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Herodotos (Sayce ) 1-3. With Notes, Introductions, And Appendices (1883)

Herodotos (Sayce ) 1-3. With Notes, Introductions, And Appendices (1883)

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Yd^C ^

THE ANCIENT EMPIRES OF THE EAST
HEEODOTOS
I.-III.

/_

I

I

wi

\jA~K:y

THE

ANCIENT EMPIEES
OF THE EAST
HEEODOTOS
I.-III.

WITH NOTES, INTRODUCTIONS, AND APPENDICES

BY

A. H.

SAYCE

DKPUTY-PEOFESSOB OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY, OXFORD HOKOBART LL.O., DUBLIN

3Lontion

MACMILLAN AND
1883
[All rights rtterved.]

CO.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Preface

....
:

TAam

ix
xiii

Introduction

The Historical Credibility op Herodotos iLiTY OP
The LANauAGE of Herodotos DDOTOS
.

xxxiii

Book Book

I.

The Empires op the East
The Land of Egypt The Persian Empire
I.

.

1

II.

.

124
228
307

Book

III.

.

Appendix

Egypt
Babylonia and Assyria

.

Appendix
Appendix

II.

367

III.

The

Phcenicians

.

406 423

Appendix IV. Lydia
Appendix
V.

.

The Persian Empire

.

436
459
.

DitNASTic Tables

Index

....

.

.

.

486

"

Pk
Page 207, note

„ „ „
337, 361.
8.

ERRATA.
For not read
For in read
rot.

331, line 20. For Sestc3ura read Scstura.

Also written Sesdmu

27.

itUo.

An

inscription

lately

brought
is

from Abu-Habba

shows that Agad^

Semitised into Accad,
369-71.

the true reading.

A

recently discovered cylinder of Nabonidos asserts the date of

Naram-

Sargon of Agad^, to have been 3200 years before the time of Nabouidos (see Pinches in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Nov. 7th, 1882). It is more than doubtful whether Eri-Acu, the son of Cudur-Mabug, is to be identified with Rim-Agu, who was conquered by Khammuragas, and recent discoveries show that the conquest of Babylonia by Khammuragas did not follow very closely upon the reign of Naram-Sin. There seem, however, to have been two
Sin, the sou of

princes of the

438.

The

name of Khammuragas. cylinder of Nabonidos just mentioned calls Astyages " the king of

the tsab

manda "

or " barbarians."

It

fusion between the words

Mada

or

must have been through a conMedes the term by which the

heterogeneous tribes east of Kurdistan were

known

to the Assyrians

and manda, "a barbarian," that the name of Media came to be applied by Greek and probably Persian writers to the kingdom of Ekbatana. Nabonidos states that the temple of the Moon-god at Harran, which had been destroyed by the "Manda," was restored by himself, with the help of the soldiers he had summoned from Gaza and elsewhere, after the overthrow of Istuvegu or Astyages by Kyros in b.c. 553. He " And Merodach spake with me goes on to say The barbarians of whom thou hast spoken, themselves, their country, and the kings that are their allies, exist not.' In the third year when it came, he bade Kuras, king of Anzan, his young servant, to march with his army ; he overthrew the wide - spreading barbarians ; he captured Astyages, king of the barbarians, and took his treasures to his own land.
: :

'

N.B.

— In the following pages an attempt has been made to give

a correct trans-

Greek and oriental proper names. But as long as English spelling remains a national disgrace, and no reformed alphabet is in curi'ent use, rigid consistency is unfortunately impossible. Nor can the printer be expected to be always attentive to the clumsy devices by which alone we are able at present to mark the differences between a long and short e or o. As in the case of Greek accents, the most careful corrector for the press will sometimes overlook a misuse of diacritical marks. Any endeavour, however, to approximate to the right reproduction of Greek
literation of

proper names

is

better than none at

all,

and may possibly help to contribute to that

most desirable of

objects, the reform of

EngUsh

spelling.

PEEFACE.
The main
by recent
time, to

object of the present
earlier

work

is to

show what

light has
"

been thrown upon the

books

of " the

Father of History
at the

discoveries in Greece

and the Levant, and,
are

same

emphasize the

fact,

which Herodotos perceived, that
but a continuation of the

Greek history and
that has been

civilisation

history and civilisation of the ancient East.

The rapid progress

made

of late years in the decipherment of the

Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions, the active exploration and
unexpected discoveries that have been made in Egypt, Assyria,
Babylonia, Syria, and Asia Minor, the excavations
of Carchemish, and the recognition of
tlie

on the

site

important part once

played by the Hittites, have revolutionised our conception of
early history, and

given us a knowledge of the religion and

culture, the languages

and inner

Ufe, of the old

nations of the

Orient which Herodotos and his

contemporaries did not

and

could not possess.

In studies which are growing day by day,
fact

and continually revealing some new
previous misconception,
it is

or

correcting

some

well to take stock of our existing
is

knowledge every now and then, and see exactly what
to

the point

which our researches have brought

us.

The present volume,
bears

accordingly, deals with the history rather than with the language

of Herodotos, and with that history only in so far as

it

upon the East.

I

have not touched upon

philology

except

where the meaning of a word or name has been cleared up by
the science of language, or where I have myself found a diflBculty
in the grarmnatical construction or exact signification of a passage.

X

PREFACE.

Those who would be saved the trouble of reference to a grammar

and dictionary, or who
tators

desire to learn

what

difficulties

commento other

have discovered in simple

texts,

and what avalanches of

learning they have poured
editions

down upon them, must turn
is

of Herodotos.

It

with Herodotos as the historian,

rather than as the subject for the dissecting-knife of the gram-

marian, that I have had to do.

The

edition of the

first

three books of his history

now

pre-

sented to the reader does not profess to enter into competition

with the standard work of Prof. Eawlinson.
justified

Its

existence

is

on three grounds.

First of

all,

as I have already said,

it tries to

place before the public the results of the researches

made

up

to the present

time in the monumental records of the ancient
Dislocated and hidden

civilised

world.

away

as

most of the

materials are in numerous learned periodicals,
are

some of which

scarcely

known even by name beyond

a very small and

select circle of subscribers, the task of bringing

them together

is

one which the ordinary classical student would have neither the
leisure nor the

desire to

attempt, and

it

therefore becomes the

duty of those who have specially devoted themselves to Oriental
matters to undertake
it

for

him.

In the second place, I can
of the material to

speak at

fij^t

hand about a good deal
and can claim
myself to science;
facts

worked up

in the present volume,

have contributed some

portion of

it

while both in the notes and

appendices

made

their

new way

will

be found which have not hitherto
elsewhere.

into

print

Then, thirdly, I have

travelled over a considerable part of the ground on

which the

history described

by Herodotos was
first

enacted.
is

Indeed, with the

exception of Babylonia and Persia, there
site

hardly a country or

mentioned by him in these

three books wliich I have

not visited.

And

tlie

more

I

have travelled, the more impressed

I have been with the conviction

how

impossible

it

is

to write

accurately of an event, or discuss with any advantage a historical
or topographical question, without having studied
it

personally on

the spot.

I

much doubt

if

the great

antiquity of Egyptian

PREFACE.
civiKsation can be really brought

xi

home

to the

mind

of anyone

who

has not actually sailed up the Nile and examined one by one

the groups of

monuments he

passes on the way, and the successive

stages of culture they imply.

For recent monographs on the relation
covery to
"

of

monumental

dis-

Herodotos

I

would

refer
le

to

Maspero's

interesting
"

Fragment d'un Commentaire sur
Annuaire de
I' Association

seconde Livre d'H(5rodote

in the

pour V EncouragemeTd
15-21), 1876
(pp.
(pp.

des IJtttdes

grecqim en France,

1875

(pp.

185-193),

1877

(pp.

124-137), and 1878
la
"

124-174); Eugene EevH:

lout's "

Premier Extrait de
et les

Chronique d^motique de Paris

Le

Roi Amasis

Mercenaires

in the Beviie igyptologique, II.

and
"

1880 (pp. 49-82); and, above all, Wiedemann's Geschichte ^gyptens von Psammetich I. bis auf Alexander den Grossen," Leipzig, 1880 (more especially pp. 81-100), in which,
III.,

for the first time, the

methods of

scientific
Briill's "

criticism are applied

to the records of ancient Egypt.

Herodot's babylonische
Oppert's
re-

Nachrichten" (1878), though convincingly disproving
topographical restoration of Babylon,
is

little

more than a
Herodotus.

statement

of

the

arguments

in

Eawlinson's

For

Persia the student sur

may

be referred to Hovelacque's " Observations
certaines

un Passage

(I.

131-141) d'H^rodote concernant
et

Institutions perses " in the Remce de Idnguistique

de Fhilologie

comparie, VII.,

1875

(pp.

243-68), and

my own

letter

on the

"Eise
pp.

of the Persian
;

Empire" in the Academy,
"

Oct. 16,

1880,

276-7

while for the Hittites and their extension as far as
article

Lydia

my

on

The Monuments of the

Hittites," in the

Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archceology, VII. 2,
(pp.

1881
of

248-308), may be consulted.
is

The natural

history

Herodotos

treated

by

B.

Beneke in the

Wissenschaftliche
titles

Monatsbldtter for
"

1879, Nos. 4-8, 10-12, under the
Herodot's
"

of

Die Saiigethiere in

Geschichte," " Die botanischen

Bemerkungen," and

Die mineralogischen Bemerkungen."
of

The net
Herodotos

result

Oriental

research

in

its

bearing upon
professes

ia to

show that the greater part of what he

\

xii

PREFACE.
and
Persia, is really

to tell us of the history of Egypt, Babylonia,

a collection of

"

marchen," or popular

stories,

current

among the

Greek loungers and half-caste dragomen on the
Persian empire.
as they constitute almost the only record

skirts of the

For the student of folklore they are invaluable,

we have

of the folklore
;

of the Mediterranean in the fifth century before our era

and

its

examination and comparative treatment by a Felix liebrecht or
a Ealston would be a work of the highest interest and importance.

After

all, it is

these old stories that lend as great a

charm

to the

pages of Herodotos as they do to those
like

of mediaeval travellers
it

Maundeville

or

Marco Polo; and

may

be

questioned

whether they are not of higher value for the history of the human

mind than
of wars

the most accurate descriptions of kings and generals,
treaties

and

and revolutions.^
A. H.

SAYCE.

Queen's Coll., Oxfoed,
April 1883.

1

There

otos

is no commentary on Herodmore instructive or interesting than

e<it

rien appris

que ne nous apprennent
originaux.

aujourd'hui les testes

En

Maspero's

admirable

Contes

igyptiens

(Paris 1882), which forms the fourth vohime of Les LitUratures populaires.

revanche, nous y aurions perdu la plupart de ces recits etrangers, et sou vent bouffous,
qu'il

The author says
toire d'Egypte.

justly (p. xxxiii.)

of

nous a si joliment racontes, sur la foi de ses guides. Pheron ne nous serait pas
counu, ni Protee, ni Rhampsinitc.
crois

Herodotos: "II n'ecrivait pas une

hisil

Je

Meme

bien instruit,

n'aurait pas

donne au

livre

de son histoire

universelle qui traitait de I'Egypte plus

de
dil

donn^.

ddveloppements qu'il ne lui en a Toutes les dynasties aui-aient tenir en quelques pages, et 11 ne nous

que 9'aurait ^te grand dommage. Les monuments nous disent, ou nous diront un jour, ce que firent les Kheops, les Ramses, les Thoutm6s du monde reel. H^rodote nous apprend ce qu'on disait d'enz dans les rues de Memphis."

J

INTRODUCTION.
The Historical Credibility of HSrodotos.

Whether

it

was that the work of H6rodotos

fell

had imbibed the

sceptical teaching of the philosophers

upon an age which and sophists,

and, like the wits at the court of the Kestoration, was ready to laugh

down

a writer

residence in the

who made demands upon its credulity, or whether his West lost him the literary friends and advocates he^
in Greece,

would otherwise have had
for

or whether, again, his partiality

Athens aroused the prejudices of the younger generation which gathered like vultures round the carcase of Athenian greatness, and

remember the history of the Persian wars, first Herodotos met with hostile criticism and accusations of historical dishonesty. Hardly had the generation for whom he ^vrote passed away before Thukydides tacitly accused him of errors which the Attic historian corrected without even naming the author to whom they were due. While his statements on matters of Greek history were thus called in question by a writer of that very nationality whose deeds he had done so much to exalt, his history of the East was categorically declared to be false by Kt^sias, the physician of the Persian king Artaxerxes Mnemon. Bom at Knidos, almost within
neither cared nor desired to

certain

it is

that from the

sight of Halikarnassos, the birthplace of Herodotos, the position of

Ktesias gave

him exceptional opportunities
and

for ascertaining the true

facts of Persian history,

his contemporaries naturally concluded

that a critic

who had

lived long at the Persian Court,

and had there

consulted the parchment archives of Persia, was better informed than

a mere tourist whose travels had never extended so far as the Persian
capital,

and who was obliged to depend upon ignorant dragomen

for

the information he retailed.

The very

fact,

however, that Ktesias

considered Herodotos worthy of attack shows that the latter held a

high rank in the Greek literary world, whatever opinion there might

be as to the character and credibility of his writings.

But the attack

xiv

INTRODUCTION.
;

of KtSsias produced its desired resxilt

the work of Herodotos
;

fell

more and more

into
it

contempt or neglect

the

florid

rhetoric

of

Ephoros superseded

among

the readers of a later day, and, Bauer

notwithstanding, even the antiquarian philologists of Alexandria paid

Manetho and Harpokration wrote books ^ Theopompos, ^ Strabo, * Cicero,* and Lucian,' challenged his veracity; and Josephos^ declares that " all " Greek authors acknowledged him to have " lied in most of his assertions;" while the Pseudo-Plutarch went yet further, and composed a treatise on the Malignity of Herodotos, in which he sought
it

no special attention.

to disprove the

statements of Herodotos

;

to prove that the

misstatements
It

of the " father of history "
is

were
this

intentional distortions of fact

only wonderful that with

all

Herodotos continued to be read, and perhaps yet more wonderful that his work has escaped the wreck from which but a few excerp ts of his
critic

KtBsias have been preserved.
last half- century

The

has placed materials at our disposal for

which the majority of his Year by year exploration in the East and patient research at home have been gradually adding to our knowledge of the ancient world, and enabling us to reconstruct the
testing the historical veracity of Herodotos

Greek. critics ignored and despised.

history of oriental civilisation.

Assyria and Babylonia, Egypt and
itself,

Nubia, Asia Minor and prehistoric Greece

have yielded up their

monuments
truth.

to the scrutiny of a generation

which has been trained in

the principles of a scientific criticism and desires to discover only the

The contemporaneous

records of princes and statesmen
lie

were but names a few years ago now
of the inner and outer

before us, and

who wo know more

life of ancient Babylonia or ancient Egypt than Herodotos could have done even though he had spoken the languages

of these countries and travelled

more widely over them than he

did.

The

question of the trustworthiness of Herodotos can

now be

judged on better grounds than internal evidence or the testimony of We have means for deciding how far the statements classical writers.
of Herodotos in regard to events which happened before his time and
in the foreign countries he visited arc correct.
shall see, the decision is
shall

Unfortunately, as

we

on the whole against our author, and we therefore have to enquire why this is, whether the mistakes of

*

Etjfm. Mag., «.«. Aeo¥TOK6fUK
«.r.

;

and

* ,

De

Leg.

L

1

;

i>e Div,

ii.

66.

Suidas,
» * xi.

'AproKpaTlw.

Fr. 29.
pp. 740, 771, etc.
«

Con.

A p.

i.

3.

INTRODUCTION.

xv

Herodotos are due to the circumstances under which he wrote and
travelled, or whether, as the Pseudo-Plutarch

was persuaded, he was

not only

fallible

but dishonest.

For the sake of briefness it will be best, first, to see how and with what object the history was written ; secondly, how far the honesty of Herodotos can be trusted ; and tliirdly, how far his statements bear
the test of
(1.)

facts.
tells

Herodotos
the

us himself that his object in writing
past,

was

to

record

famous events of the

more

especially the struggle

between the Greek and the barbarian.
to

In other words, he wished to

write a history of the Persian War, and of the causes which led up
it.

What

else

he

tells

us

is

episodical, taking the place of the foot-

notes and excursuses of a

modern book.
rise of the

The

history of Lydia

is

con-

nected with the

first

beginning of the contest between Europe and
Persian empire
;

Asia as well as with the

the account of

Babylonia necessarily finds a place in a work dealing with a power of
it formed so important an element ; and the long episodes upon Egypt and Skythia are justified by their bearing upon the Persian War, which could not fitly come about until the conquest of Egypt had swept away the last civilised kingdom which stood between Persia and Greece, and the chastisement of the Skythians had made the Persian frontier safe on the north, and allowed it to prosecute its designs

which

against

Hellas without hindrance or

fear.

Egypt, too, exercised a

most important bearing on the course of the war. Had it not been for its opportune revolt in B.C. 486, the whole strength of Persia would
have been flung upon Greece under the direction of the
energetic Dareios, not of the
skilful

and
are

weak and cowardly XerxSs.

We

only surprised that Herodotos has introduced no

digression

upon

Phoenicia into his work, since the Phoenician fleet was a prime factor
in the war,
first

and Phoenician traders were held by him to have been the
satisfied

causes of the quarrel between East and West.

But the ingenuity of commentators has of course not been

with the simple account Herodotos gives of the object of his work.

They have divined other

objects as well,

and

it

cannot be denied that

in the choice of his subject,

it, and been influenced by motives which appear more Herodotos must have Herodotos had travelled and or less plainly on the face of his book.

especially in his treatment of

taken
let

many

notes, and, like travellers of our

other people

know

that he had done

so.

own day, was anxious to As it happened, his
Then, again,

travels

had taken him over the scene of the great war.

xvi

INTRODUCTION.
common
failing of literary

he had that

men

^jealousy of others

who

had done what he thought he could himself do better. Hekataeos, as we shall see, seems to have been the special object of his dislike, and
he succeeded only too well in effacing him.
But, above
all,

Herodotos

had a philosophical,

or, if

the term

is

preferred, a theological theory,
belief in the

which was a combination of the old Greek
golden mean."

doom

thari

awaits hereditary guilt, and the artistic Greek conception of "the

Whatever exceeded a just proportion aroused the envy~ ; the overweening power and pride of Xerxes brought upon him the destined disaster, just as it brought destruction upon Kroesos at the moment when he considered himself most secure. Hence it is that the Athenian legislator and gnomic poet has to be introduced into the Lydian court in spite of chronological difficulties, in order to preach that doctrine of moderation which was soon to be hence it is that the murder of Polykrates or the verified by facts expedition of Xerxes has to be preceded by dreams the shadows of
and
ve/tA€o-is

of heaven

;

the events that were to follow.
Kirchhofi"^
unfinished.

has

made

it

plain

that

Herodotos

left

his

work

of the ing "the great and wonderful deeds "^ enacted on the

He could not have intended to break off his history Persian War while it was not yet ended without commemoratEurymedon
compact known as the peace of
hostilities

and and

at Salamis in Kypros, or the

Kimon, which brought to a close the long At the same time it is equally Persia.
have
only
it,

between Greece

clear that the work, as

we
not
its

is

carefully arranged according to a definite plan.

And
by

so,

but

it

bears evident marks of having been revised
first

author after

its

publication, or at

any rate

its first

composition.

points out that in iv. 30 Tpoa-OijKai must be rendered " additions " or " supplements," not " digressions," and that the phr there used, " additions are what my work always from the very fi

Canon Rawlinson

affected," implies that the

book had already been published.

It

otherwise difficult to understand
criticism

why
80,

this protest against a carpin;
It
is

1
of

in"'

should

have been made.
(iiL

also possible

that

when

Herodotos twice declares

vL
of

43) that Otanes had really the
incredulity

recommended a
Greeks," he
publication
is

republic

in

spite

of " certain
first

alluding to objections that had been raised on the
his

of

work, and
is

not

to the criticism passed

on the

authority from which he
^

quoting.

The most natural explanation

Uebcr die Enlstehungszeit des herodotiscfun OescJitchtsicerkes, 2d edition, 1878.
i.

»

1.

INTRODUCTION.
tlie fact

xvii

that whereas some passages in the book were clearly composed

or revised in Southern Italy, others appear to have been written in

Asia Minor or Attica,

is,

that

it

underwent two

editions.

The passages
lie

\\luth imply a residence in Southern Italy are always, as Professor

luiwlinson says, parenthetical (except, perhaps, vL 127), and can

omitted without injury to the sense
that the vanity of a
1

;^

while

it

is

difficult to

conceive

Greek could have been
it

satisfied

with writing a

>ook

and not publishing

for years.

Kirchhoff, indeed, has argued ably to prove that the

work was
150),

brought out piecemeal
history in
i.

As
is
it,

the promise of a digression on Assyrian
fulfilled in

106, 184,

not

the third book (ch.

where we should expect
of time elapsed

he concludes that a considerable interval

passages,

between the composition and publication of the two and that Herodotos had meanwhile forgotten his promise. As Bachof,^ however, remarks, the Assyrian power had been destroyed
it

by the Medes, not by the Persians, and therefore the history of
not well enter into
the

could
iv.

plan

of his

work.

Moreover,
in

in

1

Herodotos actually refers to one of the very passages
" Assyrian History " is mentioned, so that his

which the

memory

could not have

been so short as Kirchhoff imagines.
tion of this first part of the

Kirchhoff places the composiat

work

Athens before

B.C.

442,

when

Sophokles brought out his Antigone, in which a reminiscence appears
of the history of the wife of IntaphemSs (see
iii.

119, note

when Herodotos

received the gift of 10 talents for his

6), and work from

the Athenian people.^

Bachof reasonably wonders how an author

who intended

to write the history of the Persian

War

could have

published a fragment which did not reach even as far as the occasion of its beginning.

Kirchhoff brings Herodotos to Athens for the

second time after the commencement of the Peloponnesian
For those written in Southern Italy
iii.
..

War
it

on

'

(Fleckeisen's Jahrb. 1877).

But

must

160
vii.

(eiid)

;

iv.

99

;

v.

127

(where

the

list

77 (end) begins with
;

be remerabere<l that Herodotos understands Babylonia as well as the kingilom
of Nineveh under the
so

ix. 73 {end). For the others see i. 142, where the Ionian cities are enumerated from south

Italy);

114 [end);

name of Assyria he must have regarded the Babylonian empire as merely a contiuuthat
*

tu north,

iii.

90,

ii.

7.

Stein suggests

ance of the Assyrian.

that

iv.

81 was written before the visit

The vote was moved by Anytos,

of Herodotos to Delphi, as otherwise he

uould have compared the great bowl iivsented by Kroesos (i. 51) with the
\ -

according to Dyillos, an Athenian historian of the fourth century B.C., quoted

by the
Herod,
Can.
ii.

I'seudo
ii.

-

Plutarch
;

(De

Malig.

thian cauldron.

p.

862 A

see Euseb. Chron.

Die

'Acrai'fKoi

\&yoi des

Htrodotoa

p. 389.)

h

xviii

INTRODUCTION.

the strength of a comparison between the funeral oration of Perikles

and the metaphor of the spring put into the mouth of Gelon (vii. 162), and makes him remain there till B.C. 428. During this second visit he supposes bks. v. 77-ix. to have been written.
KirchhofF's dates are accepted

by Bauer, ^ who, however,

believes

what KirchhofF calls the composition of the second part of the He assumes that Herodotos History was really its final redaction. had by him a number of individual histories the Lydian, the Egyptian, the Skythian, the Libyan, and the Persian which he had written at various times. These were pieced together into a connected
that

whole, the

first

part (to the middle of the 5th book) in Thurii, the

second part in

Athens.

It

was the history of the expedition

ol'

Xerxes which was read to the Athenian people
the composition of the Egyptian history.^

in B.C. 445, soon after

Bauer's theory no doubt contains an element of fact. Herodotos must have written his history in parts. The existence of such episodes as that on Egypt goes far to prove it; but the references to the Assyrian
history,

which was never incorporated into the work, make

it

almost

a certainty.^

The Assyrian history cannot well have been expunged by Herodotos when he revised (or redacted) his book, and there is no
formed a separate volume.
Nevertheless

satisfactory evidence that it

the Assyrian portion of the history of Ktesias seems to have been

composed with the view of confuting the statements on Assyrian matters which had been current under the name of Herodotos. We must,
therefore,

assume that Herodotos had actually written a work on Assyria on Egypt, and that while he embodied the whole of
to the

similar to that

his

Egyptian volume into his great work, he introduced from his Assyrian

volume only that portion which related
Assyria.

Babylonian empire,

together with a passage or two which bore on the earlier chronology of

The whole volume,
friends,

perhaps,

fell
it,

after his death
let it

into

tli<

hands of

who, without publishing

be known what

its

author had said about Assyrian history.

It

is

even possible that

Herodotos may have read this and other fragments which went to form
his general history to private circles of friends.

Hence the reply

of

Ktesias in the form of a counter Assyrian history.

^

Die Entstehungszeit dea herodotiachen
Bauer's
hypothesis,
so
far

before bks. i.-vi.,

is

successfully ovor-

Ocschichtmcerkes, 1878.
"

thrown by
as
it

liachof, Quastiuiicula Ilerod-

o^ea

(

Eisenach, 1880).
106, note

assumes that the history of the caniitaign of Xerxes (bks. vii.-ix.) was written

*

See

i.

1.

;;

INTRODUCTION.
The detached
upon
notes. parts,

xix

which we thus suppose were woven into a

harmonious whole, must themselves have been based

in great measure Herodotos must have gone about, pencil and measuring-

tape in hand, examining the relics preserved in temples, noting

down

the replies he received to his questions from dragomen, Greek priests,

and

tlie

descendants of great

men

to

whom
visited,

he was introduced, or

measuring the

size of the buildings

he

and the large blocks of and famous
to
relics

stone which excited his wonder.

He
;

appeals to the testimony of his
the offerings

own

eyesight and observation

to

preserved in temples, like the fetters of the Spartans at Tegea, or the

monuments

to the

Greeks who

fell

at Thermopylae
at

;

Greek
^

inscrip-

tions like the forged

Kadmeian ones
;

Thebes

;

to oracles like those

delivered to Kroesos

to tradition

;

to eyewitnesses

and personal

intercourse with those

were related to those
Phoenician writers*;
(v.
vii.

who had taken who had done so,
to

part in the events described, or
like

Thersander

2

and Arkhias ^ and
102,
96),

to Egyptian priests, or rather half- caste

dragomen

;

to Persian
(i.

Greek poets
121), Pindar
(vi.

— Arkhilokhos
(iii.

12),

Solon

113),

Sappho

(ii.

135), Alkeeos (v. 95), Simonides of
(iii.

Keos

(v,

228),

Anakreon
(ii.

38),

Lysistratos

(viii.

-^khylos
Hesiod
(vii.
(ii.

156), Phrynikhos
iv.

21), Aristeas (iv. 13),

Homer and

117,

32,

v.

67,

ii.

6, viii.

20, 77, 96, ix. 43)

—and

63),

Olen

(iv.

35), Musseos

to earlier

and Bakis Greek historians and
inscribed

geographers.

Among

the

monuments he saw were many

ones, such as the

stem of twisted serpents on which stood the tripod
is

dedicated to Apollo by the Greek victors at Platsea, and which
in the

now

Hippodrome at Constantinople ; or the tablet of Mandrokles in the temple of Here at Samos;^ or the two columns erected by Dareios and engraved with Greek and Assyrian (i e. Persian) characters.^ The example of the Kadmeian inscriptions at Thebes, however, shows that Herodotos could not distinguish between forgeries and genuine texts even where he had to deal with Greek inscriptions ; and we must be therefore careful in accepting his statements on the strength of supposed epigraphic evidence where we do not exactly know what it was. Besides monuments of this kind it is probable that he used official registers
preserved in temples, like the dvaypaffMi of Sparta.^
If the latter

gave

'

iii.

115, iv. 16.
16.
i.

apxaia ypdfifiara of Elis (Paus.
55.

v. 4, 4)

^ ix. •

3
1,
i.

iii.
i.

the
8)
;

list

See

95,

214.

Olympian victors (Paus. v. 8, the list of Karnean victors at Sparta
of

' iv."88.
7

« iv. 87.

Plut. Vit. Ages. 19.

Comp.

also the

p. 635 e); the registers of Argos and Sikyon (Plut. De Mua. p.

(Athen. xiv.

XX

INTRODUCTION.
may
explain

the length of each king's reign as well as his name, they

the fact that HcroJotos places 900 years between himself and Herakles
(ii.

145) instead of 630, which, according to his
(ii.

own mode

of reckoning

dates

142), would be the time required for the twenty-one generations
to

from Herakles

Leonidas

(vii.

204).

The oracles probably fonned part
largely, though, as the oracles
it is

of the oral tradition

from which he drew so

ascribed to Musaeos and Bakis were in writing,

possible that a

written compilation of the oracles of Delphi had been

made

before his

time (see i 47).

We

are no doubt indebted to tradition for a good

deal of the folklore which lends to his pages so great a charm.

That

Herodotos borrowed from Persian and Phoenician writers he expressly
states himself
;

and as the

style as well as the doctrines of the early

Ionic philosophers presuppose an acquaintance with Oriental literature,

while Herodotos was born a Persian subject,

it

might be concluded that

both he and his countrymen in Asia Minor were not so ignorant of
Persian
trade,

—the English of the day— or supposed. —
as
is

of Phoenician

— the
is

language of
account

ordinarily

It is quite clear, too, that the

of the Persian satrapies given in the third book
official
list.

taken from an

But there

is

nothing else to show that Herodotos was

acquainted with any other language than his own, and the mistakes he

makes

in his translations of Persian

words prove that he could not have

is also borne by That persons must have been found in Asia Minor able to speak both Greek and Persian is of course evident in no other way

understood the Persian language.
Ktesias.^

The same evidence

could the Persian government of the Greek states there have been carried

on

;

but they were probably of no high station in

life

—mere

clerks,

in fact,

who made a

livelihood, like the

dragomen

in Egypt, out of

their linguistic acquirements.

To

learn the language of their conquerors

was unpatriotic, and
gain "banausic."

if

the trouble were undergone for the sake of

Possibly Semitic settlers were found to perform the

same

office

of interpreters between the Greeks and their masters that

literature.

was undertaken by the Jews in Spain for In any case there must have Persian and Phoenician books, as well as which Herodotos derived his statements ;
translations

the

Arab students of Greek
official

been Greek translations of
of

documents, from
they were
Oriental

and the

fact that

may
in

explain

why he
The

always speaks

of

his

authorities

the pluralv

Hellenic poets, on the other hand,
see

1134); and that of the Athenian archons
(Polyb.
xii. 12, 1).

For the value to be

Studies,
'

MahatFy in the Journal of Hellenic ii. 1 (1881), pp. 164 aq.
Sec
i.

ossiguecl to the list of

Olympian

victors

1,

note

1.


;

INTRODUCTION.

xxi

formed part of the Greek's education, and were the texts upon which Herodotos had no doubt comthe teaching of ypafifjuTa was based.
mitted a good deal of their compositions to heart, and an apt quotation

was not
modern.

likely to

be

less

esteemed in the ancient world than

in the

Hence it is that while Hekataeos is the only Greek prose-writer quoted by name and that only for the sake of disparagement Herodotos makes a show of his acquaintance with the poets of his nation. A good knowledge of standard poetry was as much the mark of a cultivated gentleman as it was in the English society of the last century. It is therefore somewhat strange that Sophokles, the fashionable tragedian of the day, should not once be named, more

especiall}' as there are

evidences of conscious allusions to Herodotos on

the part of the poet,

who

is

even said to have written a poem in his

honour.^

But

it is

precisely the fact that Sophokles

was the

fashion-

able poet of the day which explains the silence of Herodotos.

His

had not formed part of the school education of Herodotos he had learned no passages from them, and was consequently unable to quote them. Nor did a knowledge of a poet about whom every one
tragedies

was talking bring with

it

the same reputation of learning as a know-

ledge of prehistoric worthies like Musseos and Bakis.

The
literature

relation

of

Herodotos towards his predecessors in prose
difiFerent one.

was a very

They were

his rivals

whom

he

wished to supplant.

There was no Mat to be gained by showing
His chief aim was to use their

himself familiar with their names.

materials without letting the fact be known.

He

tries to
;

impress upon

the reader his

own

superiority to the older prose-writers

he boasts of
115,
iv.

accepting only what he has heard from eyewitnesses

(iii.

16),

and names Hekatajos only when he thinks he can confute him or make

him appear

ridiculous.

And

yet

it is

certain that he

is

largely indebted

to Hekata^os for his information, and that in Egyptian matters
particularly he has
^

more

drawn without
'UpoS&np Ttv^ev

scruple on the

work

of the writer

Plut. Op. ii p. 785 A, edit. Reiske.
:

allude to Herodotos not only in the pass-

The poem began

'QSrjv

age above referred

to,

assuming

it

to be

2o^(c\^s ir^wv &v U^vt iirl irevrriKovTa. See iii. 119, note 6, and cf. Hanna, "Beziehungcn des Sophokles zu Herodot" (Briinn, 1875), and Nieberding,

genuine, but also where the habits of

the Egyptians are attacked and

human
sq.

misery

is

described in (Ed. Col. 337

"Sophokles und Herodot" (Neustadt, The lynx eyes of commentators have discovered plagiarisms from Sophokles in ii. 35 and iii. 119. On the
1875).

and 1211 sq., as well as in Fr. 380, where mention is made of the invention of games to allay the pangs of hunger, and perhaps Fr. 967, where the inundation
of the Nile
is

ascribed to the melting of

other hand, Sophokles seems really to

the snow.

"

xxii

INTRODUCTION.
Herodotos wrote for a young and growing
;

he desired to supersede.^
society,

not a decrepit and decaying one

and just as the surest mode

of securing the circulation of a book in ancient Eg3rpt, or in the earlier
centuries of our

passport

own era, was to ascribe it to an older author, so the fame among the Greek reading public in the age of Herodotos was the affectation of novelty and contemptuous criticism of older writers. The treatment Hekataeos has suffered at the hands of
to

Herodotos

— and which Herodotos

himself was soon to suffer by a just

retribution

prepares us to expect a similar treatment in the case of

other authors whose works have been laid under contribution while
their

names have been suppressed.
ii.

passages like

15, 17,

iv.

36, 42,

This expectation is verified by where other writers on the sami'
;

subject, supposed to be well

known

to his audience, are sneered at

or

by the reference
allowed to be

in

vi.

55 to the genealogy-makers,

who

did not

come

into competition with Herodotos,
still

and are therefore compassionately
of

read.

Among
Argos,

the writers

who had preceded Herodotos were Akusilaos

Euge6n of Samos, Hekatjeos and Dionysios of Milfitos, Khar6n of Lampsakos, Xanthos of Sardes. Deraokles of Phygela, Bi6n and Deiokhos of Prokonnesos, Amelesagomor Melesagoras of Khalked6n, PherekydSs of Leros, and Skylax of Karyanda. ^ Hekatseos we know he used even in the ancient world it was notorious that he had " stolen " from that author the descriptions of the phoenix, the hippopotamus, and the crocodile.* The " Persian History" of Dionysios, which extended from the reign of Kyros
of Paros, Eugaedn or
;

Eud^mos

to that of Xerxes,

may have

suggested to Herodotos the original idea

of his own,* while Eug3e6n was probably the source from which he

*

See Wiedemann, "GeschichteAegypI.

*

Porpliyr. ap. Euseb. TVoy. Ev. x. 8.

tens von Psanimetich

bis auf Alexander

As Wiedemann remarks, the

descriptions

den Grossen
'

82 sq. Hellanikos survived Herodotos and
after

" (1880), pp.

are so discordant with actual facts that

no two writers could have hit ujwn them
independently, and show that Herodotos
did not
done.
* Dionysios is said to have stated that Danaos brought the alphabet to Greece. This seems to be the reason why Herodotos insists at such length and with an apjieal to his own exjierience that it was brought by Kadmos (v. 58-61).

must have written

him, as

he

alluded to the battle of Arginussse
Schol.

(B.C.

make

his statements from per-

406) in his Atthis, and, according to the

sonal observation, as he professes to have

on Porph3Ty
b),

Sophokles (Phil.
(ap.

201)

and
p.

Euseb. Prcep. Ev. x.

466

read and copied Herodotos.
his

J.

Bass,

in

monograph, " Ueber das

Verhaltniss Herodot's und Hellanikos'

(Wiener Studien, i. 1879), decides that no use of the one by the other can be
detected.

INTRODUCTION.
<lerived his account of Polykrates.

xxiii

The

digression on

.^op

(ii.

134),

which

is

dragged into the narrative much out of
against

its place,

seems to bo

directed

Eugseon,

who had made

the fabulist a Thrakian.
in-

Ivharon not only traversed the same ground as Herodotos, but also

troduced into his history the same pieces of folklore,

as, for

example, the

dream of Astyages^ which Herodotos must either have borrowed from him or taken from a common source. His special work on Lampsakos, however, does not

seem to have been kno>vn to the Halikamas-

who would otherwise have seen the point of the threat of Kroesos to cut down Lampsakos "like a fir" (ttiVvs); Pityusa, according to Kharon, having been the original name of his native city. 2 On the other hand, Kharon's list of the Spartan magistrates
sian historian,

seems almost certainly alluded to in

vi.

55,

where he

is

included

among other

genealogers.

The notes

of Skylax, again, subsequently
Periplus,

worked up with other materials into a
disposal of Herodotos,
his

who mentions

the explorer by

must have lain at the name as well as
of

voyage

(iv.

44),

and from them he no doubt derived much

his information

about the far East. ^

Lydian

historian,

under contribution

Whether he laid Xanthos, the is more doubtful. His Lydian
but

history presupposes the use of documents which gave the succession
it must be noted kingdom of Sardes was first brought into close contact with the Greeks, and deals mostly On the other with the wars between the Mermnadse and the lonians. hand, the account of the colonisation of Etruria given by Herodotos seems an intentional contradiction of the narrative of Xanthos,* and Ephoros expressly asserts that the latter writer "gave Herodotos the We must not forget that although starting-point" of his history.^

and dates
that
it

of the

Lydian kings and dynasties

;

practically begins with the period

when

the

there were no publishei-s or printing-presses in the age of Herodotos,
public libraries were not altogether

unknown

;^

Perikles at Athens was
far,

Be Arian. 46. De Virt. Mul. p. Deiokos of Kyzikos had made
^

Tertull.

rodotos did not extend so

being

2

Plut.

255 A.
the same

confined to

tlie

plains of

Sardes and

Magnesia.
Deraokles,

statement (Frg. 10, ed. Miill.) ^ See iii. 100, note 5. * See i. 94, note 2. ^ Fr. 102, ed. Professor Rawlinson
thinks
that if Herodotos had used Xanthos he would have noticed "the
phyjsical

Volcanic
(Strab.
i.

case is different with wrote specially on the Phenomena in Asia Minor

The

who

p. 85),

a work which
use.

it is

plain

Herodotos did not
"

As the

library

of Peisistratos

at

peculiar
interior

appearances

in

the

Athens and that of Polykrates at Samos. In these libraries we may see an illustration of the Asiatising tendencies of
tyrants.
tlie

Lydia " described by the Lydian writer. But the Lydia of Heof

Libraries

had long existed

in

xxiv

INTRODUCTION.

surrounded by literary men, and books were at any rate cheaper than
travelling.

then, were the sources from wliich Herodotos drew his which must have taken their final shape not later than B.C. 426, the latest possible date for the desertion of Zopyros to the Athenian side (iii. 160). No event subsequent to this is mentioned,

Such,

materials,

since

vi.

68 does not imply
to,

tlie

death of Artaxerxes, and the last
is

occurrence alluded

the date of which

certain, is the betrayal of
(vii.

the Spartan and Korinthian ambassadors to the Atlienians

133-

137) in the autumn of

B.C.

430.^

Kirchhoff holds that the death of
this at

Herodotos took place two years after

Athens, to which he

returned shortly after the Delian earthquake at the beginning of ^le

Peloponnesian War, 2 and where he saw the Propylaea

(v. 77),

which

were not finished till B.C. 431. little said by Herodotos about the
"

Profes.sor
affairs of

Mahaffy remarks that the

Magna

Graecia,

which had
is

been treated by Hippys of Rhegium and Antiokhos of SjTacuse,
his later years ;"^ but

a strong argument against the composition of his Avork at Thurii in
it

West, scarcely affected as
the scope of his work.
(2.)

must be remembered that the history of the it was by the great war, did not come within
have long since determined to reverse the

Classical scholars

popular verdict of antiquity which found expression in the treatise
of the

Pseudo- Plutarch, and to acquit Herodotos of the charge of

Mr. Blakesley, indeed, has brought powerful arguments to show that Thukydides and others considered Herodotos one of the Aoyorrotoi, whose aim was not to instruct but to please,
conscious dishonesty.

and has
or even
current

tried

both to substantiate their judgment and to prove that
in

Herodotos was

no way a more trustworthy writer than Marco Polo
Professor Mahaffy, top, while agreeing with the
to

De

Foe.

opinion, nevertheless ventures

suggest

that

the

attack

made by

Pseudo - Plutarch has "perhaps not been sufficiently considered;"* but it has been reserved for an Egyptologist, Dr. Wiedemann, to make it plain that the charge brought against Herodotos was not undeserved, and that the " blame " (/iw/xos) which,
the
Babylonia, Assjrria, Phoenicia, Jernsnlem
(Prov. XXV.
i.),

com^T
'

vi<!W

cf.

Paley, Biblu^graphia

and, as

wo now know,

Grrcixi (1881).

Kappadokia, from which two clay tablets, one in the Louvre and the other in the
British

'

Thukyd. ii. 67. Thuk. ii. 8. as compared with Hcvi. 98.
.

Museum, have
others

while

have

been brought, been procured at t

rodotus,

j/^iist of Classical Oreek LiUraiu n jt^Histortj
* n»<lP> 38.

Kai8ari3'eh

by Mr.

Rnnisny.

For the ^^KKkfi-

i

INTllODUCTIOX.
according to his epitaph, caused him to
fly

XXV

from Halikamassos had

l^en justly provoked.

The speeches put into the mouths of many of his cliaracters bear own ideas and liave always been recognised as his own compositions. But it is usually assumed that they rest on a basis of fact, and are merely what Herodotos supposed might have been said Our confidence in this assumption on the occasion of a real event. shaken when we find, firstly, that they are generally is, however, intended to convey a moral lesson, and, secondly, that where we can test the event believed to underlie them it turns out to be imaginary. Thus the discussion of the seven conspirators after the murder of the
the impress of his

Magian cannot be reconciled with the
considerations

actual facts,

and chronological
whether Solon

make

it

very doubtful, to say the

least,

could ever have visited the court of Kroesos.

There are many other

passages in which Herodotos has introduced a legend or preferred one
version of a
tale,

not because he heard

it

from an eyewitness,
critical

as,

when

he

is

trying to disparage his predecessors, he ostentatiously asserts was

his invariable rule,^

ever,

— but

not, indeed,
it

upon any

grounds whatso-

simply because

agreed with his philosophical creed, or
or, finally,

struck his admiration of " smartness,"

doubt on the statements of
stories told of the birth

earlier historians.
rise of

because it threw a Out of the various

and

Kyros he
in

selects

one which

is

a

pure myth, and the folklore he. has substituted for Egyptian history,
or the legends he tells of the

way
is

which the precious gums of
Herodotos.
is

Arabia were collected, warn us against accepting a statement which

may be

true merely because

it

in

The

tale^

of the

phoenix which he plagiarised from Hekatseos

a convincing proof

how

little

he really cared for first-hand evidence, and

was to

insert

any legend which pleased
its truth.

his fancy,

and

how ready he to make

himself responable for

But the conclusions to be drawn from his descriptions of the crocodile and hippopotamus are yet more damaging to his veracity. Not only did ke take them from Hekatajos without acknowledgment,
but he repeats
result of his
all

the errors of his text while endeavouring

all

the

time to leave the impression on the reader's mind that they are the

own

observation.

This teaches us to be careful about
test his state-

accepting his testimony in other cases where he seems to claim the
redit

due to personal experience, but where we cannot

»

See

iii.

115.

(

xxvi

INTRODUCTION.
It prepares us also for

ments.
leads

an affectation of knowledge which

him sometimes to make erroneous assertions, sometimes to conThus, to judge ceal real ignorance, and is in every case misleading. from the way in which he writes, Herodotos must have been a
marvellous linguist, able to converse freely with Egyptians, Phoenicians
44),

(ii.
(i.

Arabians

(iii.

108),
(iv.

Carthaginians
24),

(iv.
(iv.

43),

Babylonian-

181-183),

Skythians
(v.

5,

Taurians

103),
(i.

Kolkhians

(ii.

104), Thrakians

10),

Karians and Kaunians

171-172), and

Yet when he ventures to explain words belonging to any he generally makes mistakes and simply displays Ins total ignorance of them (as, for example, when giving an interIn il 104, 105, pretation of the names of the Persian kings, vi. 98). he assumes an acquaintance with the languages of both Egypt and a verdict which may be put Kolkhis, and pronounces them to be alike
Persians.
of these languages

by the

side of his other assertion that
(ii.

Egyptian resembled the chirping
find

of birds

57).

When, however, we
all,

him further
less
if

calling the

Kolkhians woolly-haired and black-skinned, we begin to doubt whether

have made enquiries we look more closely From time to time, into what we find elsewhere in his narrative. when speaking of Egypt, he alludes to a god whose name he will not mention, he says, for religious reasons.^ The god in question is shown by the context to be Osiris and, as Wiedemann remarks, the
he could have visited the country at
of
its

much

inhabitants.

The doubt

is

confirmed

;

only religious scruple the Greek traveller could have had against pro-

nouncing the name of a deity which was constantly in every native's

mouth, and was perpetually meeting his eyes on numberless monuments, and in fact is mentioned by Herodotos himself elsewhere, must have been ignorance. Herodotos or his authorities had not

caught the name when taking notes, but instead of confessing the fact " the father of history " deliberately deceives liis readers. It is no

wonder, therefore,

if

after this

we can
literary

further convict

these days, would be termed
character,

dishonesty of

him of what, in a most serious

inasmuch as

it

aflFects

the credit and veracity of a consider-

able portion of his work.

Herodotos wishes his readers to believe
as well as

that he had visited

Upper

Lower Egypt.

It is true that,

except perhaps in one passage, ^ he never actually says that he did so
^

See iL
ii.

3,

note
ii.

9.

29.

In

3 I have bracketed the

words ^i 9i)/3aj re xal, which I believe to have been inserted by a copyist. Helio-

polis alone, and not Thebes, was near enough to Mempliis for Herodotos to "tnm into" in order to test what was told him at Memphis. His reason for

INTRODUCTION.
in so

xxvii

many

words, but he does his best to convey the impression, and
(ii.

in

one place

142-143) resorts to a kind of verbal legerdemain in

order to effect his object.

Here he gives the reader to understand

that the 345 statues Hekataeos had seen at Thebes two generations

previously were the same as the 341 statues Herodotos saw

preceding chapters show
liis

— as the
is clear

at

Memphis, and

at the

same time contrasts
There

own

superior modesty and

wisdom with the ignorant vanity of the
for the first time.^

older historian

whom

he

now names

evidence that Herodotos never ascended the Nile higher than the

Had he done so he would not have lavished such praise upon the labyrinth and been silent over the wonderful buildings of Thebes, nor would he have gravely repeated the story due, probably, which made the Nile rise at to the misunderstanding of his dragoman " the city " of Elephantine. ^ But Hekatseos had visited Thebes, and if he were to be supplanted it was needful that Herodotos too should
Fayfim.

have been at least equally
deliberate falsehood in
ii.

far.

This

is

the only excuse

for

the

29,

where he declares that he " came as an
In calling Elephantine

eyewitness as far as the city of Elephantine."
a
city,

however, instead of an island, he betrays the real facts of the
it

case,

and

may
7).

be hoped that the Angelican MS. (prima manu)
clause, represents the original text of

[b],

which omits the
il 29,

Herodotos (see

note

So flagrant an example of dishonesty excites our distrust of the extended travels to which Herodotos implicitly lays claim. The suspicions aroused by his extraordinarily inappropriate description of the Kolkhians are confirmed, and we are inclined to doubt whether what Herodotos has to tell us of the eastern part of the Black Sea was not derived from others from those " eyewitnesses " of whom he was 80 proud. At any rate, as Mr. Bunbury remarks,^ there is no

evidence that Herodotos ever travelled as far as Susa, the expression

used of the Eretrians at Arderikka
his

own time

(vi.

119)

— that they remained

there

up

to

being the very same as that used of the

Barkseans in Baktria
to maintain

(iv.

204), a country which few

would be disposed
connected

was

visited

by him.

Moreover, the

diflSculties

with the description of the royal road from Sardes to Susa * can only

be explained on the supposition that
doing so was that " the
ties."

it

was borrowed from another
2, 5,

jjeople of Helio-

*

See notes

and 7 ou the passage,
7.
i.

polis were considered the best authori-

*

See iu 29, note

There Thebans.

is

no reference

to*

the

History of Ancient Oeography, 234-235. » v. 62.
'

pp.

xxviu

INTRODUCTION.
Not only
are the

work.

numbers given

for each day's journey incon-

summing up, "but if the Gyndes be taken as the frontier between Armenia and Matiene, the enormous extension thus given to Armenia is altogether at variance with the distance assigned
sistent with the final

to this part of the route

;

the march through Assyria, from the river

Gyndes
to

to the neighbourhood of

Mosul

— the

lowest point at which
jvlone fully

the road could well have crossed the Tigris
the 66

— being

equal

parasangs

allowed to Armenia, thus leaving the whole

intermediate space, from the Euphrates to the Tigris, unaccounted
for;" while the extension given to

Armenia "is equally

at variance

with the extent assigned to

it

in the description of the Satrapies."^

It may be added that no one who had actually crossed the Gyndes would have thought that its waters had been dissipated into 360 rivulets by Kyros, as Herodotos does in i. 189-190.2 As Herodotos does not describe any other road to the East, and it
is

pretty evident that he never travelled along this particular one,
visited Assyria

we

must conclude that he never

and Babylonia.
Yet, just as

This

will explain his comparative silence

about such important and interest-

ing countries as Syria and Assyria Proper.
the case of

much

as in

Upper Egypt, he has endeavoured to produce the impression that he had visited Babylonia and conversed there with Khalde.in
priests,

and

his

endeavour has been so successful as to deceive the

majority of his commentators.

