characterized as both a megalomaniac and a visionary. arguing for an emotionally committed Neoclassicism. The Hôtel in the Marais district remodelled for Claude-Charles-Dominique Tourolle survives (the rue d'Orléans is now the rue Charlot) but the salon's boiseries and chimneypieces were removed in the mid-nineteenth century to a house in the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré now in the possession of the Cercle Interallié. Peter Greenaway's film. Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart. still often dated in the mid 1760s. . The Belly of an Architect (1987). There is a full architrave under a dentilled cornice. The white-and-gold ensemble would still have been fully in style in 1790. It was built for the financier André-Claude-Nicolas Alexandre. He was "rediscovered" in the 20th century and has influenced recent architects such as Aldo Rossi. Hôtel Alexandre The Hôtel Alexandre or Hôtel Soult. rue de la Ville l'Évêque. while above oval bull's-eye windows are draped with the swags of husks that became a common feature of the neoclassical manner. is the sole survivor of Boullée's residential work in Paris. concerns a fictitious architect who is staging an exhibition devoted to Boullée's work. Paris (1763–66). was only published in 1953. Round-arched mirrors over the chimneypieces and centering the long wall in a shallow recess are disposed in a system of stop-fluted Ionic pilasters. not least because of his role in teaching other important architects such as Jean Chalgrin. his book Architecture. and so must have been carried out about 1758-59 (Eriksen 1974:298 and pl. His focus on polarity (offsetting opposite design elements) and the use of light and shadow was highly innovative.Étienne-Louis Boullée 2 Salon for the Hôtel de Tourolles The boiseries. and continues to influence architects to this day. 35). The volume contained his work from 1778 to 1788. essai sur l'art ("Essay on the Art of Architecture). The film contains many visual references to Boullée. White marble draped caryatid therm figures support the chimneypiece's tablette. In its cour d'honneur four Corinthian columns embedded against a recess in the wall plane create an entry (now glazed). and Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand. Legacy Boullée's ideas had a major influence on his contemporaries.
Helicon (2001). ISBN 0-940512-35-1. Bibliography • Boullée & visionary architecture ed. Hennessey & Ingalls. • "Boullée.academie-des-beaux-arts.htm) Internet architecture resource http://www. 1976 ISBN 0-85670-157-2. pub. ISBN 0-8076-0672-3. Ltd.htm (French) Ministère de la Culture (http://www. London: 1953 First Edition • Étienne-fggds (1728-1799: Theoretician of Revolutionary Architecture) by Jean Marie Perouse De Montclos. Harmony Books.com/title/tt0092637/ 3D model of Newton Cenotaph http://sketchup. Early Neo-Classicism in France 1974.bnf. from 1802 to 1818. • Boullée's Treatise on Architecture by Étienne-Louis Boullée.1799)".fr/culture/actualites/celebrations/boullee. Crystal Reference Encyclopedia (2001). by Helen Rosenau. Etienne-Louis (1728 . pub. (July 2002) • Les Architectes de la Liberté by Annie Jacques.google.1799)". Peter Greenaway http://www. ed. pub. Ledoux. Alec Tiranti.fr Movie: The Belly of an Architect 1987 dir.imdb. ISBN 2-07-053067-1. (February 1974) • Visionary Architects: Boullée.com/3dwarehouse/ details?mid=5f760326a418cc6864b189cd9edadb16&prevstart=0 . Lequeu by Jean-Claude Lemagny. pub.ch/arc/masters/boullee. External links • • • • • • Boullée exhibit at Bibliothèque nationale de France http://expositions.vitruvio. Helen Rosenau. The Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Pub. Découvertes Gallimard #47.Étienne-Louis Boullée 3 Notes  The house passed to the marquis de Collonge. (November 1988) [In French] • A Dictionary of Architecture. New York.htm Successor to the Académie Royale d' Architecture http://www. then to the maréchal Soult. • Svend Eriksen.George Braziller. Etienne-Louis (1728 .fr/boullee/index. whose name it now also sometimes bears.culture. • "Boullée. James Stevens Curl. Oxford University Press (1999). (London: Faber) translated by Peter thornton.gouv.
Caltrop. Erasoft24. Coyau. KnightRider. Jaxl. Oerjan. Dcfleck. Menchi. Olivier. Everyking. 17 anonymous edits Image Sources. RogDel.php?oldid=520868831 Contributors: 2A02:2F06:21:F002:0:0:BC1A:1C2C. Mario todte. Blahm. Lockley. Mats Halldin. Plehn. Look2See1. Menchi. OwenBlacker. Mattes.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bibliotheque_nationale_boul. Paris 16. Raven in Orbit.jpg Source: http://en. Shadowjams. WOSlinker. Chris93. Zazpi. Yelyos. Mats Halldin. Ghirlandajo.php?title=File:Newton_memorial_boullee. ChrisO.org/w/index. PhilipC. Pethan.org/licenses/by-sa/3. MCiura. Olivier2 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. JFG.wikipedia. Ecummenic. Mick gold. Sicilarch.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke. Sam Hocevar. Wetman. Bender235. Astragal. Omnipaedista.Article Sources and Contributors 4 Article Sources and Contributors Étienne-Louis Boullée Source: http://en. Licenses and Contributors Image:Bibliotheque nationale boul.wikipedia. Andybak.0 Unported //creativecommons.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Coyau.wikipedia. TomAlt Image:Newton memorial boullee. D6. DVD R W.org/w/index.0/ . Olivier2.
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