One

passage, in fact, L 183,

where he

wishes

it

to be inferred that
because it

he did not see the golden statue of Bel at
is

Babylon
Egypt.

had been removed by Xerxes,

as flagrant a piece

of prevarication
It is true
is

as his statement about the 341

images he saw

in

he does not positively assert that he was in Babylonia,

but

it

the natural inference from his words.
easily escaped detection if

The

prevarication

would have more
the temple
itself,

he had said he did not see

as well as the

image

destroyed by Xerxes (Arrian,

vii. 1

7) at the

king had carried away the statue.

it had been same time that the Persian But unluckily Herodotos did not it

contained, since

know

this,

to be understood

and accordingly describes the temple at length, leaving that he had carefidly examined it himself It

it
is

doubtful, however, whether he intended to

mean by

the words ws
I

lAcyov

ol

XakSaioi in the same chapter, " as they told

me when

was
193

there," since they vwjht signify " as they used to say;"

and we can

afford

him the
Bniibury,

benefit of the

doubt

But when he says
'

in chapter

'

i.

p.

263.

See note

1

on the passaj^.

"

INTRODUCTION.

XXIX

that he will not mention the size of the millet and sesamfi plants,
"

^\ould not believe

knowing well that those who had not gone so far as Babylonia what had been stated of the luxuriance of the
is

vegetation there, he

again trying to convey a false impression, even

though his words may be quoted from another author.
to read far to see that

Khaldea.

We have not Herodotos could not himself have been in Apart from the historical misstatements two of which,

relating to the sieges undergone

made by a
stones " in

visitor

to

the spot

^

—a

by Babylon, could hardly have been
writer

who

speaks of " immense

Babylonia,^

who

does not

know

the real site of Opis,^ and

describes imaginary cuttings near Arderikka, a place probably quite as

imaginary,*

who

asserts that the walls of

Babylon had been destroyed

by Dareios,^ and
to describe.

fancies that rain falls but seldom in the country,^

stands self-convicted of never having visited the district he undertakes

Babylonia
empii-e.

who had done so would have called have confused the Babylonian with the Assyrian The name of Assyria was never used by the Babylonians of
one, indeed,
Assyria,'' or

No

much less by those of must have been derived by Herodotos from his antiquarian researches among older Greek writers when working up the materials for his Assyrian history, and have come down from a
the age of Nebuchadrezzar and his successors,
It

the Persian period.

time when Gyges was a vassal of Assur-baui-pal or Sardanapalos, and
the Assyrian power was influencing the fortunes of Lydia and Ionia.*

Ktesias had

Assyrian history; and

good reason for accusing Herodotos of errors in his if we may judge from the specimens of it
its

incorporated in his work,

disappearance

is

no great

loss.

(3) The conclusion we are driven to, accordingly, is that Mr. Blakesley is right in considering Herodotos a mere AoyoTroios. Ho
pilfered freely

and without acknowledgment
;

;

he assumed a knowledge

he did not possess

he professed to derive information from personal

experience and eyewitnesses which really came from the very sources

^ *

See

i.

192, note 4
1.

;

iii.

159, note 7. 189, note 8. 159, note 7.

sense in which Herodotos uses

it

of his Stein

L 186, note
i.

^
» ^

i.

own work
i"^^,'^ IS clearly

(ii.

38, v. 36),

and does not
drawinfi^

185, note 5.
193, note 8.
ii.

''tradition" or "reiK)rt."

iii.

not justihed
tlie

i.

L 178.

m

from

the passage

inference that Herodotus

*

In

150 Herodotos confesses that

had

visited Assyria before

he travelled

the legend he tells of Sardanapalos was

in Egj'pt.

Nineveh was an uninhabited

derived from

"a

passage (Xiyv) quoted

ruin in the time of Herodotos, so there

lioin" an earlier Xdryio^ or "proser" (see
.

1,

note

1).

A<i7o$ is hero used in the

could have been no dragoman there to fill his note-books with folklore.

XXX
)

INTRODUCTION pjA^*"
;

he seeks to disparage and supersede

he lays claim to extensive travels
;

'

which are

as inytliical as those of the early philosophers

and he

in-

troduces narratives or selects particular versions of a story, not because

they were supported by good authority, but because they suited the
turn
[

of his mind, and

fitted

into

the general tenor of his work.
it

With such

evidences, then, of unveracity staring us in the face,
far

becomes a question how

we

can trust his statements and accept his In order to answer

authority in historical or topographical matters.
it

we must

first

distinguish between the countries he can be proved to
is

have
1

visited,

and those which there
all,

good evidence to show that he

did not.
his travels

After
j

he need not have been ashamed of the extent of

if

they could not rival those of Hekatajos or Skylax, they

had

certainly extended over the greater part of the civilised portion of

the Mediterranean.
sea as possible
;

Like a true Greek, Herodotos kept as near the
that he ever penetrated far inland.
its

we have no proof
Greece and

He had
far as

visited

sacred shrines, making a pilgrimage as

Dddona, and probably coasting along the shores of Thrake from
to Byzantion.

Athos
Moeris,

He had been

as far south in

Egypt as Lake

had

sailed along the shores of Palestine

and

Syria, touching at

Tyre, Beyriit,^ Kypros,- and Rhodes,^ like a modern tourist returning

from Egypt by an Austrian Lloyd steamer, had apparently stayed at
Kyren6, and had made the acquaintance of the chief islands of the
JEgesiU, including of course Delos.

He had
life

resided in
asserts, in

Magna

Grsecia,

and probably

also, as

the legend of his

Samos.*
to him.

The

western coast of Asia Minor was naturally well

known

He

was born
capital

and was acquainted witii Lydia and its Sardes, with Ephesos and the Kaikos, and probably with the
at Halikarnassos,

Troad

as well.''

Except in Egypt, and at Tyre and Sardes, he was not necessarily
brought into contact with any but a Greek- speaking population
;

in

Egypt and

Syria, as well as at Sardes, he

had to depend upon dragor
difficulty

men

;

but his voyages were doubtless performed in Greek boats.

Egypt, Syria, and

Lydia apart, therefore, he had no

in

picking up information, and no need of consulting any but Greek
authorities.

As
106.

regards what

may

be termed the Greek portion of his
the Samians at Lad^.

'

ii.
i.

44,

ii.

See also

i.

70

;

ii.

*
*

199.

» ii.

182.
vi.

168
85
'

;

iii.

26, 39 sq., 54 sq., 60, 120 aq.

;

Stein notes that the account in
S7.

iv. 43, 88,
;

152

;

v.

112

;

vi.

22

sq.

;

viiL

13

betrays an attempt to excuse as

ix. 106.

far as possible the disgraceful

conduct of

See

ii.

10, vii. 43.

INTRODUCTION.
history, accordingly,
li is

xxxi

we may

allow his statements the credibility that

usually claimed for them.

His account of the nations on the western coast of Asia Minor
stands on a somewhat different footing.

drawn from
persons

first-hand sources,

The history of Lydia, must have rested on the authority

if

of

who spoke a
made

different language

from his own, but for reasons

already alleged
that he

(p. xxiii) it is

probable that this was not the case, and

use of Greek documents or traditions.
;

Of Karia he was
tells

able to speak from personal experience
his

the relatives and friends of

boyhood lived on Karian

soil,

and what he

us of Karian

manners and

traditions, as well as of the

Kaunians and their language,
special

may

be accepted without questioning.

With Samos he shows a

acquaintimce, and he

may

well have laid the history of Eugseon under

contribution (see

p. xxiii).

For the coasts of the -^gean as well as
first

for

Greece we

may

consider Herodotos both to be a witness at

hand,

and

to

have supplemented his own experience by the use of the best

doubt he did not exercise much criticism and as he never gives references to the books he- employed, we cannot distinguish between matter which comes from really trustworthy sources and that which does not. No doubt, too, his own observation was not very exact, and he may very possibly have made mistakes in repeating what he had read or heard. But these are drawbacks to which most ancient authors are subject. It is very different, however, when we come to the East. In Egypt he was a mere tourist, unable to speak the language of the country, and furnished with no introductions to cultivated natives. He was left to the mercies of half-caste dragomen ^ and the inferior servants of
authorities he could find.
in dealing

No

with the

latter,

the temples,

who were

allowed to gain a

little

bakshish

by showing

them

to inquisitive Greeks.
;

Herodotos dignifies them with the name

of priests

but the Egyptian priest did not speak the language of the

Greek barbarian. Every traveller will know what a strange idea he would carry away with him of the history and character of the monuments he visits, and the manners and customs of the country, if he had to depend on what he was told by his guides and cicer&ni. How
little

Herodotos saw of the higher society of Egypt may be gathered

^

Like the Maltese in

modem

times,

the Karians acted as interpreters between the natives and the traveller. A bronze Apis, now in the BiUak museum, has

glyphics and Karian, the hieroglyphics stating that it was dedicated to Apis by

upon

it

a bilingual inscription in hiero-

" Peram the dragoman." Peram is not an Egyptian name, and may bo compared with the Karian name PirOmis in

xxxii

INTRODUCTION.
his assertions that the

from

Egyptians used only bronze cups,^ and

did not eat wheaten bread.^

Of

course what he saw himself he

may
tell

be supposed to describe with

fair

accuracy

;

but
is

we can seldom

what he

really did see himself, or wliat

he

not merely making

the reader believe he

had

seen.

Moreover, his attitude towards
rise

Hekatieos on a question like the causes of the
the suspicion that he

of the Nile raises

may have

treated his predecessors as Ktesias

treated him, admitting a legend on any or no evidence simply because
it

contradicted what they had written.

It is only necessary to read

through the notes on the second book to see that the majority of the
statements
to be false,

made by Herodotos about Egyptian matters are now known and that there are many in which we can trace a deliberate
It is just the

intention to deceive.

same with

his notices of Babylonia, his

or Assyria as he erroneously terms it;

and

knowledge even of
is

Persian history, manners, religion, and language

equally defective.
official

Here, however, his shortcomings are redeemed by the use of

documents, like the
road to Susa.

list of

the satrapies, or the description of the royal

How

these

came

into his

hands

it is

useless to enquire.

His birth at Halikarnassos
a government clerk
hjvve

may have

enabled him to obtain them from

who had

translated

them

into Greek, or they

may

been contained in one of the books which he consulted for his

history.
is

He

certainly did not understand Persian himself,
his

and there

no sign of
it

being acquainted with Persians of social position,

unless

were Zopyros the son of Megabyzos.'

As

regards Persian

history, therefore,

we cannot expect him

to

have been so well infonned

as Ktesias,

who had

access to the royal archives

kiKai*

— of the empire.

— the
it is

Siffydepal jiaa-t.-

And

in his

account of Persia, as of iJaby Ionia
possess,

and Egypt, the

affectation of a

knowledge he did not
Consequently

and constill

cealment of the sources from which he derived his information,
further diminish his authority.

only where his

statements are confirmed by the native monuments whicii modern
research has brought to light that
cases,

we can
false

rely

upon them

;

in otlur

where they are not proved to be

by monumentiU or internal

evidence,

we must adopt towards them

the attitude of

mind
it

of the

ancient sceptics.

Egyptology and Assyriology have made

imi>ossible

for us ever again to accept the unsupported assertions of Herodotos in

matters pertaining to the East.

The long controversy which has raged over
the inscriittion or Halikarnassos (see 143, note 8).
ii.

the credibility of
*
*
ii.

*

ii.
iii.

37. 160.

86.
ii.

»

Diod. Sic,

32.

I

"

INTRODUCTION.
Hi-rodotos
l)as

xxxiii

thus been brought to an end by the discoveries of
It only

recent years. "assigned
will

remains to say a few words on the character
discoveries to his critic Ktesias, since
of the questions

by the same

depend our view
first place,

and Ktesias are
In the

at variance,

on this upon which, when Herodotos the monuments as yet throw no light.

then,

it

is

quite clear that Kt6sias really based his

history on Persian materials.
consists of Assyro-Babylonian

The

greater part of his Assyrian history

myths rationalised and transformed in the manner peculiar to the Persians, of which Herodotos gives us an illustration in the legend of 16.^ Semiramis is the Assyrian Aphrodite, Ninos and Ninyas are Nineveh and its inhabitants ; and the names
given to

many

of their successors, such as Arios, Armamithr^s,
titles
bilu,

and

Mithraos, are Persian
Baleus, the Assyrian

or divine names.

It is significant that

"lord,"

is

said to have

been also called

Xerxes, the Persian Khshayarshd, from khshaya, which existed by the
side of khsMyathiya, "king."^

In the second place, when
statements

Persian history,

we

find several

we come to made by Ktesias which

disagree with those of other classical authorities, but have been un-

expectedly verified by recent discoveries.

Thus he makes the reign of
it ac-

Dareios last only thirty-one (or tiiirty-two) years, the real length of

cording to the Babylonian contract-tablets, which place his accession in
B.C.

517.

On

the other hand, there are other assertions which are shown

to be untrue, as, for example, that the

Magian usurpation did not take On this point Herodotos was in the right. But it must be remembered that the loss of the original works of Ktesias makes it difficult to determine how far he has
place until after the death of Kambyses.

reported his authorities correctl}^ or yielded to the desire of contradicting

Herodotos at the expense of truth.

At any

rate

it

is

certain that he

was

justified in claiming for his history the authority

of Persian documents, and that

many
much

of the

charges of falsehood

brought against him must be
friends.

laid,
is

not upon him, but upon his eastern
like the

His history of Assyria

Egyptian

mediaeval

Arab

writers, clothed only in a

Greek

dre^

The Language of Herodotos.
For the
peculiarities of the language of

Herodotos the student

may

be referred to the admirable
See
i.

summary

prefixed to the smaller edition
Baleiis

1,

note

1.

the Zend aranoj "eye."

may

IVn fey and Oppert explain ar«-«A« by
C

represent 5t7u-««ir, " Bel the director.

$

:

INTRODUCTION.
of Stein.^
It

was formerly supposed that

his native dialect

must have

been a Doric one, Halikarnassos being a Doric colony, and his residence
in

Samos was

called in to explain his use of Ionic.

The

discovery by

Mr. C. T. Newton of a decree issued by the assembly of the Halikarnassians and Salmakiteans along with the tyrant Lygdamis, the con-

temporary of Herodotos, which

is

written in Ionic, has shown that

we

have no need of this hypothesis, and that Ionic was, in the age of the
historian, the language of his native town. 2

The only Dorisms which
from a time
It is similarly only in the

occur in

it

are ' A\iKapvaT{e(i}v)
still

and

IlavvaTios, survivals
place.

when Doric was
case of proper

spoken in the
like

names

'Ay is,

'Apia-Teas, AevrvxtS?/?, that

any traces

of a Doric dialect are found in the
for the Ionic y-qixopoi
is
is

MSS.

of Herodotos, since ya/xopoi

not only used by ^skhylos {Suppl. 613), but
(vii.

merely quoted by Herodotos from the Doric dialect of Sicily
av(.lvTai
(ii.

155); while avewvrat for
literary age.^
^

165)

is

really

an old Ionic form

which survived in Doric alone of the spoken Greek dialects into the

Vol.

i.

pp.

li.-lix.

See also Struve,

Attic from a primitive

" Pan-Ionic

"]

QiUEstiones de dial. Herodoti,

Works,

ii.

pp. 323

sq.

:

Dindorf, preface to edition
:

Herodotos (Paris, Didot, 1844) Lhardy, Qiuestionum de dial. Herodoti (Berlin, 1844-6) Bredow, Qiicesiionum Criticarum de diaZecto Herod. (Leipzig, Uebersicht iiber den Abicht, 1846)
of
:

Heilmann, De infinilivi syntaxi Herodotea (Giessen, 1879) and especially Emian, "De Titulorum lonicorum dialecto "in Curtius's Studien zur griechiachen und laieinischcn Orammatik, v. 2 (1872), pp.
:

251-310.
Hicits

The

intro<iuction to Lebaigue's
(Paris,

:

d'mrodote

Berlin,

1881)

Herodotischen

Dialckt (Leipzig,

1874)

;

may
*

also be consulted.

Qucestionum de dialecto Herod., Specimen
I.

The

inscription

is

published in the

(Gottingen, 1859)

;

Stein, Preface to
i.

Transactions
Literature, ix.
text, of

edit,

of Herodotos, vol.

pp. xliv sq.

of the Boyal Society of 2 (1867). Another longer

(Berlin,

und

1869); Herodotos; sein Leben sein Oeschichtswerk (Berlin, 1870), 2d

apparently the same date, and

recording the registration of lands and
gods,

edit.,

1877

:

Brandt,

De Modorum
:

apttd

Herodotum usu (Cothen, 1872-3)

Merz-

houses that had been forfeited to the also found at Halikarnassos, ia
published by Mr. Newton in Essays on

dorf, " Quaestiones Grammaticse de vocalium in dialecto Herodotea concursu modo admisso modo evitato," and " Vocal verkiirzung vor Vocalen und quantitative

Metathesis im lonischen,"
Studien,
viii.

in

Curtius'

pp. 127-222 (1878),

and

ix.,

pp. 201-244 (1876) [the result of the author's study being that the New Ionic has not that love of "resolved " vowels

Art and Archaeology (1880), p. i27 sq., and is not contained in the list of Ionic inscriptions given by Erman. It is particularly imjiortant on account of the number of Karian names preserved in Another copy of the text has been it.
published in the Bulletin de Correapondance hellinique.
'

usually ascribed to
relation of the

it,

and that the true

Some

of the
first

MSS. give

Avioyrai hci
CI.

Herodotean to the Homeric dialect is that of sisters sprung from a common old Ionic which came itself like

Stcphanus
dfpduKa.

restored iviufrai.
is

'E-u-Ka for t-w-a

to

trifu

as

T^-rot^-a to wtl$v.

INTRODUCTION.
The
dialect

xxxv

used by Herodotos is known as New Ionic, to disfrom the Old Ionic of Homer, as well as the Middle Ionic represented by a few forms, also found in Homer, which stand midway
tinguish
it

between those

of the

Old and those of the New.
o-

Thus, for instance,

the genitive of the

declension in

-ov, like

8r)fiov,

must have been

derived from the older genitive in
in

-oio

through an intermediate stage

o's, which Examples of this intermediate form were first pointed out in Homer by Ahrens, who detected them in such passages as //. ii. 325, xv. 66 ; Od. i. 70, x. 60. Homer, however, contains not only Old and Middle Ionic forms, but New Ionic forms as well ; and on closer inspection it will be seen that the

which the semi-vowel was

lost,

leaving only the two
-ov.

afterwards coalesced into the diphthong

archaic portion of his vocabulary, in which, for example, the
is

digamma
It is

preserved,

is

comparatively small, the greater part of his language
distinguishable frqm the dialect of Herodotos.
this is in great

being in no
often

way

assumed that

measure due to conscious imitation
;

of the Epic dialect

on the part of Herodotos
referred to, gives a
is

and Stein accordingly,
of words and gram-

in the

summary above

number

matical forms which he
literature.

supposed to have borrowed from Epic

But, as Mr. Paley has pointed out,

many

of these words,

such as dk\o<f)poveiv,

dvrjKoxxTTeiv, irapalSdWea-dai, dreovTes,
;

belong to

prose rather than to poetry

while others either present no special

characteristics of antiquity, or

form an integral part

of the structure

of the language which

Herodotos employs.

The

oracles, moreover,

quoted by Herodotos, which belong to the generation immediately
preceding his own, cannot be distinguished from the hexameters of the
Ilkid

and Odyssey

in either language, style, or metre.

of division, accordingly, which has been
of

The sharp line drawn between the language
;

Homer and

that of Herodotos cannot be maintained

nor are we
his study of

justified in believing that the

language of Herodotos embodied archaic

words and grammatical forms which he had derived from
Epic poetry.
earlier poetry,

The archaisms
embedded,

of

Homer

are rather survivals

from

like flies in

amber, in the current language

of a later date.^
^

For the relation of the dialects of
see

date and composite character of oar Iliad

Homer and Herodotos
lonischen," quoted above
die
;

Merzdorf,
in

" Vocalverkiirzung und Metathesis

and Odyssey " in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, li. 2
(1869),

,

Hofer, " Ueber Verwandtschaft des herodotischeu Stiles mit dem homerischen " and especially Paley, "On the comparatively late
;

pp.

379-383.

Mr. Paley cornof similar passages,

pares a large

number

words, and grammatical forms used by

Homer and Herodotos;

thus a/ywi (Herod.

INTRODUCTION.
Herodotos
tells
(i.

us that in his time four different dialects were
1

spoken in Ionia

42) ; the inscriptions that have been preserved, however, are too scanty, or the differences were too slight, to allow us
to substantiate his statement.
theless, to

Enough have been discovered, nevershow us what were the general peculiarities of the Ionic
iy&eov
(vii.
(iii.

iv. 61, 77. 3, 158),

97, II. 18,
7,

iteratives in -aKw,

and

/«v.

In the

first

493), dfXwT^ovTes
i\\o(ppovrj(Xcu
(v.

168, II.

310),

three books of Herodotos, again,

we
:

find

85,

H.

23, 698), d/i<pi-

the following parallels to
adverbial
iTrUXrjffiv
(i.

Homer
fj

—The

dpv<f>^ai (vi. 77, II. 2, 700),

dvaKXIvai
180,
II.

(v.

19, 77. 18, 487), the

16, //.

5,

751), dveivai (iv.
(iv.

vi.

omission of Av after
ij

irplv

and
(i.

irpbrtpov 87, etc.,

256),

ivaKom-L^eiu

181,

H.

5,

113),

(i.

19, iv. 172), 4>lXoy eifot

iyriKOvffTrjaai (vi. 14, II. 15, 236), iriovres
(vii.

77. 2, 116), ola

re

(i. (i.

93, II.

7,

280, Od.

223,

//.

20, 332),

ol

ifi^l (vii. 223,
(vii.
(iii.

11, 535),
dfi<f>l

pxrd 5i

128, Od. 21, 231),
(i.

II. 3, 146),

iiro9vfuov

B.
22,

14, 261),
60),
7,

M

iroirjffcu.

168,

with the dative

yi/ipaos
.
.

ov5<^

14, II.
(i.

151), direiTctv " to
7,
(i.

announce

140, etc., Od. 4, " (i. 152 ; 77.

daiTVfi6ves
;

iirdaavTO

73

;

416;

9,

649; Od. 16, 340), oiK dirwvrrro
i)Q>

Od.

102

n.

1,

464), dplarovs SiaKpiSdp

168, Od. 11, 322), irpbs
(i.

re koI ijXlov
;

(iv. 53, II. 12, 103),

e6py€e
61,

(i.

127, II. 3,

dj/ttToXds

201; cp.

77. 12,
(i.

209

Od. 13,

351),

ivi(Ppd^€Tcu (vi.
(iii.

Od. 15, 444),
rfyopbuvro

240), olvoi dvrJKe {(uy)
\l^dfifiif)

213,
8,

77. 2, 71),

fwd^pttt
vi.

36, //. 18, 407),

KareiXvuhov

(ii.

Od. 14, 136),

11, II. iv. 1), iwplyrepov (vi. 84, II. 9,
(i.

yipavoi tpeuyovffat rbv x«Mw>'ci, etc. (LL 22,
77. 3, 3,

203), iKTrjffdai
(iii.

155, II. 9, 402), idtjevvro

where

it

appears in a simile not in 49
cp. Od. 2,

136,

n.

7,

443), iweO^Kavro (vii. 125,

the body of the narrative as in Herodotos),
ovK dSaiJj

//. 10, 30),

dvatrXTJaai
(iii.

Kaxd
14,

(v. 4, /Z. 8,

dW ifiiTfipos
(ii.

(ii.

;

354), KeKaKwixivifv

Od.

6,

137),

170), SrjXviJioves

74, Od. 18, 85), Skuj

KpoToKi^eiv
(iii.

(ii.

60, 7Z. 11, 160), Ktxa.pr)Kws

re

(ii.

108, like the

Homeric
(ii.

5re re, Ira

27, 77. 7, 312),

Kovpi5m

(i.

135, 7Z. 1,

re, etc.), voXvrpoiriri
oiipavoix-fiKTjs
(ii.

121
5,

e,

Od.

1, 1),

113), XauTTna (vii. 91, //. 12, 426), X^voj
iryiijs
(i.

138,

Orf.
iii.

239), (tord

8,

E.

8, 524),
(iv.

j-ij^ffos

(i.

50, II.

Hkv—Kard

di

(ii.

141,

36, 126, etc.,

9,

358),

brioiffi.
(i.

180, /Z.
1,

15,

491),

77. 23, 79), offlv

[i<m] (U. 171, Od. 16,

iiraKiKKlirfTiTO

118, 72.

126), irapa-

423), the repetition of the subject
(ii.

by 6 ye

PaWifievos
77. 14, 35),

(vii. 10, 77. 9,

322), veir6\i<TTou
(vii.

173, 77.
(iii.

3,

409, etc.), fjL-nxavfS/xefOi

(v. 52, 77. 20, 216),

irpdKpoffffai
(i.

188,

KaKd

15, Od. 17, 499), Sifx^tro
(iii.
(iii.

"was

vpoKarL^uv

14, 77. 2, 463),

dissolved"

16,

77.

7,

316), Kf^oXiJ

cijfidvTopes (vii. 81, 77. 4, 431), cravpwr^pos
(vii. 41,

"person"
T€ KoX

29, 77. 8, 281),
(iii.

xapd^yoi

77.

10, 152),

<f>pvrpri

(i.

125, 77.

iilOeoi

48, 77.

18, 598),

Wpt
61,
10,

2, 362).

Also the frequent use of sub-ociivy)

dufKfi ix^/xenoi (iii. 50), ehre

Ayuv
69,
(iii.

(iii.

stantives in
in
-fiiJMv,

and

'in,

adjectives

Od.

1,

130),

diirruxret

(iii.

Orf,

genitives in -ew, reduplicated
likfe

259), dyd re ISpafwv rdXiy 599), xpocOftvoL rdj Biipaz
14,

78, 77. 5,
;

perfects

dpaiprf/i^vos, -^p^peiffro,
pi. in -arat,

the

(iii.

78

cp. JI.

future in -iw, 8d persons

and

169), inrpvaa.
(iii.

(iii.

109. Od.

1,

381),

the modification of verbs in -aw into -tov
(as IjvTeov,

vviK

116,

77. 4,

465, eu\), ^rrii

dWpiiri-

wpedvTes).

To

these

we may

yovffoi
(iii.

(iii.

116,
cp.

77. 2,

845), AcSpa; inrdaai
189),

atld the use of the later el/iev for iafitv,

126,

77.

6,

wroffrds
3, 99),

the omission of the temporal augment,

TfXiatu
/i^Kwx of
190),
(iii.

{II.

10, 303,

Od.

toXN

luda
iarla,

for etuOa,

ijto,

ijuTay,

<pv\aKoi
Iffrlrf

and
for

fidpTvpos for tf>v\a^

and

fidprvs,

the lost aspirate in utrdX/xevoi,
itrlariov,

drawing lots (iii. 128, 77. 1. and the zeugma ?7ros rt Kal fp-, op. Find. Pylh. i> 135, 77. 19, 242
;

iTdXfteyot,

and

airbiio*,

the

104).

;

INTRODUCTION.
dialect as

xxxvii
fifth

spoken in Ionia and at Halikarnassos in the sixth and

centuries B.C.

tliat is, in

the age of Herodotos.

We
&,

find that

the

symbol of the aspirate had come to express the long

from which we

may

infer that the aspirate

had been

lost in Ionic pronunciation.

The
in-

use of the v eplielkystikon exhibits the same inconstancy as in older
Attic,

though

it is

more frequent
error.

in the earlier

than in the later
it

scriptions, so that the editors

who have expunged
;

from the text of

The Halikarnassian inscription lately published by Mr. Newton, has aid, not aei and Stein has been proved to be right in defending the forms kcivos and 6kkb> against Dindorf and Bredow. On the other hand, raora appears for ravra at HalikarHerodotos have fallen into
nassos, and, as
c,
7/,

Erman

points out, the coalescence of

e

with a following

or

61

into one syllable, distinguished the dialect of Miletos
B.C.,

and the
that of

Khalkidian colonies as far back as the sixth century
Halikarnassos in the middle of the
fifth

century, that of Euboea in the

beginning of the
the fourth.

fifth

century, and that of Thasos in the beginning of

E and

o are

not contracted into a single syllable until

we

come to the middle of the fourth century B.C., when the diphthong cu makes its appearance, probably through the influence of the Attic ov ; and ecu is written in full except when preceded by v and i. Consequently Dindorf and Abicht must be wrong in always writing the full form eo) in the texts of Herodotos, as well as Stein and Bredow,

who admit
century
B.C.,

the elision of

c

only where another

c

precedes.^

The
of

contracted form Ipos for

lepo?, again,

does not appear before the fourth

and should therefore be expunged from the editions

Herodotos, while

we

find yeas instead of

yijs.

We

also

meet with

forms of the dative plural like
Toi? Seois TovTOL'i,

ya-iv, NvfKJirja-Lr, At'oio-tv,

by the side of

but the genitive singular of the o-declension always
in
6

ends in

ov.

Stems

and

v

form their genitives in

tos

and

vos, until
in.

we come

to the fourth century,

when

the Attic ews

first

creeps

On

the other hand, so-called Attic forms like 'Av-a^tAews occur in the oldest

At Halikarnassos the dative singular is TroAet, From stems in cos we get IIAovt^os, Upir/vTJt. as well as 'AxiAAeos. Coming to the verb we find Lhardy justified in rejecting
Ionic inscriptions.
Tet;^fi.

Ixov from the text of Herodotos
inscriptions
;

by

6?xov, eTx^v in the Halikarnassian
is eciv, edin-os

the participle of the substantive verb
till

— the

contracted form not coming into use
^

late in the fourth
liii.
;

century

See Dindorf, Commentatio de dial.
p.
xi.
;

Herodotos, p.

Bredow, QuasHwimm

Herod. (1844),
^icht iiber d.

Abicht,
p.

Ueher;

eritiearum de dial. Herod., p. 218.

Her. Dialekt,

32

Stein,

xxxviii

INTRODUCTION.
not
cy, is

and

y,

met with

at Halikamassos.

Here, too,

we
is

find

ottoi-,

not oKov, which suggests that the labial found in
the dialect spoken in his birthplace.

Homer

not due to

Attic influence, and that the guttural of Herodotos did not come from

This raises the (question whether

we

are justified in correcting the

text of Herodotos in accordance with the evidence of the Ionic inscriptions of his age.

The

existence of dialects in Ionia at the time,

and

our ignorance as to which of these Herodotos
the necessity of caution.
is

may have

used, or

whether he combined forms found in two or more of them, teach us

But on the other hand the evidence of our is frequently uncertain ; the oldest of them can hardly be earlier than the tenth century of our era, and the errors introduced by copyists, or ignorant grammarians bent on restoring what they supposed to be Ionic forms, are necessarily numerous. In an inscription we are, at all events, secure of having the very words

MSS.

not consistent,

and

by the engraver, Wliere, therefore, a grammatical form may be considered to have been used throughout Ionia in the
that were written

time of Herodotos by the concurrent testimony of the inscriptions

found
it to

in various localities,

we ought

to

have no hesitation in preferring
in our texts, supposing this

the traditional form handed
different.
ct/xi

down

to

be

Thus, for

example, the

contracted

form of the
clearly

participle of

given here and there in the

MSS.

is

proved

by the

inscriptions to belong to a later period,

and to have no right to

appear in the pages of Herodotos.

On

the other hand, Merzdorf objects that a distinction should be

made between the more popular and negligent language of inscriptions, and the more careful mode of expression adopted by a literary man. But it is only on the tombstones of the poorer class of people that
such a negligent kind of language
is

likely to appear.

Public decrees

and

official

texts

would certainly be composed

in as careful a style as

the work of a literary

man

;

indeed, considering their importance and

public character, as well as their comparative brevity, they

would

probably be written

still

more

carefully.

We

do not usually

find the

language of Parliament or the law-courts either popular or simple.

At

the same time there was no such gulf between the literary language

of Herodotos

and the ordinary speech
Indeed,

of the day, as

was the

case in

the Alexandrian period.

we now and then come upon awkOld forms and words are quite

wardnesses of grammar, to use a mild term, which would not have

been tolerated

in

a public document.^

as likely to occur in inscriptions as in the history of Herodotos.
e.g.

At

singular verb for plural (ffx^/wt lhpSapiK6f),

i.

26, iL 66 (raOra Si yiv6fiera).

I

INTRODUCTION.
tlie

xxxix
protesting
against the

same time, Stein

is

doubtless right

in

nssumption that the language of Herodotos must be uniform.
^\•rite^s,

Modern
But
it is

who vary

the spelling of a few words in their MSS., should

not require a greater unifonnity in the "father of history."
also

clear

that this variation

should be kept within bounds.
it is

In a

large proportion of instances

more reasonable

to suppose it

due

to the mistakes of copyists, or the zeal of

grammarians, than to the

author himself.

The

inscriptions, then,
cases.

one of two

When

must be allowed to amend the text in either they show that a later form did not come

into use in Ionic until the fourth century B.C., all examples to the

contrary must be excised from the pages of Herodotos.
contraction of aUi into
€v,
dec,

Thus the/
\
'

of itpos into

lp6<;,

of yeas into y^s, of co into

vy*^

and of €0) into w, is proved to belong to a period later than his. Where, again, they present us with a later form which is found in the MSS. side by side with an older one, we are warranted in considering that both may have come from the pen of the author. On the other hand, we cannot expunge older forms from the text merely because
they do not occur in the extant inscriptions.
datives like Aioicrtv and Oeots
earlier

The
;

co- existence

of

makes

it

plain that in literary

documents
'

and

later forms

might be used together

while

we cannot be

sure that the earlier forms did not exist in one of the Ionic dialects

even in the age of Herodotos, although unrepresented by the inscriptions

we

possess, or that they

were not derived from the older Ionic
style
is

writers,

who had formed
in

the
it

and

literary

language which
to reject

Herodotos followed.

Hence

that

we cannot venture

examples

which

e

does not coalesce with a following

c, ?;,

and

ft

when they are supported by the united authority of the MSS. With this limitation and under these conditions, the testimony
the inscriptions has been allowed
this
its full

of

weight in the text adopted in
such
a

present volume, however
critics.^

heretical

procedure

may be
basis,

thought by textual
^

Stein's text has
is

been taken as a

or

Where

the

epigraphic evidence
I

have allowed the MSS. the benefit of the doubt. Accordingly I have not altered the datives singular of proper names like M^/x^,
incomplete, however,
99.

Molpi, 2di; ^/jJpSi, or Stein's f>4y in ii. Similarly I have kept forms like

be defended on etymological grounds, FfKo), I have also kept irX^ji in iii. 138. of course, stands on a different footing, Tdoro does not necessarily carry with it ravry (i. 114), roiaOra, iyOaOra, rocavra, etc., and 7^01 implies only y^^, not y^a

and yiav.
36),

The

iteratives xcnitaKoy
(i.

(i.

Kwiy), -xpuaiifv, artpefiv, dStXipei^y, drfKirji
(ii.

iwcupieaKoy

35),

Seryfl^j'cu
(iii.

(ii.

132),

iSeii07)

and

(L 196),

S€riff6tuvos
(i.

44), OrnooffOai, 0eri<r6iJLevoi

there

is

and wuX^fffKt are old literary forms for which no monumental evidence, and
186),

69),

and

dftoWiTroj, all of

which can

bitaBai. in iii

47 occurs in a proverb.

xl

INTRODUCTION.

rather followed throughout, except where corrected by the evidence of the inscriptions.

No

other text

ca,n

compete with

it

for accuracy,

completeness, and critical tact.

Those of Baehr

which was published in

1856

—the second
students

edition of

and of Abicht are altogether superseded

by

it.

The

earlier

editions,

from the princeps of Aldus, printed in

1502, downwards, are only historically valuable;
curious about

who

are

them in Baehr (vol. iv. pp. 491 edition). Stein has brought out two editions a smaller one, sq., 2d with annotations on the text, in the Egyptian part of which he was assisted by Brugsch Pasha (4th edition, Berlin, 1877), and a larger

them

will find a list of

:

critical

one (Berlin, 18G9), in which the various readings of the MSS.

are given and classified, as well as the fragments of lexicography and

the scholia which have been preserved.

The
and

introduction

contains

a

full

account of the

MSS.

in question,

discusses their relative

merit and testimony, with a protest against the attempt to harmonise
all

the forms given by them.
extant, the

Stein considers the two oldest codices

Medicean (A) of the tenth century, and the Angelican (B) of the eleventh century, to be alike derived from a MS. which was itself copied from an older one, which was also the ultimate source, but

now

by a different channel, of the Florentine MS. (C). This lost original, which he calls X, stood by the side of another lost original termed "*", which was the source, among other MSS., of the Parisian (P), the Vatican (R), and the Sancroftian (S). The latter, though made the
basis of Gaisford's
text,
is

of comparatively late date.
"

Stein pro-

nounces the text of

X

to

have been
;

rough " and broken, but of value

on account of
lacunce

its

high antiquity

while that of

^

was freer from
Tlios^

and

errors,

but

full

of interpolations.

He

follows Abicht in

making the Medicean MS. the ground work of his edition. who wish further details must consult his introduction.
Stein also promises us a lexicon to Herodotos.

This

is

much

needed, as the Lexicon Herodoteum of Schweighaiiser

is

based on a text

which

is

now

obsolete.

Something better

is

required for settling the

question of the relation of the Homeric to the Herodotean dialect, or
of the indebtedness of the latter to Attic grammar.

We

have yet to

determine
Ty

how
Sk

far

Hermogenes was
'IdSt.

right in
/JiefiiyfJLfvy

saying' of Hekata;os,
^/ji^a/Kvos ovSk Kara

8iaX.fKr<^

UKpaTifi

kuI ov

'HpitSoTOV TTOtKl'Xg.

For the phicc of HerodotQgjn Greek

literature sec MahafFy's Histoni
ii.

of Gre^k Literature, 2d edition (1883), vol.

»/)«/</., p. 399.

;

HEEODOTOS.
BOOK
'HpoBoTov
<y€v6p,eva
'

I.

A\iKapin}<Ta-io<i ia-Toplr]<; aTToSef^i? ^Se,

««<?

fit^re

ra

1

e| avOpuiircov

rw

'Xpovco
rcb

i^irrfKa yivijrat,

firjre

epya

fxeydXa re Kot OcovfUKTrd,
d'iroBe')(6evTa,

aKked

yevjjrac,

fiev "^Wrjai ra Be ^ap^dpoKTt rd re dXka koL Bl fjv alrirjv

eTToXifJirjaav

dWrjXoKTt.
^

Jlepaeaiv fiiv vvv oi \6ytOL

^olvLKa<i alrlov;

^aal yeveaOai,

^

We know

from other sources that

Egyptian.

the Persians had historians
nations.

who occupied

bad

linguists,

The Greeks were notoriously and Themistokles stands

themselves with the history of foreign Ktesias, the gainsayer of Herod-

otos, professed to draw his information from the Persian archives and historians and the Persian forms of several of the names he gives, as well as the fact that much of what he calls Assyrian " history "
is

almost alone in learning Persian. In fact Ktesias implied that Herodotos was not acquainted with the contents of
Persian literature.

Though
of

born, accord-

ing to Dionysios
little

Halikarnassos,

a

before the Persian wars, he was a

really a rationalised account of Assyrian

Asiatic Greeks took place.
time, passages like
sian language
iii.

mere child when the deliverance of the At the same
80, or
i.

mythology, show that there was
truth in his claim.
if

much

95,

may imhis part

As

in the case of

ply a closer acquaintance with the Per-

Assyria, so also in the case of Greece,

and

literature

upon

we may judge from the specimen

in

the text, the Persian writers seem to have troubled themselves with little else than the myths of their neighbours, which they rationalised after the fashion Hence Herodotos of the Abbe Banier. was fuUy justified in calling them \6710t " prosers." The alphabet in which they

than we are inclined to suppose. From what follows, however, he would seem
to have

had much the same knowledge
Persia.

of the statements of Phoenician historians
as he
sible,

had of those of
therefore, that

It is pos-

Greek translators

of foreign literature, like

Menander of

Ephesos,

already

existed

among
At any

the
rate

wrote

is

unknown

to us, since the cunei-

Asiatic Greeks of his day.

form alphabet introduced by Darius Hystaspis was used only for public monuments. How Herodotos came to be acquainted with their statements is difficult to conjecture, since he was not likely to have a better knowledge of Persian language than he had of

the earliest Ionic philosophers derived
their doctrines from Babylonia through

the

medium

of either the Phoenicians or

the Lydians.

The systems
for

of Thalea

and

Anaximander,

instance,

had

long been anticipated in Babylonia, where they fitted in with the mythology and

B

HERODOTOS.
rfj9
Bia<f)oprj<;.

[book
^^pvdpr]<;
Ka\€Ofievr]<;

tovtov<;

yap
Kul

diro

tt}?

6aXd<T(Tr)<i dirtKOfievov^ iirl r-qvBe rrjv

OaKacritav^ koI olKTrjaavTa^i

TOVTOV
/MaKp^at
^

TOP

^(bpOV

TOP

vvv

OLKeovcrif

iTTidecrOdc,
rfj

dirayiveovTa'i

he

avTiKa vaVTLKiri(TL ^opria AlyvTrrid re koL
hrj

Kaavpia^

re

dWrj

ia-aircKveia-Oat koX
'Kpoel')(e

koI e?

"A^o?*
vvv
Bij

to Be

"Apyoi; TOVTOV tov -^povov
KaXeofievT]

aTracn tmv ev

T'p

'EWaSt

x^PV

dinKOiievov'i Be T0v<i ^OLViKa<i

i<;

to ''Apyo<i

theological

of the country.

and philosophic development The style of the earliest
is

Volkem,"

1879;

Guidi,

"Delia Sede

Greek writers
matter.

as

oriental

as

their

primitiva dei Popoli Semitici," 1879), whence the Phcenicians moved westward,

The

short

sentences,

either

devoid of conjunctions or connected by the simple "and," are Semitic, not
Greek, in character.
obscure
So,
too,

on the coast, which they called Canaan, or " the lowlands," in contradissettling

are

the

and oracular utterances of a
is

Herakleitos. 2 The " Red Sea " of Herodotos

"highlands" of Aram. was also called Ehna, and Philo Byblios stated that Khna changed his name to
tinction to the

Agenor

(Baal), the father of Phcenix,

the

Phcenix

(Euseb.

Prcep.

Ev.

i.

10).

Indian Ocean, including the Persian Gulf. According to vii. 89, the Phoenicians themselves asserted that they came from the
Assyrian Gulf.
Strabo,
xviii.
i.

Eupolemos made Kanaan the father of
while ix. 17) Augustine says that the Phoenician settlers in Africa called themselves Canaanites {Ep. ad Rom. Op. iii. p. 932). Phoenicia is called Canaan on a coin of
;

Phcenix (Euseb. PrcBp. Ev.
S.

The same
;

is

asserted

by

2,

35

3,

2

;

27 ; Justin, Dion. Pliny, N. H. iv. 36
xvi. 3, 4
;

4,

;

Periegetes, 906

;

Solinus, Polyhist. 26
v.

;

Laodikeia, and in Isaiah xxiii. 11 (A. V.,
' '

[Steph.

Byz.
iv.

s.

'Afwroj]

;

Schol.
i.e.

to

merchant city "),
*

Hom. Od.

84.

Kepheus,

Kef-t,

This

is

strictly true,

and shows that

the Egyptian

name

of Phoenicia,

is

made
his

the legends quoted by Herodotos had
a historical basis.

a Babylonian monarch,

who gave

Phoenician art and

name

to the Chaldeans (Hellanikos, Fr.

culture are a mixture of Egyptian

and

159, 160, ed. Miiller).

Justin says that

"Assyrian"
discoveries

{i.e.

Babylonian), and the

the Phoenicians migrated from their old

homes on account of an earthquake, and settled by "the Assyrian Lake" (the
Sea of Nedjif).
cities in

Strabo places Phoenician

Mykense and on other show that the objects brought to Greece by Phoenician traders were partly Babylonian and partly
at

made

prehistoric sites

the islands of Tyros and Arados

{Bahrein), iu the Persian Gulf.
similarity of

But the
rise to

name probably gave

the whole legend, the true name of the island of Tyros being Tylos (according
to

Ptolemy and Pliny), while
Arados was
really

properly Tsur, "the rock."
cian
tradition, however, rested

Tjrre was The PhoeniArvad. The
fact, since

Egyptian in character. * This statement, again, has been confirmed by Dr. Schlieniann's excavations at Mykenas, if we understand by Argos the Argolis, with its feudal capitals of Tiryns, Mykense, and Argos, which mark successive epochs in tlie history of Akhaean }K)wer and civilisation. In the
Peloponnesos, at all events, the Akhnean dynasty of Mykenie took the lead. The Argolis was naturally the first part of the country to which the art and culture of Asia were brought across the sea. It
is

philological

evidence

on shows

that

the

the Semites was in on the western side of the Euphrates (see Hommel, "Die Namen der Saiigethiere bei den SiidsemitischeQ
primitive seat of

Arabia,

noteworthy that Argos

is

here

made

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
BiaTiOea-dai
airiKovTO,

Tovro
air

rov

(popTOV.

irefirmrj
<T(f>c

hk

-fj

eicrrj

r)/j,€pr}

^9

i^e^iroXTjiievaiv

a'^eBov

irdvroov,
Br)

iXOelv

eVl Ttjv daXacraav <yvvacKa<; dWa<i re TroWa? xal

koI tov

^aaiXio'i Bvyarepa' to Be ol ovwofia elvat, Kara tcovto r6 kuI

"EWi/ye?
TrpvfjbVTjv

Xiyova-i,

^lovv

^

Tr)v

'|T/a^ou.

TavTa<i
<T<f>i

(7Td(Ta<i

Kara

T^9

v€o<i ci)V€t<T6ao Tcov (f>opTiQ)V Tcov

^jv dvfi6<;

fidXia-Ta

Kol T0U9 ^oivLKa<i BiaKeXevaafxivovi
iikv
Br)

opfirjaai

hi

avrd<i.

Ta9

'7r\eova<i

roiv

yvvacKMV

aTro^vyelv, rr)v
Be
e?
rr)v
€<?

Be

^lovp ai/v

aXKr)cn

dp'iraa-drjvat.

ia^aXofievovi

vea

oXyecyQai
dirt- 2

d'Tro'Tr\eovTa<i

eV

AlyvTrrov.

ovtco fiev *lovv
Q><i

Atyinrrov
(ov
69

K€(rdat Xeyovac Uipaac, ovk
TTpoiTov TovTO dp^uc.
fieTO,

'^Wr)V€<;, koX tcov dBiK7)fidTcov

Be

Ta6Ta '^Wrjvwv
<f)a(rl

Tivd<i

e-^ovai

Tovvofia

d'7rr)yr)<Ta<76aL)

tt}?

^oiviKr)<}

yap Tvpov

dpirdaaL tov l3aai,\eo<i Tr)v OvyaTepa ^vpdonrrjv' dv ovtoi K^^Te9. TdoTa fiev Br) laa 7rp6<i tcra (t<I>l yeveadai, fieTa Be TaoTa' lSiXK,r)va<i atTtovi Trj<i BevT€pr)<; dBiKLr)<;
Trpocrc'^ovTa^i
eX'qcrav S'

the leading power of prehistoric Hellas, and not Kadmeian Thebes, which Greek

ally

the

moon

goddess,

Argos,

"the bright"

sky,

watched by with his

legends connected with the dissemination

of

the alphabet

and Phcenician

civilisation, or the

neighbouring capital

of the

Minyans

at

Orkhomenos.

The

myriad eyes of stars. When the name of the city Argos (really derived from a different root from that of dpybs, 'A.pyu, dpyevvbs, argentum, etc. ) was confounded

extent of the Akropolis on the latter site

shows that at one time the Minyan power must have been as great as that of the Akhaeans while the beehive
;

myth

with the old epithet of the sky, the of 18 was localised in the Argolis,
river,

and Id herself made the daughter of the
Argive
'

Inakhos.

tomb, known as the Treasury of Minyas, proves that the period in question coincided with
clear,

the

latter

portion

of
It

the
is

prehistoric period of
therefore,

Mykenee.

that the

Minyans of

as powerful a people as

northern Greece must have been quite the Akhaeans, and at the same time (as was natural,

from the proximity of Phoenician Thebes) a more cultured people, but only during
the later part of the prehistoric age in Argolis. The statement, accordingly,

EurSpa was the Phcenician moon goddess, Astarte or Ashtoreth, "with the crescent horns," wooed by the sun god, whose symbol was the bull. Hence she was the daughter of Phoenix, " the Phcenician," also called Khna, "Canaan," or Agenor, the Greek rendering of the Phoenician Baal Melkarth, and the sister The name of Kadmos, "the eastern." " EurSpa was first given to " the broad
plain of Thebes, occupied in early times

made by Herodotos, which

relates to the

beginning and not to the close of Akhsean supremacy, is strictly accurate. • SiarlOfffOai " arrange for rule. " Cp.
eh.

Kadmeians, and from hence was gradually extended to denote the whole of the European continent. The legends connected with the name of Miuos show that Krctc was at one

by Phoenician

194
Id

:

also Od. 15, 415.

be derived, like 'Idovcs, from the root ya, "to go," and signify " the

may

time uccupied ments.
"

by

Phoenician

settle-

ha

<r(pt,

etc, "tit for tat."

Cp.

ix.

wanderer."

At any

rate,

she was origin-

48

;

Soph. JrUig. 142.

4
y€vea-0ac'

HERODOTOS.
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iirl

[book
vrjl

yap

fiaKpf}

€?

Aldv re
rrjv

Tr)v

KoA-^tSo. Koi

^dacv
Se

irorafiov, ivOevrev, Ziairprj^aiievov^ koL

roKka TMV
M.rjBeirjv.

e'iveKev anTLKaro,

apirdaai rov ^acrt\€o<;
dpTrayr/ii
to?

dvyarkpa

irefiylravra

rov KoX^wi/ ^aaiXea
t^<?

e? ttjv

'FiWdBa
rrjv

KTjpvKa

alrelv
tov<;

re
Be
a(f)t

St«a?

Kal

dirairecv
'Io{;<?

dvyarepa.
^Apy€ir)<;

vTroKplvaadai
8t/ca?

ovBe

eKeivov
oiv

t^9

eBoadv

t^?

dp7rayr]<i'

ovBe

avrol Baxreiv
^

3 eKeivoio-i.

Bevrepr) Be Xiyoucrc

yeverj

fierd

rdora
t?}?

AXe^avBpov
Bt

Tov Upidfiov, dKTjKOOTa rdora, edeXriaai ol €k
dp7rayr]<y

EWaSo?
ov

yevecrdai

yvvaiKa,

iiricrTd/jbevov

7rdvTa><i
Br)

ort

Baxrei

BiKa<;'

ovBe yap eKeivov<; BiBovai.
Tolcrt

ovrco

dpirdaavro'i avrov

'FjXevrju,

"KXXrjai

Bo^ai

irpoirov
t^<?
cr<f)t

ire.fiy^avra'i

dyyeXovi
rov^ Bk

'^Xevqv Kal BiKa<; Trpoic'^o/jLeycov rdora 7rpo(fiepeiv
diraLrelv re

dp7rayrj<;
MT/SeiT/i?

alrelv.
rrjv

dpirayrjv, 0)9
a<j>i

ov Bovre<i avrol Si/ca? ovBe
4 Trap*

iicB6vre<i

aTraireovrcov ^QvXoiaro

dXXcov
elvat

BLKa<i

yivecrdai.

fiovva<;

trap

aKKriXaiv,

H^XP'' ro Be drro

^^

^^ rovrov dpiraya^
rovrov
rb
ro
'

EWT/i/a? Sr)

fi€ydX(o<;

airiovi yeveaOai' irporepovi
ri

yap dp^ac arpareveadat
fiev

€9

rrjv

^Aair}v

cr<f)ea<i

€9

rrjv l^vpcoTrijv.

vvv dpird^eiv

yvvalKa<i dvBpoiv uBlkcov vofii^eiv epyov elvai, ro Be dpiraa-deia-ecov
ctttovBtjv e^ei'V

iroLrjcraddaL

rifiwpelv
a-(o<f)p6v(ov'

dvorjrcov,

Be- fnjBefiuiv
Btj

atpiju

dpiraa-deiaewv

BrjXa

yap

on,

el

fit]

avraX
ovBeva

i^ovXovro, ovK dv r/pTrd^ovro.

tr^ea? fiev

Brj rov<i

€k

T779 ^A<Tir]<;

Xeyovat

JJepaat,
'

dpira^o/Jbevecov

rwv

yvvaiKOiv

Xoyov

irotrja-aaOat.

EXX7;i/a9 Be AaK€Baifiovir]<; e'iveKev yvvaiKO^
^

aroXov

fieyav avvayelpai Kal eiretra eX66vra<; e? rr^v Acrirjv rrjv Tlpidfiou
BvvafiLv KareXelv.
(T(f)ia-i

diro

rovrov alel rjyrjo-aaOai ro '^XXt^vlkov

elvai TToXifitov

rrjv

ydp

^Aairjv Kal
rrjv

rd evoiKeovra eOvea
ILvpcoTrrjv

\j3dp^apa]

olKrjLeovrai

ol

Tlepaai,

Be

Kal

ro

KXX7)vt,Kov rjyrjvrai Kex<opi(r6ai,.

5

Ovro)
rov<i
'

fiev

Tlepa-ai

Xeyovcn yevecrOat, Kal

Bid

rrjv

'IXiow
'^V'*

dXwaiv evpio-Kovat
KXXriva<i.
4>oiVt/c69'

<T<fiio-t

eovaav
rrj<i

rrjv

dp^V^ ^^9 e^^pv*
ovk ofioXoyeovai
yprjaafievov'';

^^

irepl

Be

'Ioi)9

ITe/xrT/o"*

ovr(o

ov yap
eVei
'

dpirayf}

<T<f)la<;

Xeyovcrt

dryayetv avrrjv €9

Atyvirrov, dX)C
S'

a>9

ev

tw " Apyei

ifila-yero

rS
tt>9

vavKXijprp

rr}<t

veo^'

efiade eyKVO^ eovaa, alBeofievr) rov^

roKea<i ovroa

Bi)

edeXovrijv avrrjv rolcn ^r(vc^i (TweKirXwcrai,

&v

firj

KardBrjXo<i yevrjrai.

l^dora fiev vvv Uepaac re Kal 4>otVt/ce9 Xeyova-i- eyw Be Trepl
fi€v

Tovroiv

OVK ep^ofuit epeav

a>9

ovrco

rj

dXXo)<;

kco^

rdora

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
tovtov

EAST.

iyevero, top
Tov<;
'

Be olBa avTO<i Trpayrov virdp^avra dSlKOJv
(rr}fi7]va<i

epywv

6?

EXXT/i^a?,
6fioi(o<i

Trpo^ijaofiat,

e?

to

irpocru)

rov
ret

Xoyov,

afiLKpd kol fjieydXa -darea dvOpdiircov iTre^twv.
rjv,

yap TO irdXat p,eydXa
eir
ifxeo
rjv

Ta TroWd auiKpa avTMV yeyove' Ta Be
rjv

p,eydXa, irpoTcpov

aficKpd.

ttjv

dvdpcoTrrjiijv

wv

e'irL(TTdfjbevo<i evBai/jLOvirjv

ovBajxd ev T(ovT<p fievova-av, eirLixvijaofiai

dfi<poT€pcov 6fiouo<;.
}^polao<i rjv AvBo<i fiev yevo<; iral^ Be 'AXuarreft),

^
Tvpavva
Be 6

idvecov

TU)v

evTO? 'A\uo9
^

TroToaov, 09

pecov

diro

fi,ecra/j,fipi7)<i

fieTa^v "^vpicov

re koI TIa(f>\ay6v(ov i^let

7rpo<i

^operjv dvefiov

e? Tov "Ejv^eivov Ka\e6p,evov ttovtov.
irptoTO'i

ovTo<i 6 K.polao'i

^ap^dpwv

TO)v

r}p,el<i

iB/iiev

Tov<i

fiev

KaTeaTpeyjraTO 'KXXtjvcov e?

(f}6pov

aTrayay^v,

tov<; Be (f>iXov<; nTpoaeiroLrjcraTO.

Karearper^aTo
tt} ^Aa-irj, (f)iXov'i

fiev "Ifovd'i re

koI AtoXea? Kal AQ)piea<; to 1)9 ev
irpb

Be irpoaeiroirja-aTO AaKeBaifioviov;.
irdpTe^; "EiXXr}ve<i rjaav

Be

Tr]<i

K.poLaov

dp'^rj'i

TO

67r4

Trjv
Krcesos.

eXevOepoc to yap l^Lfifiepiwv^ a-TpaTCVfia ^Imvlrjv uTTiKOfievov K.poiaov iov irpea^inepov ov
The
scepticism of

® i.e.

the same race as the Hittites, and spoke cognate dialects.
SinSpe, according to

Herodotos in regard to the assertions of oriental writers seems to have been in the mind of Ktesias when he claimed
superior

Skymnos of Khios (943), was founded among the Syrians, and a promontory a
little to

authority for his

own

state-

the north of Sin6pe was called

ments as being derived from the Persian archives. The history given by Herodotos is parodied by Aristoph. Akharn.
523
sq.
^ The Syrians here are the "White Syrians " of Strabo, whom the Greek geo-

Syrias.

speaks of
at the

Pindar (Fr. 150, ed. Bergk) "a spear-armed Syrian host"
of the

mouth

Therm&d6n, meanNana-Istar of

ing the Amazons, the Hittite priestesses
of the Asiatic goddess,

Babylon, and Atargatis of Carchemish,

grapher contrasts with the Black Syrians, or Semitic Arameans, east of the Amanus See Schol. (Strab. pp. 533, 544, 737.

ad ApoU. Rhod.
Carchemish,

i.

948).

We now know

that they were really the Hittites of

whose worship they had carried to Ephesos and the west. ^ For the Kimmerians, the Gimirrai of the Assyrian inscriptions, and their inroads in Asia Minor, see Appendix IV.

who

did not belong to the

What

Eusebios calls the

first

capture
b.c.

and had originally descended from the mountainous region of the north. They have left monuments behind them at Boghaz Keui (? Pteria) and Eynk (? Tavium), on the east bank of the Haly& Herodotos tells us
Semitic race at
all,
(i.

of Sardes

by the Kimmerians in

1078 is probably a tradition of the conquest of Lydia and Sardes by the Hittites before the rise of tlie dynasty of
the Herakleids.
It
is

possible that the

same event

72, vii.

72) that the inhabitants of

Kappadokia and Kilikia were Syrians, and Hittite remains in the shape of sculptures and inscriptions have been found in these countries. The tribes
inhabiting them probably belonged to

meant by Strabo (L p. 90), when he says that the Rimmerian chief Lygdamis ruled in Kilikia a Hittite
is

district

— while

his

followers

overran

Lydia and captured Sardes. According to Hesykhios, Lygdamis burnt the temple
of Artemis.

\

HERODOTOS.
Karaarpo^T} iyepero
7
rj

[book

twv
Be

ttoKIcov

aXV

i^

iTrtBpofifj<i

dpirayr).

8e Tjye^ovir) ovto) TrepirjXOe, iovcra 'HpaKXetBecov, e? to 761/0? to

J^poLO-ov,

KaXeofxevov;
^

M.epfivdBa<;.

rjv

^avBavKr)^,

tov

ol

EXX-T^i/e? ^vpa-'Ckov
^

6vo/j,d^ova-L, Tvpavvo<;

XXKaiov TOV 'UpaKXeof;. "Aypcov fiev Tov'AXKaiov* irpSiTOf; 'YipaKXecBewv ^acnXev<i eyeveTO SapBicov,
}^avBavX7)<;

XapBuov, diroyovo^ Be yap 6 NtVou tov 677X01;
trpoTepov "Aypcovo'i

Bk 6

Mvpaov
T779
Brjfio<;

v<TTaT0<;.

oi B^

^aaiXevcravTe'i

TavTijf

ywp'q'i

rjaav

diroyovoi
7rd<;

KvBov tov
irpoTepov

"Atwo?, dir oTeo 6

AvBio<; eKXrjOri o

ovTo<i,

^rjloiv KaXe6fievo<i.^
ea-^ov
TTjv
dp')(rjv
e'/c

irapd tovtmv 'ttpuKXel^ai
Oeoirpoiriov,^ eK
BovXr)<;

iiriTpai^devTe^

re tt}? ^lapBdvov
re koI eiKoac

yey ovoTe^; koX 'HpaKXeo^;,^ dp^avTe<;
^

fji>ev

eVl Bvo

The

father of Kandaules

was Myrsos

of the Hittite occupation of Lydia and

(Meles in Eusebios).
•ilos,

The termination

introduction of civilisation and writing

therefore,

seems to have been gentilic
Kav-Saij\rfi

among
into

was identified with Hermes or Herakles by Hesykhios, and is translated ffKvWowviKrris (Tzetzes
in

Lydian.

the nations of the west. The Herakleids would seem to have grown

power when the Hittite empire began to decay and could no longer support the satraps of Sardes.
Herakles,

in Cramer,
Kiiuv, cants,

Anecd. Oxon.

3,

351)

;

cp.

hound, Skt. <^an. Tzetzes quotes a line from Hipponax 'Ep/t^ Kvvdyxo^ M^octtrTi Koi'SaOXa. Nikolaos
:

the sun god of Babylonia and Assyria,
the Melkarth of Tyre, had been adopted

by the Hittites into their system

of

Damascenus calls Kandaules Sadyattes. * The words 6 Nfvoi/ 'AX*caiou have dropped out of the text in three late MSS. (Stein's R 6 d). As the Assyrians

worship, like the Asiatic goddess, and

knew nothing

of the country west of the

then carried into Asia Minor. Hence find the Lydian name of the deity to have been Sandan (J oh. Lydus, De Mag. iiL 64), the Sandan, Sandes, or Sandakos

we

Halys before the reign of Assur-bani-pal, and Assur-bani-pal states that when the ambassadors of Gyges arrived at Nineveh (B.C. 660) none knew who they were, or had heard the name of Lydia (Liiddi), or could interpret their language, the names of Ninos (Nineveh) and Belos (BelMerodach of Babylon) cannot refer to an early Assyrian conquest of Lydia. Babylonian art and culture, however, as
mmliticd
capital,

of the
Alkaios,

Kilikians and Hittites.

With

"the strong one," comp. the

Alkimos of Xanthos.
• The name of Meies or Msednes may be connected with the Lydian /twOi " earth."

Comp.

also the name of Mseander. Probably a confusion with the oracle

delivered to Gyges (ch. 13).
'

lardanos was the husband,

or,

ac-

cording to other accounts, the father, of

at

Carchemish,

the

Hittite

was carried by the Hittitea throughout Asia Minor at the time to which the rise of the Herakleid dynasty would go back, according to the chronology of Herotiotos and as Carchemish is called "Ninus vetus" by Ammianua
;

Omphal^, which may pcrhaj)s be the Lydian (or Hittite) name of the Asiatic goddess (the Ephesian Artemis or KybelS). Herakles or Sandan, the sun god, while serving OmphalS, had a son Akelis (or Agelaos) by Malis, or Damalis, one of her slaves (Hcllan. Fr. 102). According to Diodoros
(iv.

Marcellinus (xiv. 8
8, 7), it is clear

;

see,

tf>o,

Diod. IL

31),

Herakles

that the genealogy given

in the text

is

a legendary reminiscence

had Kleodteos Lamos by Omphale.
first

by a

slave,

then

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE

EAST.

y€vea<; dvBpayv erea irjevTC re koX irevTaKocna, Trat? trapa irarpo^

CKBeKOfievo^ Trjv ap'^yp,
Sr)

fi€')(pi,

Kai'Sai/X-eo)

rov ^vpaov.^

ovTO<i 8

Siv 6

K.avhavK'q'i rjpdadif) T^9

eoavTOV yvvaiKOi;, ipa<r6€x<i hk

ivofJLi^e

oi

elvai

yvvatKa iroWov iracrewv KaWiCTTTjv.

rdora

vo/xt^cov, rjv

jdp

ol TOiV
Tft>

aljQiot^ppwv Tvyr)<; 6

ware 8e AaaKvXov
rtov
elho<i

dp€<XK6/jLevo<;

fuiXiara, rovrtp

Vvyy koI rd (TirovZaUarepa
Brj

TrprjyfidTQiv vireperiOeTO 6 K.avBavX.r}'; koI
<yvvaiKb<i virepeiraivewv.
he.

Koi ro

t^?

ov ttoXKov hi,eK6ovTO<i (xPV^ yfiovov yeveaOai KaKa)<;) eXeye 7rpo<; rov Tvjrjv roodSe. ffdp ^avBavKt] " Tir/r}, ov <ydp ae SoKeco TreldecrOai fiot XeyovTi, irepl rov eiSeo9

T^9 yvvaiKO'i

(^a)Ta

yap Tiry^dvei dvOpcoiroiaL iovra dirLarorepa
6
8' dfi^oi<Ta<i

6<f)da\/M(ov), iroiei okco^ €K€Lvr)v de^aeac yvfiv^v"'
elire

" BecriroTa, rlva Xeyet? Xoyov ovk vycea, KeKevwv
ifiTjv

fie

Bea-iroLvav

T7)v

OerjaaaOav yvfivrjv
yvvq.

;

daa

Be Kidwyt eKBvojJLevw avveKBe

Bverat

koI Tr)V alBco

vdXat

rd Kcikd

dvOptoTTOtat

e^evpTjrai, eK roiv fiavOdveiv Bel'

ev Toiai, ev roBe ecTTL, (TKOTrelv

TLvd ra ecovrov.

eya> Be ireiOofiai, eKeivTjv eivai iraaecov yvvaLKOiv
fj,r)

KaXki(TT7]v, Kot aeo Beofiai

Beiadat dvoficov."
jMrj

6 fiev Brj Xeytov 9

TOLavra
o)?

direfid'^ero, dppcoBecov

tl oi e^ avroiv yevqrat KaKov,
/xrj

6 8' dfiei^ero rolcnBe.

" Odpa-ei, Vvyrj, KaX
fiijTe

<^o^eo

fii^re ifie,
ifiijif,

aeo

ireipoofievo';

Xeyto Xoyov rovBe,

yvvaiKa
creo.

rr)v

jMri

TV Toi e^ avTT]<; yevqrau

^d^o<;.

,

dp'^rjv

yap

eya> fiir^avija-ofMat iyco

ovTco

ware

fir^Be

p-aOelv fiiv otpdetaav vtto
Kotfjuofj,e0a

ydp ae

€9

TO oiKijfia ev

Tw

oiriaOe T779 dvoLyofievr)^ dvprj^; aTrjaco.
In Nikolaos Damascenus the order is Adyattes I., Ardys, Adyattes II., Meles,

' The average of twenty -three years to a reign seems a long one. Herodotos does not mean that a generation lasted only twenty-three years, but that, as son succeeded father regularly, the twentj'two reigns corresponded to twenty-two generations. Xanthos, the Lydian historian, mentioned among them the reigns

of Kambles or Kamblitas,

who

ate his

wife while asleep, and Akiamos, whose
general, Askalos, founded Askalon,

where Mopsos or Moxos, the Lydian, drowned
goddess
Atargatis
in

the

the

sacred

and Myrsos, the father of Sadyattes, by whom Kandaules must be meant. In the reign of Ardys a feud broke out between the Herakleidse and the Mermnadae, then represented by Daskylos, son of Gyges, the favourite of Ardys, who was murdered by Adyattes II. In the fifth generation the Mermnad Gyges avenged the murder, excited by fear of punishment for the insult he had oflFered to the daughter of the Mysian prince, Amossos, whom he had
been sent to bring to Lydia in order that she might be married to the Lydian king.
Considering the meaning of the name EandanlSs, and his identification with
the Greek Hermes,
it is

lake. Nikolaos

Damascenus makes Tyl6n,

Sadyatt^, and Lixos the successors of OmphalS. Eusebios (Chron. Can. L 15)

makes the
daules, (1)
six years,

four

predecessors
(2)

of

Kanthirty-

Alyatt^
(3) (4)

Ardys for
II.

possible that it

Alyattes

for

fourteen

years,

and

Mel^

for twelve years.

was a nickname given to a prince whom Nikolas calls by his real name, Sadyattes.

8
fierh,
S'

HERODOTOS.
e/Lte

[book
rj

ea-ekOovra
Ti]<i

irapecrTai kol

yvprj

rj

cfirj

6<r

koItov.

Kelrat Bk arf^ov

iaoBov 6p6vo<i' eVl rovrov tojv
Orjcrei,,

Ifiariuiv

Kara

€V CKacTTOv iKBvvovad

koX /far

^av)(^Li]v

ttoWtjv

"Trapi^et

TOL 6eri(TQ,<r6aL.

eireav he airo tov Opovov
avrrj'i yivrj,
crol

trTei-xj)

cttI ttjv evvrjv

Kara vcorov re
10
o-ylrerai Tjv €Toifio<i'

fiekiTco to ivdevrev

OKca

p,r]

ae

iovra Bca Oupicov."
6

6 fiev Brj co?

ovk iBvvaro
(opij

Bia<piryelv,

Se }^avBav\7]<;, eiret

iBoKec

tt)?

koItiji;

elvat,

rjyaye tov
T)

yvvi].

Tvyea e? to oiKrjfia, koI fieTa TaoTa avTiKa iraprjv Koi iaeXOovaav Be koX Ti6el<rav to, e'lfiaTU idrjetTO o Tvyrj^.
lova-rj^
rj

ft)?

Be KaTCL V(i)TOV iyevcTO
i'^^oipec

T7]<;

yvvaixo'; e? ttjv kolti]p,

vireKBiii;

e^co.

Kal

yvvrj eiropa fiiv i^iovTa.
oijTe

fiaOovaa

Be

TO

TTOLTjOev

CK TOV dvBpo<i

dve^Qxre al(T'^vv6elcra ovt€

eBo^e fiadelv, iv v6(p e^^ovad TureaOai tov J^avBavXea' irapa yap
TolcTL

AvBolat, a'^eBov Be koX irapa
6(fidr}vac

Tolcrt

aXXotai ^ap^dpoia-t,
<f>epeL. rjfieprj

11 Kal
Br)

dvBpa

yv/xvov e? ala''^vvr)v fieyaXrjv
to?

Tore fiev
Ta-^fLaTa

ovTco ovBev Brfkuiaaaa •^av^irjv elye'

Be

iyeyovei,

tmv

olKeTecov Tov<i fiaXiaTa

wpa

ma-TOV<; e6vTa<; ecovTrj,

€Tot/j,ov<; irotTja-afjievT)

eKoXet tov Tvyea.

6 Be ovBev BoKetov avTrjv
icoOec

TOiv 'rrprj-yjdevTwv

eiriaTacrOai rfK.6e KaXe6fievo<i'

yap Kal

TTpoaOe,

6k(0<;
17

KeTO, eXeye

TvyT]<; dirLft>9 Be 6 fiaaiXeca KaXeoi, <fioiTS(/v. " vvv tol Bv(ov 6Ba)v nrapeovcrewv, Vvyrj, yvvrj TaBe.
rj

BiBcofiL a'ipecTLv, OKOTepijv

^ovXeat TpanreaOai.
e')(e

rf

yap Y^avBavXed
rj

diroKTeiva'^

ifx,e

re Kal ttjv ^acnX'qirjv
drTodv^o'Keiv
18779

ttjv AvBcov,

avTov ae
ye

avTLKU

OVTCO

Bel,
to,

&>?
firj

l^avBavXrj tov Xoittov

av fir) ae Bel.
rj

irdvTa

tret&OfJLevo^

a\V
o

tjTot Kelvov
ifie

TOV TCLOTa ^ovXevcravTa Bel aTroXXva-dat
direOwv/Ma^e

ae tov
Be
firf

yvfxvrjv

Oerjadfievov Kal TroitjaavTa ov vo^i^ofieva."
fiev
to,

Tvyr}<;

reo)?

Xeyofieva, fieTo, Be iKCTeve
aipeacv.
r)

fxiv dvay/cairj

ivBelv

BiaKplvai

TocavTijv

ovkco'v

Brj

cTreiBe,

dXX*

&pa dvayKairjv
rj

dXr)6eo)<; TrpoKeifievrjv

tov BeairoTea diroXXinfai

avTov

vir
Brj

dXX(ov

eTretptaTa

Xeycov TdBe.

diroXXvadai,' aipelTai avTo<i irepielvai. " inreC fie dvayKd^ei<i Bea-rroTea tov
<f>ep€

ifiov KTeiveiv

ovk eOeXovra,
r)

aofiev avT^."
17

Be viroXa^ovaa
irep

dKOvaco Tetp Kal Tpotrcp errLyetpT^€(j)r) " ck tov avTov fiev "^copiov
eKelvo<i
ifie
ca?

opfjbrj

eaTat
Bk
17

oOev

Kal
(ov
rj

eTreBe^aTO

yvfiv^v,

12

vTTVcofjLevq)

e'jn'^eipT}aL<i

eaTat."

Be fjpTvaav ttjv iiri6 Vvyr]<i, ovBe
rj

^ovXtjv,

vvKTo<i yevop4vr}<i

yap

fieTleTO

diraXXayr) ovBefiui, dXX^ eBei

avTov dwoXayXevai

ol ^v KavBavXea)

"You

are behind her."

I

I.]

THE EMPIKES OF THE EAST.
69

eiirero

top ddXa/jLOV

rfj

'yvvatKi.
ttjv

Kai
re

fiip eKeivr],

iy^ecpiBiov

Bovca,

KaraKpvTrreL
KaX

inro

avrrjv Ovprfv.

koX fiera
dirofcreCva^;

uvairavofievov

Kai/SauX-eo)

vTreKBv^
ttjv

koI

rdora avrov
Kal

eo^e

rrjv

yvvacKa
'

koI

^a<TtK7}ir]v

Tvyrfi'

'[tov

'A/3^iXo^o9
TpijM€Tpa)
e/e

Tldpio<;

Kara rov avrov

')(^povov y€v6fi€vo<i

iv Idfi^qy

irrefivTJa-dr}]}

^o-X^ ^^ "^^^ 0acn\7)Lr)v koI
a)9

eKparvvOrj 13

TOV

iv AeXcfyolcrc ^pi/o-TT/ptou.

ydp

Brj

ol

AvhoX Becvov
Avooi^ ^v
ttjv

etroceovro to Kai/Sau\e&) irddof koI iv oirXoLo-t rjaav, avve^rjaav
69
fiev

TWVTO
TO

01

re tov

Tir/eci)

aTaaLWTac koI
fiiv

ol XotTTOt

xPV^^'^Vpi'O^
rjv

dviXr)

^acrtXia
ottlcto)

eivac
e'9

AvBcov, tov Be

^acriXevetv,

Be

p,rf,

diroBovvai

'Hpa/cXei5a9

dpxW'
irefiTTTov

dvei^e re

Bt)
17

to ^T^crr^ptoy koI i^aaiXevae ovtoj
UvOii], 6)9 'YipaKkeiBriaL TL<n<i
ij^et,

Tirf7j<;.

ToaovBe fiivToi
)Sa(Ti\et9 avTUiv

etTre

69 tov
ol

diroyovov Tvyeo).

tovtov tov
ovtco

e7reo9

AvBoi re koI
M.ep/j,vdBac
dire'irep.-^e

\6yov ovBeva
TvpavviBa

iiroteovTo, irplv
ecr-^ov

Bt) iireTeXecrdi].

Tt)v

fi^v

Brf

ol

tov<;

14

'Hpa/cXeiSa9 direXofievoL, Tvyt]^ Be Tvpavvevaa<i

dva-

drjpuTa

i<;

_AeX(f)0v^

ovk

6Xir/a,

dXX oaa

p,ev

dpyvpov dvaOrjixaTa
fiv^firjv

^Tc
io'Ti,

ol irXelaTa

iv

AeX^olat,^ irdpe^ Be tov dpyvpov ^^utroi/
d^iov e^eiv
ea-Tacn
Be

dirXeTov dveOrjKe aXXov re kuI tov fidXicxTa
KpT]Trjpe<i

ol

dpiOfiov

e^ p^uixeot

dvaKeaTac.

ovTOL iv

Tw

K.opLvdLQ}v

Oijo-avpfZ,

(TTadfibv

eypvTe^

Tpn^Koma
ovto<;

TdXavTW
icTi
'

dXijOeL Be

(S

dT]cravpo<i,

Xoyw ^/9e(y/i.ei'&) ov dXXd Ki;i|reX,oi' tov

K.opiv6la)v tov Brip,ocr[ov
'HeTia)i'09.

Be

This sentence is regarded as spurious Wesseling and Stein. Aristotle {IiA£t. iii. 17) and Plutarch {Mor. ii. 470

by
c)

quote from Arkhilokhos the following

lished by Newton (Essays on Art and Archmology, pp. 427 sq.) * "Most of the silver offerings at Delphi were his." Silver seems to have

which was put into the mouth of one of his characters OS fwi tA FiVyew
line,
:

TOV iro\vxpiaov fUXei (Fr. 25, ed. Bergk).

Arkhilokhos also referred to the destruction of Magnesia by the Kimmerians, and is stated to have been a contemporary of Gyges, and therefore, as Gelzer has shown {Das Zeitalter des Oyges), to have flourished b.c. 687-63. We learn from the Assyrian inscriptions that the Kimmerians first invaded Lydia in the reign of Gyges, not of Ardys, as Herodotos "With the name of Gyges supposed. (Assyrian, Gugu Hebrew, Gog), compare the Earian names Gygos and Ida-gygos in the Halikamassian inscription pub;

had a special attraction for the Hittites, whose monuments in Asia Minor are usually met with in the neighbourhood of old silver mines, and their fancy for the metal may have been communicated
to the Lydians.
tos gold

In the time of Herodosilver as 13^ to 1 (not 13
iii.

was to
sur
la

to 1, as stated in

95, see

Mommsen

:

"Note

systeme

metrique

des

Assyriens,"

appended to the "Hist Mon. Rom.," ed. Blacas, i. p. 407) in that of Plato and of Xenophon 10 to 1, owing to the quantity of gold introduced into Greece by the Persian War. See, too, Liv. 38, 11. Under Theodosius II.
;

it

was as 18 to

1.

10

HERODOTOS.

[book

dvaOijfiara fiera M^lBtjv top TopBiw ^pvjir)<; ^aaiKea.^
<ydp
Bt}

dvedrjKe

koX

M/St;?

rov ^a(TLkrjiov

dpovov e?
6povo<i

tov irpoKari^wv
ovto<;

iSiKa^e,
01

iovra d^LoOerjTov
Kprjrripe'i.

Kelrat Se o

evOa

irep

TOV Tvyeo)

o he j(pvao^ ovro^

koI o apyvpo<i rov o

Vv<yr}<i

dvi9r]Ke, viro AeXc^&jy KaXelrai TvydBai; eVt rov dva6evro<i

iTTCOVVfllTjV.

15

'Ecre/3a\e fiev vvv arparL'qv kol

ovto<;,

iireire* rjp^e, 69 re

MtXT/Toy KaX e? Sfivpvrjv^ KaX
' Midas and Gordios are common names among the Phrj'gian kings. Phrygians and Greeks were allied in and myths both language and race which became part of Greek mythology told of a Gordios who was raised from a peasant to be a king, and tied a knot about the yoke of his cart which could be undone only by him who was destined to be lord of Asia as well as of a Midas
;

K.o\o^ci)vo(;

to daTV elXe*

dW

vezos, a

native of Sikan, planned it."

paper on the Phrygian Inscriptions in the "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society " for 1882. During his visit to Phrygia in 1881 he recopied the inscriptions already known, found others, and discovered a new Phrygian necropolis near Ayazeen, twenty

See Mr.

W. M. Ramsay's

mUes south
*

of that of Midas.
oI6j
re,

;

ivei T€, like 6ffTf, StrTH re,

who turned all
and of
his ears

that he touched into gold,

6aos re, SxTTf, uxrel re, dre, Iva re.

*0<rre,

whom

the reeds whispered that

"and

so,"

shows how the use of the
in

had become those of an ass because he had esteemed the singing of Pan above that of Apollo. Another Midas is made by Eusebios to have
ascended the throne in B.C. 738. He married DamodikS, daughter of Agamemn6n, the Greek king of Kyme, and seems to have been the Midas meant by
Herodotos.

enclitic

originated

the primitively
of

demonstrative
'Eirel is

sense

the

relative.

a

compound

of the preposition

fV

for ivl, used like the Sanskrit prefix

and tl for Fei, i.e. a-Fei, from the same root as the reflexive Sanskrit pronoun swa, the Latin sui and si. The
api,

original iir-Fd explains

the occasional

ing bull's

by drinkblood when Phrygia was inkilled himself

He

length of the

first

syllable of iird in

Homer.
" This was Old Smyrna, on a hill above Burnabat, on the north side of the Bay

vaded by the Kimmerians. He is probably to be distinguished from the Midas whose tomb was adorned with a bronze image of a girl (Plato, Phccdr. 264 d). Among the tombs of the Phrygian kings
in the valley of Doghanlii (between Yazili

of Smyrna.

The modem Sm}Tna had
till

no existence
the

the age of Alexander
his
successors.

Great

and

Old

Smyrna was

said to have been built

by
a

Kaia and Sidi Ghazi, the ancient PrymnSssos and Midseon) is one at Kumbet, with an inscription of two lines in Phrygian letters, which reads (1) Ates
Arkiacvais Akenanogavos Midai gavagtaei vanaktei cdaes ; (2) Baba Memevais
elaes.

the Amazons, in
tradition of the

whom we may
Hittite

see

occupation of Lydia, along with Ephesos, Kyme, and

kphi Zanavezos Sikcneman This may be translated: "Ates Arkiaevas, the son of Akenanos, built
Proitavos

The name of the part of Myrina. Ephesos which owed its foundation to the Amazons was Samorna or Smyrna, and Mjrrina is apparently the same word,
initial
<r

being

lost, as in fuKpSs for cfuxpit.

The tomb

of the

Amazon Myrina was
{II.
ii.

Midas the Memevais, the son of
this for
.

.

the king: Baba

pointed out in the Troad

814).

Proitas,

and Zana-

The Amazons were primarily the

priest*


I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
avrov

EAST.

11

ovSev yap fxiya air

dWo

efyyov

iyevero ^aa-tXevaavro^

Bv(ou Seovra recra-epaKovra erea, rovrov fiev iraprjaofiev
eiTLfivricrOevTe^,
p,vrjfn}v

roaavTa

"ApSvoi; Be rov Tvyeo) fiera Tir/rjv ^aaiKevcravTO'i
ovro<i

iroiT^crofiai,.

Be Jlpn}V€a<i re elke 69 MtXT/roy re
"SapBicdv
K.Lfifiepcot
i<i

iae^aXe,
^Affirjv

iirl

rovrov

re

rvpavvevovro<i
vofjbdBcov

i^
rrjv

r/deeov vtto

^KvOewv
Be

rcov

e^avaardvre<i diriKovro

Koi XdpBi^ ttXtjv t^? aKpoTToXto^; eJXov.^
fiaa-Ckevcravrofi
ev6<i

"ApBvo'i

Beovra

rrevrriKovra

erea 16

i^eBe^aro SaSuarrT;? 6 ^ApBvo<i, Kal e^aatXevae erea BvciiBeKa,

SaBvdrreco Be ^AXvdrT7}<i.
drroyova
e^jjXacre,
eiroXefirjcre
'S</jLvpvr]v

ovro<i

Be K-va^dpy

re

rS

ArjioKeto

koi M^ijBoLcn,
rrjv

K.cfifi€piov<i re

e'/c

tt)? 'Ao-/?;?
e<?

re

aTro

K.oXo(f)(bvo<i

KricrOelcrav elXe,
co?

KXa^o^eya? re iae^aXe.
aTTT/Wafe,

diro

/xiv

vvv rovrcov ovk

rjdeXe

dX\a

irpocrirraicra^ fMejdXco^;'

dXXa

Be epya aTreBe^aro
M.t,X7)a-L0Lcn,

i(ov ev rfj dp'^j} d^caTrrjyTjrorara

rdBe.

eTroXefirja-e

17

7rapaBe^dfievo<; rov iroXefiov irapa rov

7rarp6<i.

eireXavvcov
ev
rfj

yap

iiroXtopKet rrjv M/Xt/toi/ rpoTrw TotcSSe.
Kapiro'i dBpo<;, rrjvLKavra ia-e^aXXe
rrjv

o/co)? fiev etrj

Be xnro (rvpiyyoiv re Kal irrjKriBtov koI

dvBprjiovJ

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direaTra, ea Be
esses of the Asiatic goddess

whose wor-

wards slain himself by them.

It is prob-

ship the Hittites introduced into western

able that the submission both of Gyges

Asia

Minor.

iEolic colony,

Smyrna, originally an became Ionic through the
the

treachery of
ch. 150.

Kolophonians.

See

and of his successor Ardys to Nineveh was due to the pressure of the Kimmerian invasion. With Ardys compare the
Karian name Ardyssis in the Halikarnassian inscription.
'
i.e.

Mimnermos, the

elegiac poet,

celebrated the repulse of Gyges by the

Smymsens, according
29,
2).

to Pausanias

(ix.

Not "flutes masculine and feminine,"
of lower

'AffTv is

the

unwalled lower

city as opposed to the Acropolis (cp. 5,

and Od.

i.

3).

This is a mis-statement, since we learn from the Assyrian inscriptions that the invasion of Lydia by the Kiramerians took place during the reign of Gyges,
wlio sent two of their chiefs

and higher pitch, as Bottiger and Rawlinson, but "flutes of men and women," as Aulus Gellius (Noet. Attic. L 11). If the first interpretation is adopted, Herodotos would mean the Lydian/x(i7a5ii(of two octavesof different
pitch), the masculine flute denoting the

whom

he

deeper

tones of

the

instrument,
(cp.

the the

had captured

in battle as a present to

feminine flutes the higher notes
tibia sinistra

the Assyrian monarch, and was after-

and dextra of the Bomans).

12

HERODOTOS.

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Bielefeld, 1873) tries to

Nietzsch {Abhandlung Hbcr HerodoL, show that out of

one, iv. 16, 79, v. 35,

and

ii.

14.

Here
,

Nietzsch tliinks the account of the war

Herodotos to wliat he has previously said fi ve foil ow so quickly on the original statement as to lead to the supposition either that something has been expunged from the text when revised by Herodotos, or tliat something has been dropped which lias been inserted
thirty-five references in

with Kyaxares, now in ohh. 73

sq.

stood

in the 1st edition in ch. 17 before ^ire-

\avywv yap, the words t4 fiiv vw (^ (rea, etc., being added by the author when
preparing his 2d edition.
'

Periander succeeded his father

as to

tyrant of Korinth about B.C. 625
585.

further on.

The

five references are this

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
^

EAST.

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23

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^

The dithyramb,
to

originally a

hymn

xiii.

25, Pindar,

who

here implies that

to Dionysos, sung

by a band of
the

revellers,

it

was invented by the Lesbian Arion,
its origin in

was adapted
round an

choruses and danced by
altar.

system of Doric fifty boys or men
its

Hence

name

of

cyclic chorus.

Hellanikos, Aristotle, and
later writers

one passage It was really older than Arion, as a fragment of Arkhilokhos in Athensens (Deip. xiv. 6,
elsewhere traces
to Naxos, in another to Thebes.
p. 628) refers to it, and is itself of a dithyrambic character but Arion probably introduced some alterations in its
;

others agree with Herodotos in ascribing
its

invention to Arion

;

made

Lasos of Hermione

its

inventor

;

while,

according to the Scholiast on Pindar, 01.

use.

Hence he was said

to be the son of

14

HERODOTOS.
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[book

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Kykl6n.
the

Little

is

known

of

him beyond
which had
form in the

belief in the connection believed to exist

myth

related in the text,
itself to

attached

him

in popular legend.

The myth appears

in another

story of Orpheus, as well as in that of

Apollo Delphinios, who, in the guise of a dolphin, uijed the Kretan ship through the sea until the sailors reached the shore, where they were bidden to become
the priests and founders of the shrine of Delphi, the oracle of the god of song.

The resemblance between the name of the dolphin (5e\<f>li>) and that of Delphi, derived from the " twin " peaks of Parnassos above
latter tale,
it, no doubt originated the and gave rise to the device of a dolphin on the coins of Delphi, and a

between the dolphin and the musical followers of Apollo. The primitive myth, which told of the effect of music on beaats and outward nature, seems to have referred to the wind, ' According to the Scholiast on Axistophanes (.(4cA«r. 16), the Orthian wasin a high key. Compare the Homeric 6p6ia ^wf, "she cried shrilly." N6At<w, from y^nu "to distribute," means "share," then "arrangement" or "order," and so "custom" (what is arranged) and "the arrangement of notes," i.e. a musical
strain.

The Nomos was dedicated to the
dithyramb to

service of Apollo, as the

that of Dionysos.


I-]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
(ocnrep e-^^wv i^etrrjh'qare'

EAST.

15

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6

'

The

figure still

in the time of
after Christ),
'

^lian

remained at Taenaros (the third century
:

of imbricating or lajdng plates of metal

with the inscription

Adav druv
v'lhv,

vofivatffiv 'Kplova, Ki^kXoj'oj

one over the other. The art of inlaying or damascening metal was also practised by the Egyptians at this early period (Wilkinson's Ancient Egxjptians, ii. pp.
257-8, ed. Birch).

'Edc

StKeXoO ireKd'yovs auxrev 6x''IM^ T6d€.

Among

the objects

Creuzer ingeniously supposes that the

myth grew out
by Arion
the
site of

of the figure dedicated

found by Dr. Schliemann in the fourth tomb at Mykenae are a silver knife-blade, with figures of men hunting lions inlaid
laid

in the temple of Poseidon (on

which now stands the ruined

church of the Asomatos). The legend of Apollo Delphinios, and the consequent connection between the dolphin and music, may have induced the poet to choose a figure of a dolphin as his offering.

and a silver goblet similarly inwith gold work. Pausanias, who saw the stand of the vase presented by
in gold,
it

Alyattes to Delphi, describes

as con-

sisting of "several plates of iron, laid

one over the other in the form of steps
the last (those at the top) curving a outwards.
It

;

little

The

later coins of

Methymne

re-

had the form

of a tower,

present Arion sitting on a dolphin.
*

large at the
;

base and decreasing up-

"Invented the soldering of iron."

Objects of soldered bronze belonging to the prehistoric age have been found by

Dr. Schliemann at Hissarlik (Troy) and Mykenae. Herodotos, however, is mis-

wards and the pieces of which it was composed were not fastened either with nails or with pins, but were simply soldered together" (Paus. x. 16, 1). According to Athenaeus (Deip.
v.

13),

the

taken in saying that the art of soldering iron was first invented by Glaukos, since it was known in Egypt at least as early
as the eighteenth dynasty, like the art

vase was inlaid with figures of plants

and animals.
'

The ancient

city included

Prion or Pion and a portion of

Mount Mount

16
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HERODOTOS.
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Xa^elv

dpdifievoi AvBov<;

iv daXdaar),
ere,

iva virep
rov<i

rwv

rfj

rjirelpw

olKTjfievcov 'F.XXijvcov

Kdpra re ^aOijvat K/sotaov Tft) iirCXoyw Kai ol, 'irpo(T<^v(i}<; yap Bo^at Xeyeiv, ireiOofievov rravaaadat rrj^ vavTrrjyitj'i. /iac ovrco rolat rd<i v7)aov<i oIkt]BovX(fi<ra<i
€')(eLf

av

;"

fievoLat "Iwcrt ^eivlrjv a-vveSrjKaro.

28

'Kpovov Be iTrtyivo/Mevov Kal Karea-rpafifievtov
Koressos along the cliff, on which remains of early Cyclopean walls can still be traced. The temple lay at the distance of about a mile from the Magnesian Gate, which was westward of it and in the valley midway between Prion and Koressos. It would seem that in the time of Herodotos it had been already enclosed by the city wall, though Xenoin building,

<T')(eB6v

iravrmv

and was destroyed the very day Socrates drank the hemlock (b.c. Kroesos had contributed towards 400). its constniction. The seventh was burnt by Herostratos the same night Alexander the Great was bom (b.c. 356). The local character of Greek religion is strikingly illustrated by the action
of the Ephesians.

The rope

locally con-

phon

still

speaks of the temple as being
i.

nected the temple with the city, and
so placed the latter under the protection

seven stades from the city (Ephes.

2).

The temple, dedicated
goddess,

to

the

Asiatic

of the goddess.

Compare Thukyd.

iii.

Greeks identified with their Artemis, has been excavated by Mr. Wood. The original structure went back to the Hittite period that of which the ruins now remain was, according to Pliny, the eighth. The sixth, commenced by the architects Khersiphron of Krete and his son Metagenes, occupied nearly one hundred years
the
;

whom

104 (where Polykrates dedicates Rheneia to Apollo by connecting it with Delos

by a

chain).

Similarly, the conspirators

who had

aided Kylon at Athens concord,

nected themselves with the altar of the

Eumenides by a
brouglit a curse

and their removal upon the house of Me-

gaklcs, the Alkmaeonid,

who ordered

it.

See ch. 61.

;

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
aWov<i
[etVt

EAST.

17
K.l\lKQ>V

T(OV €VTO<i "A\V0<i TTOTafJLOV OLKlJ/JbeVCOV

(ttXiJV

yap

KaX

AvKioiv

rov<i

7rdvra<;
ol'Be,

vtt

ecovro)

eZ^e KaraaTpey^d^evof;

6 K.poicro'i),

Be

AvBol, ^pvye<i, Mixxot, MaptauBwoi,

XaXt/ySe?, IIa<p\ay6ve<i, %prjtKe<i ol

®vvoi re Kol BcOvvoi,
**

Ka/ae?,

"Iwye?,
Tcov

Awpieh,

AtoXet<?,

ITa/t^i/Xot,]

KarecrTpa/Mfiivfov Be rov- 29
AvBoicrc],

[kuI

TrpoaeTrLKTfOfievov

Kpoiarov

diTLKveovrai,
e/c t?)?

e?

Sa/oSt? aKfia^ovcak TrXovrtp aXXot re ol 7rdvTe<i
ao(f>iaTai,'
ot

'EWaSo?
eKaaro^

rovrov rov '^povov ervyyjxvov
The

€0VTe<i, (B9

*

Rejected as a gloss by Stein.

coast-land of Pamphylia stretched from

Mariaudyni lay between the river Sangarios {Sakaria) and Herakleia (Ercgli), separated from the mountain-chain of Asia Minor by the Bithynians. They may have been of Thrakian origin (Strabo, vii. The Khalybes, famous as 42). workers in steel (^Eskli. Pr. 715) are placed by Pomponius Mela (i. 21) near Sinope, so that Herodotos would be right in speaking of them as west of the Halys Strabo, on the other hand, put them eastward of the Halys, and here Xenophon (Anab. iv. 6, 7) met them, to the north-west of Lake Van, adjoining the Skythini and near the Phasis. It would seem, therefore, that they once extended over a large tract of country between longitudes 42° and 35° as we know, from
;

Korakesion to Phaselis (Tekrwa).

It

was inhabited by a mixed population, partly Greek, partly native. The inscription of Sillyon, in the corrupt Greek
dialect of the country, has been treated

by Mr. Ramsay in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, i. (1880). The Pisidians of Pamphylia are first named by Xenophon. The Kilikia of Herodotos extended far to the north of Mount Tauros, the upper Halys flowing through it (i. For the other nations of Asia 72). Minor, see Appendix IV. ^ Sophist did not acquire a bad sense until after the time of Herodotos. According to Isokrates, Solon was the first who was called a "Sophist." The wise men of Greece were generally attracted to the courts where they could find a patron and the chance of making money whether the patron was a foreigner or a tyrant mattered little. Solon's travels are not placed beyond the possibility of
;

the Assyiian inscriptions, the Tibareni

and the Moskhi (or Meshech) Erzerum would have stood in their territory. The Khalybes were also called Khaldsei by the Greeks
(or Tubal)

formerly

did.

(Armenian, Khalti), from their worship of
Khaldis, the supreme god of the proto-

doubt, and the story told here by Herodotos seems a Greek apologue, intended
to contrast the
legislator

Armenians who have left cuneiform inscriptions in the neighbourhood of Lake Van. The Thynians occupied the coast eastward of Mysia the Bithynians being more inland (Pliny, H. N. v. 82). Their Thrakian origin is again mentioned by Herodotos (vii. 75). iEolis was the coastline from the Gulf of Adramyttion to
;

wisdom of the Athenian

with the C^pw of the Asiatic potentate. It was especially serviceable to Herodotos in his task of showing how
the overweening wealth and power of Asiatic monarch the first great

the

Greeks were acquainted with

brought

down upon

it

the v^fitffn of the gods.
is

the

mouth

of the

Hermos

;

Ionia that

No

reference

made

to

the visit by

from the Hermos to Miletos, the Boghaz Pass, a little to the west of Magnesia ad Sipylum, marking their inland limit while the Dorians held the
;

Solon in his iK)ein3. Kroesos did not begin to reign until B.C. 560, and Amasis and as Solon seems (alone) till b.c. 564 to have been at Athens when Peisistratos
;

south-western extremity of Karia.

The

made himself

tyrant in B.c. 560,

it

seema

C

18

HERODOTOS.
aTTiKviotTo,

[book

avTMV
OeaypLT)^

Koi

Brj

Kol X6\cov avrjp *A07}valo<i, 09 ^AdrjTroLrjaafj
'iva

vacoKTL vofiov^;

KeKevcraai

airehrnirja-e
8r)
firj

erea BeKa, Kara

7rpo(^acnv eKTrXwaa^,

riva t<ov vojmwv ava^iroifj-

.

Kaa6fj Xvaac t&v eOero.

avrol <yap ovk oloi re rjcav avro

1

aau 'A67)vaiot'
30
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opKiotcn
TOv<i

vofiotau

yap fieyaXoKTC Karei'^ovro Sexa erea av a^L Soktov drjrac. avrwv Br] oiv
6 "^oXcov eivcKev e? AiyvTrrov
"ItdpBi'i

rovTiov KoX
aTTLKero

TTj^ 6e(opiri<i iKB'r]fn](7a<i

irapa "A/xaaiv

koX

Brj

kov e?

irapa

K.poL<rov.

j

aiTLKOfievo^ Be i^etvi^ero ev Tolac ^aaiXijioiat vtto tov

Kpolaov

fiera Be

rjfiepr]

rpirrj

7)

rerdprrj KeXevaavro^ ILpoiaov rov "^oXwva

Oepdirovre^;

Trepirjyov

Kara
re

rov<;

Orjaavpov^,

koI

iireBeiKVva-av

irdvra iovra

fieydXa

koX

oX^ta.

derjadfievov

Be

fiiv

to.

irdvra koX aKe^jrdfiepov w? ol Kara Kaipov rjv, etpero 6 K/aottro? " ^elve ^Adr^vaie, irap rjfjuea'i yap irepl aio \0709 aTriKrai rdBe.

TToWo? Kal
yrjv

a'o^ir]<; [^elveKev] Trj<;

o"?}?

Kal

7r\dvi]<i, to? <^L\o(TO(j)e(ov

ttoWtjv

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vvv

oiv

eireipeaOaC

fie

ifiepo<; irrrifXOe

ae

et

riva

ijBij

irdvrwv elBe^ oX^iwraTov.^^

6 fiev

iKirit^cdv

etvai dvOpcoircov 6\^i(iiraro<i

rddra

iireLptara'

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ovBev vTrodo)7rev(ra<;

dW^
Brj

tc5 iovTt •^rjadfievo^ Xeyec

"

o)

^acrtXev,

TeX-Xoy ^ AOrjvalov." iTrio-Tpe<f>e(o<s " koltj
elire

d'7ro6covfjbd(Ta<;

Be K/aoto-o? to Xe'^Oev etpero Kpivea ^eXXov eipac oX^Korarov ;" 6 Be

"

TeXX^ tovto

fiev tt)? TroXto?

T€ Korfadol, KaL
Trapafieivavra'

(T(j)i

elBe

diraaL

ev rjKovar]<i TratSe? rjaav KaXoi reKva eKyev6p.eva Kal irdma
ijkovtc, tu?

tovto Be rov ^iov ev

rd

Trap*

-^fitv,^

TeXevTT) TOV ^iov XafiirpordTr) eireyevero'

yevofiev7)<}

yap

\\.07}-

vaiocai /ia;^^9

7rpo<i

roixi

daTvyeiTOva<i ev 'EXeytrtj/t,^ ^or]0^aa<;
KoXXca-ra, Kal
fiiv

Kal Tpoirrjv
^AOr^valoL

TrotrjO'a'i

rSiv iroXefiicov direOave
tt) irep

Brj/jboatT}
d><i

re eda-^^av avTOv

eireae Kal erifirjaav

31

ii€rfdXjai<i."

Be

Ta Kara rov

rov K-polcov

eiTra<i

Te'XXoi/ irpoerpe-^aro 6 ^6X<dv TroXXd re Kal oX^ia, eireipdira riva Bevrepov from the root of the substantive verb
elfu.
"

questionable whether the account of his
travels is not wholly legendary.

Biidin-

ger defends the chronology of Herodotos
in bringing Sol6n

This shows that the unification of

and Krcesos together,
sq.

Attica, ascribed in the popular legends to

but not very successfully {Bericht. fVien.

Th&eus, " the establisher," did not take
place until shortly before Solon's time, if

Ak.
3,

92, pp.

Philippi in

Comp. a note by the Ehein. Mus. d. Phil. 86,
197

even then.
suits of the

pp. 472-3). * "After a

Perhaps it was one of the retyranny of Peisistratos. The

happy

life,

as

it,"

not "after a long
i.e.

life."

we reckon E5 takes

the genitive as being the neuter of the
old adjective td,
lain,

Sanskrit su-,

hostile relations of the two neighbouring towns of Eleusis and Athens is further indicated in the legend of the war between the Eumolpidee of Eleusis and the Athenians.

1.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE

EAST.

19

/j.€T

etTre

eKetvov tSoi, BoKeoov Trdyx^v Bevrepeta ycov otaeaOau 6 S' " KXio^tv re koI l^lrcova. tovtoicti yap iovat yevo<i 'Ap^io<;

yeiocac
ToiJ]Se'

re

dpKecov
re'

inrrjv,

koI irpb^ rovrw
6fioi(o<i

pcofir)

croofiaro^

d€0Xo(f)6poi

dfKpoTepoc

rjaav, Kal Brj koI

Xiyerat
/Soe?

68e 6 X0709.
rr)v

iovar]<i 0/9x7)9

r^ '^PV

'^oiac ^Apyeiotcri eSei Trdvro)^
e<?

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avrcov ^evyet KOfiLo-Orjvac
OX)

to Upov, ol he
eKKXijiofievoc

(T(f>c

€K Tov dypov
ol verjviat

trapeyivovTO ev wprj'

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eVt T^9

dfid^T]';

Be

a-(f>i

cD^eiTo

77

fnjrrjp,

araBiovf Be irevre Kal
to iepov}

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<T^i TTOirjaaa-L
dpi(TTT]

e9

rdora Be
rod
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di<i

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dfieivov

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"fj

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r)

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yap

irept,-

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fjbjjrepa

rwp

verjvicov

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eari.

fierd ravrrjv Be rrjv ev-^rjv to?

eOvadv re Kal
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fiev Bt)

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8' rjfierepT)

cnrep')(del^ elire

"

Si

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rot direpptirrat €9 ro firjBev &crr€ ovBe IBicorecov
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;"

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^

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iov

(pOovepov

re
ev

Kal

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etretptora'i

Trprjyfidrav Trept.

rd

firj

rt<i

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t&J
^0179

yap

erea ovpov

rrj<;

dvdputiru) •rrporidrip.t.
world,

ovrot e6vre<i evtavroX

^ Pausanias saw a sculpture in the temple of Apollo Lykios at Argos, representing BitQn canying a bull on his

and must therefore be hateful to The Greek was still keenly interested in political life, and not yet
the gods.

shoulders (il 19, and see iL 20). The mother was said to be Eydippe, priestess of Here (Plut. Mor. 109). 2 Here we have the expression of

prepared for the assurance of Epikuros, that the gods " care for none of these things." Comp. Pindar, Isthnu vL 39,

Herodotos'

philosophy,

to

illustrate

which his history was in part written.
It embodies the Greek idea that anything which violates the lUrpov, or mean, in-

and the answer of Aristotle, Met. L 2. * Comp. Ps. xc. 10. Medical science and sanitary regulations have of late
years considerably lengthened the aver-

age

of

life.

See

iiL

22,

and Solon,

troduces disorder into the Kwrfi&s of the

Frg. 20.

20
k^ZofirjKovTa 'rrape-)(ovTai

HERODOTOS.
7)fiepa<i
fjLr)vb<;

[book

Bi,7)K0(Tia<i
jxrj

Kal

7revTaKia-)(^i\ia<;
el 8e Srj iOekrjaet
8t}

Kol Scaf^vpla<i, ifM^o\ifj,ov

yivo/Jbivov

Tovrepov rwv iricov

fjUTjvl

fiaKporepou yLvecrdat, iva
firjvet

at oypac

avfx^aivQxrt irapayLVO/jievac it rb Beov,
IxrjKovra erea oi i/x^o\ip,ot yivovrat

fiev

irapa ra e^Bo-

rpt^KovTa

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eK T(ov

/jLr)V(bv

TOVTCOV ^iX,tat irevrrjKovTa.
69

rovrecov roiv airacremv

rjfiepeoiv

T&v

T^ e^BofirjKovra

erea,

eovaewv Trevr^Kovra Kal
tj

Bcr)KO(TLCov

Kal e^aKta-'^iXLCov Kal

Bta-fivptoiv,*

erepr] avrecov rrj
irprjyfia.

erepii
03V

rjfiiprj

rb irapdirav ovBev ofxoiov vpoadyei

ovrco

l^polae irav

ecm dvOpwTrot
ovkco
ere

avfi^oprj.

ifiol

Be (tv Kal ifKov-

relv yukya ^a'lveai koX fiacriXevt iroWcov elvac dvOpcoTTfov eKelvo
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reXevT^aavra KaXcot rbv
etr

alwva
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ov yap ri o p.eya ifkovaLOt fxdWov tov
fiij

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TOV evrvy^eot
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6
irecrovcrav

fjiovvov,

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fiev

eTndvfj^lrjv

eKTeXeaai Kal
6

drrfv

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drijv fiev Kal €7nOufjbiT]v ovk ofioicot Buvarbt eKeivw iveiKai,

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&v

avTMV irXelaTa e^oiv
*

BiareXj) koI eiretTa TeXevrrjari €u^a/3t<7TG)9

Herodotos was an
as
is

indifferent

cal-

nine,

shown by blunder over the number of years
culator,

further

his
re(ii.

the intercalary

and partly to his forgetting that month was omitted from
to

time
'

time

— possibly

every fourth

quired for the Egyptian dynasties

So we need not be surprised that 142). he here makes the solar year consist of Prof. Rawlinson has pointed 375 days. out that this is duo partly to his counting the months at thirty days each, instead of alternately thirty and twenty-

iidrrXovToi),
^6.K0T0i,
foirXi7^7)j

Borrowed from the iEolic dialect (for like the Homeric j'dtfeot,
forpf^Tjt,
faxp'7'Jy,
^aiitvifi,

or

and ^ivvpoi, which, together with ^airXoi'rof, must be regarded as de* rived from the Epic dialect.

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
ifiol

21

Tov ^iov, ovTO<; irap
i(TTL (f)€p€(r6aL.
Kf)

to oijvofia rovro

c5

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^ou? dv6Tp€<f)€."

Tuora Xeycov tm Kpoicrw ov
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k(o<;

ovt€ i'^api^ero, 33

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fiLv
o<?

oiiBevb^ diroirep/ireraL,
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Bo^af;

dfiadea elvai,

rd irapeovra dyaOd
ol-^ofievov

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^rjpuTo^ opdv eKeXeve.

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8e

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eXa^e

eic

6eov

vifjuecni;

fxeydXr) 34

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on
he

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ol evBovrt
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yap

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fiiv

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'

dKovTia

Be Kal BopaTia Kal Ta ToiavTa irdvTa Tolai -xpeoyvTaL e? iroXefiov
avOpcoTTOi,
crvvev7)<T€,

€K
fiiq

Tiov

dvBpe(i>v(ov

eKKOfii<Ta<i

e?

Tov<i

daXd/j,ov<;
e')(0VT0'i

tl ol Kpefidfievov t&) iraiBl ifiirearj.
TraLBo<i

Be 35

01 ev %epcr(,
a-v/j,<f)opf}

TOV

tov ydfiov, dTriKvetTai
'^eLpa<;,

e<;

Td<i %dpBL<; dvrjp

€^ofi€vo<;

Kal ov Kadapo<i

imv ^pv^
e<?

fiev

yevefj,

y€veo<i

Be tov ^acrCXrjLov,

irapeXOoov Be ovTo<i

Ta K.poiaov

olKia

KaTa

vofiov<; Toix; eTrf)(aipiov^
ecTTi

l^polao<i Be ficv eKad'qpe'

AvBolai Kal Tolac

'

^IKKr\cn,

Kadapaiov eBeiTO eTriKvprjaac, r) KaOapai^ touti iirecTe Be Ta vofii^ofxeva iiroirjae
Be TrapairXrjo-LTj

The

belief in the prophetic character

host then sacrificed a sucking-pig, poured
the blood and other libations on
his

of

dreams was widely spread in the East, and many of the cuneiform tablets

now

in

the British

Museum belonged
work on the Thus, "to

hands, calling upon Zeds KaOipfftos, made offerings to the Erinnyes, to the dead
person,

to an ancient Babylonian

and to

Z«i>i fietXlxtos,

and

finally

interpretation

of dreams.

inquired after the

name

of the assassin

dream of a bright
Cf.

light presaged fire."

Lenormant,

"La

Divination et la

Science des Presages chez les Chaldeens,"
1875.

and the circumstances of the murder. Adrastos ("he who runs not away" or " may not be escaped," similar to Adrasteia,

693 sq. The assassin seated himself on the hearth under the protection of Zevs ixlcnof,
'

See ApoU.

Mod.

iv.

at Kyzikos)

of Nemesis in Btjeotia and a Greek, not Phr}'gian or Lydian name, and points to the Greek

the

title
is

origin of the story.

Stein suggests that
arisen out of that

thrusting his swftrd into the ground and

the story of the death of Atys, the son
of Kroesos,

covering his face with his hands.

His

may have

22
6
K/30A<ro<?,

HERODOTOS,
iirvvOdvero
ri^
;

[book

oKoOev

re

koI
Ti]<i

rit

eci],

Xeyav rdBe.
rjKwv
i'jriarLO'i

" oivOpwrre,
ifiol

re icov kol KoOev
re

^pvyir)<;

iyeveo

riva

dvhpoiv

rj

yvpacKcov

i(f>6vevaa<i ;"
elfii 7ral<i,

o

Be

dfiei^eTo
^Ofxac

"w

^a<n\ev, TopSio}
re
Be

fiev

rod M.i8ea>
dBe\<fi€ou
irarpo'i

opofid-

Be

"ABprjcTTO'i,
i^eXrjTuLfjLevo'i

^ovev(Ta<i
viro

Be

ifiefovrov

deKWv
re

Trdpeifii

rov
koI

koX

eareprjiievofi

irdvToxv"
<f)LXQ)v

Kpotcro<i

fiiv
ioi>v

dfieL^ero

rolaiBe.
e?

" dvBpcov
<f>C\.ov<i,

Tvy^dvett;

CKjopof;

eXr/Xy^a?

ev6a
re
Bt)

dfir}'^avi]cret<; '^(^prjp.aro^ ovBevo<i fievcov

iv rip,erepov.

crvfi<popi]v

36 ravTTjv
Blairav

od<;

kov^orara
ev
v6<;

<}>epa>v

KepBavel^ irXeltrrov"

6

fiev

el'x^e

K.poLaou.

iv Be tc3

avrS
fjbeja'

^(^povw

rovrw iv rS
Be ovto<;

Mfcrto) '0\y/i7ro)

"^prjfia

yiveraL

opfxeofievof

eK Tov Speo^ TovTov TO, T03V Mi/o-wy epiya Bia(f>deipe(TKe. 7roWdKC<i Be 01 Mutrol iir avrov i^eXdovre'^ iroLeea-Kov fiev kukov ovBev,
eiraa-'^ov Be 7rpb<; avrov.

reXa
iv
rrj

Be dircKOfxevoc irapd rov K.polaov

tS>v

Mfo-ftii/

ayyeXoi eXeyov rdBe.

"

w
^'^

jSacriXev,
'^^

uo?

')(prifia

fiiyicrrov

dve^dvrj rjfuv

x^PV*

epya

Bia(f)6eLpec.

aeo rov rralBa koX XoydBa^
(B<?

rovrov rrpoOvfieofievoc eXeiv ov BvvdfieOa. vvv (ov irpocrBeop.eOa verfviwi koI Kvva^ (rvfjurefjuy^dt' rjjxiv,

dv

/Jbiv

i^eXcofiev ix

rrj<i

^co/o?;?."

ol /xev

Btj

rovrcov iBeovro,
a-<f>L

Kpolao'; Be fivrj/xovevcov rov ovecpov rd eirea eXeye

rdBe.

"

'TratBof

fiev

rrepi

rov

ifiov

firj

fivijadijre
icrri

avfiTrifjLyjraifjLL'

veoyafi6<i

re ydp

en' ov yap av v/jlIv Kal rdord ol vvv fieXei.
a-VfXTrefi^frco,

AvBcov
37

fjbivrot

XoydBa<; kol rb Kvvrjyeaiov rrdv

Kal

BiaKeXevcrofuii rolai lovct elvai to? rrpodv/jLordroia-t avve^eXelv
vfi2v

ro Orjpiov

e/c r?)? ^Q)pr]<i."

rdora

dp,ei-<^dro'

dwo'^ecofievcov

Be rovroLCTL roiv Mucreoi' iireaep'X^eraL 6 rov
roiv iBeovro ol Mycrot.
a-<f)i,

ov (f)afievov Be

Kpoiaov rrai<i aKrjKOO)^ rov Kpoiaov rov ye rraiBd
rdBe.

avfjLirefiyJreiv,

Xeyet irpb^ avrov o

ver}vir}<;

"

w
rjv

irdrep,
e?

rd
fie

^

KoXXicrra rrporepov Kore Kal yevvaiorara r)fuv
€<?

re

TToXefiovf Kal

dypa<i <f)Oir€ovra<i evBoKifielv
€')(ei,<;,

vvv Be dfi(f>or€p(ov
fioL rrapiBoiv

rovrcov

d'rroKXT}LO-a<i

ovre rivd BeiXiijv
yjpr)

ovre

dOvfiirjv.

vvv re reoiai
Be

fie
;

6fi/ia<ri

^

e<{

re

dyoprjv Kal i^

dyoprj'i (f>oi,reovra ^aivecrdat

Koib<; fiev rt? rolcrc iroXitfrrja-i
;

Bo^m
Bo^ei

elvai,

Kolo<i

rc<;
;

rfj

veoydfiw yvvaiKi
S)v
fioi

Koi(p Be
iirl

iKeivq
rrjv

dvBpl crvvocKeiv
Xoy^y avdireiaov

ifie

&v

rj

fiere<;

livai

djjpijv,

^

o/ctu?

dfieivco
boar's

iarl rdora ovra iroieofieva.
relative,

of Atys, the suu-god, slain

by the

makes ri the

tmd accordingly
I

tusk of winter (see Pans.
*

vii. 7).

reads eiSoKindtiv, vOv d^.

Toumier

{Rev. de Philologie,

1878)

"What

face

must

show."

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
K.pol(ro<i

EAST.
ovTe heiXCrfv ovre

23

dfjuei^erat

TolaiBe.

"

w

Tral,

aWo
<ydp

38

ouSev a^apt TrapiBcav roi
To3
vTTvtp

"ttouo

raora,

dWd

fiot 6y^L<i

oveipov iv
viro

eTnardcra

€<f)7)

ce oXiyo'^poviov eaeaOat,'
irpo'i eir\

al'X/irj'i

(TiSrjpeTjf;

diroXeladai,.

jdfiov Toc Tovrov eairevaa koX
diroirepLiro), <}>vXaKT)v e-)(wv et kco<;

&p rrfp oyjnv ravrrjv tov re rd irapakap.jBavoixeva ovk
eVl
r?)?
€firj<;

Bvvai/irjv

ere ^orjf Brj

BiakXeyjraL.

el?

yap

fiot fiovvof rvy')(aveL<i iiSov irai'i'

tov yap

erepov Bi€<f)6ap/M€vov ttjv dKorjv ovk elvai fioi Xoyi^ofiai" dfiel" crvyyvwfir) fiev w irdrep rot, lBovtl 39 ^erat 6 v€r)vir)<; roicriBe.

ye o^jnv ToiavTTjv,

irepl

ifie

(pvKaKrjv e-^^eiv
ifie

to Be ov fiav6dveL<i
<f)^'i

dXkd

\e\7]6e ae to oveipov,
atp^/x.?}?

tol Blkulov iaTt (ppd^eiv.
ifie

TOi TO oveipov viro
Be Koiai p-ev
el p,ev

aiBrjper]!; (f)dvai

TeXevTrjcreiv
Trjv

v6<i

elcri '^eipe<;,

koit) Be eiire

al'^rj

criBrjpei]

yap

viro oBovTot toi
Bi]

TeXevTrjaeiv

fie, rf

av <f>o^€ai ; dXkov Teo o
al')(jirj<i.

Ti TovT(p oiKe, 'xprjv
iireiTe

ere

voieiv Ta Trotet?' vvv Be viro
ripZv

wv ov

irpo^;

dvBpa<i

yiveTai

tj

fid-xr),

fieTe<;

fie."

dfiei^eTai K.poiao<; "
irepl

w

vrat,

ecTi

Tjj fie

viKaq
v-rro

yvcofirjv diroefyaivcov

40

TOV evvrrvLov.
tov

(w?

a)V

veviKr)fievo<i

creo

fieTayivaxTKco,
6 K.poicro'i 41

fieTirjfii

re ae ievai eVt Tr)v dyprjv."

eXira<i

Be

tuotu

fieTairefiireTai

^pvya
Kal vvv

"ABprja-TOv, diriKOfievcp Be oi Xeyei TaBe.
TreirXrjyfievov d')(api, Trfv tol
viroBe^dfievo^i

" "ABprjaTe, eya>
oveiBi^co,

ere

crvfi(f)Opfj

ovk

eKaOijpa

oiKioicri

e^w,

'irape')(wv

irdcrav

Bairdvrjv.

wv
fie
e<i

(6(}>eiXei<;

yap

efieo

'Trpoiroi^cravTO^
ere

yprjaTa e?

ere 'Xpr]aTOia-i

dfiei^ecOai) (jjvXaKa 7rdiBo<;
firj

tov

ifiov ^(prji^a)
KXo)'ire<i

yeveadui
iiri

dyprjv opfieofievov,
(jiaveooai

Tive<;
irpo'i

KaT oBov
Be TovT(p
«"

KaKovpyoi
')(fieov

BrfXrjai

vfiiv.

Kal ae toi

iaTi levai evda d-rroXafiTrp-vveai Tolai epyoiaitoi eVrt Kal irpocreTi
pdofirj

iraTpdiiov re
fieTai

yap

virdp-^ei."

dfieie'?

42

" ABpijCTOf;

"

&

^acriXev, aXXca^i fiev eycoye dv ovk rjia
<TVfi<^opfj Toi'pBe Ke')(^prifievov oIk6<;

de&Xov TOiovBe' ovTe yap
e<i

iaTt

ofiijXiKa^

ev irprjaaovTa'i

ievai,

ovTe

to

TToXXa-^r}

re dv la-yov ifieavTov.

vvv
re

Be,

^ovXeadai irdpa, eireiTe av airevBei'i
tov
BiaKeXeveai
tol

Kal Bel TOI ')(apii^ea6ai (otpeiXco yap ae dfiei^eadai ^prjaTOiai),
iroieiv
eifil

€Toifio<i

TaoTa,

vraiBd

aov,

(ftvXaaaeiv,

dirr^fiova

tov

<^vXdaaovTO<i

eiveKev

irpoaBoKa
Kal

aTrovoaTTjaeiv."
rfiaav
*

ToiovToiai

eVetVe

ovto<:

dfieiyfraTo
veTjvirjaL

}^poiaov, 43

fieTa

TooTa

i^ijpTVfievoL

Xoydai re

xvaL

"

Now what

— but

you do not understand

a second ace. after XA., an otherwise un-

the (meaning of the) dream has

known

construction.

Porhaps Herodotos

escaped your notice."

—TA

&».

cannot be

wrote dXXA yip.

\

24
aTTiKOfxevot,

HERODOTOS.
8e
€<;

[book
opoi;

rov

"OXv/jlttov

to

e^ijTeov

to

drjpiov,

€vpovT€<; Be Kol TrepiaTuvTe^
^elvo<i, ovTO<; Br) 6

avTO kvkKo)
dfiapTciveL,
ttj
al')(jjifj

€(j-t)k6vtc^ov.

evda

Srj

KadapOei^ tov
fjbkv

<f>6vov, Ka\.e6/jL€vo<;

Be "ABprjaTO'i,

aKovTL^cov TOV vv TOV
7rat8o9.
^rjfjbTjv,

Tvy^dvec Be tov Kpoiaov
i^eTrXrjae tov oveipov ttjv

6 fiev Brj ^Xr]del<;

eOei Be

ti<;

dyyeXecov tc3 K/Dotcrw to y€yov6<i, dircKOfievo'i

Be 69 TU'i %dpBi<; TTjv re fxd'xijv koX tov tov TraiBo'i fjLopov eaijfnjvi

44 oL

6

Be

K/30i(T09

to3

OavdTco
otl
fiiv

tov

iraiBo'i

a-vvTeTapay/J,evo<;

fxdXkov TL iBecvoXoyeiTO
eicdOr^pe.
Trepirj/jbeKTecov

direKTeuve

tov avTO'i exdXet

(f)6vov

Be

ttj

avfM^opfj

Beiv(t)<;

fjuev

Aia

KaOdpcnov,
TOV

/jbapTvp6/j,€vo<;

tu

vtto

tov ^eivov
Br]

'jreirovdoi'^ ecr],

eVaXct

Be irrccrTcov re Kal eTUip^iov, tov
fiev

avTov tovtov ovofid^wv deov,
oIkloio'i,

eTTca'TCov

KaXecov,

Bcotl

viroBe^dfievo^;

tov
to?

^eivov ipovea tov 7racBo<; eXdvdave ^octkwv, tov Be eTacprjiov,

45 <f)vXaKa

avTov evprjKot TroXefMicoTaTov. nraprjaav Bk fxeTo, TovTO OL AvBoX <j}epovTe<; tov vexpov, oTncrOe Be eiTrcTO ol 6 (fiovev';. <TTa9 Be ovTO'i irpo tov veKpov irapeBtBov ecovTov K^otcTft) TTpoTetvcov Ta9 ')(elpa<i, €7nKaTaa<f)d^ac fiiv KeXevoov tc5
(7f/i7reyu,i|ra9

v€KpS, Xeycov ttjv
eKeivri

re

irpoTepijv ecovTov
eir)'

o-v/x(f>oprjv,

Kal

a)9

eir*

tov KadrjpavTa diroXoiXeKOi^
Be

ovBe

ot

eirj

j3t(o<Ti,fjL0V.

Kpotcro9

TOVTcov

dKovcra<i
oIkijim

Kuiirep ifov iv
S)

kukS
Be

tov re ^ABprjcTTOv KaToiKTeipet, ToaovTW, Kal Xeyec vpof avTov " ^<o
TovBe tov KaKov
Tt9,

^elve irapd aeo Trdaav ttjv BiKrjv, eTreiBr) crecovTov KaTaBiKd^ec^
6t9

OdvaTov.
deKcov

ov

arv fioL

aiTco<;, el /xr)

oaov
el)?

i^epydcrao,
to,

dXXd demv kov

09 fioi xal TrdXai irpo-

ecrrjixaive

fxeXXovTa ea-eadat."

K^otcro9 fiev

vvv

eOa^jre,

oIko^

rjv,

TOV ecovTov TralBa'
(})ov€V<i /M€V

" ABp^o-TO<;

Be o TopBioi

tov

Mi'Seo),

011X09 Br)

TOV

icoirrov

dBeX(f)eov yevo/j.€vo<i

(f)ov€v<t

Bk

TOV Ka9r)pavT0^, eireiTe
arjfMa,

'f)<7V^LT)

twv

dvOpdiiriov eyeveTo irepl r6
elvat Tfov avTo^i jjBei fiapv-

o-vyyivcoaKOfievo'S

dv6pcairwv

(TVfjb(f)opcoTaTo<:, e'inKaTaa-(j>d^ei tcU

Tvfi^(p icovTov.

46

K^oto-09

Be

iirl

Bvo

eTea iv irevOei fieydXw KaTijaTo tov
r)

7rat8o9 ea-Tepr)fievo<i.
fiovir)

fieTa Be
vtto

^AaTvdyeo<; tov Kva^dpeo) ^yeK-afiffvcreo) "

KaTatpedela-a

Kvpov tov
Kcof

Kal

to,

t&p

Tiepaewv irprjy^iaTa av^avofieva
€V€^r)(Te Be 69 <f)povTLBa, ei
TOi'9 Ilep(Ta<i, (OV Tr)v

irevOeoi; fiev

Kpolcrov dTreiravae,

BvvatTO, irpXv fieydXov; yeveaOai
Tr)v BvvafiLV.
fiCTct

KaTaXa^elv avTcav av^avofxev^v Bidvotav TavTrjv avTLKa aTreTreipaTO
' B.C.

Ttov /xavTrjioov t5>v

549.

See Appendix V.

THE EMPIRES OF THE
re

EAST.

25

€v"^Wr)<n koX rov
e<?

iv At^vt},^ hiairefi'^a^

aWou?

aWrj,

tov<!
e<?

fiev

AeX-^oy? levai,
^

Tov<i

Be

e<?

"AySa?

Ta<i
^

^(OKewv^

Tov<i Be

AcoBcovrjv •

oi Be Tive<i eirefiirovTO irapd re
if

Afi(f)idpe(ov kol irapa

^pof^xiivtov, ol Be TJ79 M.i.\7]aLi]<;

B^a7^tSa9.^

rdora

fiev

vvv

rd 'FiWrjviKa
7re/j,7re

fiavrriLa

€<;

rd

aTreTre/xi^e iiavTevcr6fjbevo<i K.potao<i'

Ai^vj]<; Be irapd "A/xficova dTreareCKe

dXKovf

^(pijcro/j.evov'i.
ct>9,

Bie-

Be

7reipQ)fJbevo<;

rSiv fjuivTrjiwv o tc t^poveoiev,
evpeOeiT], iTrecprjTaC <r^ea

el (f)poirejjbTrojv

veovra
el

rrju

dXrjOetTjv

Bevrepa

eiTf^eipeot eirl Tlepaa<i arpaTeveaOai.

evT€iXdfievo<; Bk Tourt 47

AvBolcn rdBe direireixire 69 tt/i/ Btdireipav t(ov '^prjarrjpicov, dir ^9 dv r][jiep'r^f opfirjOewat e/c Z,apBia)V, diro ravT7}<i rjfiepoXoyeovTa^ TOP \onrbv ')(povov eKaroarfj r]ixeprj ^pdcrOac roicn '^pTjarrjpLOLai, e7reipQ)TeovTa<; o rt iroioiv rvy^dvoi AvBcov ^aacXev<i Kpotcro? o AXvaTTeco' dcrcra B dv eKuara tS)V '^prja-r'rjpicov deairicrrj,
o-u<yypa-\lrafjbevov<; dva<f)epeiv Trap* icovrov.

6

n

fiev

vvv rd Xouird
ev Be

rSiv •^rjcTTrjptcov iOecnriae, ov Xejerai, Trpo'i ovBaficov
(fyolat

AeX-

0)9

ea-rfkOov Td-^ccrra

69

to fieyapov ol AvBoX
17

'^pTjcrofjuevot,

Tc3

deoj

Kol €7r€cpd>r€ov ^ rb evreTaXfievov,

UvOit] ev e^afierprp

Tovo) Xeyei rdBe.

^

2

That of Ammon. The temple of Apollo
(Ed.

a torrent iiows.
of Abae (cp.

The

water, as it passes
it

through the small funnels

has worn
the

Soph.
viii.

Tyr.

897-899, and Herod,

in the rocks, produces a whistling sound,

134) stood on a low hill to the north-west of the height still surrounded

which may have
oracle.

first

suggested

The approach

to the oracle is
is

with the massive walls of Abae. The temple was destroyed in the sacred war B.C. 346, and only a single wall
of

now

covered with earth, but

probably
cliff.

to be found where the lowest wall of the

mediaeval fortress approaches the

Hellenic
*

masonry now marks
of

its

Brankhidae,

now

HieroTida,

was

ten
ex-

site.

miles from Miletos.

The

ruins

now

The excavations have shown that the

M.

Karapanos

isting there belong to the temple built
after the destruction of

oracle of

Dodona

an older one by

stood in the valley of Characovista, eleven
miles south-west of Yannina, where he

Xerxes.

On

either side of the road lead-

ing to the port, two miles distant, Mr.

has exhumed the remains of the town,
the theatre, and the sacred enclosure.
(See his

Newton found the

sitting figures, in

archaic Assjrrianising style,

an which are

Dodone
oracle

et

ses

Euines, 2 vols.

now

in the British

Museum.

The

oracle
;

Paris, 1878.)
*

The

of

Amphiaraos was at
;

Or6pos (Pans. i. 34 Liv. 45, 27). See Herod, viii. 134. That of Troph8nios was at Lebadeia (Livadia), in Boeotia, on the slope of the hill now crowned with the walls of a mediaeval fortress, and
just above a deep gorge through

was a peculiarly Greek institution the divine in man was called forth by the stimulus of nature, and revealed itself
in prophetic song.

—Rawlinson.

"Before they put their questions." It miist be noted that the oracles wore to be "written down
"*

which

and arranged

" {axrfypa^afUvoxn).

26
oiBa

HERODOTOS.
S' iyo) "sjrdfifiov
crvviriflL,

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KoX OV
(f>(OV€VVTO<; UKOVCO.

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49 auT09 iv Xe^rjTC -^aXKeo), "ydXiceov
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kuto, Be Trfv 'Afi^idpeoj

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TTOitjcraa-i

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otc Kal tovtov ivofiiae fiavTrjiov dyjrevBe^

50

Mera
IXdo-KeTO.'

TdoTa

Ovtrirjcn

fieydXrja-i,

tov iv

Ae\<f)Oca'i

deov
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yap

to,

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irdvTa

Tpia-x^tXia

KXiva<i T€ iTrf)(pvaov<i

Kal i-Trapyvpov; Kal (pidXa^; yjivaea^ koI

eXfJUTa 7rop<f)vpea Kal KiOwva^, vrjaa^; Trvprjv fjueydXijv, KaTCKaie,'
cXttl^cov

tov deov fidXXov tl tovtol<7l dvaKTnaeadai.' AvBoiai
irpoelire

T€

irdcrt,

Ovetv TrdvTa Ttvd

avTwv
/j.ev to,

TovTtp o tl e-^oi €Ka<r-

To<i.

ax;

Bk

e/c Trj<i Ovai'q'i

iyeveTO, KaTa^ed/xevof

^vaov

dtrXeTOV

"^fiLTrXivdia i^

avTOv i^'^Xavve, eVl
I

fuiKpoTepa ttoIcov e^a-

8

"

I

number the sand and
the

measure the

sea,

ism and clairvoyance.
^y^^

Among the

Greeks

And
The

dumb and

the voiceless speak to

tortoise

was sacred to Aphrodite.

flesh of s tortoise, hani of shell, Boiled with a lamb, is the smell I smell, In a caldron of brass, with brass cover as
'^^^^•"

^O' 'l"^'^" «1/>»M«'. cp. Find. 01: ii. 99. 'EwUarai is from fyvvfiu—The Pythian
priestess delivered the oracles in early

times only once a year, on the 7th of
line refers to the fact that

The second
the

priestess

interrupted

the

envoys

(Plut.

while they were speaking

{iireipdrreoy).

Those who
ing
tlie

reject the divine inspiration

later, once a month ; Mor. 292 F, 398 a). ' The waste of good things recorded here reminds us of the holocaust of the

the

month Bysios

of the oracle have their choice of regardstory given here as a myth, or
it

luxuries of

life made by the women of Florence in consequence of the preaching

of explaining

by the help of mesnicr-

of Savonarola.

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
eirX

EAST.

27

iraXaa-ra,

Be to, ^pay^urepa TpiTraXacrTa, i/i^o? 8e iraXacmala,^
')(^pvaov

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6

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KareKaiero 6 ev
(eTrt

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Bexa.
ovTO'i

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eireire

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vr}o<i,

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yap

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vvv Kelrai ev
T€Xeaa<i
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rS

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^

rjfinaKavTov direTaKT) yap avTov reraprov rnxirakavrov.
K/Joto-o?

rdora

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6 Be dpyvpeo<;
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*

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fioi

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OrjcravpS

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ev

rS K^opivOimv

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Tft)

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eTriyeypairrat

AaKeBaifiovicov

(fyafxevcov

elvac
evre-

dvddrjfia,
ypa-yjre

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rc<i

ecrrc

yap Kal rovro Kpotcrof,

Be rcov

AeX(f)(ov AaKeBac/xovcocac ^ovX6fievo<; '^apH^ea-

8

A

Inscriptions
iraXoffTtt,

palm was a little over three inches. show that we must read
not TrdXeuoro, the reading of

2

"The comer
viii.

of the ante -chapel."

See

122.

Six hundred amphorcB
it

all
'

the

MSS. except two. The MSS. read rpla TnurdXam-a, but
It is

would be more than 5000 gallons. ^ Wine was mixed with water in

the editors have decided that Herodotos

did not reckon by half-talents.
easy, however, to construe the

not

modem

during the festival of the Theophania. The latter is mentioned by Philostratos {Fit. Apoll. iv. 31) and Pollux (i. 1, 34). * Theod6ros, the architect, according
to Pausanias
(iii.

reading.

gold weigh 325 French
are not wholly certain.
^

Bahr makes the ingots of pure lbs., and those

12

;

viii. 14),

invented

of x>ale gold 260 lbs. , but his calculations

Pale or alloyed gold

is

the usual

material of early gold ornaments found
in the eastern part of the Mediterranean.

howwas an error of Greek vanity, as the art was practised in Egypt, Assyria, and Phoenicia at an early period. Theoddros was credited with having carved
the art of casting in bronze.
This,
ever,

Some ornaments
side of

an ancient Lydian tomb on the southern
lately discovered in

the emerald in the ring of Polykrates. The supposition of K. 0. Miiller, that
there were two Samian artists of this

Tmdlos are of pale gold.

Cp.

name,

is

wholly gratuitous, and contrary

Soph. Antig. 1037.

to the plain words of Pausanias.

28
6aL, Tov einarafxevo'i to
iral^,

HERODOTOS.
ovvofia ovk eirLfMVjjaofiai.
pel to
vBoyp,

[book

aX)C 6
iari,

fiev

hi

ov

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aWa
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areperjv,

&r}^e(ov ev

tw

vrjS

rov 'lafnjviov 'AttoWwi/o?.

53

Total Be dyetv fieWovai roiv AvBcov rdora rd Bcopa €9 rd
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rayv

rdora
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69

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6

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v7rep7](Tdr)

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Kal

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'

exaarov

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r^

55 ^qvXojjbev^ avratv yiveaOav AeX<f>ov €9 tov aUl
"

p^oi/oi/.

Bapr)Aristotle

It

was probably an image of the

of

the

oracle,
5),

according
:

to

Asiatic goddess in a seated posture, like

{Rhet.

iii.

were

Kpoiaoi 'A\vy 5taj34i
It
is

the figure in gold-leaf found at Myk^nse

n€yd\ii¥ apxif xaraXi/o-ei.
like the

plain
it,

and given
273
8
'

in Schliemann's Mycence,

No.

that Herodotos must have extracted

(p. 182).

other oracles he quotes, from
collection.

"The

necklace."
statdr of 20 drachmae

some published
was The exact words
Chronicle
556.

The Parian
B.O.
'

The gold

puts

the

embassy in
j

equivalent to 16s. 3d.

••]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Be tov<;

EAST.

29
to rpirov
iv€(f>op€iro

crdfievo^i

AeX^ou?
irapeXa^e

o

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eirelre

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tov

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aXrjdel'qv,

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iireLpcora
fiovvap'x^ii).

Be rdSe 'x^ptjaTrjpta^ofievo'i, et ol 7ro\v^p6vio<i
17

earai

Be Ilvdir} ol 'xpa rdBe.

dXV

oTav

rjfjLiovo^

^acn\ev<; M7;Soto"t yevqrat,

Kol Tore, AvBe iroBa^pe, 7roXinjn](f)iBa irap "Epfiov
<f>evyeiv fiijBe fievecv firjS' alBeicrdai KaKO<; elvai.^

^ovTOLcri ekOova-L rola-t eireat

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Mi]Ba>v, ovS' Siv avTO<i ovBe ol i^

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dp'^i)^.

fiera

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<f)iXov<;,

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^

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toii<?

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jeveo<i rov<i

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p.ev

tov AcopiKov

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fxev

rdoTa yap
^

rjv

Ta

TrpoKeKpi/iieva,^

iovra to dp'^alov to
Kal TO
eiri fiev

TleXaayiKov
^

to Be '^AXXTjviKov edvo^.

fiev

ovBafifj kco

e^e^^coptjare,

to Be iroXvjrXdvqTov KapTa.

yap

A.evKoXicdvo'i

^acriXeo^ otxei yijv Trjv ^6id)Tiv, eVl

8

" When Media's king
Soft-footed Lydian,

shall

be a male,

by the pool

the region of mythology, and a way has been prepared for the use of the name

Of pebbly Hermos fly, nor stay. Nor dread the coward's name tliat day."

by

later writers to denote those popula-

tions of Greece

The

Lydians

wore

shoes,

unlike

the

Greeks,

who

usually went barefoot or

used sandals.
to

Kroesos.

Hence the epithet given The Hermos runs at the

distance of 4^ miles from Sardes, between Sardes and the tumuli of Bin Bir Tepfe,

and its neighlwurhood which we should now call prehistoric, or whose origin and relationship were unknown. See Herod. L 146, ii. 56, viii. Hence the 44, vii. 94, v. 26, vi. 138. primitive Arkadians were said to be Pelasgians, the mountains of Arkadia
being naturally the last refuge of the

the burial-place of the Lydian kings.
*

"The most
f.

distinguished."

Cp.

ii.

aboriginal inhabitants of thePeloponnesos,

121
*

whom
terra

the Greeks displaced.

The

occur-

"Pelasgian" is used in two senses by the Greek writers (1) as denoting certain Greek tribes of Thessaly, Thrake, and Mysia, and (2) as equivalent In two to our own term "prehistoric." Homeric passages (//. ii. 681, xvi. 233) it is applied to AkhiBan Argos in Thessaly, and to Zeus of DodOna, as worshipped by

The

rence of the

name amoug

various tribes

of Illyrian origin

may

be explained by

tlie

Thes.salian Akhteans.

In

II. ii.

840-

3 the Pelasgians are a tribe of Mysia.

word from the and el/w (ya), so that it would simply mean the "emigrants," like "lonians" ('Idfofei) from ya "to go." • Deukalidn is formed from Deukaloa, like other epithets of the sun-god (Hyperion, ApoUon, or Ajjclion), dct;ica-X6$
Pischel's derivation of the

roots

we have

in iripav

In the present pa.ssage of Herodotos, as
in

being akin to
(Od. xix. 521),

\\o\v-h(vKy^i,

xoKv-itvK^t

Thuk.

iv.

109, they are reganled as

natives

of Thrake.
(II.

But elsewhere

in

Homer

429; Od. xix. 177) the "divine Pelasgians" have passed into
x.

and the Homeric d-i<i'«n>i "unheroic" and iv-ivKiui "zealously," from the root due to lead " (Latin, duco). The myth which has attached itself to
'
'

30
Be Adopov Tov
^(oprjv,
'

HERODOTOS.
EWt/i^o?
rrjv vtto rrjv

[book

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Trjf
'laT(,at(i}TiBo<i
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ert,

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iovai TLeXaayayv
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rwv

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^

iroXvv olKCOvrtov,

ofiovpoi Kore

the name seems to refer to the ark of the sun-god sailing above the floods of winter. Pyrrha, the wife of Deukalion, is "the ruddy" dawn, the time when men rise again to the work of the day. Deukalion

Thera, and goes back to the time when the island was a Phoenician colony ; while

was the father of Protogeneia, "the morning," Amphi-ktyon (like Amphion, from the old Greek dfupos "a cloud") and Hellen. The latter name results from a confusion between Ds.\i), the Ionic eTXi} "heat" (like dpyewSi = d.py€iv6s), and the national name of the Hellenes. • The Eadmeians are usually in Greek
writers the Phoenicians of Thebes, after-

Greek vases represent Kadmos furnished with wings, whose human figure terminates in a serpent's tail. It would seem, therearchaic
as an old bearded god,
fore,

that the Phoenicians

who

colonised

Greece and the

Mgean

carried with

them

the worship of Kadmos, and might therefore be called Kadmeians wherever they

wards dispossessed by the Greek Boeotians. Kadmos, their leader, was the son of the Phoenician king Agenor or Khna (i.e. Canaan, "the lowlands," a name originally given to the Phoenician coast-land
only),

and

the

communicator

of

the

Phoenician alphabet to the Greeks.
wife,

His

Hermione, is the Semitic Kharmon, Hermon, "the Sanctuary." His name means "the Eastern" or "the ancient
god," from the Phoenician

Kadmeians at and in Asia Minor, i. 146. The Kadmeians at Athens were said to have been the fugitives from Thebes (Herod, v. 57), but more probably a Phoenician colony existed at Athens in the prehistoric age, the amalgamation of which with the towns on the Akropolls and the Pelasgikon (the modem Pnj'x-hill) created Athens. The plural 'Xdijvai implies the union of more than one community. By Pindos is meant
were
found.

For

the

Sparta see Herod,

iv.

147,

the city, not the range of mountains.
* The Pelasgi of Thrake would have spoken an lUyrian dialect, those of Thessaly a Greek one. ^ Kreston was in Mygdonia in Thrake

Kedem ("east"

and "ancient"). Ho was worshipped as a god not only at Thebes (Plut. Pelojnd. 19), but also at Sparta (Paus. iii. 15), whither the influence of the Phoenician colony on Kythera had extended, and, under the form of Kadmilos, cormpted into Kasmilos (Kedem el, "he who is before God "), was one of the three Kabeiri of Samothrake. The slayer of
the dragon, Kadmos, was himself changed
into a serpent, and thus
is

(see Steph. Byz.

ad

voc.)

Its inhabitants

are mentioned again in Herod, v. 5.

In

the time of Thukydides
Krestonians,
Bisaltians,

(iv.

109) the

and

Edonians

bordered on the Khalkidic colonies, and are all termed Pelasgiaos (so the passage

should be rendered). spoke two languages

These Pelasgians or dialects, and

identical with
(-yipuv
i<f>lwv)

"belonged to the Tyrsenians, who once
inhabited Leninos and Athens."
of Herodotos that they had

"the old serpent-god"

The

adored in Phoenicia (Nonnios, Dionysiac. il 274, xll 852). A figure of the ser-

latt«r statement contradicts the assertion

come from

pent

is

carved on a rock in the island of

Thessaly, not from Athens and Lemnos.

"

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Toiat vvv A.(opi€vcrc KoKeofievoiai

EAST.

31
yrji^

rjcrav

(oikcov Bk rrjvtKavra

rrjv

vvv QeaaaXicoTiv KokeofievTjv), koL roiv Y{\aKL7}v re koL S/cu-

\dK7)v

UeXaa-ySiv
^

olKrjo-dvTcou

iv

'KWrjaTTovrci),

o't

avvoiKot

iyevovTO

KdrjvaloLai,^

koX oca

dWa

TleXacryiKa

iovra ttoXlrolvvv

o-fULTa TO ovvofia fiere^aXe, el tovtouti rcKfiaipofievov Bet Xeyeiv,

rjaav ol TleXaayoX
frav TOLovro to dfia
TT]

^dp^apov yXwacav
ttj
e<i

livre<i.

el

rjv

Kal

HeXacryLKov, to ^Attl/cov eOvo^ eov Tie\aayLKov

fieTa^oXt]
Br)

"EWi^i/a? koI
ovt€

ttjv

yXcocraav fieTCfiade.

Kol yap

ovTe
elcl

ol

K.pr]a-Ta>viT]Tac

ovBafiolo'i

twv vvv

a-<f)ea<;

trepioLKeovTOiv

6p,6y\a)aaoi

ol

TlXaKirjvoi,

o'(j)l<Tt

Be

OfioyXfoaaoi' BrjXovcrl re oti tov r^velKavTO y\(oaar}<; •^apaKTrjpa
fi€Ta^aivovTe<i
€9

TaoTa

to,

^copla,

tovtov

€j(ov(7i

iv

<j>vKaKfj.
ttj

TO Be

'^X\.T}vi,Kov yXdoa-aj] fiev, eireiTe

eyeveTo, alet KOTe

avTTj 58

Bia'XpaTai,^

TOV

w? ifiol KaTa(f)aiveTat elvaf aTroa-x^ta-dev UeXaayiKov ^ eov daOeve^i, dirb a-fiiKpov Teo
e?
irXrjdo'i

fjuevTOi

diro

ttjv

dp')(r]v

opfieofxevov aij^ijTat
TrpoaKe'X^QypTjKOTcov

TOiv

idveoov, UeXacryoov fidXicrTa
(ti/^vcov.

TTpoa-de Be (ov

avTw Kal dXXcov eOvewv ^ap^dpcov Cfioiye BoKet ovBe to UeXaaycKOv e6vo<i,
fieydXQ)<i av^ijdrjvai.
03V Ta>v

eov

^dp-

^apov, ovBafid
TovTQ3v
Bt)

iOvewv TO
tov
)(p6vov

fiev

^Attikov KaTeyop.evov re 59
*A67)vata>v.^

KaX Bteairaafievov iirvvOdveTO 6 K^polcrof viro TLeKTiaTpdTov tov
*l7nroKpdTeo<i

tovtov

TvpavvevovTo<i

TheTyrsenians of Mygdonia have nothing
to ;do with the Tyrrhenians of northern Italy, except an accidental similarity of

monise the inconsistent statements that
the Hellenic race always spoke the same
language, and was a branch of the Pelasgians,

name.

To draw ethnographical
is to

infer-

which multiplied

greatly,

and yet

ences from this

repeat the error of

that the Pelasgian language differed from

the ancients, who derived the Tyrrhenians from the Torrhebians of Lydia. Dionysios of Halikamassos was the author of the blunder which identified KrestQn with the Etruscan Krotona (Cortona). • "Who had been neighbours of the Athenians." This refers to the tradition that Attika had once been inhabited by

the Hellenic, and the Pelasgians themselves were a barbarous

people,

never greatly multiplied.
tions on
*

which His specula-

philology and

ethnology are

never very profound.

The

three periods of the tyranny of

a "Pelasgian,"
tion.

i.e.

a prehistoric, popula-

Plakia and Skylake were eastward

of Kyzikos (founded B.c. 780

Perhaps ?). Herodotos derived his statement about them from Aristeas.
'^
' '

from B.c. 560 to Herodotos is incorrect in saying that the Athenians were "oppressed and disunited" (not "distracted") under his rule. On the contrary, he had found the country in a state of anarchy, misery,
Peisistratos extended

527.

The Hellenic

race has always

had

the same language ever

since it first

came into existence. ' We must leave Herodotos to har-

and poverty, in spite of Solon's legislation, and left it united, prosperous, feared abroad, enjoying peace and good laws at home, and intersected with roads while Athens itself was adorned with public
;

32
'iTTTroKpaTei

HERODOTOS.
yap iovTL
re iovret
ISicott}

[book

koX OeatpeovTi ra 'OXy/xTrta T€pa<;
to,

iyivero fieya' 6vcravT0<; yap avrov

lepa ol Xe^Tjre^ eTrea-Tewre^i
vBaTo<i

Kal Kpeoiv

efnrXeot
6

xal

avev

irvpo<i

e^ecrav

KaX

virepe^aXov.

^iXcov Be

AaK€Baifi6vio<;

'trapaTV)(0)v

koX

avve^ovXeve linroKpdrei irpcoTa uev yvvaiKa fit} dyecrdai reKVOTTOtov e? ra otKia, ei Be rvy^dvec e-^^tov, Bevrepa rrfv yvvalKa eKTrifiTreiv, koI et TL<i ol Tvy^dvet eo)v 7rat<?, tovtov
6e7}adfi€vo^ to Tepa<;

aTreLiraadai.

ovkcov

rdora irapaivecravTo^

X.(Xa)vo<;

Treideadat,

deketv Tov 'ImroKpaTea' yeveadac ol fxerd rdora rov Yieialarparov

rovrov,

09 araaiai^ovrwv rtov irapdXcov Kal rcov

eic

rov ireBiov

^AOrjvalcov, Kal rojv fiev irpoea-rewro^

Me^a/cXeo? rov 'AX/c/xewi/o?

rSiV Be eK rov ireBiov
rrjv

AvKovpyov

^

ApicrroXaiBeo), Kara(f)povijaa<;

rvpavviBa

ijyecpe rpirrjv

crdaiv, avWe^a*; Be araaLcara^ Kal
rpcofiarlco?

rS

\6yfp roiv virepaKpiwv irpoard^; fiij'^avdrai roidBe.
qp.iovov';

aa<i eojvrov re Kal

rjKaa-e

e9

rrjv

dyoprjv ro ^eiryo?

iKire^evyw'i rov<i eydpov'^, oX p.iv ekavvovra e? dypov yjdeXija-av
diroXecrai ByjOev,^
iBecro re rov Bijpov ^v\aKri<t rivo<i Trpo?
evBoK(,p-^o-a<i iv
"

avrov

Kvpqaat, irporepov
arparrjyir),

rfj

irpb'i

Mejapia^

yevofievrj

^Icraidv
Bi]fio<i ^

re eXmv Kal

dWa

aTroBe^dfievo^ fieydXa

epya.

6 Be

6

rwv

^AOrjvaicov e^airar'qdel'i eBtoKe ol roiv
o'c

d<Tra)V Kara\e^a<i dvBpa<i rovrov^

Bopvi^opov fiev ovk iyevovro

Ueiatarpdrov,
€cr')(ov rr}v

Kopvvrj^opoi

Be'

^vXav yap

Kopvva^

e')(^ovTe<i

^irrovro ol oTriaOe.

avve'rravaardvre'i Be ovroi dfia Ueia-io-rpdro)

aKpoiroXiv.
rd<f

evBa

Brj

6 TleicrLcrrparo'i rjp-^e ^AdTjvalcov,
Oecrfxia

ovre

rt,fjid<i

eovaa^ crvvrapd^af ovre

p,eraWd^a<;,
re rov
fitv.

eirl

re rolai Karearedcn eve/ie rrjv iroXiv Koafieoiv Ka\(o<i re Kal ev.

60 fierd Bk ov iroWov '^povov ravro tjipovqcavref;
Il€ia-i(rrparo<i

ol

^eyaKovreo

\eo9 crracri(orat Kal ol rov AvKovpyov i^eXavvoval
fikv

€<T^e ro nrpwrov ^A6^va^, Kal

ri)v

rvpavviBa

buildings and a library, was the centre of

distinction gained thirty-five years pre-

the intellectual

life

of the day, and pos-

viously can hardly have helped
his party conflicts.

him

in

sessed a naval supremacy which extended
as far as Sigeion

Nissea was the port

and commanded the
Cp. ch. 73,
vi.

of Megara.
' This shows that Peisistratos was chosen "tyrant" by the people, whose leader and champion he was against the His tyranny, therefore, was oligarchy. not the unpopular and unconstitutional

trade of the Black Sea.
'

" As he pretended. "
211, etc.

1, vii.
"

This must be a mistake. According to Plutarch (Solon, 8) the war between

M^garn and Athens took place before the P. would have been too young at that time to have held an important command, while the
legislation of Solon, B.C. 594.

rigime

it

See ch. 62.

was afterwards imagined to be. As the bodyguard was given
latter could not corn-

by the dlmos, the

i

plain of its being contrary to law.

i.j

THE EMPIRES OF THE

EAST.

33

ovKQ)

ol Sk i^ekdcravret Kapra ippt^oy/Mevijv €^G)i' uTre^aXe. HeiaiaTparov avTL<i €k v€T)<i eV dWijXoLO't iaraaiacrav. Trepi-

€Xavv6fi€vo<i
(TrpdT(p,
el

Be

rrj

a-rdaei
ol

6

MeyaKXerji; iTreKijpvKevero Ueia-i-

^ovKovTO

rrjv

Oiryarepa

e^eti/

yvvaiKa eVt

rfj

Tvpavvihi.

evhe^afievQV

Be

rov \oyov Kal o/MoXoyijcrapTo^ eVl
Brj

rqvroKTL UeicnaTpdrov, firj^aveovTai
€VT}de(TTaTov,
ft)<?

eVt

tjj

KaroB<p Trprjyfia

eyo)

evpiaKco,

fiaxpa),

iirei

ye

direKpidrf
*

€k

iraXauTepov rov ^ap^dpov edveo^ to 'KWtjvckop iov

Kal Be^LO)-

repov KaX

€VT)deir}<i

rfKiOiov dinfKXayfiivov fidXXov, el Kal Tore
rolai,

ye ovTOL ev 'Adrjvaloccri
V(ov
<TO(f)lr}v

irpoiTOLat, XeyofievoKTt elvai

EW?;rjv

/irj'^aveovTat roidBe.

ev

Tta

Brjfiw

rS

Tlaiavtei

yvvr) TTj ovvofia rjv ^irq, fi€ya6o<i aTro

reaaepcov

Trrj-^ecov

dtroXel-

TTOvaa

Tpel<i

BaKTvXov<; Kal dXXcof
e<?

eveLBi]<i.

ravrrjv ttjv yvvacKa

crKevdcravTe<; TravoirXlrj,
(Tyfifia olov Ti e/xeXXe

dpfia ea^L^dcravTe<i Kal irpoBe^avre^;
irpoirepr^avTe'i, ol to, evTCTaX-

evTrpeirearaTOV <f>avela-6at e'^ovaa, rfXavvov
K-rjpvKa^;

€9 TO

da-TV, 7rpoBpop,ov<;

fieva

rjyopevov

dTTLKOfievot,

e?

to

daTV, XeyovTe<i

ToidBe.
rj

"

a>

^A6r]vatoc, BeKeaOe

dyaQ^ vow

Tleiala-TpaTOv, tov avTr)

^Adrjvaiij

rifirjcraa-a dv6pd)7rcov /MoXccrTa

KaTdyec

e? Trjv ecovTrj<i aKpoiroXtv."

ol

fiev

Btj

TdoTa

Bia<f)OLTeovTe<;

Brifiovi

<f)dTi,<i

diriKeTo (u?

eXeyov avTiKa Be e? re tou? ^Adrfvaiq UeiaiaTpaTOv KaTdyei, Kal
ttjv

ol ev

T(p

dcTTet iretdoixevot,

yvvaiKa elvat avTrjV
Kal

ttjv

6eov

irpoaev^ovTo
aTToXa^oiv Be

re
ttjv

tt^v

dvOpwirov

eBeKOVTO

UeicrlcrTpaTov.

TvpavvlBa Tpoiro)
ola
Be

toS elprj/xevq) 6 Yletcrl(rTpaTO<; 61
yevofjbivrjv

KaTa

TT}v

ofioXoylrjv ttjv 7rpo<?

M-eyaKXea

yafiei tov

Meya/cXe'o? ttjv OvyaTepa.
ve'qvltov'^

TralBoiv

re
^

ol vTrap'^ovTcov

Kal Xeyofievwv evarfe(ov elvac twv

AXKfiecovcBecov,

ov

fiovX6fievo<i ol

yeveaOai
to,

e'/c

t^9 veoydfiov yvvaiKO<; TeKva ifilayeTO
vvv irpcoTa eKpvTTTC TdoTa ov
(fypd^ec
>)

ol ov

KaTa

vop.ov.

p,ev

yvvrj,
r}

fiCTa Be etre la-Topeva-rj
*

eire Kal

tjj e(0VTr]<i fiTjTpl,

" Seeing that ever since very ancient
been distin-

selves visible,

times the Hellenes have
giiished

from the barbarians by being."
to Pheidippides just before the

a mark of a later date, Herodotos belongs to the sceptical age of the Sophists, and can see nothing but
folly in the belief of his forefathers,
" "But as he had grown-up sons." Megakles the Alknueonid, l)eing arkhon at the time, had slain some of Kylou's followers at the altar of the Eumenides, to whicli tliey had attached themselves by a rope, and so brought the curse of the

Grote compares the api>earance of the

god Pan
l)attle

of

Marathon (Herod,

vi. 105),

and

infers that the Greeks of this period be-

lieved that the gwls sometimes visited

the earth.
the Iliad
cept
;

The same

belief runs

in the Odyssey,

through on the con-

trary, the

gods are always invisible, ex-

goddesses u[x>n himself and his family,

when they purposely make them*

See ch. 26,

D

; ;

34
8e TO) avhpl.

HERODOTOS.
TOP Be Seivov ri e<7^e arcfid^eadai
to?
7rp6<;

[bouk

JletaLa-

rpdrov.
cndiTrjcn.^

opyy Be

et^e
o

KaraWdaaero
ra

ttjv €'^6p7)v TOiac
'jroLeop.eva

ara-

jxadfov hk

TleL<Ti<npaTO<;

eV

eavTU)

diraWda-aeTO ck

Tfj<i '^(op7}<;

to irapd'Trav, dinKOfievo'i Be if 'E/aer'Ittttio)

ptav e^ovXevero dfia roiat TratcrL

Be yvoofirj vLK^aavTo<;

dvaKrdadac T&v -Trdkiav
ypr)p,dT(t)v.

oiriaoi
aiTive<i

tt)v
crcjic

rvpavviBa, evdavra rjyeipov Bcoriva'i ex
TrpoaiBearo kov
('')r}^aioi
tl.'

troWoiv Be fieydXa
rf}

Trapaa'x^ovToyv

^/OJ^yLtara,

virepe^dXavro

Boa-ei
Bi€<f>v

roiv

fierd Be, ov ttoWcS Xofycp

eiirelv, ')(p6vo<i

Kal

irdvra

ar<f}t

i^ijprvTO e? ttjv

kutoBov koX yap *Apyeloi
koI

fiia-Ooyrol

diriKovTO

CK

Ile\o7rovv^(Tov,

Nd^to?

cr(f)L

dvrjp

dtnyfievo'i

edeXovrrj'i, tc5 ovvofia rjv AvyBajj,i<;,

TrpodvfiLrjv
e'f

irXeiaT'rjv irapei-

62

y^ero, Kop,Laa<i

koI -^ijfiaTa koI dvBpwi.
€Teo<;

^^perpt'q'i Be opfii]-

0evT€<;

Bed

evBeKdrov

diTLKOvTO
ev Be

oiriaw,

Kal Trptorov

rrj<;

^ArTLKrjf; la'^ovat,

tovtw rS %&)/?&) cr^t crrpaTOTreBevofievocat, o\ re e/c rov a<Treo<i aTaaiarat airiKOvro dXXoL re eK ro)v Brjfiwv irpoaeppeov, roiai ^ rvpavv\<i irpo eXevdepi'q'i
M.apadd)va.
Tjv

daTracrrorepov.
€to<;

ovrot,

fiev

Brj

avv7]\i^ovro,

^

Adrjvaicov

Be

ra -^ijfiara rjyeipe, Kal a>9 ^aye M^apa6a>va, \6yov ovBeva elyov /jieravra eireire Be eirvOovro eK rou M.apad(ovo<; avrov iropeveadai etrl ro darv,
ol eK rod dcrreo<i,
fxev Ileia-i<Trparo<;

ovro)

Bi]

^oTjdeovai

eir

avrov.
ol
dfi(f}l

Kal ovrol re Trava-rparifj ijiaav
TleicrLcrrparov, (09 6p/jL7]devre<i eK
e<i

enrl rov<; Kartovra<i,

Kal
eirl

M.apad(t>vo<i ritaav
€7rl

ro darv,

rcovro avpt6vre<i dtriKveovrai

IlaXKT}viBo<t

^Adrjvairjf

iepov,

Kal

dvria edevro ra oifKa.

ivOavra

deljf irofiirfj '^eco/jL€vo<i '

irapia-rarai

Hetaiarpdrw A/i^t'

"He made up

his quarrel with the

performs an act of kindness except under
the supposition that
see
^
iii.

opposite party."
'

it

mil be repaid
is

to

" Which were under any obligations them." Peisistratos had made good
Five MSS. read

139, note 7.

The comment
It
is

of Herodotos

un-

use of the wealth derived from his silver-

just.

clear

that

the Athenian

mines on the Strym6n.
TporjiSiaTO,

people hailed Peisistratos as their deliverer from oligarchy and faction-fights hence the unmolested landing at Marathon, the diflSculty the oligarchs had

or irpor]S^aTo.
pi.

The ending

of the 3d pers.
tion -oro,

pluperf. in -eoro is

Homeric and Herodotean, the terminawhich properly followed a consonant only, being extended by analogy The form to stems ending in a vowel.
Xl/jotuWoNew-Ionic, not Old-Ionic. /uu literally means "to be in the condition of an alSaHoi to some one on account
is

in

getting

ease

a force together, and the with which it was dispersed by
If the people

Peisistratos.

had objected

to his coming, he could never have

made
See
139,
It is

his

iii.

way to Athene "Under divine
77, iv.

inspiration."

of services rendered by him."
trates

It illus-

152,

viii.

94

;

also

iii.

the Greek feeling that uo one

iv. 8, V. 92,

L 86,

iiL 163,

L 111.

!

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
6

EAST.
09
ol 7rpoaio)v

35

XyTO^;

*AKapvav
eppLirrat
8'

'x^prja/MoXoyo'i

dvijp,

xpd

iv

e^afi€Tp(p Tov(p rdSe Xeycov.
6 ^6\o<;, to Be Biktvov eKireireTacrrat,

0VVVOL
6 fiev
Bt)

S'

olfiijaovat a€\T}vair)<i Blo, vvKr6<i.

ol ivded^cov ')(pa

rdBe, TleiaiaTpaTOf Be
yjpr^crdev

avWa^oov to

63

"^prja-Tqpiov

KoX

<f>d<;

BeKeadat to
d(TTeo<;

iirijye t^i/ (TTpaTiijv.

W.dr)vaioi Be ol
Br)

e/c

rov

Trpo?

dpuarov rerpafifievoi rjaav

rrjVLKavra, Kal jxera

7r/309

Kv^ov<i ol Be

7rpb<i

dpcarov fiere^erepoi avrSiV ol fiev inrvov. ol Be dfi<f>l HetaiarpaTov ia-ireto
(fjevyovroov Be rovrcov ^ovkrjv

(r6vT€<; Toif<i ^AOrjvalovf;

rpdirovcn.

ivdavTa aotjxoTdrTjv
delev

IIeLcri(TTpaTO<i

eTTire'^vaTai, OKco<i fiijre

d\taroif<;
(f)ev-

en

ol ^Adrjvaloc

Biea-KeBaa-fievoc

re elev

dvafic^dawi

7raiBa<; cttI tTTTToy?

TrpoeirefiTre, ol Be

Kara\afi^dvovre<i tov<;
Ueca-c<rTpdTov,

yovTa'i eX.e'yov

rd evreraXfieva
Br)

vtto

dapaelv re

K€\evovTe<i Kal aTrievat cKacrrov eirl
Ta>v
^

rd eoyvTov,
to rpirov

irecdofievcov Be 64
a-'^oav *Adi)va<;

AOrjvaiwv, ovro)

Tleicria-TpaTO'i

eppi^wcre Tr)v rvpavvlBa eiriKovpocai re TroWoiai Kal yj>r))idTa}v

avvoBoLcn,
(Tvvtovrcav,'

roiv

fiev

avrodev rwv Be diro XTpvfi6vo<i
re

'rrorap.ov

ofirjpovi

tmv

TrapafieLvdvroov *A67)vaL(ov
Kara(Trrj(Ta<i
e<i

Kal

fir)

avTiKa

<f)vy6vT0)v

7ratBa<i

Xa^oiv Kal
rovroLcn
rrjv

^d^ov

{koI

yap Tavrtjv 6

Tlei<Tia-TpaTO<i KarecTrpe'^aTO iroXefKp

Kal eirerpe'^e
ex

AxjyBdfieC)^ 7rpo9

re

en

vrjaov AifKov Ka6r)pa<i ix
eiroy^c^

Ttou Xoyiayv, Kadr)pa<;

Be SiBe'

eV oaov
koX

tov lepov
pJkv

el'xe,

k

rovTov TOV

'x^fopov
TY)<i

7ravTo<;

e^opv^a^

TOv<i

veKpov<i fi€T€<f>6p€i e?

dWov ywpov

A?7\oy.*

WeialcrTpaTo^

eTvpdvveve

tempting to correct 'Aitapi^i' into 'Axapvei)t with Valckenaer, since Achamae was
close to Pallene (near the

from

Attica,

others

from

the

Stry-

mon "
3

modern

Garit6),

This

is

inconsistent with the account

and Plato
countrjrman
1

calls
(

Amphilytos
the net spread

a fellowsoon

Thcag. 124).
;

" The cast

is flung,

The tunnies dart beneath the moon."

The enemies

of Peisistratos will soon dart

helplessly in his nets, like the coarsest

whom Lygdamis was made tyrant by the dhnos in consequence of an insult received by a certain LygTelestagoras from the oligarchs. damis is a Karian name. * Delos underwent a further purificaof Aristotle, according to
tion in the winter of B.c. 426,

of Mediterranean
'

fish.

when the

This,

of course, refers to the "re-

Atlienians removed all the corpses that

venues," some of which were obtained

had been buried
for

in
all

it,

from Attika, others from the silver-mines of Thrake (see v. 23). According to Thukyd. (vi. 54), Peisistratos levied a tax of five per cent on the incomes of the Athenians. Grote mistranslates the

the future

births

and ordered that and deaths

should take place in the neighbouring island of Rheneia (Thukyd. iii. 104).

"some

troops

being derived

More than half the corpses were shown, by their armour and mode of burial, to have be«n those of Karians (Thukyd. L

;

;

36
^

HERODOTOS.
oi fi^v iv rfj /jm^^jj

[book

AOrjvamv, ^ Adrjvaimv Be
^

iireirratKeaav, ol he

65

avTwv fxer Tov? fiev vvv Xdrfvaiovi roiavra rov '^ovov rovrov etrwddAXKfiecoviZewv €<f>evyov eK
'

tt)? olK7}ir]<;.

vero 6 Kpoico? Kare')(ovra, Tov<i Se AaKeBaifioviov; eK kukcov re
fieyaXeov
'jTe<j>ev>yoTa<i

Koi eovTa<i

rjBrj

to> iroKefico

Karvrreprepov^
ev

TeyeTjrewv.

eVt yap Aeoi/ro? ^aaCKevovTo^ Koi
to Be

'lAyrjo-LKkeo'!;

XirdpTT} TOt'9 dXKov<i TroXe/iof? evTV)(eovre<i ol AaKeBaifiovioL irpo^
Teye-^rai; fiovvov<i "Trpoa-eTrTaiov.

en

irporepov tovtcov koI
cr(f)ea<i

KaKovo/jLcararoL rjcav a^eBov iravTcov ^KWijvayv Kara re

avTov<; Kal ^eivoiai dirpoafjuiKroL.

fiere^aXov Be wBe e?

evvofiirjv.
i<i

AvKOvpyov
<f>ov<;

roiV 'ZiraprLT^reayv
to?

BoKLfiov dvBp6<; eXd6vro<i

AeX-

eirl

rb '^Tjarijptov,

eaijte

e? to fieyapov, evdv^ q TivOiri

Xeyei rdBe.
i]Ket<i o)

AvKoopye
ere

ifiov Trorl iriopa vr^ov

Zrjvl
Bi^Q)

0t\o9 Kal trdaLv ^OXvfnrca BcofJMT eypvcL.
17

Oeov /juiVTevaofiai

rj

dvdpwrrov.

dX)C

en

Kal fjudWop Oeov

eXiroixat,,

w

AvKOopye.^

The Phoenicians seem to have wor8). shipped the sun-god in Delos before the Greeks took possession of the island and
introduced Apollo (see Jebb ou Delos, in the Jminuil of Hellenic Studies, i. 1880),

ology than to history, like the numerous
other Lykurgi of Greek legend, the sons
of Ares, Boreas, or Herakles.
to Plut. Lyk.
1,

Acconling

the Spartan lawgiver

one who has visited the spot to underetand why an insignificant rock, situated between two other islands, and not in the direct line of passengers from Asia to Europe, should

though

it

is

difficult

for

was the son of Eunomos and fiither of Eukosmos. Plutarch begins his life by saying, Concerning the lawgiver, Lykurgos, we can assert absolutely nothing which is not controverted there are
' '

;

di£fercnt stories in respect to his birth,

have become the centre of a great religious By thus purifying Delos, Peisistratos gave visible i)roof that Athens was at the head of the Ionian world, and we can only wonder how sucli a naval
worship.

his travels, his death, and his

mode of

proceeding, both jwlitical and legislative
of all is his age agreed upon." Thukydides does not allude to him, but states that the Spartans emerged from
least

supremacy and })olitical influence could have been acquired in so short a time.

desperate disorders 400 years Ix'fore the

Peloponnesian
(Strabo,
viii. p.

War

(i.

18).

Hellauikos

The

oracles were doubtless stored in the

363) eijually ignores him,

public library Peisistratos established at

and

ascribes the constitution of Sparta

he had banished Onomakritos for forging an oracle of Mousaios (Herod,

Athens
vii. 6).

;

to Eurystheus

are ascribeil to

Numa
my
wealthy

and Prokles. Institutions him which show that, like Pompilius at Rome, he was the

B

" Xhou art come, Lykurgos, to
shrine,

ideal legislator to

whom

all

the regula-

tions of the later Sparta were referred.
all
tliee

The fHend of Zeus and I doubt if I shall name
Yet rather
go<l,

that are divine god or man,
if 1

He

is

said to have forbidden the use of

gold and silver money,

wliich was un-

Lykurgos,

can."

known

in Greece

till

the age of Pheid6n,

Lykurgos, "e xpeller of the wol ves" of
nuarchy, seems to belong rather to myth-

the iron rings retained at Sparta being

the previous medium of exchange through-

!•]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
fiev

EAST.
(fypdaat

37
avro) Tr}v
S'

ot

8^

Tcv€<;

tt/oo?

tovtokti \eyovai koI

Ilvdirjv

Tov vvv Kareareoira Koa^ov

z.'rraprLrjTTpcn'

<w?

avToX

AaKcSai/xovioi Xeyovcn, AvKovpyov iirLTpoirevaavTa
a8€\(f)i8eov ixev koivrov ^a<n\evovro<; Be 'ZTrapTtrjrewv,

Aeoy^coreo),
e/c

Kpr^r?;?

dyajecrOai rdora.^
vofiifia

yap iireTpoirevae rdy^tara, /jLeTecrrrja-e to, irdvra, Kal €(f>v\a^€ rdora firj trapa^aiveiv. fierd Be rd
to?

€9 TToXefiov e'^ovra, ev(op,OTia<i koX rptriKdhaf; Kal avcra-LTia,'

tt^o?

re

TovTotcrt

tov<;

e<^6pov'i

koI

yepovra^

^

ecrrrjae

AvKovpyo<;.

ovTQ) fiev /j,eTa^aX6vT€<i evvofirjOrjaav,
rrjo-avTL lepov

rw

he

AvKovpyo) reXev- 66
ola Be ev re
'

eladfievoc ae^ovrac jxeydXait;.

dyaOfi Kol

7rX')]0€t

ovk
Kal
^

oXip/tov
Brj

dvBpwv, dvd re eBpafiov
ovKert,

X^PV avrUa
dyecv,

Kal

evdrivrjOrjo-av.

crcfic

direxpcL

"qcrvx^r^v

dXXd

KaTa<ppovrj(TavTe<i

ApKdBwv Kpea-aova

elvat i'XP'H'^'TripLdi^ovTO

ev AeX(f)otcn eVt irdcrrj rrj

^ApKdBwv X^PV'

V ^^

Hvdit]

a<f)L

Xpd

rdBe.

out the country.

The ephors whom he

was supposed to have instituted dated only, as we learn from Aristotle, from the time of the first Messenian War, and Grote has shown that the equal division of lands with which Lykurgos was credited was an idea which arose in the
age of Agis in the third century
b. c.

' In the time of Thukydides (v. 68) the Spartan X6xos or cohort contained 4 pentekostyes and 512 men, the jientekostys 4

euomotise and 128 men.

Xenophon

{Hell. vi.

4) the

In the time of lokhos con-

No

sisted of only 2 pentekostyes, and the pentekostys of only 2 enomotife and 50 men. The triikas is mentioned only by

wonder the oracle hesitated whether to call hira god or man. * Aristotle makes him more than 100 years later (b.c. 880), and along with
other writers calls
as,

Herodotos, ami seems to have ceased to
exist at the beginning of the Pelopon-

nesian War.
public meal

The
it.

Syssitia refers to the

{<(>eiSLriov)

paid for by those

him

a Prokleid, where-

who
*

shared

accoi-ding to Herodotos, he

would have

been an Ageid. Aristotle and others also state that he was regent for Kharilaos,

of the people at

The ephors correspond to the tribunes Rome, and like the latter,

gradually usurped the supreme power in

The peculiarities of the not LabCtas. Spartan constitution which turned the state into a military camp were unknown to Krete the institutions of Krete agreed with those of Sparta only in so far as the latter might be regarded as the com;

As has been already stated, they were really instituted in the time
the state.
of

Theopompos

(Arist. Pol.

v.

9

;

Plut.

Lyk. 7 ). The yipovTe% are the thirty members of the Council, which, as a common Dorian institution, nnist have existeil
state.

mon property of the
irresponsible
ckklcsia,

Dorian race
called
called

(a senate,

ephors

koami,

Periceki

vvi/ikooi,

an and

from the very beginning of the Spartan Each member was required to Ihj
9

over sixty years of age.

The Kretans, however, had a public meal known as
public slaves called
fu/olai).

"They

(shot)

grow up."

'kvi.

is

ivifna, furnished at the expense of the

used adverbially and separated from its verb, as in Homer, showing that the so-

state

;

but they had no kings, and pos/cXij-

sessed private slaves {itpatuGnat or
fydrroi).

Homeric tmesis is not necessarily mark of the Old Ionic dialect Comj). vii. 156, and H. 18, 56.
called

a

;

;

38
^ApKaBiTjv
fjb

HERODOTOS.
alrel^' fieya
fi

[book

atrei?*

ov roc

Soxtg).

TToWol iv ^ApKaBiT) ^a\ainj<^drfOL avBpe<; eaatv,
oX

a

atroKOiKxxTovcnv.

eycb Be

rot,

ovrc [xeyaipto.

BaxTto TOt Tejerjv irotjaiKporov 6p')(riaacrdai,

Kcu KoXov ireBiov a-^oivo) Biafierprjaaa-dai,}

rdora
fiev

oi<i

airevei'^Oevra

rjKovaav

ol

AaKcBai/xoviot,

^ApKaBcov

TOiv

aXKoiv

direi'x^ovTo, ol Be TreSa?

^epofievoi ewl TejeijTw;
a)9
Brj

ea-TparevovTO, '^prjcrfM^ ki^BtjXco ttlctvvol,
fievoc
Tov<i

e^avBpaTroBLov-

TeyeijTaf;.

eaa-oodevre^;

Be

rrj

avfi^oXj}, oaoc avroiv
a")(oiv(p

€^Q)ypi]0ri<Tav, TreSa?

re

€')(ovre<i

rd<i

e^epovTo avroX Koi

Biap.erp'qadfievot, to ttcBlov to Teyerjricov ipyd^ovTO.

al Be ireBai

avrai, iv

rfja-i

eBeBearo, ere Kal e? ifie rjorav aoai ev Teyerj, irepl

Tov vrjbv
67

T»/9 'AXeiy? 'AOijvaiT}^ Kpefidfievai.^ fiev
Btj

Kara
deBXeov
BaifiovL

rov irporepov TroXefiov

a-vve^e(o<i

alel

KaKtoq

rrpof;

rovf Teyetjraii, Kara Be rov Kara Kpoicrov '^povop
*

Kol rrjv 'Ava^avBpiBeo) re Kal
rjBrj

AplaT<ovo^

fiaa-tXrjiTjv

iv Aa/ce-

ol ^iraprirjTaL

Karvweprepot
iTrecBrj alel

rcG iroXefKp

iyeyoveaav,
vtto

TpoTTO)

TOLtpBe yevofievoL.
•rr€fiyfravT€<i

reo TVoXefKp

eaaovvro

TeyerjTecov,

Oeorrpoirov'i e? Ae\<^oi'9

iireipwreov rtva

av deSiv IXaadfievoc Karinrepde rw iroXefKp Teyerjrecov yevoiaro. Be TivOirj a(f)t e')(p7}cre to, ^Opearea) rov Ayafiefivovo<; oarea 17 &><? iirayayofievovi;. Be dvevpelv ovk oXoL re iyivovro rrjv dijKrjv
^

rov ^Opecrreto,

eirep.irov avri<i

rrjv

e?

6eov

iireiprja-ofjbevov'i

rov

X&pov
TTOLtTi

iv Tc3 Keocro 'O/aetrr^?.

elpcoruai Be rdora rolai Oeoirpo-

\eyec

rj

Hvdirj rdBe.
^

eari T49 ApKaBLT}<i Teyer) Xevpo) ivl
Kal rinro^
evO*
^

^(^copta,

tv6* dvefioc Trveiovac Bvod Kpar€prj<i vtt
dvrlrv'rro<;,

dvdyKTfi,

Kal

Trijfi

iwl Tnjfiari Kelrac.

AyafiefivovlBrjv

Kare')(ei <j>val^oo<; ala,
ea-arj.^
rrj<i

rov av KOfiia<rdfMevo<; T€yeT}<i iTnrdppodot
ft)9

Bk Kal rdora qKovcrav ol AaKeBaifiovioi, direl'^ov
Bi^'^fievoi, 69

i^evpeaio<i

ovBev eXaaaov, rrdvra
KaXeofievcov

h

Brj

Ai'^r^f;

XTraprirjreoDV

dvevpe.

ol

Be

rwv dyadoepytov dyaOoepyol elaX rmv
epithet.

1

" Arkadia ask you ? No such boon I grant Many, on aconis fed, that dwell therein Shall keep you off. And yet I grudge you naught ; Tegea I'll grant to dance «ith swinging foot, And the fair plain to measure with the rod."
.

whence her
q
8 "

See Pans.

iii.

5,

Arkadlan Tegca lies upon a plain xhere blow two winda, driven by might and

Athena Alea was worshipjwd also at Mantineia, Manthyreia, and Aleia,
"

main Blow upon blow and stroke on stroke again. The frtiltftU soil holds Agamemnon's son Fetch htm to thee, and T^ea is won."

"

1.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
i^i6vTe<i

EAST.
ol

^

39

a<TTa>v,

ck
Toi"?

rdv
Set

linrecov

*

alel

Trpea-^VTaroi^ Trevre
e'^t&xrt
e/c

€T€o^ eKacTTOV'

rovTOv TOP ivLavTov, Tov av

rSiv CTTTrecov, SrrapTirjrecDv

t^ koivw

Bia7refi7rofi€Vov<;
At^j^T;?

fir)

iXivveiv

aXKov<i aWrj.'^

tovtcov oiv Tcov

avSpav
<ro(f)ir).

Kal avvTV^LT) y^priadfxevo'i KaX
)(povov
eTTifii^ir)'; irpo'i tov<;

eovcrj^;

avevpe iv Teyir) 68 yap tovtov tov

Teyej/ra?, e\$a>v e? ')(aXKrjt,ov iOrjeiro
rjv

a-iBijpov e^eXavvofievov,^

koI iv Ocovfiart

opecov to Troceofievov.

[ladwv he ficv o ^aX/ceu? airoOoiVfid^ovTa elire iravaajjuevo^ tov epyov " ^ Kov av, w ^eive Aukcov, et irep eZSe? to irep eya>, KapTa

av

i0Q)v/j,a^€<;,

okov vvv ovto) TXjyyaveL^ dSiVfia TroLeo/xevo^
iycb

ttjv

epyacTLTjv

tov aiB^pov.
opvaacav
fiev

yap

iv r^Se OiXcov Trj avKfj cppeap

iroLriaaadai,
d'7rL<TTir}<;
firj

iireTv^ov

aopiS^

eTTTainj-^ei'

inro

he

yeveaOat

fi7)Ba/jbd

fi€^ova<i
fir^Kei

dvdpdo7rov<;

avoL^a avTTjv Kal etSov tov veKpov
fieTpri(Ta<;
OTTiOTret,

icrov
hi]

twv vvv iovTa Trj aopS'
eXeye
to,

he

a-vvi'^^oja-a

oTrtcro)."

6 fiev

ol

irep

he ivvoicra'i
deoirpoTTLOv

to,

Xeyofieva
elvat,

crvve^dWeTO tov 'Opeo-rea
Trjhe

KaTa TO
j(a\Keo<;

tovtov

crvfjb^aWofMevo'i

'

tov

hvo opecov

<j)vcra<;

Tov<i

dvefiovi evpiCKe iovTa^, tov he

aKfiova Kal Trjv (T(f>vpav tov re tvttov Kal tov dvTLTVTrov, tov he
i^eXavvofievov
crlhrjpov

to
iirl

irrjfia

iirl

TrrjfiaTt

Keifievov,

KaTa
€<f>pa^€

TOLOvhe TL eiKai^wv, w?
trvfi^aW6fievo<i he

KaxS
Kal

dvOpdoirov aihripo';
direXOcbv
e?

dvevprjTai.

TdoTa
false

'^TrdpTrjv

Ata seems one of the

forms of

of the world.

Even

in the middle of the
it

the Epic dialect, produced by the supposition that yaia at the end of a line

was resolvable into
*
'
'

y' ala

(Journal of

Philology, x. 19 (1881), p. 118).

Who quit the order of the kniglits.

The statement of Herodotos is contradicted by the better testimony of Xenophon {De Rep. Lac. 4, 3), who says that the ephors elected three Iwrraypirai, and these chose the 300 knights from among the Spartan youth. As the ephors were changed every year the election must
have been annual. Stein quotes the verse in the Elym. Ma,g. 417 4x' Afx* fUya ffSifia. 5 " Should continue in active service, being sent in different directions by the Spartan community."
:

would appear, the was a novelty to the Spartans, among whom there was little trade or manual labour and smiths and smithies continued to be called x<i^f«* and xa^'f"s throughout Greece after the use of iron became general. The fact bears upon the date of the Homeric Poems, which are well acquainted with the use of iron, and effectually disposes of the legend which ascribed to Lykurgos
sixth century B.C.,

forging of iron

;

the introduction of iron rings into Sparta
as a

medium
The verb

of exchange (see note 6 on

ch. 65).
'

ffwixuffo.

shows that aop6^

here means
**

"a

sepulchral

chamber"

or

tumulus " rather than "a coffin." The bones were evidently those of some fossilised animal, like the bones of the

• The employment of iron in the place of bronze was of comparatively late date

Dun

Cow
at

slain

by Guy of Warwick, preserved
Castle.

among the

Greeks, as among other nations

Warwick

Similar notions of

40
AaKeBaL/jLoviotai
iireveiKavre'i
<f)pd^ci}v

HERODOTOS.
irav

[liuuK

to

Trprj^fw,.

ol

8e

eV

Xo'yov

'rrXaarov

ol alrirjv iBico^av.

6 Be ainKOfievo'i e? Tejeijv koI
irpo^ rov

rrjv

ecovrov
rT)v

a-vfi<f>opTjv

yoKxka efiLadovro

trap

ovK

€KBi,BovTO<i

avXrjv.^

'^6v<p Be

ox? aveyviocre, evoiKiadrf,
<f>epa)v

avopv^a<i Be rov rd(^ov Koi ra ocrrea (rvXke^a<; oX-^ero
%irdprriv.

e?

kol

ciTro

rovrov rov '^povov,

6K(0<i

ireipataTO aXX'^Xayv,
ijBr}

ttoWm
Be
a(f>L

Karvrreprepot

tS
Ti)<i

TroXifxtp

eyivovro ol AaKeBaifxovtoL'
'qv

Kal

t)

TrdXXrj
<av

JleXoirovv^crov

Karearpafifievr}.
6

69

Tdora

Br)

irdvTa

7rvv0av6/j,€vo<;

Kpotao?

eTre/iTre

e?

%'irdpTr}v dyyeXovf;
evTeikdfi,ev6<i re
rj/xia'i

Bwpd

re <^epovra<; Kal Berjaofjuevovi
°^'

avfifMa'^irj'i,

rd Xiyeiv XPV^'

^^ iXdovrefi eXeyov " eirefi-^e

K/aottro? 6
o)

AvBmv

re kol dXXcov edveoav ^acnXev<i, Xeyoiv

rdBe.

AaKeBacfjLOVLoi, yprjo'avro'i
v/j,ea<;

rov Oeov rov "^XXrjva
'Trpoecrrdvac
T779

<f>lXov

irpoaOeaOai,
vfiia^
S>v

yap irvvddvofiaL
-^prjcrT'^piov

'EWaSo?,
re deXcov

Kara ro

irpoa-KaXeopui

<^iXo<;

yeveadai Kal avfip.ayp^ dvev re BoXov koI dTrdTijf;." Kpottro? Br) rdora Bi dyyeXcov eTreKrjpvKeveTO, AaKeBaifxovioi, Be fiev
dKr)Ko6T€<i Kal avTol to deoTTpoinov ro J^poiao) yevofievov i)cr67)adv

re

rfj diri^ei,

roiv

AvBoiv Kal erroLrjo-avro opKia
irejx-^avre'i
€<:

^eLvlr)^

irept Kal

a'VfjLfia'X^iT)^'

Kal ydp rcvef avrov<; evepyeaiac
yeyovvtai.

el'^ov

€k Kpolaov
e?

irporepov

en

ydp
^

ol AaKeBaifioptoi

%dpBt<; ')(pvaov ooveovro,

dyaXfia fiovXofievoi yjpria-aadai rovro
tBpvrai,
AttoXXcovoi;.'*

ro vvv 70 Be a<^i

rri<i

AaK(ovLKrj<i iv

SopvaKo

Kpoi<TO<i

o)V€OfiepoLcri

eBtOKC

Bcorivrjv.

rovrcov re

wv
fiev

eXveKev

oi

AaKeBaifioviot rrjv

(rv/j,fia'^L7)v

eBe^avro, Kal

on

e'/c

Trdvrwv

(T(f>€a<i

trpoKpiva^ '^XXrjvwv alpelro
eroifioc

<f>tXov<;.

Kal rovro ro

avrol rfaav
-^dXKeov
fieydOet

eirayyeiXavn, rovro
re
e^foOev

Be

Troirjadfievoc
Trepl

Kpr}rr)pa
^

^tpBuov

7rX»;<7ai/Te9

'x^eTXo<i

Kal

the size and strength of the ancient heroes
are found in
304).
'

Sellasia.

The

Spartans

were

ready

Homer

{e.g.

11.

1,

272

;

5,

enough to help an Asiatic despot who had conciuered their brother Greeks of
Ionia
;

"He
it

from the
give

latter,

wished to rent the courtyard who at first would not

they were not so e<]ually ready

afterwanls to assist Athens

when

threat-

up." " This seems to be an error. Theopompos {Fr. 219) states that the Spartans

ened by Persia, ^ The bronze bowl must have been made in imitation of the Phceniko-Hellenic or

had

sent for the gold in order to

"Corinthian" ware, which was
with the figures of This was a favourite Phoeniof decoration, and character-

cover the face of the image of Apollo, at

similarly adorned

Amyklse, with
actually
feet

it,

and Pausanias

(iii.

10)

animals.
cian

saw the statue (which was 45 Thomax was a mountain on the road from Sparta to
high) at Amyklte.

mode

ised both their pottery

in metal.

and their work The embroidery of Thera,

,.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
ovk airiKeTo
oi fiev

EAST.

4l

TpLT)ico(TLOv<i afj,<f>opea<; •y^copeovTa

^yov, Baypov ^ovXofievoL umiSovvat
e?

KpoLao).
8t<f>aa'ia^

ovTO'i

6

Kprjrrjp
Tiia-Be.

SapSt?

he

alriaf
tu?

Xeyo/Meva^

AaKeBaifiovioi Xeyovac

eTTeire a'^ofMevo'^ e? ra<i "EcipBtf 6 KprjTVjp iyivero

Kara

Trjv 'S.afiLTjv,

TTvOofievot SdfjLCoc aireKoiaro

avrov

vrjva-l fuiKpfjai 67rt7r\<u<raj/Te<?

avTOi Be

Sdfjicot \eyova-c a>?

eVeire ixnepT^aav oi d>yovTe<i rwv Aukc-

BatfiovLcov Tov

Kprjrijpa, efrvvOdvovro Be

%dpBi^ re koI l^polaov
IBicaTa^i

ffkwKevat,
Trptafievov^
dtroBofievot

direBovTO rov Kprjrrjpa ev

Xdfiq),
~

Be

dvBpa<i

dvadelvai

fiiv

€<?

to

'

Upaiov

rd'^a Be av
to?

kuI oi

Xeyoiev dnriKOfievoc

e<?

^irdprrjv

aTracpedeirja-aP

inro Za/jLLfov.

Kara
TOV

fiev

vvv tov KprjTtjpa ovtoj eV^e.
eTToceiTO
(XTpaTrjirjv

}^polcro<i Be d/uipTcov

71

')(pr](7fJiov

e?

KaTrTraBoKiTju,

eXTricra?

KaTaiprjaeLV K.vpov re Kal ttjv TLepaecov Bvpa/Miv.
fjiivov

irapacrKeva^o-

Be

K.poL<Tov

crTpaTeveadat

iirl

Ile/xra?,

t&v

Tt9

AvBwv

vo^i^ofjLevo<;

Kal TrpocrOe etvai

<ro<f)o<;,

dirb

Be TavT7}<; t?)? yvdifir}^

Kal TO KdpTa

ovvo/xa iv AvBoiat,
rjv

€'^(ov,

avve^ovXevae J^poiao)

rdSc

ovvofid ol

%dvBavL<i.
ol

"

at

^acriXev, iir dvBpa<: toiovtov;

(TTpaTeveadat Trapaa-Kevd^eai,
Be TTjv

(TKVTtva^ fiev dva^vplBa^ aKVTivrjv

dWrjv ea-drJTa (f)opeov<7L, criTeovTat Be ovk ocra iOeXovac aXk oaa e^oucrt, '^^uiprjv e^yovTe^; Tpir^eav. tt/do? Be ovk oiv<p
Biay^peoiVTat

oKKa
fiij

vBpoTroTeovai, ov crvKa Be e'^ovai Tpotyeiv, ovk

dWo

dyadov ovBev.

tovto
iaTi

fiev By, el vcKT]crec<i, tl (T<pea<i diraLprj-

aeat, Tolai ye

fjbrjBev ;

tovto

Be, rjv viKfjOrjii, fidOe
rjfieTepoov

oaa

dyadd
OVK

diro^aXel';' yevadfievoi

yap twv

dyaOayv irepie^-

Oeoln €'^o> '^dpiv, ot aTpaTeveaOat eirl AuSou?." TdoTa \eya)v ovk eTretde tov K.poiaov. Uepcijac ydp, rrrplv AvBov^i KaTacrTp€(f>aa-6aL, rjV ovTe d^pov ovTe dyadov ovBev.
ovTai ovBe diruxTTol eaovTat,.
cttI

eyut fxev vvv

voov TTOLOvcn

Ilepa"rj(rc

which

had a
;

Phoenician

origin,
s.

was

decrees

and dedications).

A

statue of

similariy adorned (Hesykh.

v. Q-fipcuov
vii.

Bathyllos was erected by Polykrates before the altar (Apuleius, Flor. 15),

and GijpotiSets Pollux, Orunn, compare II. n. 289).
-

48,77;

there was also a colossal group
(Strab.
dipteral,
xiv.

and by Myron
w^as

A

single

this temple of Hera,

column only remains of which had been
directions of Rhoekos
It

637).

The temple
to

and seems

have been built

built under the

(Herod,

iii.

60).

has
in

been
1850,

exca-

vated by M.

Guerin

Prince

John Ghika in 1853, and M. P. Girard in 1879. Herr Humann has also dug on
the spot.
Little has been

See on the site of an older one. Herod, ii. 182. A^oie*- is imperf. opt, and, unlike Attic usage, when united with dv, expresses a conjecture about the past, See vii. 184, |214 ; viiL 136. Herodotos

found except

also uses the aor.

opt. with &» in the

a few bas-reliefs and inscriptions (mostly

same sense

(vii.

180, ix. 71), like

Homer.

42 72
Be

HERODOTOS.
Ol
01

[book

Se K-wmraBoKat vtto 'YaW^vcov ^vpioc ovofid^ovrac''' rfaav

^vpLOL

ovroi

rb /xev irporepov
6

r)

Uepa-a^ dp^ai yiijBcov
rrj<i
^

KaTrjKOOL, Tore he

Kvpov.

yap

ovpo<; rjv

re Mt/Si/c^? «PX^^

Kal

Tr)9 AvSiKrj<i

6 "A\v<; irorap-o'i, 09 pel e^

Kpfieviov 6peo<; Bid
e/c

K.iXlkwv,'^ fierd Be MartT^i/oi/? fiev ev Be^ij}
'

e-^et peoav,

Be tov

erepov ^pvya<i'
^operjv
dve/jLOV

7rapafiei^6fi€vo<i

Be rovTov<; koX pecov dvco 7rpo<;
K.aTTTraBoKa'i
direpyei,

evdev

fiev

Svpiov<i

i^

evcovvfiov
a'X^eBbv

Be Ila(}>7u[r/ova<;.
rrj'i

ovtq) o "A\v<i voTap,6<i

diroTafivei,
Trj<;

iravra

^Aaii]<i

rd Kara) ex

6a\dcr<n]<;

dvriov
^(op'r]<;

J^vTTpov e? TOP ^ij^eivov irovrov.
ravT7]<i
tt7ra<T7;<?* fMijKOf

eari Be av-^rjv ovro<i

tt)?

oBov ev^oyvm dvBpl irevre ^fiepac dvaien6 Kpolo-o<; eirl rr]v

73 fiovvrac.^

earparevero Be

KaTnraBoKLrjv rwvBe

* Kappadokia was bounded on the west by the Halys, and on the south by Its area is larger in the the Kilikians. Persian cuneiform inscriptions, where it is called Katpaducca or Katapatuka The important Hit(comp. Kat-aonia). tite remains at Eyuk and Boghaz Keui

ans into Armenia, and the Aryan Medes
into Media, in the seventh century B.C.

Phaniaspes, king of Kappadokia, married

are within

its

borders,

and there

is

Kambyses, king of Diodorus Siculus but as he is also said to have been five generations distant from Darius Hystaspis, the statement cannot be correct
Atossa,
sister

of

Persia, according to

;

plenty of evidence that it was at one time the headquarters of the Hittite race.

They must be the White Syrians
Strabo,
contrasts

of

whom
Avith

the

the
(pp.

Greek Black
i.

geographer Syrians of
Cf.

The names of the 68, note 4). Kappadokian kings, however, are Persian, as well as the deities worshipped in Kappadokia in the Persian period (Omanes, Anandatis, and Anaitis). See
(see
iii.

early

Semitic
(Fr.

Aram
ed.

533, 544, 737.
948).

ch. 77.
*

Schol. ad
150,

ApoU. Rhod.
Bergk)

Pindar
of

The

Kilikia of Herodotos extended

speaks

"a

considerably to the north of the Taunis
range.

siiear-armed Syrian host " at the

of the

mouth Thermodon (compare Herod, ii.
river

Herodotos puts the Matieni
far too

(of

Lake Urumiyeh)
'

much

to the west.

104), the

on whose banks dwelt
;

The pedestrian would
is

certainly re-

the Amazons, the Hittite priestesses of the Asiatic goddess and Sinope, accord-

quire to be

distance

"well equipped." As the 280 miles, and Herodotos
(iv,

ing to Skymnos of Khios (943), was founded among the Syrians. But these
Syrians were really Hittites, so called as coming from the country known to the Greeks as Syria. The Aramaic legends

makes 200

stadia (about 23 miles) a day's
101),

caravan journey

either

his

on the coins of SinOpe, Side, and Kotyora or Gazir (Brandis, MUnzwesen, 808, 427),
See also to a later period. Herod, vii. 72. Strabo states that the language of the Kataonians was the same

geography or his arithmetic is at fault. It is very possible, however, that Professor Mahaify may be right both here and in ii. 34 in reading fifteen for five, fifteen days being equivalent, according
to eastern
real

belong

modes of reckoning,

to the

distance.

original

He supposes that the text was ANAPIIEHMEPAI, and

The Aryans, who afterwards occupied Kappadokia, belonged to the wave of migration which brought the Aryan Annenias

that

of

the White Syrians.

that one of the two iota^ has fallen out (Hermathena, vii. 1881). Comiwire also i. 185 (where Yitringa suggests t'e (fifteen)
instead of
«').

I]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
ifiepo)

43

eXv^Ka, KoX 7€a9

Trpoa-KTija-aadat tt/jo? ttjv etovrov fioipav

^ovX6fi€vo<;, Koi iidXiara rut •^pija-TrjpLa) Triavvo<i i(6v kuI ricraadat

OeXfov vTrep W.a-rvdyeo'i K.vpov,

^AaTvar/ea yap top Kva^dpeo),
MrjBcov
Se

iovTa

Kpoiaov

fieu

yafjb^pbv^

^aackea,

KOpo?

6

Kafi^vaeoi
b)8e.

KaTaa-TpeyJrdfievof:

et^e,

yevo/xevov yafifipov

Kpoia^

ZKvdecop roiv
Ttjv

vofjidBcov etXtj

dvhpwv aracridaaaa
tou?
2,/cv6a<i

vTre^ijXde

e?

yrju

^TjBiKi'iv irvpdvveve Be top ')(popop tovtop Mt^Swi;

ls.va^dpT]<i 6
fj,€P

^paopreo) rov
&><?

At}i6k€<o,' 69

tovtovj to

irpoiTOP TrepLelire ev

eopra<i iKera<i'

ware

Be irepl

iroWov
(fyoire-

7roie6fiepo<i avrov<i, iralBd'i a<f>i

irapeBwKe

rrip

yXcoa-adp re €K/Ma0eiP

Kal rrjp re'yp'qp rcop to^oop.
OPTOJP
T(tiP

yjpopov Be yepofiepov, kuI alel

Skv9€(op
eXeiP

eV

dyprjp koI aiei ri <f>epoPTCop, Kal Kore
firjBep'

crvpijpetKe

cr(f>€a<;

poan'^craPTa^
BieBe^e,

Be

avTOV<;

Keipfjai,
rprj'^ecof;

^epo-t

o

}^va^dp7)<;

{^p ydp,

a)<?

opyrjp dKpo<;)

Kdpra
cocrre
(T<f)ia-i

TrepiecrTre deiKeiy.

ol Be

rdora

7rpo<;

K.va^dpeci) 7ra66pTe<;,

dpd^ia

cr(f)€Q)P

avrtop

ireTropdoTef,

e^ovXevcrap tojp irapa

iraiBfOP epa KaraKQy\rai, crKevdaapre<; Be avTOP (ocnrep icodecrap Kal ra drjpia aKevd^eip, K.va^dprj Bovpat

BLBaaKOfiepcop

(f>€popT€<i

6t>?

dyprjp Brjdep, B6pTe<i Be rrjp ra-x^icrTrjp KOfii^eadai irapa

^AXvdrrea top SaBvdTTeo) e? %dpBi<;. TaoTa Kal eyepeTO' Kal yap K.va^dpT)<; Kal ol irapeopTe^ BaLTvix6pe<i twp Kpewp tovtcop eirdcraPTo, Kal ol ^KvOac rdora nroLrjo-aPTe^ 'AXuaTTeo) iKerat eyepoPTo. fiera Be Taora, ov yap Br) 6 ^AXvuttt)'; e^eBlBov Tovf 74 ^Kv0a'i e^aiTeoPTi }^va^dpr}, 7roX.e/i.o9 Tola-i AvBolat Kal rolcn
^IrjBoLa-i,

eyeyopec eir

erea irepre, ep rolcn 7roXXdKi,<; p.€P ol M.i]Boi
ip Be
?<n/9

T0U9 AvBov<i ipUrjaap, TroXXuKd Be ol AvBol rov<; M7;Soi;9.
Kal pvKrofiax^ijp ripa eiroLrjaapro' Bia<f>epovaL Be
<T(f)i

eVt

rop TToXefiop rat eKrw erei
rrjf;

a-v/j.^oXrj<i
rjfieprjp
r}fiepT]<i

yepofieprif;
e^a'iripT}^;

crvP'^peiKe

ware
ro'i<Ti,

fid^r}<;

avpearecoar}<; rr)P

pvKra yepeaOai.
MtX770"to9

r-qp Be
"letxrt

fieraXXayrjp ravrijp T779
7rpor)y6peva-e

0a\^9

o

eaeadat,^ ovpop TrpoOefiePd epiavrop rovrov
Agan^
B.C.,

"Brother-in-law."

relation

TanPp6i is any by marriage (7<£/ioj). Comp. Skt.

before

the seventeenth centxiry

jdmdlri " son-in-law," y(f7n4 "(laughterin-law," ry<t7nrt7i "related" \jaX. gemini
;

(for bi-gemini).

For these passages, see Appendix V. had been predieted by the astronomers of Chaldea at
^

8

Eclipses of the sun

an early {leriod. The great astronomical work (afterwards translated into Greek by Berosus), compiled for Sargon of

mentions solar ecliiwes which had happened both "at" and "out of their predicted time." This shows that the predictions did not rest on a very certain basis, and were ouly approximate. Thales must have derived his science from Babylonia. For the influence of Babylonia on Thales, see the first note The eclipso has been varion ch. 1. ously assigned by astronomers to B.C.

44
iv TcS
Bt}

HERODOTOS.
Kot iyevero
rj

[UUOK

fiera^oXt].

ol he

AvBol re kol
rrji; fjbd'^r](;

ol Mt^So*

eireire elBov

vvktu avrl

r)fiepr]<; <yevofievi]v,

re eTravaavro

KOI fiaSXov Ti ecrireva-av kol
Aa^vv7]T0<; 6 BaySyXfui/to?."'
<TavT€<;

dfi<f>6Tepoi, eiprjvqv
o'lhe,

eoivrolcn yeveadat. K.iXi^ kul

ol Be (TVfji^LJ3d(TavTe<i avrov<; r^crav

%vevv€cri<; re 6

ovroi

<T(f>i,

Kal to opKiov ol (nrev-

yeveadai

rjcrav,

koX

>ydp,a)v

rea yap eyvcoaav Bovvac
}^va^dp€(o
'jraiBC'

rrjv

eTraWayrjv eiroirjarav' 'AXuarOuyarepa 'Apinjviv Karvdyei tcS
^

dvev yap dvayKaLr]<i layypr^'i avfi^darie^ lo-^vpal
opKia Be Troielrac rdora rd edvea rd
•jrpo'i

ovK idekovai
irep

a-vfifieveiv.

re "EXX-T/i/e?,
i<i

Kal

rovroiaL,

eiredv

tov<;

^pa-y^LOva^i
*

iTTLTdfiayvTac

tt]v ofMO'^poLTjv,
*

to alpu dvaXei-^ovcrc dXkrjXcov.

75

TovTov
arj/jbavico

Bt] Siv

Tov AcTTvdyea K^vpo<; eovTa etovTov ixrjTpoirdropa
alTLTjv ttjv iyo) iv Tolcn oiriaw Xoyoiat,

KaTaarTp€'\lrdfj,€VO<; etrp^e Bt

Ta

}^poiao<;

€7nfiefjb<f)Ofj,evo<i

tS Kupw
Kal
ecovTov
eo?

e? re

Ta ^rjaT'^pia
aTTLKO/jbevov

€7re/M7re
')(^pTja-/j,ov

el

aTparevrjrat

eTrl

Yiepara<s,
•rrpo';

Brj

Kal

KL^Brfkov,

eknricraf;

tov ^rjafibv elvai,

icTTparevero e? t^v TLepcrecov fioipav.
TTOTafiov o
iova-a<i
l^polcro';,
^

Be diriKeTO iirl tov
iyo)
o)<?

"AXvv

to

evOevTev,

co?

fiev

Xeyto,

y€<f>vpa<;

Bie^i^acre tov arpaTov,

Se 6

Kara Tat; ttoWo? X070?

625, 610, 603, 597,

and 585.
(JV.

The
H.
ii.

last

date best suits the chronology and history
of the
period.
it B.C.

Pliny

53)

makes

583.

Herodotos seems to

wish to contrast the science of the Greeks with the ignorant superstition of the "barbarians." * The "mediators" were Syennesis of Kilikia, and Labynetos of Babylonia. Syennesis was a common name among the Kilikian kings (Herod, v. 118, vii. 98 Xenophon, Anab. i. 2 jEskh. Pcrsce, Other kings of Kilikia (called 324). Khilak in the Assyrian inscriptions and on the native coins) were, Pikhirim, B.C. 854 Ambaris or Amris of Tubal (Tiba; ;
;

been a restoration of the older city of Shalmaneser's age. Labjmetos is clearly for Nabynetos, or Nabonidos (Nabunahid), a copyist having mistaken N for A. (See ch. 77. ) As Nabjmetos did not become king of Babylon till B.C. 555, Herodotos has given the WTong name. Nebuchadrezzar was really king at the time. Labynetos is placed on the same footing as Syennesis, and therefore could hardly have been merely a Babylonian official. As such, moreover, he was not likely to have had much weight with the
hostile kings.
^

contract
is

The custom of confirming an oath or by drinking one another's blood
(see iv. 70).

reni),

Sanda-sarme,
Kilikian

b.c. 712 and 660 (whose name is compounded with that of Sandan, the

made king by Sargon,
b.c.

;

widely spread

In Chinese

secret societies blood is finger of the

drawn from the

candidate for admission,
rest of the society.

Tarkondemos or Tarkondimotos, father and son, ruled
Herakles).
Kilikia in the time of Augustus.
called Tarzi

poured into a bowl of wine or water, and

drunk by the

Tacitus

Tarsus,

describes the same custom as prevailing

by Shalmaneser (b.c. 833), was supposed to have had an Assyrian origin, and to have been built in imitation of Babylon. If so, it must have

among
tribes
'

the Georgian {Ann. xiL 47).

and

Kaukasian

"The

bridges that really are there."

Herodotos seems to be here contrasting

,.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
®a\T}<i
ol
Mt\7;<rto<?

EAST.
(iTTopeovro^

46

'ItAX'^vcov,

Bie^i^aae.

yap

Sca^^aeTao top Trorafiov 6 arparo^i (ov yap Bi) elvai K(t) TovTov top ')(povov Ta<i y€<f)vpa<; ravra^) Xer/CTai irapeovra TOP SaXrjv ip tcS arparoTrehui Troirja-ai avrto top irorafiop ef
oK(o<; ol

Kpotaov

dpLareprj<; '^€ip6<;

peopra tov cnparov Kal ck Se^t?}? peip, 'rroirja-aL apwdep tov aTpaTOireSov dp^dfiepop Bc(opv^a ^adeap dpv<Tcr€CP, dyoPTa firjpoeiBia, o/co)? dp to orTpaToireBop IBpvfiepop KaTa poiTov \d^oL, TavTj] KUTa ttjp Bcatpv^a eKTpairop.epo'i ix twv
Be

wSe*

dp'xacQjp peldptop, Kal avTc<; Trapafi€L^6fiepo<; to aTpaTOTreBop e?

Ta

dp')(ala

ecr^dWoL &crT€

eTreiVe Kal icr'^La-07) Td'^tcrTa 6 iroTafj.O'i,

dfi(f>0T€prj

Bia^aT6<i iyepero.

ol Be Kal to irapdirap

TO dp-)(alop peWpop diro^ripapOripai.
/c&>9

dXKu tovto

/jl€P oil

Xeyovcn Kal trpoaUpui' 76
Be iirevTe
UTepirjp'^

Bia^d<;

yap oTTtcTft) TTopevofiepot BU^rjcrap avTop ; Kpol(To<i avp tm aTpaTut diriKeTO r^? Ka7r7raBoKLr)<i e<? ttjp
(r)

KaXeofiemjp

Be UTepiij eVrl

tt}*? p^tB/37/9

TavTi]<;

to la'xypoTaTOP,

KaTa ZiP(i)7n]p ttoKlp tt]p ip Eu^eivci) ttopto) fidXtcTd kj] Keifieprj), ipOavTa icTTpaTOTreBeveTO <f)6eip(0P tojp Zvployp tou? K\ripov<i' ^ Kal
etke fi€P Ttap TlTepUop ttjv iroXtp Kal 'qpBpairoBiiraTo, eVke Be Td<i
irepcoLKiBa'i
avTrj<i
irdcra^i,

%vpiov<i

re

ovBep

e6pTa<i

alTiov^

dpacTTaTovi; eirolrjae.

Kvpo<; Be dyeipa<i top koDVTov aTpaTOP Kal
oiKeoPTa<i

TrapaXa^cop

tou9

fieTa^v

travra^ rjpTiovro

Kpoiaqy.

Trplp Be €^e\avpet,p opfirjaat top
"Iftji^a?

aTpaTop,

Tre/AT^ra? KripvKa<i €?
"Itoi/e? fjuep

tov^

eveipaTO a^ea<i dirb l^poi(Tov dinaTdpai.
<b9

pvp

ovK eTreiOoPTO' Kvpo<i Be
K.poL<7(p,

diriKeTo Kal avTeaTpaToireBeixraTo
'X^copV

epOavTa ep

Tjj

UTepirj

cTrecpwPTO KaTa to la-^vpop

dWrfKayp.

fid'^ij^ Be KupTepijii yepofiepr)<i

koI ireaoPTWV dfi(f)OT€p(OP

ttoWmp, TeXo^ ovBeTepot Kal Ta fjb€P (TTpaTOTreBa
his

PLK')]aapTe<; BieaTTjcrap

pvkto^ eireX6ovaT]<i.
Kpolao<; Be 77

dfi<f>OTepa ovtco
of

rjyoiPicraTO'

own

assertion

with that

some

other Greek historians, not with that of

Greek

tradition.

The double channel
originated the

of the Halys
Pteria

may have

current legend.
•'

is

here a district rather than

a town, though a town of the same
is

name

1

mentioned by Stephanos Byz. Texier would identify it with the Hittite city fwhose ruins are at Boghaz Keui perhaps £yuk, the neighbouring Hittite ruin, is more likely to mark the site. At any rate the district must be that in which Boghaz Keui and Eyuk are situated, and to which the two Hittite high;

Ghurun and Kaisariyeh. Kyros had doubtless advanced along the first of these, and Kroesoa crossed the river The vague statein order to meet him. ment that Pteria was "nearSinOpe," which is between seventy and eighty miles distant from tlie Halys, shows that Hdt. had no personal knowledge of the countrj*. * " The fields of the Syrians" or HitTliis overthrow of the Hittites tites. may have led to the colonisation of the depopulated district by the Persians (see note 3 on ch. 72). The niiu of the Hittite palace at Eyuk was uo doubt eflfected by Krceaoa,
roads led from

46
fiefi^deli;

HERODOTOS.
Kara to
TrXijOof;

[book

to ecouTov
rj

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;

tc

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For Amasis, see Appendix I. Labynetos for Nabynetos or Nabonidos. See Appendix II.
'
'

his
. .

" Having dismissed all that part of army which consisted of mercenaries after having fought such a drawn
*0j ^y
is
|.
i]

battle."

with the partitive

genitive
*

like

toXX^

rrji

yrji

and

similar phrases.

"Leaving off." The ruins of Sardes abound with poisonous snakes, sometimes of great size. That they should have been eaten by horses must
still

have been a popular legend. ' Probably the Lykian Telmessos, now

Makri but Leake makes it the Karian town of tlie same name, near Halikarnassos, following herein Cicero and Clement of Alexandria, who says that the oracle was famous for the interpretation of dreams {Strovi. i. 16, p. 361). Little remains at Makri except tombs and the theatre, ^ The snake was supposed to eat dust (Gen. iii. 14). The "genius loci" is often represented by a serpent at Pompeii and elsewhere. It was the inhabitant of tombs (Verg. ^n. v. 93), and Pj-thagoras was believed to have taught that the human marrow after death be-

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE

EAST.

47

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If the

came a snake (Ov, M. xv. 389). The horse was of eastern origin, and was accordingly called by the Accadians "the
animal of the east," in contradistinction to the ass, "the animal of the west." The honour of having first tamed the
horse belongs either to the Tatars or to

battle

really

took

place

here,

Kyros must have managed to
Sardes.

slip past

The Hermos now flows
is

into the

sea to the south of its older channels, one

of which

sive delta has been

used as a road. formed at
rises

An
its

exten-

mouth,

apparently since the time of Herodotos.

the primitive Aryans.
2

The Hermos

from two sources in

The Hyllos

flows into the

Hermos

from the north, westward of Magnesia ad Sipylum. Consequently the plain meant by Herodotos is not the Sardian
plain properly so called, east of Sardes

the Alurad Dagh, a branch of the Taurus, in the ancient Phrygia, called Dind)rma
in
classical
is

times.

The Dindymenian

mother

Kybelfi or Kyb€be, the Asiatic

goddess, whose worship seems to have

and south of the Hermos, but the plain west of Sardes and north of the Hermos.

been carried to the west by the Hittites and who had a shrine on Mount Dindyma.

48

HERODOTOS.
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fiev

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81

Total

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TO Be

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' '

Trjv

eavTOV

* Tlie

camel, called

the beast of the

*

In the time of Plieid6n.

The whole

sea,"

i.e.

the Persian Gulf, by the Ac-

cadians,

came

originally

from Arabia.
it still

country was gi-adually absorbed by the Similans when they were still aiming
at
i)os8cssing

Tlie dislike of the horse to

con-

themselves of the Pelo-

tinues, as travellers in the east are well

ponnesos,
led

before their check at Tegea

able to testify.
•*

Thyrea,

not

represented

by

the

monastery of S. Luke, as Leake supjjosed, was the chief town of Kynuria, " the borderland " between Lakonia and Argolis.

them to change their policy and come forward as simply the leaders of the Dorian race. Kythera had been occupied by the Phoenicians, who built a temple to Astarte there, but were driven out by
the Dorians, like the Phoenician colonists

The Kyniu-ians claimed
See Thukyd.

to

belong

to the pre-Dorian lonians of the Pelo-

elsewhere
etc.)

(in

Thera,

Melos,

Thebes,

ponnSsos.

v. 41,

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Trapa/jiiveiv dywvt^ofievtov, rcJvBe

EAST.
fir)

49
irapeovrav

fiTjSe

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To)V arparoTreBcov opeovre^ ol erepoc
irrafivvoiev.

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fiev
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6 2tapBir]vb<; Krjpv^ Beofievo-i

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84

Tro\iopKeofiev(p }^pOLcr<p, Ki)/309
I'rnrea'i

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t^ (TTpaTif) rfj ecovTOv Biairefi'^a^ tm TrpoiTw e'm^dvTt tov Teiyeo^ Bwpa Baxreiv.
Trf^;

fierd

Be

tovto

ireiprfcafievrff;

a-TpaTcrjf;

a)9

ov

irpoe'^copei,

• "By fixed custom." The later Greek custom of cutting the hair short was derived from the Dorians, though the Dorian Argives here appear as wearing it long. The Dorian element in the

Argolis,

however,
strong.

does

not
so,

seem
too,

to

have

been

The Akhseans
;

of

Homer were
the ancient
6).

long-haired

were
i.

Athenians

(cp.

Thuk.

£

I

50

HERODOTOS.
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tj

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6 Be Mt^Xt^? KaTo, to

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85

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' The lion was the symbol of Sardes, and of its protecting deity, the sun-god. The acropolis, composed of crumbling

the advice of (Ebares, figures of men being placed on long poles and raised to

sandstone, has
it is clear

now been almost

entirely

washed do^vn into the plain below, and that the breach mentioned by Herodotos must have been a spot where The Meles a landslip had occurred. meant here can hardly have been the last king but one before Kandaules, but rather the mythical Meles of the Atyad family who was deposed by Moxos on
account of his tyranny. 8 i.e. on the south side, where alone the approach to the top of the acropolis
is

This must have been the Persian account. The Lydian account is also given by Polysenos. Acthe top of the walls.

cording to

this,

Kyros agreed to a truce

and pretended

to withdraw, but the following night returned and scaled the unguarded walls with ladders. As

gives the same account as Herodotos {Kyrop. viiL 2), it would seem to be the Greek version. The introduction of the myth of Meles and

Xenophon

the lion makes
1

it

suspicious.
king, foolish aa a

at present not precipitous.
^

" Lydian-bom, of many
child,

Strat. vii. 6),

According to Kyros took Sardes through
Ktesias
(Polysenos,

Krcesos, wish not in thy home, with entreaty wild,

;

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Bt]

EAST.

51

d\i<TKOfi€vov

rod

rel-^eo'^, riie

y^p

rStv rt? Ylepaeoiv aXKcrfV(ii<Ta<i

'Kpoiaov

0)9

Tvapeoixx'q'i

aTTOKTeveav, K/aotcro? fiev vvv opewv iirtovra xnro 7^9 <xvfjb<f>opr]<i iraprf/jbeXijKei, ovSe ri oi Ste^epe TrXrjyivTt
o he 7ral<; ovro'i 6
d(f)covo<i
ft)9

airoOavelv
VTTo
Seoi/9

elBe

T€ Kal KUKOV eppr}^€

(fxovijv,

elire

eTnovra top Heparjv, Bk " wvOpwire, fjurj
ol Be

Krelve l^poccrov."
Be TOVTO

o5to9 ftev

Brj

rovro TrpwTov i^Oiy^aro, fiera
t7}9 ^07/9.

'^Bt) e(f>ct>v€t.

rov irdvra '^povov

Uepaai 86

Ta9 re

Brj

'ZdpBct

ea^ov Kal avrov

l\.poca-ov

i^wyprjaav, dp^avra

erea reaaepea-KaiBeKa koI reaaepea-KalBeKa^ Tjixepa^ TroXiopKrjdevTa,

Kara to '^rjar'^pLov re Karairavaavra
irvprjv fMeydXrjv dvefiijSacre

rrjv ecovrov fjueydXrjv dp')(i]v.

\a^ovre<i Be avTov oi Tlepa-ac rj^ayov irapd K.vpov.

6 Be avvvi]aa<;
rreBrjcri

eV

avrrjv rov Y^polaov re ev

BeBefievov kuI
etre
Brj

Bl<;

eirrd AvBcov trap avrov 7raiBa<;, ev
87;,

vow

e^toi/

aKpoOivta rdora Karayielv 6e(ov oreo)

etre Kal ev-^-qv

errrcreXeaat OeXwv, elre Kal irvdop.evo'^ rov J^polcrov elvat

deoae^ea
ri<i

rovBe eiveKev dve^i^aae
ficv

eirl rrjv irvpriv, fiovX6p.evo<i
firj

elBevac et

Baifiovav pvcrerac rov

^Sivra KaraKavOrjvat.
rrj'i

rov

fiev 8))

"jToielv

rdora'

rat

Be lK.poi(Ta> ecrrecori, eVl

7rvprj<;

eceXBelv,

KavTrep ev
elprjfjuevov,

KaKm

eovri roaovrfp, ro rov ^oXcavo'i

ro firjBeva elvat rwv ^(oovrcov oX^lov.
rovro,
69

Trpocrarrjvac
7roXXrj<i

dveveiKdfievov
rpl<i

avv deut dpa fiiv re Kal dvaarevd^avra e/c

&s

ol

etr)

d)9

Be

'qav')(^L'q<i

ovofidcrac

" ^oXtai;."

Kal rov J^vpov rov l^poicrov rlva
K.pol(Tov

uKovaavra KeXevcrai
Be
r€(o<;

rov<; epfjbrjvea^ eireipecrdai,
rov<i

rovrov emKaXeotro, Kal
fiev

rrpoaeXOovra^ eTrecpoyrdv.
Be, «»9

aiyrjv

e')(eLv

elpcoreofjuevov, fierd

r}vayKd^ero,
fieydXoDV

elrrelv

" rov

av

iyut

irdcn

rvpavvoiat
q)<;

Trpoerifirjcra
dar]fji,a

ypTjjjidraiv €9

Xoyovi iXdetv."*

Be

(T(f)i,

e(f>pa^e,

rrdXiv

ra Xeyofieva. XtTrapeovrcov Be avrcov Kal o'^Xov irape'^ovrciiv eXeye Brj 609 ^XOe dp'^rjv 6 SoXcov icov ^A0r)vaio<;, Kal
CTreipmreov
Oeijadfjuevoq
eiira'i, &<;
rt,

irdvra

rov

eoavrov

oX/3ov
rfj

diroc^Xavpia-eie

ota

Brj

re avrut Trdvra diro^e^'^Ke oi
rj

irep eKelvo^ elire, ovBev

fidXXov €9 ecovrbv Xeyav
rrapa
cr(f)cai

if dirav

ro dvOpcoirivov Kal fidXicra
BoKeovra<i
etvai.

Tot'9

avrolac

6X^cov<i

rov

fiev

Thou shouldst hear thy boy speak out:
better thus alway

Tbou

wilt hear

him

first,

I ween,

on an un-

blest day."

probably due to legend than to coinciFourteen Lydians were condence. demned to be burnt with Eroesos. 8 „ ^j^^^^ ^^;^ thought struck him, he

'Afupli

"all round," and so "in every

drew a long breath. "
*

Cp.

II. 19,

314.

The Homeric meanings "on way." both sides " and " apart " are later.
'

"Whose
I

conversation
prefer

monarch
wealth."

would

with every to abundant

The

identity of

number

is

more

52
K.poi<Tov
TO,

HERODOTOS.
rdora
eiTre,

[book
rjBi]

aTnjyeia-dai, tt)? Se

irvprjfi

dfMfi€vr)'i

KaUcrdai

irepLecT'^ara.

koI tov J^vpov

aKovaavra twv
ivvdxravra

kpfirjveoav

rd

Kpoto-o?
dvdpoiiro'i

fierayvovra

re

xal

on

koX

avro^

i(ov

dXkov

dvOpwirov, yevofievov
BiSoltj, 7rp6<;

ecovrov

evSaifjLovLrj

ovK

iXdcra-Qi, ^covra irvpl

re rovroiac BeLcravra rrjv
iv dv6pa)7roLa-L d<T<f)a\€(a^

tUtlv Kol eircXe^d/jLevov

&>?

ovSev

etrj

r&v

eyov, KeXeveiv (r/Sevvvvai ttjv Tw^ia-Trjv

to Kaio/xevov irvp KaX
kuI
Tov<i

Kara^t^d^eiv l^pocaov re koI tov<; fjierd J^poia-ov. 87 Treipaifieuovf; ov SvvaaOat ert rov 7rupo<; iirLKparrjaai,.
Xeyerai viro AvBmv l^pola-ov /xaOovra
a>9

ivOavra

rrfv

Kv/aou fierdyvcoa-cv,

dvBpa cr^evvvvra to irvp Svvafievov; Se OVKCTL KaraXa^eiv, eTn^ooa-aaOai rov ^AiroWcova iirLKoXeofievov, avrov eBatpriOri, irapaarrivai KaX €1 Ti oi Ke-^apia-fievov i^ pvaaaOai avrov eV rov irapeovro'i KaKov. rov fiev BaKpvovra
fxev

Mpa irdvra

iiTLKaXelcrdaL rov Oeov, ck Be al6pi7}<; re Kal
i^aTrlvr)^
ve(f>ea

V7jvefiinfi<i

avvBpafielv

Kal '^eifiS>vd re Karappayfjvat Kal vcrat
rtjv
Trvprjv.^
6eo<f>iXr}<i

vBarc

Xa^pordro), Karaa^eadrjvaC re
rov
Ji^vpov
0)9

ovrco

Brj

fiaOovra
" ^polae,

6m;

o

Kpo4<ro9 xal
rrj<:

Kal

dvrjp dya66<},

KarajSi^daavra avrov drro
Tt<f

ttu/j^?

etpeaOai rdBe.
rrjv
;

ere

dvdpcoirwv dveyvcoae

cttI

yrjv

TToXifiiov dvrl <f)CXov ifiol Karaarijvai
eyo)

arparevadfievov " o Be eiire " w fiaaiXevt
ifirjv

rdora

eirprj^a rfj afj fiev
atrio<;

evBaifiovirf, rfj

efiecovrov Be

Kaxo-

Baifiovi'fj.

Be

rovrojv iyevero 6 'F,XXt]vci>v 6e6<; erraeipa';
ovBelf;

ifik

(rrparevea-dai.

yap

ovrco dv6r)r6<; iari otrTt? iroXefiov

'

We

are reminded of the legends of

Persians,

and they thenceforth began to

Christian martyrs, ordered to be burnt,

observe the law of Zoroaster, which for-

whom
in

the

fire

would not
furnace.

injure.

Compi
legend
in

also the account of the Three Children

other pollution of

bade the burning of dead bodies or any firo. This last state-

the

fiery
is

The

of

Krcesos

further

embellished

Here we are told who had been dumb, wished to die with him, and when
Nikolaos of Damascus.
that the son of Krcesos,

prevented prayed to Apollo to save his father that the Sibyl appeared and
;

ordered the Persians to desist from the

deed

;

and that
and
of

it

was the
the

Persians,

and

not KvTos,
the anger

who from
his

first

had

pitied

to the fact that Kyros was not a Zoroastrian, as we now know (see Appendix V.) was the case, and consequently was not likely to venerate fire. Thales had predicted the storm, and the fetters with which Krcesos had been bound were sent by him to DelphL The whole story, it is clear, has been coloured, if not invented, by the vanity of the Greeks. Ktesias says nothing about the
fire,

ment may point

his prisoner

tried to save

him from

but

asserts

that

the

fetters
oflF

of

I

enemies,

who were

Krcesos were miraculously struck

by

Fourteen of Solon. Lydians had been selected to be burnt with Krcesos. The storm terrified the

moved by the name

thunder and liglitning, after which he was treated kindly by Kyros, and allowed to live at Barene (Barke in Justin. L 7).

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
€iprjV7]<i

63
tov<;

Trpb

alpelrai'
he
TO)
Tjv

iv fiev
oi

yap

rfj

ol TratSe?
7rai8a<i.

Trarepa^

ddiTTovcL,
haiiMotrL

iv

Trarepei;

Tov<i

a\Xa ruora
€yyv<i

Kov ^IXov

ovrco yevecrOai"

fiev rdora eXeye, KO/ao? 8e avrov \vcra<; Karelcre re ecovTov Koi Kapra ev ttoWtj irpofirjOiri etp^e, dTreOcovfJua^e re

'O

88

opecov

KoX avro<i
e')(o^ievo<i

KoX

oi

irepX

eKelvov

eovre^t

irdvTe^;.

o

8e

avvvoirj

i]av^o<i

rjv.

fiera he e'7naTpa<f>€L<; re koI lBofievo<: tov?

JIepaa<;

to

rdv AvSiop
tt/so?

dcrTV

Kepaii^ovra<i

elire

"

a>

^aaiXev,

rd voetov rvy^dvco r/ trtydv iv tm irapeovTC ^pri ; " Ku/jo? he fiiv Oapaeovra ixeKeve \eyeiv 6 ri 6 he avrov elpcora Xeycov " ovro<i o ttoXXo? 6fiiX.o<; rl fiovKocTO. rdora ttoWt} (nrovhfj ipyd^erav ; " 6 he elire " iroXiv re rrjv ar)v hiapTrd^ei koI '^prjfiara rd ad hca(})op€L." Kpotcro? he d/xei^ero
Korepov Xiyeiv

ae

" ovre TToXiv

rrjv

i/Mrjv

ovre '^prjfiara rd i/xd

htaprrdl^et,

ovhev
he 89

yap

ifioX ere

rovrcov fxera'

aXXd

(pepoval re Kal dyovai rd ad.
eiTre*

ILvpo) he i7n/jbeXe<i iyevero

rd K^oto-o?

fx,eraarr)adfievo<;

T0V9 dXXov<;, ecpero ^potcrov o rt oi ivopuj-q iv rolat iroieofievoLai. 6 he eiTre " iireire fjue deol ehcoKav hovXov aoi, htKaito, et rt
ivopico rrXeov,^ C7]fiaiveLV elaX d-)(prjfiaroi.
rjv

aoL
crv

Tlepaac ^vatv

i6vre<i

v^pLaraX
KaX
iiriho^a

5)v

rovrov;

rrepUhrj<i hLapirda-avraf;

Karaa-'yovra'i

^'^/xara

fieydXa,

rdhe

rot

i^

avrcov

dv avrcov irXelara Kardc'^r), rovrov TrpocrheKeadaL roc iiravaarrjaofievov. vvv oiv TTOiTjaov (ohe, ei rot dpecrKec rd iyo) Xeyco. Kurcaov rwv hopv<f)6pcov i^rX rrdarjcrt rfjat, rrvXrjcn <j)vXdKov<;, ot Xeyovrcov ^ tt/jo? rov<; iK(l>epovra<i rd '^prjfiara
yeveadat'
09
drraipeofievoi
(TV

w? cr^ea dvayKaLQ)<i
dnre'^drjcreaL ^[r)

e-^et

heKarevdrjvai ra> ^U.

KaX KaX

re

<x(f)L

ovK

diraipeofievo^

rd

'^prjfiara,

iKelvoi a-vyyvovre<} iroielv ae hiKaia eKOvre^i rrporiaovaL"

rdora 90
K/jotcro?

uKovoiv 6 K.vpo<i vTrepijhero, w? oi ehoKet ev inrorvdecdai,' aiveaa^;
he

TToXXd,
"If
I see

KaX

ivretXdfievo<i

rolac

hopvcfjopoia-i

rd

anything to your advan-

tage," or perhaps "if I see

any deeper

than you and yours."
' "You may expect the following treatment from them." Or i^ ain-uv may

"and these"; hence the construction, ^vXdxovs for ^^XaKas is an example of a tendency to decline all nouns after a single pattern, which appears from the
small

number

of instances to have been

be equivalent to ix roiruv, "after this," " afterwards," as in ch. 9, iii. 52, vii. 8 7, viii. 60 /3 (in the sing. L 207, ii 51,
vii. 46).

just setting in during the age of Herod-

"

The use of the imperative here
is

in-

stead of the conjunctive

The

relative,

however,

is

anomalous. equivalent to

simUar 566 Od. 16, 423). In /idprvpoi, II. 2, 302 modern Greek the analogy of nouns like ra/das has become predominant ; hence we have paaiKfas, AvSfMS, etc
otos in
Ionic.

New

We

find

forms in

Homer

(<pv\aKol,
;

II. 24,

;

54
vtreOrjKaro eTrireXeiv, eiTre
rrjfjLevov

HERODOTOS.
irpo'i

[book

l^polaov rdhe.

" T^polcre, avapiroLelv,

aeo av8p6<; ^aaCKeo^ "^prjara epya koI eirea

alreo

Boa-Lv rjVTLva

^ovXeaL rot yevicrOac irapavriKa,^^
fie

6 he eiire

"

<a

BiaTTOTa,

idcra<i

'^apiel

fidXta-ra

tov

deov

rov iyo)

irifiTjcra

dewv

fidXtara,

eireipeaOat,
vofio<;

'EW^ytuv, frefiy^avra rdaSe
Ttov

Ta?

TreEa<i, el

e^airardv rovf ev Troieovra^

earl

ol."

KO/Jo?
Be ol

Be elpero 6 tl oi rovro eirrjyopeaiv irapacTeocro.

K/jottro?

iiraXiWoyTja-e Trdcav rrjv ecovrov Bidvoiav koX rSiV '^rjcTTTjpLfov
raf;

vTroKpLcriat;

koI fidXcaTa ra dvadrjfiara, Kal
iirl Tle/ao-a?'

o)<;

i'jraepdel';

TOO fiavTrjifp

eaTpareva-aro

\ey(ov Be rdora Kare-

fiaLve avTL<i 7rapatTeofievo<; eTreivai oi rep

OeS tovto

oveiBicrai.

KO/Do? Be yeXd(ra<; elire " Kal tovtov rev^eac Trap'

kfieo, J^polcre,

Kal dXKov nravTO'i rov hv eKdarore
6 K/304<709, irep.irwv
ra<i TTeSa? cttI

Bej/."

rwv KvBSiv

e? Ae\<f)ov<;

ai<; Be rdora rjKovae evereWero ridevra<;

rov vqov rov ovBov elpcordv
rrjv

el oij ri erraia-'^vverai
iirl Ile/oo-a?

Tola-i fjuivrrjiota-i erraeipA'i

l^polaov arparevecrOat
i^?

w?

Karairavcrovra
yeveadat,

IK^vpov Bvva/xiv, drr
ra<i

ol aKpoBlvia
iireLpoordv,

roiavra
Kal el

BeiKvvvra'i

TreSa?*

rdora re

91 d')(api<TroL(Ti vofio<; elvai rolcn '^iKKriviKolct, Oeocai.
Be rotat AvBota-i koI Xeyovac
elirelv rdBe.

drriKOfievoLcn

ra evreraXfieva rrjv HvOltjv Xeyerai " rrjv 7re7rpcofievi]v fiolpav dBvpara ecrrt dtro^vyelv
Be
rrepbirrov

Kal
09

6eu>.

l^polao<i
Bopv(f>opo<i

yoveo<;

d/juaprdBa

e^eirXrftTe,

euiv

'}ilpaK\€tBecov,

SoXm
rrjv

yvvaLKijicp

emcrrropievo^

i<f>ov€va-e

rov

Bearrorea

Kal

ecr^e

eKeivov
okco^

rcfirjv
civ
/mt]

ovBev ol

irpoariKovaav.

nrpoOvp^eopbevov

Be

Ao^ico

TraiSa? rov l^poiaov yevocro rb Z^apBitov rrdOo'i Kal
}^pola-ov,
oiiK

Kara rov<i Kar avrov
ocrov

oXov

re

eyevero
re

rrapayayelv

fioipa^;.

Bk

eveBwKav avrai, rjvvai
(U9

Kal i-^apiaaro

ol'

rpia ycLp

ereai

€7rave/3dXero rrjv ZapBlcov akwcriv, Kal rovro emcrrda-Oa) J^poiao^
vcrrepov rolcn ereai rovroccn akov<i
rrj<; Trerrpfo/xevrji;.

Bevrepa

Be rovrcov Kaiofievtp

avrm

imjpKea-e.

KarcL Be ro fiavrtjtov to
Trporjyopeve

yevofievov
Ao^LT)^,^

ovk
rjv

6pO(o<i

K^oto-o? fiefKperai.
eirl

ydp

ol

crparexyqrat,

Ilip<ra<i,

fieydXrjv

dp^rjv

avrov

'

Ao|<aj has nothing to do with Xof6t

in the sense of
is difficult

"ambiguous."

The fonn

to explain if derived

root

of

Xfyw.

along with Ao^ci, with the Sanskrit lakhsh-man, "mark," "sign." As the epithet is applied to both Apollo and Artemis, it is better to

from the Frohde compares it, an epithet of Artemis,

it as coming from the root of Kretan ACrros (= AiJrros), Itix, light, the vowel being changed through a "popular etjTiiology," which connected it with either Xofdi or \6ryoi. Schbne (Hermes, ix.) ingeniously infers from the oracle that the fall of Sardes

regard

\tvK6i,

was regarded as a

fixed date.

Hcrodotos

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
rov he irpo^ rdora
Trifxyfravra
'X^prjv

EAST.

55

KaToXvaeiv.
inreipecrdai
ap')(riv.

ev fieWovra ^ovXevecrOai
r)

Korepa
rat

rrjv

ecovrov

rrjv

l^vpov \eyoi
ecovrov

ov (TvXKa^aiv 8e to prjdev ovB' iiraveipofievo^
aTTQ^aLvero).
Trepl

aiTcov
eiTre

Kol

to

TeKevToiov

x^pT}aTr}pia^o/jLev<{)
rjv

Ao^t?;?

r/fMiovov,

ovBk

tovto

avveka^e.

<yap

Brj

6 KO/jo? 0UT09 r]y,iovo<i'
fjbi]Tp6<;

eK jap Bva)v

ovk ofioeOvecov iyeyovei,
97

dfi€Lvovo<i, 7raTpb<;

8e viroBeecTepov

fj,ev

yap
Be

rjv

Mt/SI?
re

Ka\ ^Aa-Tvdy€o<i dvydTijp tov M»;8a)i'

l3aa-cXeo<;, 6

Il€p<Tr]<i

^v Kal

dp'^6/jL€Vo<i

vir

eKeivoiai

kol

evepOe
fiev
77

e(bv

Toicri

diraaL

BecTToivT] Trj etovTov

(rvvoiKei."

TaoTa

JlvOtr)

vireKpivaTO
l^pol<T(p.

TolaL AvBoiai, ol Be dvrjvecKav e?
o Be dKovaa<; avveyvoa

^apBa
re

Kal dTrriyyetkav Kal

ecovTov elvai ttjv dfiapTaBa KaX ov tov
K.poicrov
dp'^rjv
'Itui/i?/?

Oeov.

KaTa

fiev

Brj

t^i;

Tr)v

7rp<oT7]v KaTaarTpo(f>r]u ea-'^e ovtco.

T^poL(T(p
teal

Be icTTC Kal

dWa

dvadij/xaTa ev

ttj

'EWaSt TroWd
Trjcri

92

ov Ta elprjfieva fiovva.

ev fiev

yap ©rj^rjcn

Botwrwj/
ev Be

rplirovi '^vcreo'i, tov dvedrjKe
'Et^eo-ft)

tS ^AttoWcovl tw
twv

^lafirjvLO),

at re ySoe? al '^pvcreai Kal
Tr]<i

klovojv ai iroWai, ev Be

lIpov7)i7]<;

ev Ae\(f>occn daTrl^ '^pvaer) /xeydXr].
irepieovTa,

TdoTa

fiev

Kal €Ti 69

ifie rjv

Ta

S'

e^airoXaiKe Tuiv dvaOrjfidToov

Ta B ev Ta
fiev

IRpay^tBija-i Trjcrc ^iXtjaLcov dvadrjfiaTa ^poicrw, to9 eyui
. .

irvvOdvofiai, tcra re crTaOfiov Kal ofioia Tolai ev A.eX<f>olcrt

?

vvv

€<;

re Ae\<f)ov<; Kal e9 tov ^ AfitpLdpeco dvedrjKe oiKijid

T€ iovTa Kal

twv

TraTpfOicov '^prffidTcov dirap'^rjv
ov<TLr)<i e')(6pov,

Ta Be
rj

dWa
^a<ri-

dvaOrjfiaTa ef dvBpo<; eyeveTo
\evcrac
dvTia'Ta<Tia>TT]<;

09 ol irplv

KaTecrTrjKeL,
dp-yrjv.

avcTvevBcov

JlavTaXeovTC
rjv

yeveadat
fiev 7rat9,

T7)v

AvBwv

6

Be

TlavTaXewv
TlavTuXecov

^AXvdTTeco

^poicrov Be dBe\^eo<i ovk
rjv

6fiofi'qTpi,o<i'

K.poiao<; fiev

yap

eK

lLaelpri<i

yvvaLKo<i

^AXvdTTrj,

Be

e^

'IaSo9.

makes the
;

five Mennnad kings reign 170 years subtracting three, we have 167 years, i.e. just five generations, according to the calculation of Herodotos

the Medic fortresses in Assyria, while the temple of Delphi was burnt in B.O. 548, it is clear that the story of the

(iL

142)

of

three generations

to

100

years.

assigned

Hence the number of years by Herodotos to the Mermnad
In eh. 13 Herodotos will have

dynasty.
written
yeveif.

embassy to the oracle is a pure myth. ^ The temple of Athena at Delphi stood in front of the great temple of Apollo {irp6 tov vaoD). The shield was carried away by Philomelos, the Phokian
general, in the Sacred
^

by mistake for Astyages was conquered by Kyros, according to the inscription lately
iriixirrov iirdyovou

War

{Paiis. x. 8).

—As

Stein points out that here the predi-

cate is lost,

which probably referred

to

found at Babylon, in B.C. 549, and the next year or two were spent in subduing

the plundering of the temple of Brankhidse in b.c. 494 (see

vL

19).

56
eireire

HERODOTOS.

[book

Be Bovto<; tov trarpo^ ^" eKpuTTjae t^<? «/>X^"> o Kpoto-o?, TOP avOpcoTTov TOV avTLirpriaaovra iirl Kvd<f)ov^ eXxcov BL€(f>0€ip€,
Trjv

Be

ovcriTjv

avrov
e<?

en
rd

irporepov KaTiep(oaa<; Tore rpoirtp
etprjTai.

rS

elpT)fi€va>

dveOrjKe
eiprjcrdo).

koI

irepl

fiev

dpadijfjLdrcov

Toaavra
93
KaX

©oovfiara Be

yfj

r]

AvBltj e? auy'ypa(f>r)v ov fidXa e%et, old re

dWrj

%<wp»7,

irdpe^

rov

€k

tov

T/jlooXov

KaTa<^epofievov
%«i>/3t?

ylr-^y/xaTO'i^

ev Be epyov

TroWhv

jxeyLO-Tov Trape^erac

twv

T€ AlyvTrTLcov epyojv Kol tcov Ba^vXcovicov.

eaTL avTodi A\vdTTea>

TOV ILpoiaov 7raTp6<i
TO Be dXKo
ovpot
^
crrjfjba

arjfia, tov t) Kp7)'jrl<i fiev eVrt Xl6(ov ixeydkoyv, %w/Aa 7^9. e^epydaavTO Be fiiv oi dyopacoi

dv6po}7rot Kol 01 '^ei,pcovaKT€<; koI at

evepya^ofievai

iraiBlaKaL.

Be Trevre e6vTe<; eTL KaX e? ifie rjcrav eirl tov
ypdfjL/jbaTa

a-rjfuiTO<i

dvw,
koI

Kai
*" to

cr<f)t

iveKeKoXaiTTO Ta eKaaTot i^epydcravTO,
it

** His father having handed him."

over

metres of cubic contents. ' The stone

The instrument had iron teeth, like a carding-comb, over which the victim was dragged. According to Nikolaos
'

Dam., the "enemy" who incited Pantaledn was a merchant
attes.
*

named Sady-

As described is no longer visible. by Herodotos the tomb will have resembled the "Cucumella" tomb at Vulci, as well as the tomb of Porsena at Clusium described by Pliny (N. H. xxxvL 19). The perpendicular height
base
of the great pyramid of Kheops
feet,
is

482

The gold-dust washed down from Tm81os by the PaktSlos must be distinguished from the gold found in the mines of TmSlos. Ola re as in Homer {eg.

and

it

covers an area of nearly 13
in-

acres.
*

"Monumental stones" bearing

scriptions.

No

trace of writing remains

n.
'

7, 280).

The tomb

lies

on the southern bank
is

of the Gygaean Lake, and

the highest

on the stone now on the top of the tumulus. The Lydian alphabet was, like the alphabets of Karia, Lykia, Pam-

of all the multitudinous tumuli or tombs

on the plateau of the Bin Bir Tepe. It is a conspicuous object from the acropolis of Sardes, and is entirely composed of earth. On the top is a huge block of stone
(about 9 feet in diameter) cut into the

and Kappadokia, based on the Greek alphabet, with characters retained from the older Asianic syllabary (which continued to be used in Kypros down to
phylia,

the fourth century press sounds not

B.C.), in

order to exin

represented

the

form of a pomegranate or phallus. The mound has been partially excavated by
Spiegelthal

and Dennis, and a sepulchral chamber discovered in the middle, com-

Phoeniko-Greek alphabet. A sjiecimen of the Lydian alphabet survives in the five characters on the base of a column belonging to the earlier temple of Arte-

posed of large well-cut highly-polished
blocks of white marble.
is

mis at

Ephesos,

discovered

The chamber

Wood
1876).

(published in the

by Mr. TrcmaaeHaM of
out that the

11 feet long, nearly 8 feet broad, and

tht Society of Biblical Archceology, iv. 2,

7 feet high.

The mound, which had
times for burial pur-

Mr. Newton

jjoints

been
poses,

\ised in later
is

base belonged to one of the "ceelata

281 yards in diameter, or about Texier

half a mile in circumference.

columnse " presented by KroBsos. 7 "Stating how much each class of

makes

it

80 metres high, with 2,650,800

workmen had

executed."


'•]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
/xerpeofievov
8r}

67
iov
fUyia-rov.

i(f>alv€ro

to rtav iraihuTKioiv epyov

Tov yap

AvSwv

Srjfiov

al 6vyaTep€<; TTopvevovrai "jraaai,^ <tv\o

Xeyovcrac a<^ia-L

<\>€pvd<i, e?

av
17

(tvvoikijo-oxti,

tovto

'rroieova-ai'

eKBtBovai Be avral

etui/Ta?.

fiev

Brj

7re/3to8o9

tov

ar]fiaTo<i

eurl aroBiot, e^ koI Bvo irXeOpa, ro Be evpo^

ian

irXeOpa rpia
Xeyovtrc

Koi BeKa.

\i/jLvr)

Be

e'^erac tov

<7rjfiaT0<i

fieydXij, ttjv

tovto fiev Br) 94 KaXeiTUi Be avrij Tvyatij. AvBol deivaov elvai AvBol Be vofioiai fiev irapairXriaioLcn ^pecovTai TOiovTO €<TTi. Kol "EW-i/ye?, p^6)/3t? rj oTi TO, drjXea TeKva KaTairopvevovac,
*

irp(OToi Be dvdpdoTTtov rail/

rjfiel'i

IBfiev vofiiafia '^pvcrov

koI dpyv-

pov
<f>a<rl

Ko-^dfievoL
Be avTol

e^p^cravTO,^ irpoiTOL

Be KaX
Ta<;

KdirrjXoi eyevovTO.

AvBol koL

Ta<i

iraiyvla'i

vvv a^iat re xal
left

This was also the case .in Babylonia Herod, i. 199), and in other paiis of the Semitic world, where the girls consecrated themselves in this way to
^

qiiadratutn

inmsum

by the square

(see

excrescence of the anvil on which they

Astarte.

We

must

notice that accordit

ing

to

Herodotos

was

only

"the

common

people " whose daughters prac-

tised this Semitic custom.

The custom

may have
tites

been introduced by the Hitalong with the worship of the

Asiatic goddess.
lake, now called that of Merwas dried up during a hot summer a few years ago, and the remains of some "pile-dwellings" found in it. It is famous for its carp, which grow to a great size, and in the belief of the
*

The

mereh,

natives cause fever

when

eaten, unless

"a

bitter stone" in their heads is first

taken out. 1 According to Pollux

(ix.

6)

coined

money was invented by the Phrygians. The first coins used in Egypt were introduced by the Persians, as were also the first known in Babylonia and Assyria. The Jews had none before the age of the
Maccabees, and none have been found
in

were struck. The coins of Pheiddn of Argos were imitated from those of Lydia, though Greek vanity afterwards ascribed the invention to him, and bore upon them the figure of a tortoise, the symbol of Aphrodite, and the very animal with which Krcesos was supposed to have tested the veracity of the Delphian oracle. The iEginetan scale of Pheidfin was of oriental origin, like its standard the mna or mina, which goes back to the Accadian mana, subsequently borrowed by the Babylonians and Assyrians, and handed on by them to the West. The Babylonian silver mina is further identical with the silver mina of Carchemish, the Hittite capital, and the mina in use in Asia Minor, and weighed about 8656 gi-ains Troy. Fifty Lydian silver staters (each weighing 173 grains) make one of these minas. This mina was also employed among the PhrygoThrakian mining tribes, who must hare brought it from Asia Minor, and Dr.
discovered at Troy wedges of silver, 7 or 8 inches long by 2 in breadth, each of which Mr. Barclay V. Head has shown to be the third of the Babylonian or This was divided by Hittite mina. three, not halved and quartered like the Phoenician standard, which weighed about 11,225 grains Troy.

Schliemann

has

Phoenicia

older

than

the

Persian

(Hissarlik) six

The early coins found near Sardes are of gold, silver, and electrum,
period.

I I

and some of them may be older than th« time of Eruesos. They have a device a lion's head, a lion and bull, or a crowned king with bow and quiver only on one side on the other is the

;

I

58

HERODOTOS.

[book

EWiycrt Karearea)(Ta<i kwvrwv i^evprjfia yevecrOai, afia Be Tavra<i
re e^evpeOrjvaL Trapa
cr(f>Lcn

Xiyovai Kal
cttI

Tvpa-r}vir]v

aTrotKLcrat,'

&Be

irepX

avTcov Xeyovre^.
la-'^vprjv

aoToSetrjv

ava

rrjv

"Atvo? tov Mai/eo) ^a<Tt\eo<i ^ AvBltjv iraaav yeveadai, koX tou?
Be, o)?

Av8ov<; retu? fiev Bcdyeiv Xnrapeovra^, fiera

ov iraveaOai,
e^evpe-

dxea

Bl^ijaOai,

aXXov

Bk

aXXo

eTrifirf^avacrOac avrcov.

wv Tore kuI rdv kv^cov Kal rcov aarpayaXtov Kol t^<? twv aXKeatv iracrefov Traiyvloyv ra eiBea, irXrjv a<f>aLpr}<; koI irea^aSiv tovtcov yap (ov rrjv e^evpecriv ovk olKrjLovvrac AvBot.*. TTOielv Be wBe irpof rov Xifiov e^evpovra<i, rrjv fiev ereprjv rwv
OrjvaL Br)
rifiepewv iral^eLv iraa-av, Xva
Brj
firj

^rjTeoiev

(TLrLa, ttjv

Be ereprjv

aireiaOaL 7ravofievov<; rwv iraiyvicov.

roiovrq)
Be
Brj

rpoirw

Bidyeiv

eV

erea Bvoiv Beovra

eXtcoaL.

eireire

ovk dvcevat ro KaKOV
rov ^acrCKea avrayv Bvo

cOOC

en

iirl

fxaXkov ^td^eaOat, ovroi

*

not

Xanthos, the native Lydian historian, only knows nothing about this

the mythical Lydian

colonisation of Etruria, but calls Tyrrhenos Torrhebos or Torybos, and makes him the founder of a Lydian city and Dionythe eponym of a Lydian tribe.
sios

prince. In ch. 163 Herodotos himself allows that the Phokaeans first made the name of Tyr-

rhenians
'

known

in Asia Minor.

of Halikamassos

states

that

the

Lydians differed completely in "language, customs, and religion," a statement fully confirmed, so far as language is concerned, by the Etruscan inscriptions on the one side, and the Lydian words preserved in classEtruscan was ical authors on the other. agglutinative and sui generis: Lydian belonged to the Helleno-Phrygian branch
of the

Etrurians and

Atys or Attys was the Lydo-Phrygian sun-god wooed by Kybele, as Tammuz or Addnis by Aphrodite (Astarte), and served by his eunuch priests the Agdistis is another form of his Galli. name. Manes or Manis was the Phrygian Zeus, called Masdes (Ahuramazda)

by the

Persians, according to Plutarch

{de Is. et Os. p. 360 b).
* Draughts was an ancient Egyptian game, both board {sent) and men (ab) being figured on the monuments and found in the tombs. A board found at Thebes, and preserved in the Abbott C!ollection, is given by M. Prisse d'Aven-

Aryan family.

Mommsen

points

out that the great cities of Etruria are inland, rather than on the sea -coast; while Etruscan inscriptions have been
north as Botzen, and the vocalisation of the language becomes more corrupted the further we advance

nes in Monuments igyptiens,
similar game,
vase,

p.

9.

A

found as

far

called

the

was

also played in

game of the Egypt as early

as

the

fifth

dynasty.

Odd and even

south.

be a connection between the Rhaeti of the Alps and Rasena, The the native name of the Etruscans.

There

may

Mras

played with astragali, and various games of ball were known from an

Lydian colonisation of Etruria seems to be a Greek one, occasioned by the similarity of Tyrrheui or Tyrseni, the Greek corruption of the native name of the Etruscans, and Torrhebos, easily changed into Tyrrh6no8,
legend of
the

No dice, however, have been found in Egypt before the Roman epoch but an ivory die of rectangular shai)e, with its four sides covered with numerals in the cuneiform character, has been discovered at Nimmd (Calah)
early period.
;

in Assjria.

i.J

THE EMPIRES OF THE
koI

EAST.
rrjv
rfj
fjuev

59
iirl fioinj

fjLolpa<i

BieXovTa AvBcov iravToav Kk'qp&a-ai
e/c
Trj<;

rrjv

he iirl i^o8(p

^a>pr}<;,

irrl

fikv

fieveiv

avTov Xay-

^avovar] tmv fiocpicop eoovTOP top 0a<riKea TrpoaTdaaetv, hrX Zk TTj aTraWaa-a-ofievrj top eoymov iralBa, rS oijpofia elpat TvpaTjPop.
\a-^6pTa<i 8e

avTWP

tov<; eTipov<i i^Upat, e/c

rr}<i

'^(t)pT}<;

KaTaj3rjpai

if ^fivppTjp KoX fi7)^ap^<Taa-dac irXoia, e?

oaa

(r(f)i

^p

'^pTja-ra

eirLirXoa,

t^ i<r6€fi€Pov<; ra irdpra airoirXelp Kara ^iov re Ka\ yia<i

^rjTTjcTLP, e? o

Kov<i,^

eOpea iroXKa irapafiei-^afiepovf aircKeaOaL e? ^Ofi^pc€pOa a<p€a(; ipiSpvcraaOai TroXta? koI oLKeiv to fie-^pc TovSe.
^aa-iXeot

dpTL Be AvBcop fjLeropofiaadijpaL avrov<i eVt rod
TratSo?,
o<? (r(f>ea<;

tov

dpr/yaye'

eTrl

tovtov

ttjp eTTWPVfjLLTjp Troteofiepov^i

opofMaa-Orjpai, Tvp(r7)Pov<i.

AvBol

fi€P Bt)

inro

Tlep<Tr)<ri

eBeBovXxopTo.

eirLBi^rjraL Be Br)

95

TO epdevrep -qfup o X0709 top re J^vpop oaTi<; eiop ttjp l^poicrov dp')(r)p KaTctXe, Kal TOv<i Tlep<Ta<i 0T€<p rpoTrtp rffrjaapro tt}?
^A<7i7)<;.

crefipovp TO, irepX K.vpop
ypdyfrco,

MP Uepaecop ficTe^eTepoi \eyova-L, ol firj ^ovXofiepoL dXka top iopTa Xeyeip Xoyop, Kara rdoTa iirta-Tdfiepof irepX ^vpov xal Tpi<f>acria<; dXXa<; Xoyatp
CO?
Trj<i

68ov<i <f)rjpat.^
^

Aacrvpiayp dp'^oPTcop

dp(o 'Actiy?

iir

CTea eiKoa-t

Kal 96

TrepTaKocta, TrptoToc air avTotp
K(o<;

M^Sot rjp^apTo dTriaTaadaL, Kal
fuz'^eadfiepoi
rrjp
Tolcrt,

ovTot,

irepl

tt)?

eXevdepi7]<i

^Aaavpiouri

iyepopTo apBpe^ dyadol, Kal
0ep(odT)crap.'

d7ro)<rd/j,epot

BovXocrvprjp rjXev-

fierd Be tovtov; koI to, dXTuc eOpea eiroUt ratirro
warrior ought to be. It is evident that Herodotos has in view other Greek historians who had adopted different

" The Alpis and Karpis flow into the Danube north of Umbria, according to iv. 49. Herodotos, therefore, must have included Lombardy in the district. • See Appendix V. Once more reference is made to Persian authorities wnth whom Herodotos must have been acquainted (see ch. 1). The three contradictory legends of Kyros show how soon he had become a hero of popular

accoimts of the birth and bringing up of

Kyros

;

in opposition to these he asserts
is

that he
history."

going to relate

"the

real

mythology, like Charlemagne in the middle ages. The legend chosen by Herodotos is simply the old solar story which was told of Perseus, of Romulus,

7 See Appendix II, From ch. 177 it would seem that the "upper Asia" of Herodotos was Asia between the Tigris and the Mediterranean, exclusive of Asia Minor west of the Halys, or "Lower

Asia."

What

Berdsos calls the Assyrian

djmasty, reigning 526 years, cannot be

and of

so

many

other m3rthic heroes.

the Assyrians of this passage, since (1)

whether the account given by Xenophon in the Kyropoedeia is one
It is doubtful

the dynasty of B^rdsos ruled only in
Babylonia, and (2) it ended B.C. 747, two years before the rise of the Second Assyrian Empire while the supremacy of the Assyrians in Western Asia dates
;

by Herodotos, since the Kyros of Xenophon is merely the
of the three meant

Greek writer's

ideal

of w^hat a royal

60
Tola-t M.r]Boiai.

HERODOTOS.
iovrcop Be avrovofKov irdvTcov

[book

ava
ev
B*
rjv

tt)v rjireipov,

wSe
ovTo<i

avTi,<}

e?

rvpavviha
t<S

irepirfKOov.
Tjv

avrjp
nral'i

toi<ti

M^tjBokti,

eyevcTO

a-o<f>6<!

ovvo^ia

ArjioKijf;,

<Ppa6pT€(o.^
KaroiKrj-

^rjioKTj'i

epacr0€l<;

TVpavviBo^

eiroiet,

TOidBe.

fxevcov

Twv

MT^Sctfi/

Kara Kwfia^^

iv rfj ecovrov eatv koI irporepov

BoKi/MO<;

KoX fiaXKov tl koI irpoOvfiorepov BiKatoa-vvrjv i7ri0efi€vo^
eova-rjf; dvofjLLT]<;

^(TKef Kol rdora /xevroi
8'

ttoWt}? dva Traaav

rrjv

^TjBiKTjv eiroUi, iTncrrdfievo^i
iari.
ol
e/c

on

tc3

BtKalw to uBikov iroXifiiov

t^?

avTrj<i

Ka)fj,7)<i

M.ijBoc

opeovTa avrov
o

tov<;

rpoTTOVfi

BiKacrrijv fiiv kwvTOiv alpeovro.

Be

Bri,

ola

fivcofievoi;

dp')(riv, I6v<i

re Kol BiKaio<i rjv iroiwu re rdora errraivov
ovro)
eirj

etp^e

ovK
rij<Tt

oKvyov

irpo<i roiv TroXirjrecov,

ware
dvrjp

TrvvdavofievoL oi ev
fiovvo<i

dWijac

Ka>fir}cn

o)?

AT^to/ci;?

Kara ro

opdov

BtKa^cov, irporepov

'irept'Tri'irrovre<i

dBiKOLat

yvco^ijcrt, rore, eirelre

rfKovaav, dafievoi e^oireov irapd rov ^rjioxea Kal avrol Bixaao-

97 fievot,

r€\o<;

Be

ovBevl

dWo)

iirerpdirovro.

ifkeovo^i

Be

aieX

jtvofievov rov e7n(f>OLreovro<i, ola irvvdavo/jLevcov ra<i BiKaf; diro-

^aiveiv Kara ro iov^ yvov<i 6 ^rjiOKT]^
ovre Kari^etv

€<?

ecovrov trav dvaKelfievov

en

rjdeXe evOa irep irporepov TrpoKari^wv iBUa^e,

Kora rolau

en' ov <ydp ol XvcnreXelv roiv ecovrov e^rj^eXr)BC •^fiiprj^: BiKd^eiv. kovar)^ Siv dp7rayjj<i Kal dvo/xirj<; en ttoWcS /xdWov dva rd<i Kci)/j,a<; rj Trporepov Tjv, crvve\e-)(6ricTav ol M^Sot e? rwvro Kal iBlBocrav a(f>LaL Xoyov,
ovr
e(f)r}

Blkolv

rreka^;

\€yovr€<; irepl rcov KarrjKovrcov.
ol rov ArjiOKeco ^IXoi " ov yap

to? 8' 670) BoKeco, fidXicrra
Brj

eXeyov

rpoirco rep

irapeovn ^ecofievoi

from at

least as early

a period as the
I.

that of a Minnian chief in the year B.O.

reign of Tiglath-Pileser

(b.c.

1130),

and

closes after the death of Assurbani-

and Bit-Daiukku, "the house of Daiokes," lay to the east of Assyria, not
715,
far from the district in which Ekbatana was afterwards built Daiukku, a vassal of the Minnian king Ullusun, was carried captive to Hamath by Sargon.

pal (b.c.

640

?),

with two

periods

of

and eighth centuries b.c. Moreover, the Medes were not conquered by the Assyrians
partial eclipse in the eleventh

until the time of Sargon (b.c. 722-705),

This statement

is

correct.

When

was only the more western tribes of them into whose territory the Assyrian king made a raid or two. The Medes of Astyages or Istuvegu

and even then

it

all.

were never subject to the Assyrians at The whole statement of Herodotos

Esarhaddon made his campaign against the &Iedcs, he found them divided into a multitude of small states, or rather towns, each under "a city chief." Their political condition was therefore similar
to that of Greece.
^

and merely illustrates the way in which a monarchy was supposed to grow up. ' We find the name of Dainkku as
is

unhistorical,

"As

j)eople

learnt that

his

deci-

sions were fair;" t6 ibv,

"the truth,"
37,

as in ch.
237.

30,

v.

50,

vi

viL

209,

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
eifiev

61
"t^ixeatv

BvvaroC

oiKelv
t]

rrjv

•^(oprjv,

<\>epe

(mficrwfiev

avrmv

^a(T(Xea' xal ovtq)
rpeyjrofieda, [ovSe

re

x^PV

^vpofi'^aeTac koI avTol tt/jo? epya

v-k

avofi['q<;

avdararoc

icrofieda."

Xeyovra
fievcov

irecdovac ecomovq ^acriXeveadai.
a-rrjcrovrat,

Taord ktj avriKa Bk irpo^aWo- 98
771/

ovTLva

^aaikea, o
elvac.

ArjtoKTjt;

ttoXXo?

inro

iravTO<i

dvSpb<i koI irpofiaWofievo'i koI alv€6fi€vo<;, e?
a<f)i(ri S'

o rovrov

Karaiviovai jSaaiXea
€ft>irrc5

eKeXeve

avToif<; oiKUt re

d^ia

t^9

fiaa-LXrj it}<;

olKoBofxrjaac
oi

koX

Kparvvac

avrov

Bopv(f)opoL(rc.

'TTOteovai Br)

rdora

M^Sot*

olKoBofieovcrl re

yap

avrS

oiKia /xeydXa re Kol ia-yypd,^ iva avTb<i €<f>paa€ r^?

p^co/w;?,

xal Bopv<popov<; avrto iiriTpdirovai, ix irdvraiv Mj^Swy KaraXi^aaOav.
TToXta-fia

6 Be a>? eo-^e rrjv dpyriv, tov<;
7roii]craadac

M.i]Bov<i

'qvar/KUcre

^v

koI

tovto

trepLtrreXXovra';

rSiv

dXXonv

^crcrov

etrtfieXecrOaL.

'rreiOofievcov

otKoBofiei rel'^ea fieydXa re Kal

Be xaX rdora rwv yirfBayv Kaprepa rdora rd vvv ^Ay^drava
fiejjLTj'^dvTirac

KeKXijrai, erepov erepco kvkXq) evearedra.

Be ovrco
irpo-

rovro ro
\t

rel')(o<i

ware

erepov rov erepov

kvkXo<;

rolcri

/•wi^ewo't fiovvoLcn earl iryjrqXorepo^.
avfjLfjLa'xel

ro fxev kov rt Kal ro j((oplov
elvai, ro Be Kal

koXq)vo<; itdv

ware rotovro
eveart,

fxaXXov ri
Brj

iTrerrjBevdr]

kvkXcov

S'

kovroov rcov avvarravrcov eirrd, ev

rip

*

reXevraia rd ^acrCXrjLa
fjueyiarov iarl
rei'XO<i

Kal

oi

Orjaavpol.

ro

S"

avrav
ktj

Kara rov
Br]

^A07)v€(ov

kvkXov fidXcard
ol
7r/30yaap^ewi'e<?

ro

fieyada.^
XevKOL,

rov

fiev

irpcorov

kvkXov

elal

rov Be Bevrepov p.eXave<i, rpirov Be kvkXov ipoiviKeoi, rerdprov Be Kvdveoi, irefiirrov Be aavBapdKLvoi. ovrco irdvroiv
who was the real Median empire. See Appendix V. Sir H. Rawliiison has tried to show that a second Ekbatana existed at Ganzaka in Atropatene, the ruins of which are now known as Takt-iSuleiman {Jour, of Oeog. Soc. x. 1). The
Kastarit or Kyaxares
of

* Ekbatana or Agbataua, called Agamtanu in the Babylonian text of Kyros and Hagmatdna in the Persian cuneiform, is the modem Hamadan, on the slope of Monnt Elwend, the Orontes of classical geography (Aranzi in Sargon's

founder

the

inscriptions).

palace given
it

The description of the by Herodotos shows that

inscription of Kyros, however, indicates

was built in imitation of the great temple erected by Nebuchadnezzar at Borsippa, and now called Birs-i-Nimrud, the seven stages of which were coloured like the walls of the Median

that the capital of Astyag^ was the

Ekbatana of Media M^or, now Hamadan.
'

"Very

nearly equal in size to the

circuit

of Athens."

The

hearers

and

I I I I
I

palace (see Judith,

i.

2-4).

This alone

readers of Herodotos are here supposed
to be acquainted with

it evident that the city was later than the date assigned by Herodotos to But we know from the cuneiDeiokes. form inscriptions that it must have been

makes

Athens

like the

historian

himself.

The

Scholiast

on

Thuk.

ii.

13 makes the circuit of Athens

thirteen

by sixty

stades.

62

HERODOTOS.
ol 7rpofia'^€(ov€<! r]vdL(TfikvoL ela\ (fyapfiuKOLac
elcrl

[book

Twv kvkKohv
oi

Bvo Be

TeXevTolot,
e-^cov

6

fiev

KaTapyvp(Ofi€vov<i 6 Be

KaraKe^pva-co-

99 fievovi

tov^

•jrpofui'^e(ovci<i.

tdora

p,ev Brj 6 A7)i6Kr}<i ecoxrr^

re irei'^ei kcu irepl ra ecovTov otKia, top Be

aWov
Be

Brjfiov Trept^

cKeXeve

to

Tei'^o<;

olKelv.

olKoBofMijOevrcov o

TrdvToyv
fiijre

Koafiov
ia-tevat

TOvBe
re

ArjioKrjf;

7r/3WT09

icrro

KaTaorT7)(rdfievo<i,

irapa ^aatXea firjBeva, Be dyyeXcov Be iravra -^da-dac, opdadaL

^aaiKea

viro

fir^Bevo^,

irpo'i

re rovrotat,

ert

<ye\dv re

koI
irepX

dvrlov irrvevv Kol aTraai elvai tovto ye alayjjov.

rdora Be

ewvTOv
e6vTe<i

ecrefivvve riavBe eXveKev, ok(o<;
crvvTpo<f>ol re

dv

fir)

6peovTe<; ol o^irjXtKe^,

eKeiv^ koI

oIkltj^:

ov <pXavpoTep7]<i ovBe if

dvBpayaOirjv

XetirofievoL,

XinreoiaTO
firj

koI ro

ein^ovXevoLev,

a)OC

100 erepol6<i

cr(f>c

BoKeoi elvat
ecovrov
rd<;
rfj

opcoo-c.

eireire Be
rjv

rdora

BieKoafirfae
<f>v\dcrcra>v

KoX eKpdrvve
yjaXe'iro'i
'

rvpavviBi,

Blkuiov
irap'

koX koI

re BIkuij ypd(}>ovre<;
BuiKplvtov
rd<;

ea-to

eKelvov ecnre/xeKirefiTreaKe.

ireaKov,

eKelvov
rd<i

€a-ipepofjLeva<i

rdora
et
dl^irjv

fxev

Kara

BvKa^ eiroiet rdBe Be
iBiKaiov, Kai

dWa
ol

cKeKoafiearo oi'

rcva irwddvotro v^pi^ovra, rovrov

o/ca>9

fierairefiy^airo,

Kar

eKdarov

dBiK'qfjbarof

KardaKoiroi re KaX

KarriKOOL rjaav

dvd irdaav

101

Ar)t6K7]<i

fjbiv

rrjv '^(oprjv rij<; VPX^' vvv ro M.t]Blk6v eOvo<i avvea-rpe'^e fjuovvov KaX

rovrov
ecrrX

Tjp^e'

ean

Be ^r)B(ov roadBe yevea, BoOffat TlapijraKijvoX

102 Srpov'^are'i ^Apt^avroX BouStot M.dyoiJ'
rocrdBe.

yevea
KaX

fiev

Br)

M-ijBQiv

ArjtoKeco

Be

iral'i

ylverat ^pa6prr]<i, 09 reXevrij-

aavro<i

ArjioKeo),

^aaCKevaavrof;

rpia

irevrriKovra

erea,^

*

The

colours of the seven planets of

tribes eastward of the Zimri in Eurdistan.

the Babylonians,

was a sacred
planets.
^

among whom seven number, and who had a
called after the seven

7^>'ea as

Oppert ingeniously explains the " classes " or castes, the Buz«e
the

week of seven days

being

Skt. bhujd) ; the
original

The

tive

dialects,

Medes spoke agglutinaand belonged to a uonrace.

mads"
khates
zanti

"aborigines" (Pers. Mzd, Paretakeni "the no(Pers. paraitakd) ; the Stru"the dwellers in tents" (Pers.
;

Aryan and non-Semitic

In the ninth century B.C. the wave of migration which brought the Aryan Persians into Persia brought the Aryan Medes into Media, though the Median" empire of Kyaxares and Astyages was still non-

chatrauvaiis, Skt. chatravat)

the Ari-

"the Aryan race"
;

zantu, Skt. dryajantu)

ariyathe Budii " the
(Pers.

cultivators of the soil" (Pers. bUdiyd) ;

and the Magi "the holy ones"
moffus, Vedic maghd).

(Pers.

Aryan when it was conquered by Kyros. " See Appendix V. The name of "Medo was first introduced by the Assyrians, who applied it in a geograpliical, and
not ethnographical, sense to denote the

A

reign of fifty-three years indicates
If

its

unhistorical character.

we assume
fifty

that Kyaxares had reigned thirty years

when he captured Nineveh, the
three years
of

Deiokes

added to the

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
dp'^i]v,

EAST.

63

irapeSe^aro ttjv
Mr]8a)v dp'^eiv,

irapahe^d^evo^ Be ovk a.Tre'^pdro fiovvcov
uttt/zcooi;?

aXXa

<TTparevadfievo<i eirX rov^ U€pcra<i "TrpcoroKrl
evoirjae.

re TovToiai eiredrfKaro koX irpdoTov; M'^Bcov
fierd Be e'^cov Bvo
<f)€TO rrjv fievo<i

rdora edvea Kal dfi<f)OTepa layypd, KarearpeAair}v dir dXKov eir dXKo Icbv €0vo<;, e? o arparevad^

eVl T0U9 ^Aacrvpiov<; xal
irporepov

Kaavpiwv
Be

tovtov<; ot NtVoi/ elyov
fiefiovvcofievot
fxkv

KaX

rip'^ov

irdvrwv, rore

rjaav

(j-vfifid^tov
iirl

are
Br)

direcrrecoToyv,

aXXco? fievrot

ecovrCiv
^

ev

^Kovre^,

TovTovi

aTparevadfievof; 6 ^pa6pT7}<;

avTo^; re Bi€<f>6dpr),

dp^a<i Bvo Kal eiKocn erea, Kal 6 arparof; avrov 6 ttoWo?.

^paopreo) Be reXeimjaavTo^ e^eBe^aro }Lva^dp7)<; 6 ^paoprew 103
Tov ArjioKeoi
rrj
iral^i.

ovto<;

Xeyerai ttoWov ere yeveaOat oXki/uo7rpcoTo<i

repo^i T(ov Trpojovcov, Kal

re eXo'^iae
'X^^pl^

Kara reXea
etvai,
l'ir'Trea<;'

Tov<i iv

^Aairj

Kal

tt/jwto?
rov<;

Biera^e

eKdarov;

tou?

re

alyjio(^opov<; Kal

ro^o^6pov<i Kal tov<;
dvairef^vpfxeva^
rj

irpo

tov Be
Kal

dvafil^ ^v irdvra

6fj,OL(o<i

ovro<i 6 rolac
a-<f>c

AvBotai
ecovrS

earl
6

ixa-^ecrd[jt.evo<i

ore vv^

rifiepij

iyevero

fia'^o/xevoia-i,

rrjv

" AXvo<i

irorafiov

dvco

'Aairjv

irdaav avarrjaa^
'jrdvraf;

avXX.e^a<; Be Tov<i vir
Tr)v NtVoi/, Tt/ioypecov

ccovtm dp'^ofievov^

ecrrpaTeveTO eVl

re to3 irarpl Kal rrjv iroXtv rainrjv 6eKa)v
medic"
(really Susianian) transcript of

twenty -two of Phraortes would make 105 Dating back from B.c. 610 as the year of the fall of Nineveh, we should reach B.c. 715 as the first year of Deiokes, i.e. the very year in which the Minnian chief Daiukku was carried away prisoner It would therefore seem by Sargon. that the fifty-three years of Herodotos represent the interval between the names of the two "Median" chieftains handed down by tradition. The connection between the Mannai or Minni (in the district between Lakes Van and Urumieh) and the Medes of Ramadan
yeai"s.

His reign of twenty-two years seems historical, and we can well believe that he attacked the Assyrians during the decay of their empire. But it is difficult to suppose that the Median empire was founded by him rather than by Kyaxares or Kastarit,
since

the Behistun inscription.

Phraortes,

the rival

of

Darius,

assumed the name of Sattarritta (Khshthrita and Khasatrita in the Persian and
Assyrian texts) when he attempted to
restore the

Median kingdom, and
descendant
;

called

himself the
(Persian,

of Vakistarra

may

be explained by the fact that the combined forces which overtlirew Nineveh were composed of Minnians, Medes, and Kimmerians. Hence tradition associated them together. It must not be forgotten that Daiukku was only a subordinate chieftain under UUusun, the Minnian His name may be compounded king.

Uvakhsatara Ass. Uvakuistar), which has been erroneously identified with the Greek Kyaxares. The latter is really Sattarritta, more correctly written Kastarit in the Assyrian tablets which
relate to the last struggle

of the Assy761-64)

rian power.

iEskhylos

(^Peraoe,

makes Kyaxares the founder of the
empire.
^

with the Susiauian ukku, "great."

The name is written Pirru-vartis (perhaps " all-directing ") in the " Proto'

The Assyrian

sculptures

make

this

statement more than doubtful

64
e^eXeiJ/.
/cat
ol, to?

HERODOTOS.
(rvfi^aXoyv iviKrjcre
iirrjXOe
rov<;

[book

^Aaavplov;,

irepi-

KaTr)fi€pq)

rrjv

ISiivov

avTov<i ^aaiXev<i 6

^Kvdewv arpaTO'i fieya<;, ^Kvdiwv MaSvr}<;^ UpoToOvem 7ral<t'
eK^aXovre^
e'/c

r/^e

he

ot eae-

^akov

jxev e? rr)v ^Actctjv Viififi€pioi/<;

t^9

^vpcoirrj^j,

TovTot.cn Be iTrta-irofievoc

(f)€vyovat

ovtco e? ttjv ^tjSiktjv -^(oprjv

104 aTTCKOVTO.
TTOTafjLov

t^? Xifivr)^ t^9 M.aii]TiBo<; iirl ^daiv KoX^of? TpLTjKovTa r^fxepewv ev^a)V(p 6S09, he T779 Ko\p^i8o9 ov TToWbv vTrep^rjvai 69 ttjv M.r]hLKi^v, aW' ev to hub fieaov edvo<; avTWv eaTi, '%dcnreLpe<i, tovto he irapafxei^ofiee<TTL he airo

Kol €?

^

e'/c

vocat

elvai

ev

Trj

M.rjhiKy.

ov

fievTot,

ol

ye

%Kvdat
evdavTa
*

TavTrj

eae^aXov, aXXa
TTOfievot,
'M.Tjhot

ttjv

KaTinrepOe ohov ttoXXcS puKpoTeprjv eKTpaol fiev
Tryj

ev he^trj

c'^ovTe^ to ^avKatrcov 6po<i?

avfi^aXovTe'; Tolai "^kvOtjctl koI ecraco6evTe<i

tt} fid-^rj

ap^fj<;

KaTe\v0r)(Tav, ol he '%Kvdai, ttjv ^Kairjv iraaav
he
rjca-av

eirea'^ov.

105 evdevTev

eir

AtyvTTTov

koI

eirelTe

iyevovTo

ev

ttj

Strabo

(i.

p.

91)

makes Madyes a
the Treres

Asia,

Reference seems to be
in the

made

to

Kimmerian

prince,

who drove

them
miah.

earlier prophecies of Jere-

out of Asia Minor.
tions, are the

The Kimmerians,

called Gimirrai in the Assyrian inscrip-

Saka of the Persian texts (the Sakae of the Greeks), and first appear in the time of Esarhaddon (b.c. 675),

1 From the mouth of the Mseotis or Sea of Azof to the Phasis (or Rum) is about 270 miles. ' This is a mistake. A large number

when

they

threatened

the

northern

of tribes

and races intervened between
(see ch. 110, iiL 94,

monarchy under Esarhaddon, howtheir chief Teuspa. ever, defeated them, and turned them westward into Asia Minor. When Od. xi. 14-19 was composed, they must have
frontier of the Assyrian

Kolkhis and Media
iv.

37).

The

Saspeires seem to have
Tiflis.

inhabited the neighbourhood of
Ritter's

attempt to identify the name with that of the Iberi is not successful.
See
iii.

already reached the shores of the Euxine,

94, note

1.

and become known chants and sailors of

Greek merIonia. Soon afterwartls they destroyed SinCpe, and then marched into Lydia. Gyges sent two Kimmerian chieftains whom he had
to the

' i.e.

along the shores of the Caspian.

The

longer route would have been through the Pylae Caucasete. Herodotos, however, seems to be thinking of the route followed by Greek merchants, who
first sailed rias,

captured in battle as a present to Assurbanipal at Nineveh B.c. 665.

He was
Medes attack on
settled

by sea to Phasis and Dioskuwhere they joined the caravan road

afterwards killed in battle with them.

to the East.
*

See ch. 15.

As they

assisted the

In

Homer

(/Z.

ii.

461)

and Minnians in their final Nineveh, some of them must have
in or near

mead

" is the plain of the Kayster.

"the Asian The

Media.

The Skyths, who

drove them from their old homes, seem, from their names, to have been Aryans. The name of Skythopolis, given to Bethshan in Palestine, is supposed to be a

conquests of Kroesos seem to have extended the signification of the name, and by the time of Herodotos it had

come

to

mean

all

Western Asia, Lower

Asia being Asia Minor, and Upper Asia the country west of the Tigris. Here

memorial of their inroad into Western

Upper Asia can alone be meant.

I]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
^vpirf,
'^afifii]Ti)(^6<;

EAST.
AlyvTrrov

65
^aa-c\€v<;
firj Tfjt;

UaXata-TlvT)

<T^ea<;

dvTid(ra<; BcopoiaL
iropeveadat..^
%vpl7]<i iv

re Kal
hk

XiTpat dirorpdireL to irpoawrepo)
dva^copiovref:
OTrttro)

oi

iirelre TToXet,

iyivovro

^AcTKdXwvi
Tive<i

rwv

TrXeovcov Xkv0€(i)v irape^ekOovrayv

a<nv€cov oXiyot,
*A<f>poStTr}(i ^
fi€vo<f

avrwv

V7ro\€i<f)devT€'i

iavkrjaav

rrj'i

ovpaviTj<:

TO iepov.

€<m

8k tovto to iepov, a>?

eyw irvvOavo-

evpia-Kw, TrdvTCdv dp'x^aioTaTov lepSyv ocra TavT7]<; r^? Oeov'
(u?

Kal yap to iv KyTr/a^ Iepov evdevTev iyiveTo,
\eyovai, xal to iv K.vO-^poicrc
TavTr)<i
tt}?
'

avTol J^vTrpioi

^oiviKe^ eiat ol iSpva-dfievoi ix

%vpLr)<i

iovTc^.

Toiat Se tmv XxvOecov <Tv\^a-acrc to

Upov to
a<f)€a<;

iv ^AaKdXcovt xal Tolac tovtcov alel iKyovotcrt ivicTKijylre

o ^€09 OrfKeav vovcrov oaaTe dfia Xiyovai re ol %KV0ac Bid tovto
voaelv,

Kal

opdv Trap
«i)9

icovTotcri

Tov<i

diriKveofiivovi

e?

TT)v

Zkv6ikt)v

'^coprjv

SiaKeaTac,^ Toif^ KaXeovcri 'Ei/a/aea? ol

"S^vdac.
'ETTt p,€V VVV

OKTQ)

Kal €tKOai €T€a
<T<f)i

^

rjpj^OV

TTjf;

'A<ri779

ol 106

ZiKvOai, Kal

Ta irdvTa
'X^^pl'i

viro

re v^pLo<i Kal oKiyapirj^:
€7rp7)<T(rov

dvdto

(TTaTa Tfv
eKda-Toccri
Te<?

fi€v

yap

(fyopov

Trap

eKdaToov

iiri^aWov,
Ti
e-^oiev

%<»/3t9 Be

tov

(f>6pov ijpira^ov

irepceXavvov-

tovto

cKacrToi.

Kal tovtcov fiev tou? 7r\€ova<i
KaTa/jLeOvaavTe'i KaTC-

Kva^dp7}<; T€ Kal

M^Sot ^eivLcravTa Kal

<f)OV€vaav, Kal ovtco dveacocravTo ttjv dp-^rjv M.rjBoi Kal iireKpdTeov

Toiv irep Kal TrpoTepov, Kal Triv Te

eTepoiai
"

Xoyoicrt

BifKcocro))

Kal

Tov<i

^ivov etkov (to? Be eTXov, iv ^ Aaavplov^ vTro'^eipLovi

Psammetikhos was besieging Ashdod
ii.

at the time (Herod,

157).

by Hippokrates (De aere, 22). C!omp. Zend a privative, and nar " man." The
French
similar

Atargatis or Derketo, the Astart^ of

physician
disease

Larrey

observed

a

According to Xanthos, Askalon was founded by Askalos, the general of the Lydian king Akiamos, and Athenaeos (viiL 37) makes the Lydian Mopsos drown the goddess Derketo in the sacred lake near Askalon. This lake still exists between Mejdel and the sea -shore, and was doubtless the reservoir of the temple of the Asiatic
the Phoenicians.
goddess.
' The site of this temple is apparently marked by ruins on a hill facing the

among

the

returned

Egyptian soldiers. " If Kyaxares be assumed to have reigned at least two years at the time of the Skythian invasion, his capture of Nineveh could not have taken place till
at least the thirtieth year of his reign.

later

His war with AJyattes must have been than this event, as in this he was allied with the Babylonians. Had Nineveh still existed, it would have blocked the road between Babylon and
the Halys. ^ HerodotoB again promises
syrian history"
in ch.
it,

west side of San Nikolo in Kythera, between the town and the sea. • "And that visitors to Skythia see among them how afflicted they are whom." Enarees is rendered dwwhpUti

184.

"an AsNo other

author mentions
Aristotle (Hist.

An.

viiL 18),

and the passage in which saya

F

1

66
eiroirjo'avro
ttXtjv
tt;?

HERODOTOS.
^a^vKwvit)^
Be
fioipr)^.

[book

fxera

he

Taora
tt]V

l^va^dpr)^

fxev,

^acnXevaa^i rea-aepaKovra erea avv toXgl "^KvQai
iKSeKerac
^

^p^av,

reXevra,

A<TTvdrfr)<;

l^va^dpeo)

Trai'i

107 ^a<TLKr)ir)v.
TTjv iSoKet
^

Kai

ol iyevero OvydrTjp rfj ovvofia edero

^avSdvrjv,

A<TTvdyr)<; ev to5 vttvw ovprjaat

roaovro ware TrXrjaaL
rr/v 'Actit/i/ irdaav.^

fiev TTjv ecovTov irokiv,
V7r€p6e/ji€vo<i
i<f)o^i]dr)

l-mKaraickvaaL he koI
M-dycov
rolcn

Se

tcou

ovecpo'iroXoca-t

to

evinrvLOV,

Trap*

avrcov aura CKuara fiaOoov.
7]Br}

fiera Be rrjv Mai^roiv etovrov

BdvTjv TavTTjv iovaav

dvBpo^

oypairjv Mt^Scui' fiev

d^icov ovBevl BtBol yvvacKa, BeBoiKQ)<; rrjv o'^Itlv
TcS ovvofjua rjv
^afifivar]<;,

6 Be Tlipa-rj BiBol
fiev

rov evptaKe
evepde

olKiTjf;

eovra dya67]<f
fieaov
dvBpo<i
Maj/Sai'179,

rpoTTOv Be rjav^Lov, ttoXXo)

aywv avrov
*

108 Mt^Sou.
alBolwv
iiria'^eiv

a-vvoiKeovar}^
Trpcorq)

Br}

tm

l^a/M^vcrr}

t^9

*AcrTvdy7}<i tc5
rri<i

erei elBe dX\.7]v o^jriv, iBoKei Be ol €k

rav

6vyarpo<i ravri;? ^vvac dfiireXov, rrjv Be
^Aairjv Trdaav.
IBq)v
Btj

dfiireXov

rrjv

tovto koX

virepOefievot:

Toldi oveipoiToKoLcn, fiereTrefiylraro ck ra)v Tlepo-ecov ttjv Ovyarepa
eirireKa iovaav, d7ri,K0fi€V7)v
fievov i^ avTrj<; Bia(^6elpat'

Be e<^v\a(Tae ^ovX.6fievo<;

to

yevo-

e'/c

ydp

ol

Tfj<;

6y^io^ ol t5)V Ma7a)i/

Herodotos introduced an eagle drinking in his account of the capture of Nineveh, has the various reading " Hesiod," while the word veirotriKe looks
that
as if a poet were referred
to.

Assyria and Babylonia in the present
book.
"

We learn
Astyages,

from the newly-discovered

inscription of Kyros that the overthrow

Prof.

Raw-

of

— Istuvegu

in

the Assyli.

linson suggests that the "curious notices
in

rian text,
therefore,

—took

place in B.c. 549.

John

of

concerning
the
dress,

Malala (ed. Dind. p, 26) the Scythic character of
language,

Astyages reigned thirty -fivr
fall

years his accession would

B.C.

584,

and laws of the come from
this

Parthians, which are expressly ascribed

by him
lost

to Herodotos,"

This date, however, cannot well be reconciled with the fact that Kyaxares was the opponent of the Lydians in the battle
of the Halys,
B.C. 584, or
if

work, as well as the narrative of
(B.C.

that event happened in

Eephalion
Ktesias,

120),

who, according
Hellanikos,

to the Synkellos,

followed

of the
'

fall

with the most probable date of Nineveh.

and Herodotos in his Assyrian history. But John Malalas and Synkellos are late writers, and Herodotos does not seem to have lived long enough
after

Nikolaos of Damascus makes Argosto, the mother of Kyros, have the dream.
*

See Appendix V.

Ktesias denied

the relationship of Kyros and Astyages,

the completion of his history to

and seems
scription

to be borne out

by the

in-

have had time to carry out his intention. However, the Assyrian history of Ktesias appears to have been composed in order
to

of Kyros.

Astyages has no-

thing to do with the Zend Aj-Dahaka or " biting snake " of darkness and evil,
the Zohak of the Shahnameh, as used to

confute Herodotos.

In any case the history of Herodotos

be supposed.

The Ass}Tian form
it

of the

,

would not have been worth very much, if we may judge from his notices of

name shows
non-Aryan

to be of Protoraedic

and

J

origin.

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Trj<;

EAST.
6vyaTpo<; avTov
S)v
" Xpirwyov

67
<y6vo<{

oveipoTToXoc ia'^fiaivov ore fieWot oi

^aaCkeixretv
^

avrX

CKeCpov.
6

rdora
KO/ao?,

St)

<f)v\aaa-6fievo<i
^

6

A(rTvdy7)<;,

w? iyiuero

Ka\iaa<i

dvBpa

oIktjlov

icovTov, eXeye oi ToidBe.
firjhap.(a<; Trapa-ypijar),

Kal TTLcrroTaTov re Mt^So)!* koX TrdvTcov eirirpoirov rtav " "KpTraye, Trprjjfia to dv rot, irpoadioa,
fnjSe ifi€ re Trapa/SdXr) Kal dXXov<; eXofievo^
irepcTricrrjf;.^

i^

vcrr€pr}<;

crol

avr(f)
i<;

Xd^e rbv M.avSdvr} €T€K€

aecourov diroKTecvov fierd he Odyjrov rpoirfp OT€(p avTo^ ^ovXeat.' o 8k dfiec^erai " Si ^acriXev, ovre dXXoTe
iralSa, (f>€p(ov

8e

KQ) TrapelBe^i

dvSpl rcGSe d'^apc ovBev, (fivXaaaofieda Be
fjLrjBev

6<?

ae Kal
<f>tXov

69

Tov fiereirena '^ovov

i^afiaprelv.

dXX* et rot
ro

TovTo ovrco yiveadai, yprj
KeKocrfj.7]fievov rrjv eirl

Brj

to ye i/Mov vTrijpeTela-Oai
&<;

eirtTTjBeoii;.^

TovToicri d/jief\lrdfM€vo<; 6 " Xpirayo^,

oi irapeBoOri

iraiBlov 109

6avdT(p,

ijie

KXaicov e? rd oIkui.

irapeXOcov

Be

€<ppa^e
7] ;

rfj

Xoyov.
iroielv

Be 'Kpo<i
o

yvvaiKl tov irdvTa ^AaTvdr/eo<i prjOevTa avTov Xeyei " vvv o)v tI aol ev vQ<p ecnl Be dfiei^eTai " ov ttj eveTeXXeTO *AarTvdyj]<;, ovB' el
icovrov

wapa(f)povr](T€i

re

Kal fiavetTac Kaxvov
Trj

rj

vvv fiaiveTai, ov
Kal
oti

oi

e7a>7e irpoaOrjo-ofiaL
Trjao).

yvmfxr]

'

ovBe e? (f>6vov tolovtov vinjpefjbiv,

TToXXSiv Be eXveKa ov

(jjovevcro)

avTw fwi

avyyevri<i eaTi 6 Trat?,

Kal otc ^Aa-Tvdyrjf fiev iaTt yepcov Kal

dwaKi €paevo<; yovov ^ el 8' edeX-qaet tovtov TeXevT'q(TavTO<i e? TTjv dvyaTepa TavTrjv dva^rjvat -q Tvpavvi<;, r^? vvv tov viov
KTeivei Bi
o fieyKTToi;
ifieo,
;

dXXo

tl

rj

XeiTreTat, to
dcr<f)aXeo<i
*

evOevTev
eXveKa

ifiol

klvBvvcov

dXXd tov

fiev

ifiol

Bel

tovtov

TeXevTav tov iralBa, Bel fievToc tcov Tcva A(TTvd/yeo<i avTov <f)ov€a yevecrOai Kal firj tcov ifiatv" TdoTa elire Kal avTLKa dyyeXov 110
eire/nre enrl to)v

^ovkoXcov t(ov

'

Aa-Tvdr/eo^;

tov rjiriaTaTO
tc5

vop,d<i

T€ iircTrjBeoTdTai} vefiovTa Kal
rjv
lS/i.iTpaBdTr}<i.

opea OrjpKoBecrTaTa,

ovvofia
Be
ttj

avvoiKet Be ecovTov crvvBovXr), ovvo/jul

yvvaiKl ^v

Trj

avvoLKec K.vvcb KaTa ttjv 'EWt^i/o)!/ yXaxraav, KaTa
TTJV

Be TT)v M.T]BcKr)v SvaKco.

yap Kvva KaXeovac
*

a'rrdKa

M^Sot.

• Harpagos seems to bear a non-Aryan name. He was probably the leader of the conspiracy, which, as we learn from

gives Astyages a son,

Xenophon's romance (Kyrop. L 4) Kyaxar^. Phra-

the inscription
latter

of

Kyros,

caused

the

to

gain so easy a victory over
preferring

ortes, however, the rival of Darius, does not call himself " Kyaxares, the son of Astyages," bnt "Kyaxares, the de-

Astyages.

"By

others you

bring

scendant of Vakistarra." • Mitradates is a 2Jend word, "given
to the sun."
^

destruction on yourself hereafter."
'

See ch. 113, note

3.

"Assist his pui'pose."

Spaka cannot be

identified with the

1

68
ai Se vTTcopeai elau

HERODOTOS.
rwv
opecov,

[book
vofia'i

ev9a

Ta<;

ovTO<i Bt) 6 ^ovk6\o<;, 7rp6<i ^opico re dve/Mov tcop
7r/30?
TTpo'i

rwv ^ooiv el'^e ^Ay^ardvav Kol
^tjSckt)
x^coprj
tBr)<Ti,

Tov TTOVTOV Tov YiV^elvov TavTTj
SaaTreipcov opetvr)
77

fiev

yap

17

earu

Kapra koI
^w/jt;
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vyjrrjX'^

re Kal

crvv7jpe(f)i]<i,

Be

dWr)

M.r)BtKr}

vdcra aTreSo?.
dirLKero,

eTret

Q)V

6

^ovKoXof
rdBe.

airovBjj

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ere

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eXeye

6

"ApTrayo<i

" KeXevei

*AaTvdyr)<;

to

vaiBiov

rovTO

Xa^ovra

delvat e? ro iprjfiorarov rSiV opecov,

6K(o<i
fir]

dv rd'^ta-ra
diroKrelvrj^

Bia<f)6apeL7).

koI rdBe rot eKeXevae
Tpoirtp
7repi7roi,r)crr]<;,

elirelv,

rjv

avTO dXXd rew
111 Biayjp'r](Te(TdaL.

6Xe6p(p

to5

KaKiaTio

ere

eiropdv Be

eKKeifievov

rerayfiat

eyco."
ffie

rdora
avTrjv

dKovcra<i o ^ovkoXo<^ koI
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dvaXa^oiv to iraiBiov
e?
ttjv

ttjv
B*

oBov
77

Kal

aTTCKveiTai,

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^

iircTe^

eovaa

Trdaav

dpa Kal TOTe K(o<; KaTa
^trav Bk iv

tS

Baifjbova

TLKTec ol'^ojuevov tov

^ovkoXov
'

e? iroXiv.

^povTiBi dp,<^6TepoL dXXrjXcov
dppcoBecov,
avT7J<i
Tf

irepi, 6 fiev
ia)dcb<i

tov tokov t^? yvvaiKO^
Ap'rrayo<; fieTaTrefjLyjraiTo
eireaTJ},

Be yvvrj 6 ti ovk

TOV

dvBpa,
77

eTrelTe

Be

d7rovoa-T'^cra<;

ola

i^

deXiTTOv IBovcra
'

yvvrj etpeTO irpoTepij 6 ti /niv ovtco TrpoOvfjuof

Ap7rayo<i fieTeirefi-^aTo. eXdoov Kal ijKovaa to
BecnroTa<i
tov<;

o Be elire "

w

yvvai, elBov Te 69 iroXiv

fii]T€

IBelv o<l>eXov fi-^Te
61ko<;

kot^ yeveaOat €9

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fiev

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o)?

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I

KaTeiyeTo, iyoi Be iK7r7uiyel<;

rjia ecro).

Be Taj^taTa icrrjXdov,

opea
elBe

TraiBiov

TrpoKeifievov

dairalpov
ecrOijTi

re

Kal

Kpavyavtofievov,
"Ap7rayo<; Bk
to?

KeKoa-fMTjfievov '^(pva-m
fie,

Te Kal

ttoiklXt).

eKeXeve Trjv Ta'^tcrTTjv dvaXa^ovTa to iracBiov ot^eaOai
Kal
delvac

^epovTa
*

evOa

Or^piooBea-TaTov
iirtdifjuevov fioi,

eltj

twv

opeoav,

<f>ct^l

AaTvdyea
a-<f>ea

eivat tov

TdoTa

ttoW'
e(f)epov,

direiX'qaa'i

el

\

firf

iroLrjaaifxt,.

Kal eyod dvaXa^dtv

BoKeav

twv

Zend
canis,

^pd, Skt. fioa(n),

Greek K6uy, Lat.

of otlier heroes in both eaat and west.

Eng. hound, on account of the final guttural, and is rather to be regarded as a non-Aryan word. At the

As Romuhis and Remus were suckled by a wolf, so, according to the Chinese,
Assena, the ancestor of the Turks, as
well as Tsze-wan of
T'sil,

same time it is clear that the whole story came from tlie Persians, as well on
account of the unfavourable light in which Astyages is represented as of the

was suckled by

a tiger, and Kw'en-mo, the powerful king
of the
B.C.,

Wu-sun

in

by a

wolf, after

name

Mitradates.

The myth may have

in the wilderness.
fed
'

the second century having been deserted Kw'en-mo was also

attached itself to Kyros in consequence
of the meaning of his

by ravens.

name ("shep9.

An

illustration of the piety or super-

herd

country" in Elamite). See Appendix Y. The legend is told
of

the

stitiou of Uerodotos.

See ch. 62, note

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
oIk€T€(ov

69

Tivo<i

iOdfjL^eov he

elvai' ov yhp av kotc KariSo^a evOev ye tJj/. opiwv j^pvaw re KaX eifuicri KeKocrfMrjfievov, 7rpo<? Sk
'

Kol KXavdfiov KareareayTa ifi(f>av€a ev
Br)

Apirdr/ov.

koI irpoKare
e/xe

KUT

oBov 'TTwOdvofiac Tov irdvra \6<yov depdirovrofi, o?
el)?

TrpoTre^ireov l^tu TroXto? evc'^eipicre to ^p€<f)0<i,

dpa M^avBdvq^

re

eirj 7rai<; ri]<i

*AaTvd<yeo<; 6vyaTp6<i xal K-afi^vaeo) rov Kvpov,

Kai
Be

fiiv

dfia Be
to?

evTeWerai diroKrelvaL. vvv re oBe iarL" rdora eXeye 6 ^ovk6\o<; koX eKKa\xn^a<i direBeiKwe. 97 112
^AaTvdy7)<i

elBe

to TraiBiov fikya re
tcov

kclI

eveiZe^i eov,

BaKpvaaaa Koi
firjBefiLrj

Tui^ofievr]

yovvdTcov
Be ovk

tov
€(f)i]

dvBpbf
olo<;

i'^iji^e

Te^vp

eKdelval

fiiv.

t
'

elvai dWco<i

avra iroielv
ovk cTreiOe
tolvvv
Br)

eTTLcfioiTrfaecv

yap KaTaaKoirovi e^ Apirdr/ov
rjv
fir)

eiro-y^ofievov^, dirocu9

\elcr6ai re

KdKicrTa

cr^ea
r)

iroirfcyr).

Be

dpa TOV dvBpa, BevTepa \eyec
Bvvafuii
ere

yvvr)

rdBe.

" eTrel

ov

ireideiv

fir)

eKdelvat, cry Be taBe iroi'qaov, el

irdaa

dvdyKT)
Tedve6<;.

6<f)dr)vai

eKKeifievov.
fiev
to?

TeroKa yap Kal
7rp66e<;,

ey(o,
t?)?

TCTOxa Be
^Aa-Tvdy€0<i

tovto

(pepmv
rjfiecov

tov

Be

Ovyarpo^ iralBa
(TV
fjieva ecTTai'

e^

iovTa rpe^wpLev.
r)ixlv

KaX ovtqj ovre

dXcocreai dBtKccov

Tov<i

Bea'TroTaf ovTe

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^e^ovXev-

o

re

yap

Te6veQ)<i ^aai\r)ir)(i

Ta<f)Tj<;

Kvprfaei Kal 6
tc3

TreptMv OVK diroXel tt)v '^v^'i]v"
7r/309
TO,

Kdpra re eBo^e
yvvr), Kal

^ovkoX^ 113
rdoTa.

irapeovTa ev Xeyeiv

77

avTCKa

eiroiet

tov

fiev e<^epe OavaTcocrcov iraiBa,

tovtov

fiev irapaBiBol Tr} ecovTov
e<?

yvvaiKi, rov Be kcovTov eovTa veKpov \a^a)v edr)Ke
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TratSo?, ^epcov €9 to epr))ioTaTov
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69

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6

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69

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€(f)r)

TOV 'Apirdyov aTToBecKvvvac
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6 " Apirayo^

twv

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tov ^ovkoXov to iraiBiov. Kal to fiev eTeOaiTTO, tov Be vcrTepov tovtwv K.vpov ovofiaadevTa irapaXa^ovaa €Tpe(f)e 97 yvvr) tov ^ovkoXov, ovvofia
elBe

Te Bid

tovtwv kal

dXXo Kov
'

Ti Kal ov ILvpov defievr).^
p.

Kal otc ^v B€KaiTr)<i 6 iral^, 114

Strabo (xv.

1034) makes Agradates
of Kyros, but this was
title,

the original

name

probably his Persian

"countrygiven," a translation of the Elamite Kuras ( "country- shepherd "). See Aj)There is no reason for pendix V. identifying Agradates with Atradates,

"fire-given," a Mardian and robber, who, according to Nik. Damask. was the father of Kyros, and after being employed in a menial capacity in the court
,

of Astyages, rose to be

cupbearer and
that
i.e.

satrap of Persia.

It is noticeable

he

is

made a Mardian

or Amardian,

70
•rrpTjyfia
Kcofirj

HERODOTOS.
e?

[book
eirai^e iv rfj

avrov roiovSe yevofievov
rfj

i^e<f)r)ve fiiv.

ravrrj iv

rjaav koX al ^ovKoXiat, avrai, cTrai^e Se fier

oKXwv

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115 7rat8o9 roix;
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o ^A(rrvdy7j<;

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roiovrov iovro<i iral^ iroXfirjaw; rov rovBe iraiBa iovro<i irpcorov " w trap* ifiol deiKeirj roifjBe irepta-Treiv ;" o Bk dfiei^ero coBe.
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116 TrdpeifiL."

rdora Xeyovro^;
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r)

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rfj rjXiKirj

rov TratSo? iBoKei avfi^alveiv.
d<f)6oyyo<i

rovrocai, irrl
elire,

'^(povov

^v.

fi6yi<i

Bk

Brj

Kore dvevefx^Bel^i

OeXtov

iKTrefi^jrai

rbv 'Apre/m/ddpea, Zva
as

a native of the district of which Kyros calls himself and his ancestors kings.

must be the same nnme assigned by

Mitradates,
to

the

Herodotoa

the

His wife

is

called ArgostS.

Atradates

pseudo-father of Kyros (ch. 110),

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
fjLOvvov

71

Tov ^ovKoXov
iroi^aco

Xu^oiv

fia<Tavl<rT),

" 'A/3T€/A/Sape9, iyo) rdora

ware
Srj

ak Kot tov iralBa rbv aov fnjSku i'7nfi€fi(f)€<T6ai"
ire/jbTrec,

TOV fiev

^ApTCfi/Sapea

tov Be ILvpov rjyov eaco oi
eVel Be vTreXeXenrTO
^AtrTvwyr)<;,

depciTTOVTe'i KeKevaavTo<i tov ^A(rTvdy€o<i.

6 ^ovk6\o<;, fiovvo<;

fiovvcodevTa TaBe avTOV etpero o
tl<;

KoOev Xdfiot TOV TralBa koX
re
€<l)r]

et?)

6 irapaBov'i.

o Be e^ ecovTov

TCKOvaav avTov ert eivat irap ccovtS. Be fiiv ovk ej5 ^ovXeveadat eipTj einOviMeovTa e? ^ K<TTVwyr)<i dvd<yKa<i fieydXa^ diriKvelcrOai, afia re Xeyiov TdoTa iarjfiaive
jeyovevai koI
ttjv
Tolcrc

Bopv<f)opoi(rc

Xafi^dvecv avTov.
€<f>acv€

o

Be

dyofievo^i

e?

ra?

avdyKa<;
dp'^rj'i

ovtw

Br)

tov iovTa

Xoyov

dp'^Ofievo<} Bk dir

Bie^'^ie

tj}

dXrjOelrj '^ecofievo'i, koI
e'^eiv

KaTe^aive
dXrjOeirjv

69

Xltu^ t€
117

Kal axjyyvcofirjv ecovT^ KeXevcov
^AaTvdrfT]<;

avTov.
tt}v
eK(f>'>]vavT0<;

Be

tov

fiev

^ovkoXov

Xoyov

7]Br)

Kal

eXdcrcroi

eiroielTO,^

'Apirdyo)

Be

Kol

fieydXo}<i
a>9

/j,e/x^6fievo<i

KaXelv avTov

Tom
6

Bopv(f)opoi^
^

ixeXeve.

Be

ol
Brj

irapfjv 6 " Ap7rayo<i, etpeTO fitv
fiopcp

A<TTvdr/7j<i

""ApTraye, re^

TOV iralBa
Tr]<i ifirji;

KaTe'^prjcrao

tov

tol
q)<;

TrapeBcoKa
elBe

yeyovoTa

;" o Be "Ap7rayo<i
cttI

ix OvyaTpoq ^ovkoXov evBov tov

iovTa, ov TpdireTat

Tac, dXT^A Xeyei TdBe,

-^evBea oBov, Xva fir) eXey^fOjJievo^ dXlaKr). " w ^acnXev, eiretTe TrapeXa^ov to iraiBiov,
re iroiijao) kuto, voov, koI eyot
7rpo<i

e^ovXevov aKoirecov
a-e yi.v6fievo<i

6ko)<; croi

dvafidpTT)TO<i fiijTe
iroioi
Br)
(f)a<i

OvyuTpl

Trj

arfj

p,r)Te

avTw aol

eirjv

av9ivT7)<i.

<uSe.

KaXecra<i

tov /3ovkoXov TovBe

irapaBiBcofit to iraiBiov,

avTo.
ovTCi).

ae re eivai tov KeXevovTa diroKTelvau Kal Xeycov tovto ye ovk e-y^evBofirjv av yap iveTcXXeo
TrapaBiBcofML fievTot

rwSe KaTo, TdBe
rjv /Mr)

ivTeiXdfji,evo<;,

delvai

fiLV e? epT)fiov 6po<i Kal irapafxevovTa <f>vXda-cretv a%/34 ov TeXevTija-p,

d7reiXT)cra<;

iravTola TwBe

TdBe eiTLTeXea

irotija-r).

eVeiTe
iraiBiov,
Kai,

Be

7roirjaavTO<;

irefiyjra'i

to)v

tovtov to, KeXevofieva eTeXevTT)(re to evvovywv tov<; iricrTOTdTovf; Kal elBov Bi eKcivtov
ovt(o ea-^e

edayfrd

fiiv.

w

/Saa-iXev irepl tov
Tral'i."

Trpr)y)iaTo<^

tovtov,

Kal TOLovT(p fiopo) i^p'^aaTO 6
^

" Apirayo^ fiev Br)

tov

low

118

AcrTvdrfr)<i Be KpvTTTWv tov oi ivel^e ^oXov Bia to €(f)aive Xoyov yeyovo<i, irpwTa fiev, KaTa irep f/Kovae avTO<i irpo'i tov ^ovkoXov TO irprjyfxa, irdXcv dinqyelTo tw Apirdrfcp, fieTa Be, w? ol eiraXiX'

X6yr)T0, KaTe^aive Xeycov
ej^et KaXQ}<;'

di<;

irepieo'Ti Te

o Trat? Kal to yeyovo^

"

t^
*

re

yap

ireiroL'q/ievcp"

i<f>'r)

Xeywv "

i<;

tov iralBa

" Took

little

further account of him,"

72

HERODOTOS.
e/ca/jLvov fieyaXcof;,

[book

Tovrov

koL dir/arpl
(ov

rfj i/xfj Bia^e^\r)/j,€vo<;

ovk

ev iXaijjpS iiroieofMrjv.
fiev

t^9 tv'^V^ ^^ fi€TeaT€coaT)<;, tovto rov crecovTov iralBa aTTOTrefiyjrov irapa top iralSa rov veijXvBa,
rifir)

w?

TOVTO Be (crwcTTpa yap rov TratSo? fieW(o Ovetv roiai deoiv
119 avTij irpoa-KelraC) Trap tad l
i]Kov(T€
fioi iirX

BeiTrvov."

"Ap-TTCvyof fiev

w?
17

rdora, 7rpoaKvvrjaa<; koX fieyaXa
at e? Beov eyeyovei

iroirjadfievo'i

on

re

dfjbaprd<i

Koi

on

iirl

rv'^rjai •^rjarrjac

iirl

Belrrvov eKeKXrjro,^ ^te e?
rjv

ra

olxia.

iaeXOwv

Be rrju ra'^iarrjv,

ydp

oi

7rai<;

el?

fiovva erea rpia koL BeKa
levat

kov fidXtara
/cat

yeyova)<i,

rovrov

eKirefiTrei

re KeXevcov

€<;

^

Aa-rvdyeo<i

iroLelv 6

n
rd

av

eKelvo<i KeXevrj, avTO<; Be 7repi'^apr)(i eoov (ppd^ei, rfj

yvvatKt

crvyKvprjaavra.

^Aarvdyrjf;

Be,

w?

ol

diTLKero

6

'Apirdyov
coTTTTjae

7rat9, <T<f>d^a<i
rj-ylrrjae

rd Be
erreire

avrov kol Kara fieXea BieXoiv rd fiev rwv Kpewv, evrvKa Be rroirjcrdfievo^ el^e
oipT)<i

eroLfia.

Be

rrji;

yivofievt]';

rov BeiTrvov iraprjaav oX

re

dWoL

Bacrvfi6ve<; Kal 6 " Apirayo^i, rolac fiev

dWoKTi

Kal avrtM
Kpecov,

^Aarvdyet
-^etpcov re

rrapenOearo
Kal iroBwv,

rpdrre^at

eiriTrXeai,

firjXeicov

'Aprrdr/o) Be rov 'iraiBof rov ecovrov, irXrjv Ke<f)aXfj<i re Kal dxpcov

rdXKa Trdvra- rdora
co? Be tc3
/jllv
'

Be %&)/ji9 eKciro iirl

Kavecp KaraKeKaXvfijj^iva.
T?}9 ^oprj<;, 'Aarvdyr]<i

Apirdrf(p

iBoKec dXi<; e'^eiv
<f)afievov

etpero

el 'qaOeirj

n

rfj OoLvrj.

Be 'ApTrdryov
rrjv Ke<f>aXr)v rov<i TToSa?,
'

Kal

Kdpra

'qcrOrjvai,

rrape^epov

rolac
rd<i

rrpoaeKecro
'^elpa^ Kal

rov TratSo? KaraKeKaXvfifjbevrjv Kal

Apirayov Be CKeXevov irpocrcrrdvre^ diroKaXvirreLV re Kal Xa^eiv ro ^ovXerac avroiv. wecdofievo'i Be 6 "Aprrayo<i koI diroKaXvirrav opa rov 7racBo<; rd Xei/JLfiara, IBcov Be ovre e^eirXdyrf
€vr6<i

re ecovrov ylverai.

etpero Be avrov o ^ Aarvdrpff; el ycvdxTKoi
6 Be Kal yivcoa-Keiv
epBjj.
€(f>T)

oreo drjpiov Kpea ^e^pcoKoi.
elvau Trdv to

Kal dpearov

dv

^acrt,Xev<i

rovroiai Be
rfie

dfj-ecyfrd/xevot:

Kal
hk

dvaXa^oav rd Xoirrd riav KpeSiV
120
'Apirdyq)
irept
fiev

e?

rd

oIkui, evdevrev

efieXXe, eo? 670) BoKeco, dXla-a^ dd^^eiv

rd rrdvra.
ravrijv
eiredrfKe,

^Aarvdyrj'i

Blkijv

l\.vpov Bk

^ovXevcov cKoXet
ol Be

Tov<i aitrov^ ra>v

M-dr/av at to evvirviov ol

ravrrj eKpivav,
ol rrfv oslrcv.

dirtKOfievov; B^ etpero o ^Aarvdrfrf<i rfj eKpivdv

Kard ravrd

elirav, Xeyovre<;

W9 fiaa-iXevaai

" "Congratulating himself that his crime had had a happy termination, and that he was summoned to a banquet in

'

The legend of a

flesh

ally

feast on human was an old Greek myth originattached to Tantalos of Lydia

honour of a fortunate event." For Siof comp. ch. 186, vL 89, vii. 144.

it

as

the

representative of Asiatic

mon-

archy.

"

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
eVe^axre

EAST.
irporepov.
/cat

73
o Bk

XP^]^ To^ TratSa, el
a/ji,ei^€Tai
iir

Kal

firj

diredave

avrovf

roicriBe.

"

ecrri

re 6 Trai?

Trepiea-ri,

xal

dypov StaiTcofievov oi eK t^9 k(o/ji,7]<; TratSe? fjLiv /3aacX.ea. o Se irdvra, oaa irep ol dXrjOei Xoyrp
eVeXewcre
\i7}(f)6pov^
iroirjo-a'i'

ia-TijcravTO
ySatriXet?,

koX yap Bopvcfjopovi koI 6up(opov<i Kal dyye-

vfilv

Kal rd Xocird iravra BtaTd^a<; ^/>%e. rdora (paLverai <f)ipeiv;" eltrav ol Moyoi "
7ral<i fir)
e'/c

Kal vvv e? ri
el fiev Treplearl

re Kal e^acrlXevcre 6

Trpovoiir; Tiv6<i,

Odpaet re rovrov
Bevrepov dp^ei.
'^^^
'^"'

eivcKa

Kal

Ovfiov e^e

dyadov ov yap
rjixlv

ere to

irapd cr/xtKpd yap Kal rwv Xoylcov

evia Ke^f^pv^^^

7^

rS)v ovecpdTcov ixpfieva reXeo)? e? d<70eve<i epx^fai." dfiei^erai " Kal avrb<; w ^dyoL rainrj TrXelaro'i *AaTvdyT)<; rolaiBe.
yvcofjLTjv
el/jbl,

fiaaCkeo<; 6vofiao-6evTo<i rov
fiot

7rat8o9 e^rjKetv re tov
o/juo^

ovetpov Kal
fiev

rov iralBa tovtov eivai Betvov ert ovBev.
fioc

ye tol (TV/x^ovKevcraTe
elvat

ev

Trepca-KC'yJrdfjLevoi,

rd fxeWec
elirav
7rp6<i

da-(j>a\e(Trara

oXkw re

tcS

e/xcS

Kal vfilv."
r)fx,lv

rdora

ol

Ma^yot "

w

^aaCKei), Kal avTolat
fcelvayi

irepl ttoXXoO eari.

Karopdovcrdai dp^V^ '^W o^W'

fiev

yap dWorpiovrat
Kal
rffiet<i

e?

rov TralBa rovrov irepuovaa eovra
i6vre<i ^ecvoi'^
creo 3'

Yiepcrr^v,

€ovre<;

M?}3ot BovXovfj.e6d re Kal Xoyov ovBevo<; yivofieda
apx^fiev ro

'rrpo<t

Hepa-eoiv,

evea-re<aro<i ^aaCkeo<;, e6vro<i iroXf^reo),
ri/j,d<i tt/do?
rri<i
crrj<;

kuI

fiepo<;

Kal Kal

aeo fieydXa^; e^ofMev.
irpoei^pd^ofiev.

ovrco

av

irdvrto'i tj/mIv creo

dpxfi<i irpooirreov earl.

Kal vvv el

(f)o^ep6v ri ivcoptafiev, irdv
(rKT]-\lravro<;

dv aol
(jyavXov

vvv Be diro-

rov evvirvlov

e<>

avrol re dapaeofiev Kal aol

erepa rotavra TrapaKeXevofieOa.
fxlav dTTOirefjiylrai e? Ile/acra?

rov Be TralBa rovrov i^ 6<f>da\-

re Kal roix; yeivafievovi"

aKovaa^ 121

rdora
rdBe.
rfj

6

^Aarvdyrjii ex^'prj re Kal KaXe(Ta<i rov

Kvpov eXeye ol
e?

"

w
Be

"jraZ,

ae yap iyo)
fiolpr}

Bl

o-^jnv

oveipov ov reXerjv ^BiKeov,
o)v

aecovrov Be

Treplet^;'
ire/Myjrco.

vvv

i6c

^^Ipcov
eKel

Hepaa<;,

irofiirovi;

iyo)

dfia

eXOoav

Be

irarepa re Kal

fiTjrepa

evpt]aet<;

ov Kara M.LrpaBdr7}v re rov ^ovkoXov Kal rrjv

yvvaiKa
Kvpov.

avrov.^^

rdora

etTra?

o

^Aarvdyr)^

dTroTrefnrei

rov 122

fiiv e? rov Kafi^va-eco rd oIkUl eBe^avro 01 yeivdfievoi, Kal Be^dfievoi a)<? eirvdovro^ fieydXco^; daTrd^ovro ola Brf eTTta-rdfievoi avrlKa rore reXevrrjaat,^ laropeov re ore^

voarrjo-avra Be

' "Some oracles even have had an unimportant issue. * This seems to imply a difference of race between the Persians and that part

of the
longed.

^

Medes to which the Magi

be-

"When they learnt who "As they had always

he was." been con-

I

"

74
rpoircp TrepiyivocTo.
6 Se

HERODOTOS.

[book

a^v eXeye, <f>a<i irpo tov fiev ovk elBevac Kar ohov he TrvdiaOai iraaav tt]v ewvrov irdOTjv iiricrraa-dai fxev yap (09 ^ovkoXov tov ^Aa-Tvwy€o<} etrj iral^, aTTo Ze Trj<i KelOev oBov tov irdvra \6yov roiv irofXTroiv TTvOiadai. Tpa(l>r)vaL Be eXeye viro rrj^ tov ^ovkoXov yvvacKo^,

aXX

r)/xapTr]K6vac

irKelaTov,

TjU re TavTTjv alvecav Bta iravTO'i, rjv re oi iv
r}

tm

\6yq)

to,

irdvTa
iva

Kwco.
CO?

ol

Be

TOKet<;

irapaXa^ovTe'i

to
(T(j>t,

ovvofia
6 Trat?,

tovto,

6eL0Tep(i3<i BoKerj

TOiai Tleparjat Treptelvat

KaTe^aXov
rj

<f)dTiv
<f)dTi<i

eKKeifMevov

K.vpov

kvcov

e^edpeyjre.

evdevTev fiev

avTT) KC'^coprjKe.

123

K.vpq) Be dvBpevfjbevo)

kol eovTL TOiV rfkiKwv dvBpeiOTdT(p koX
'

Ap7rayo<; Bcopa irefnrwv, TiaaaOai KcTTvdyea eTnOvfiewv dnr ecovTov yap i6vT0<i IBtcoTeo) ovk ivecopa TLfjLcoplrjv icrofjbivrjv eV ^AaTvdyea, K.vpov Be opecov e7riTpe(l)6fi€Vov
•Trpoa^i\e(TTdT(p irpocreKeLTO
^

iiroteiTO
fievo<;.

crvfifxa'^ov,

ra? irdOa'i
tovtov

Ta<i

K.vpov Tfjat eoovTOV

o/jbotov'

nrpo

B

eTi

TdBe ol
M7;Soi'9,^

KUTepyaaTo.
<rvfj,/ML(rycov

€OVTO<i

tov
6

^AcrTvdyeo<; ircKpov 69 tov9

evl

eKdaTm

"Ap7rayo<;
crafjbevov<i

twv

TrpcoTcov IS/ItJBcov dveTretOe
T779

<b9

xP^

KOpoi/ irpoaTT}-

^AcrTvdyea iraixraL
eovTo<;
eTOLjiiov,

l3aat\T)ii]<i.
Br}

KaTepyacrfiivov Be
BiatTcofievo)

ol

TOVTOV Kol

ovTco

Tw Kupo)
ttjv

iv

JIepcrr)at

^ov\o/Mevo<i " Ap7rayo<;
ovBap,(a<i

Brfkoiaat

ecovTov

yvcofirfv

dWco'i fiev
eTTtTe^i^arat

ei^e

aTe twv oBcov (fyvXaaaofievecov,
jxrj'^avifjardfievo'i

Bk

ToiovBe.

\ayov
ol

koX

dvaa-^Lcraii

TOVTOV

TTJV

yaaTepa xal ovBev

diroTiXa'i, 0)9 Be el'^e, ovtco ecredrjKe

^v^Xlov, ypd-^a<i Td

eBoKei'

diroppd^^afi Be tov

Xayov

ttjv

yacTTepa, Kal Blktvu Bov<i aTe Or^pevTrj

tmv

oiKeTeoov to5 ttutto-

raro), uTreaTeXXe 69 Tot'9 Tl€paa<;, ivTeiXd/j,ev6<; ol aTro yX(oa-ar}<f

BcBovTa

TOV Xayov K.vp^

eireLirelv

avTO'^ecpir]

fitv
Brj

BceXelv

Kal

124 firjBeva ol TdoTa iroieovTi irapelvai.
iv

TaoTd re
eireXeyeTO'

Siv eTrcTeXia

eyiveTo Kal 6 Ki}/>09 TrapaXa^oiv tov Tuiybv dvea'^^icre.

evpoav Bk

avTw TO ^v^Xlov iveov Xa^oDv
"

to,

Be ypdfifjuiTa

eXeye TdBe.

w

iral K.a/ji^vaeci),
Tv-)(ri<i

ak yap Oeol iiropeovav' ov yap
^

dv KOTe

€9

ToaovTo

aTTLKeo' (TV vvv
ttjv

A<TTvdyea tov aecovTov
to

<f>ovea Tiaai.

KaTci /j^v

ydp

tovtov

irpodvfiirjv TeSvrjKa^,

vinced that he had died immediately
after birth."

over to Kyros.
(went)
silver,

Kyros to the land of
the
royal
city

Agamtanu (Ekbataua)
: ;

Kyros says in his inscription "Astyages gathered (his forces) and went against Kyros, king of Ansan.
*

gold,

furniture,

and

Against Astyages his soldiers revolted

and took him prisoner and handed him

goods from the land of Agamtanu he carried off, and to the land of Ansan brought the furniture and goods which he had taken.

!•]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
Kara
6€ov<i re Kal i/xe Treptet?.

75

8e

rd

ere

Kal TrdXai BoKeco trdvTa
Kal ola iyo) vrro
oXSm,
eScoKa

eK/j,efMa6r)K€vai,

aio re avrov

irept a)9 eirprj'^drj,

^A(rrvdr/€o<i

rreirovOa,

on

<r€

ovk direKreiva

r^

^ovKoXcp.

(TV vvv, fjv ^oiikr] ifiol ireideadat,

rrj<;

rrep ^Aarvdrft)^

Uepa-a^ <yap dvaireiaa^i ^PX^'' X^P''^'^' ravrri<i aTrdarj^; dp^ei<;. Kal ijv re 670) vtto dirCa-racrdaL a-rparrfkdreL iirX Mt^Sou?*

^Aarvdyeof aTToSe^^eo)
fiovXeai,
riv

crrparij'yo'i

dvrla

creo,

ecrri

roc

re rcov
drr

ri<i

Sokl/mcov

dWo<i M.rjScov
yevop,evov
eroifiov
7r/>09

rrpoirot
<reo
^

ra av yap ovroi
e6vro<;,

diroardvre'i

eKeivov

Kal
(ot

Aarvdrfea
KO/JO? 125

Karatpelv
iroiei

rretprjo-ovrai.
rrolet

<ov

rov ye evOdhe

rdora Kal
Se

Kara

rd'^o<;."

aKovcra^ rdora

i^povrc^e oreco rpoirtp
^povrc^cov

ao<l>(i)rdr<p TLipo-a*; dvarreiarei diricrraa-daL,

evpicrKerat
e?

rdora.
^

ypds^a^
p,vv

iiroirja-aro, fiercb

Aarvdyed
Xeyoiv,

rdora Kaipccorara eivac eVoiet Srj ^v^Xiov ra e^ovKero, dXirjv rwv Hepaeajv 8k dvarrrv^a^ ro ^v^Xiov Kal emXeyofievot €<f>r) " vvv re" crrparrjyov TLepaecov diroBecKvvvai.
Hepaai, rrpoayopevw
K.vpo<i
fiev

€<f)T}

"

ft)

vfiZv

rrapecvai

eKacrrov

€')(ovra

Bperravov"

rdora

irporjyopevcre.

eari

Be

Uepaecov av^va yevea^ koX ra
'

fiev

avra>v 6 Kvpof

awdXiae Kal
its

Instead of ten Persian tribes Xeno-

menidse or "friends" traced

descent

phon reckons twelve {Kyr. i. 2). The Pasargadae, Maraphii, and Maspii were
those on

from Akhsemenes (Hakhamanish), whom the Persian kings in their inscriptions
claim as their ancestor.
reads

whom

"all the other Persians

Steph.

Byz.

were

dependent,"

principal tribes.

were the According to Anaxii.e.

they

menes

(ap. Steph. Byz., 5. v.), Kyros founded Pasargadae, the old capital of

the country, called Parsagadse by Quint.
Curt. (v.
6, it

X.

1),

but Nik. Dam,

re-

Karmanii for Germanii, and (apparently) Derbikhi for Dropiki. Karmania lay on the eastern frontier of Persis. The Dai were an Elamite tribe, and are called Dehavites in Ezra iv. 9. The
Penthiadae for
Penthialaei,

presents

as

already existing in his

Mardi are the Amardi of Strabo
761),

(xi. p.

father's time.

(Strab.

Kyros was buried there XV. 1035), and it remained the

who

inhabited the range of moun-

tains

which separated Persepolis from

capital of Persia until the foundation of

the Persian Gulf (though they seem to

Persepolis

by Darius

Hystaspis.

It

stood on the Kjtos in the south-east of
Persia,

and

consequently

cannot
is

be

identified ^vith

Murghab, which

the ancient Araxes.
at

on The tomb of Kyros
to the founder
its

have extended northward as far as the neighbourhood of Susa). The Derbikhi were to the south-west of the Caspian, while the Sagartians were the eastern
neighbours of the Medes.

The Sagartian

Murghab cannot belong

opponent of Darius claimed to be the
descendant of Vakistarra like the preto the Median throne. The nomad tribes were not Aryans at all, and we can account for their being
tender

of the Persian empire on account of
architectural ornamentation,

and probis

ably belongs to the brother of Xerxes,
the
satrap

of

Egypt,

who

called

Akhsemenes,
Ktesias.

"the Akhremenian," by
royal clan of the Akhae-

reckoned
otos only

among

The

the Persians by Hero<lby supposing that his classi-

76
aveireiae
irdvre'i

HERODOTOS.
airia-raa-Oai utto Mt^Swi/*
ecrrt

[book

Se rdSe,

i^ tav SiKKoi,

dprearat Jlipaai, Uaa-apydSac M.apd(f)coi Mao-TTtot, tovT(ov TlaaapydBac elcrl dptaroi,, iv rolcn koX ^A-^aLfieviSac elal
^prjTprj,

evdev
elal

oi
oiSe,

^aaiXel';

ol

UepcrecBai

yeyovaai,

dWoc

Be

Jlepaat
fiev

TlavdtaXaloL Aijpovatalot
oi

TepfidviOL.

ovroc

'rrdvre^

dporrjpe^ elai,
Q}<i

Se

dWoc
ydp

vofidhe<i,

AdoL Mdp8oi
e-^ovre'i

126 A.poTrtKol

ItaydpnoL.

Se

Traprjcrav
tl<;

dtravTef;
'^(t)po<i
rj

to

7rpo€iprj/jb€vov,

ivOaina 6

}^vpo<;, rjv

r^?

Il€pa-LKfj<i

dKavda>8T]<;

ocrov re eVt

OKrwKaiheKa

crTahiov<i

eiKocn irdvrrj,
eTrtreXea(f>t

TOVTOV

a(fit

Tov -^cbpov trpoeiTre i^rj/xepwaat iv

rjfteprj.

advTcov 8e rcov Uepcreoiv rov nrpoKeiixevov deOXov, Bevrepd
Trpoelire

e?

rijv

varepaiTjv irapelvat XeXovfievov;.
7roLfj,va<;

iv 8e rovrtp

rd re aliroXia
fi€V0<i

/cal Td<i

koI ra ^ovKoXia 6 K.vpof; iravra
to?

TOV iraTpo'i crvvaXLaa<; e? tmvto eOve koL irapecrKeva^e
tov Uepcrioyv crTpaTov,
7rpo<;

Be^oto?

Be
Trj

otvw re KaX atTiota-i
vaTepalrf
Be aTro

iircTijBeoTdToio-t.

dinKOfievov^
evoo'^et.

Be

Tovf

Tlepcra<;

KaTaKXiva<; €9 Xeifiwva
etpeTO
a(f>ea<i

iiretTe
to,

Beiirvov rjaav,
el')(ov
t)

6

K.vpo<i

KOTepa
irpoTepTjv

ttj

TrpoTepairj

to,

irapeovTa

a(f)L etr}

aipeTcoTepa.

ol Be

TO fiea-ov^ Trjv
TTfv

/juev

yap

e^aaav iro'XXov rjfiep'qv vdvTa (r<f>i

elvai avToyv

kuko, e-^eiv,

Be

TOTe irapeovcrav TrdvTa dyadd,

irapaXa^oiv Be tovto
Treideadat ecrTt
BovXairpeTrea

to Itto? o K.vpo<i irapeyvfivov tov irdvTa Xoyov, Xeyatv " dvBpe<;
TLipa-at,

ovtw vpZv
KoX
firj

e^et.

fiovXofisvoccri

fjuev

ifieo

TdBe

Te

dXXa

fivpta

dyadd,

ovBeva

irovov

e'^ovat,

^ovXofievotat Be ifieo "jretdecrOat elal vfuv irovoL tc5
avTO<i Te

p^^t^cS irapaTrX-qcnoL

eXevOepoi.

dvapiOfi7]T0L. vvv oiv ifieo ireiOofievoc yiveade yap BoKew Oeirj TV'^^ri yeyovoi^ TdBe i<; ^€ipa<i
dvBpa<; M.'qBcov elvai ov <^avXoTepov^
o)? a)v i')(ovTa>v <aBe, dnria'Tacrde

dyeadac,^ KaX

vfi€a<i ijyTjfiai
to, iroXefita.

ovTe
127

TaXXa ovTe
Uepcai
fiev

air

*A(TTvdyeo<i ttjv Ta'^laTijv."

vvv

irpoaTdTeoi

eTriXa/Sofjievoi

da-fievoi

eXev-

OepovvTo,
^AaTvdyi]<i

KaX irdXai Beivov
Be
(o<?

TroteofievoL

virb

^iijBcov

dp-)(e<T6aL.
Tre/xi/ra?

iirvdeTO
6

K.vpov

TdoTa
eKelvov

TrpijcraovTa,

dyyeXov eKoXet avTov.
yiXXeiv
oti

Be KO/jo? cKeXeve tov

irpoTepov

tj^ol

Trap

rj

dyyeXov diray^A(TTvdyr)<; avTo^

^ovXrj(TeTai.

aKovaai; Be TdoTa 6 ^A(TTvdy7}<; M.ijBov<; Te WTrXwre
and
in*

fication is purely geographical,

eluded the aboriginal tribes who were held in subjection by the Aryan immigrants.

great."
'

"The distance between them is Com p. ix. 82. "I think I am destined to take this

into

my

hands."

Comp.

iv. 79,

viL

8.

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
koI

EAST.

77
iiav " Xpiraiyov

irdvra^,
direSe^e,

aTparrjybv avToyv ware 0eo^7ui^f}<i
iroceofievof;

XijOtju

rd

fitv

iopyei.

cu?

Be

ol

M>}8ot

a-rparevad/xevoi rolcn Hipa-rja-c a-vveficcryov, oi fiev rive^ avriav
ifid^ovTO, ocroi
firj

tov Xoyov
^IrjSiKov
e<f>i]

fjbeTecr'^ov,

oi 8e

avrofioXeop

tt/jo?

TOv<i Ylepcra'i, ol

8e

irXelaroL edeXoKdKeov re Kal e^evyov.

Sia- 128

\udivTO<i Se TOV

arparevixarof;

ala-'^co'i,

d><t

iirvOeTO
ovh^

rd'^iara 6 ^AaTvdy7]<;,
K{}/309

direuXewv to5 KO/j^ "
etTra?

aW'

w?

ye "^aip-qcrei"

roaavra
fiiv

irpSyTov fiev

roiv Mo^tui/

T0U9 oveipoTToXovi, oX
rov<i

dveyvwcrav fierelvac rov K.vpov, tov-

dvecTKoXoTna-e, fierd 8e MirXiae Tov<i v7ro\e(,<f>6evra<i ev
^\.r)ha>v, veov<i

ra

darei rdv

re Kal 7rp€a^uTa<i dv8pa<;.
ecrcrdidr),

i^ayaycbp
dire^aXe.^

Be rovrov^ koX crvfi^aXatv Tolai Ueparfcri
*A(TTvdy7}<; e^Q)yp7]d7)

Kal avro^; re

Kal Tov<i e^rjyaye
^

tojv

Mt^Swi/

iovTL Be al^/j,aX(oT(p roS
j(<iipi

Aarvd/yec irpoaardf 6 "ApTrayof; Kare- 129 re Kal Kare Kepro fiei, Kal aXXa Xeycov €9 avrov dvfuiXyea
Br/

eirea,

Kal

Kal

etpero

fiiv

7rpo<i

to ewvTov
etrj

Belirvov, to

ficp

e/ceti/09

aap^l tov 7ratSo9
fiacnX7)Lr}<;.

idoivrjae, 6 tl

uvtI

t^9

o

Be /mcv

y eKeivov BovXoavvij irpocriBwv dvTelpeTo el etovTov

iroielrat to Ku/JOf epyov.

" Apirayo^ Be e^rj,

auT09 yap ypdyjrat,

TO Trprjyfia

Br)

ecovTOV BiKaLa><i elvac.

^AaTvdyr)<; Be /xiv dTre<^atv€

T^
Br)

Xoytp aKaioTaTov re koI dBiKcoTaTov eovTa irdvTcov dvdpa>-

ircov,

aKaioTaTov
ecovTov

fiev

ye, el irapeov
to.

avrtp ^acriXea yeveadat,, el

Bt

ye

eirprj-^dr)

irapeovTa

aXXw

7repLe07)Ke

to

KpdTo^, dBcKa)TaTov
BovXcocre,
el

Be,
Br)

oti tov Beiirvov eXveKev l^TqBovi
Beiv
irdvTax;
e'yeLV,
rj

KareTr)v

yap
jxr)

irepiOeivai

dXXo) Te(p
Mt^Swi;

^aacXrjtrjv

Kal

avTov
eovTa^i

BtKaioTepov

elvat,

retp
fiev

irepi^aXelv tovto to dyaObv

Hepaeav.
avrl
irplv

vvv Bk M.-qBov^
BecnroTeav

dvaiTLOv;
llepcra<i

tovtov
Be

BovXov<i

yeyovevai,

BovXov<i

e6vTa<i

to

Mt^Scoi/

vvu

yeyovevai

BeairoTa^i.
^

A(TTvdy7)fi fiiv vvv ^acnXevcra<i eir
TTJ<;

erea irevTe Kal TpirjKOVTa 130
Be

ovTw

^aaiXr)Lr)<i

KaTeTravadi),

M^Sot

vireKvy^av

Yieptrrjai

Bid Tr)v TOVTOV TTiKpoTijTa, dp^avTe<;
'A<rt7;9

t^9 dva "AXvo^ iroTafiov
r)

eV

erea TpirjKovTa Kal eKaTov BvSiv BeovTa, irdpe^
fled

o<rov

Nikolaos of Damascus states that were fought between Astyages and Kyros in Persia, Astyages winning the two first. The next two were fought on two successive days just outfive battles

with a few friends.
Ite

Tlio recently-

discovered inscription of Kyros shows

the whole narrative to

unhistorical.

the account of Hcrodotos altogether correct. See note on ch. 123.
is
1

Nor

side Pasargadse.

After the

fifth,

Kyros

pursued and captured Astyages,

who had

fore the

" Because he had written, and deed was justly his."

there-

78
ol

HERODOTOS.

[book

^Kv9ai Tfp-^ov.^ varipcp fievroi '^ov^ fieTefieXrja-e re <r(f>i rdora 'rroLrjaaat koX direaT'qaav diro Aapeiov,' diroaTavreii hk
oTTLcrai KaT€crTpd<f)6r}crav fJ-^XJ) viKTjOevrei;.

Tore Be eVt ^A(rTvdy€o<i

ol Hepcrac re koI 6 KG/909 eiravacTTdvre^; rolai M.'^Soiai rip-ypv to
ttTTO

TovTov

tt}? ^K<TLr}<;}

^

AcTTvdyea Be KO/jo? kukov ovBev dXXo
re Koi
Tpa<j}el<i

iroir^cra'i eZp^e

irap

ecovrS, e? o ereXevrrjo-e.
<yev6p,€v6<i

Ovrco
J^polcov
eXp'qrai fiot
Trj<i

Br)

K.vpo<i

i^acriXevae Kal
to?

vcrrepov

tovtoov

dp^avra

dBi.KL7)<; ~

Karearpe'^aro,

irporepov, tovtov Be KaTaaTpeyjrdfievof; ovt<o

irdar}^

*Aair)<i rfp^e.

131

Yiep(ra<; Be

olBa vofioicn roiolaiBe

^pecoyu.ei'Oi'?,

dydXfiara
ifiol

fxev

Kal

vrjov'i

Kot ^o)fiov<i ovk ev vofiw 7roieofi€vov<; iBpveadai,
TTOieovat ficopirjv i'm(f>epov(ri,
evofitcrav
rov<i
co?

dXXd

Kol

rolcrt

fiev

BoKelv, ore

OVK

dv6p(i)'7ro(f)vea<t

6eov<i

Kard

irep

ol "EXX771/69

elvac

ol

Be

vofjul^ovai,

AiX fxev

eVt rd

v-^^rjXoTara

rSiv

opecov

dva^divovre<i 6vala<i epBeiv, rov kvkXov irdvra rov ovpavov Ala
KaX€OVT€<i'

dvovcn Be
dvi/J>oiaL.^

rjXifp

re Kal creX-qvp Kal yea Kal irvpl Kal
/xev Brj

vBaTL Kal

TovToiac
rrj

Ovovat fiovvoiac dp^^dev,
irapd
re
^ ^

€7ri,/Jb€fia9ijKaa-i

Be

Kal

Ovpavlrj

Oveiv,

Kaa-vploov

fiad6vTe<i

Kal ^Apa^Ltov KaXeovcrc Be ^Aa-avpioi rrjv

A^poBiTqv

* " Except as long as" xdpef ^ cannot possibly mean "besides," as it has Comp. v\t)v ^, vL often been rendered. What Herodotos i^u ^, vii. 228. 5 seems to mean is that the Medes ruled Asia "east of the Halys " (notice the
; ;

1 The Kyros tablet shows (1) that Kyros was king of £lam, not Persia (2) that it was the Median army which re;

volted against Istuvegu or Astyages.
^

Because Krcesos had begun the war.
See Appendix V.
is

'

128 - 28 years, i.e. 100 years. This would place the beginning of their empire in b.c. (649 + 28 =) 677, when the Assyrian empire was still intact. One hundred years, however, is a round
use of
iv(o)

heaven "

the Thwasa,

The "vault god of
' '

celestial space," of the Avesta.

Sacrifices

indefinite number, which Herodotos has treated as though it were a definite one, adding to it the twentyThe eight years of the Skythian inroad. Median empire could not have lasted

and therefore

is

more than eighty years at the most, and probably to be reckoned from the date of the battle of the Halys (B.C
584).

were not offered to the moon, earthy water, or winds, though vdta "the wind," vayu "the air," the earth, and the water, were "honoured" as "pure" elements. Xerxes scourged the Hellespont (vii. 35), which he would hardly have done had he accounted water divine. Fire was the visible symbol of the supreme god Ahuramazda. The
Persians built fire-temples (each called

ddUyd

gdtiis,

"house of the law"), and
Behistun,

Dareios,

at

complains
'

that
'

This is the Median revolt which took place in the third year of Darius Hystaspis, as described by him in the Behistun Inscription.

Gomates

the temples of the gods." Polybios (v. 10) implies that the Persians had temples.
Altars were equally used by them.

the

Magian destroyed

I

"

I-]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Se 'AXtXar,* TIepa-at

EAST,
8k

79
Ova-lrj 8k

MuXtrra/ ^Apd^ioc
^cofioix;
(T'jrov8fj

Mtrpav.^

rolat Uipcrrja-L Trepl tou9 elprj/xevovi d€ov<; ^Se KaTecrrrjKe.
TToieovrai

ovre 132

ovre irvp avaKaiov(TL fiiWovTe<i Bveiv
ovkI avXS, ov areixfiacn, ovkX ovXrjai.
Oehrj, e?

^

ov
roiv

^pecovrai,

8e

Q)<;

eKaarw Oveiv
8r)

'^(opov

KaOapov

a'^a'^oiv
fivpa-lvrj

to

Krr]vo<i

KoK^l Tov deov,
ccovtS fiev

i<TT€<f>ava)fj,ivo<}
l8Lr)

top rcdpav

fiaXiara.

tS dvovrt
yap

p,ovv(p

ov ol eyytveTai dpaadai

dyadd-

6

8e

rolat traai
iv

Tlepa-rja-c

Karev^erai ev yipecrdai kuI
to leprjtov k-^rjarj ra Kpea,

TcS ^acTiXic'

8t] toIcti

diracn Uipcrrjac koI avT0<i yiverai.^
fiepea

iiredv 8e 8ia/j,iaTvXa<;

Kara
rb.

vTroirdaa^
ravTTj'i

•jroirjv to?

d7ra\(0TdTr)v, fidXccrra 8e to Tpl<f)vWov, iirl

eOrjKe

wv irdvTa

xpea.

8ta6ivTo<i 8e
oirjv
8r)
oij

dvrjp

^

irapea-reoii'i

eVaetSet
^

Oeoyovirjv,

cKeivoc
(r<f)t

avrov Ma709 Xkyovat
v6fio<i

elvai

Tr}v

i7raoc8i]v

dvev

yap

8r}

M.dyov

earl

Mulidatu or any of the Assyrian texts we possess, but such might easily have been her popular
* Istar
is

not

called

vii.

54)

;

one of the chief ceremonies
sacrifice

Mulidtu,

"the bearer,"

in

during a
of the

was that of the drink
Instruflute

Haoma

(the Vedic Soma).

ments of music

title.

See ch. 199.
iii.

^

Restored from

8.

The

codices

with fifteen holes, the tambourine, etc., were also employed in the sacrificial ceremonies.

— the

have 'AXirra,
of hilSl,

probably

through

the

^ '

" He also Here

is

included.
is

jingle of MijXiTTa.

Alilat is the feminine

Magos

synonymous with

" the shining one," the mornIs.

"priest," as in the later period of the

ing star of
fem.
ellitu).

14, 12 (in AssjTian ellu,
iii.

See

8. it

De

Vogiie

is

^\Tong in identifying

with the name

Up to the time of Darius Hystaspis, however, the Magians were one of the non-Aryan Median tribes
Persian monarchy.
(as in ch. 101),

of the goddess Allath in Palmyrene and

who

placed the pseudo-

Nabathean inscriptions, whose chief seat was Taif in the Hijaz. * This is an error. Mitra or Mithra was the sun-god. The Zoroastrians made him the visible form of Ahuramazda or Ormazd. The Persian Aphrodite was Anahid or Anaitis, whose statue was set

The festival which recorded the overthrow of the usurper was called Mayo(povia, not MijSoipovla. Having lost their political importance, however, the Magi acquired a
Smerdis on the throne.
sacerdotal one after the amaIgij.mation of

the Medes and Persians, and the gradual
infiltration of Persian Zoroastrianism

up

in the

temples of the chief

cities of
(b.c.

the empire by Artaxerxes
405),

Mnemdn

Median

superstitions.

See

by Appendix

as we learn from an inscription found at Susa, a fragment of Berosos wrongly assigning the deed to Artaxerxes Okhos. ^ This is either a truism or an error. A truism if Herodotos meant that altars were not built and fires kindled just

V. In the Avesta the priest is called dtharvan or "fire priest." For the birthday feast cp. Xen. Kyrop. i. 8. There is no allusion to it in the Avesta. ^ A rhythmic prayer, recited in monotone, and addressed first to Ormazd and

Mithra, and then to the
beings,

other

holy

before

the actual sacrifice began an error if he supposed that there were no
;

many examples
xi.

of which are to

be found in the Avesta.

Cp. Lucian,

altars

and

fires.

Libations were used (see

KekyomanL

I

80
6vaia<i
iroielcrOat,.

HERODOTOS.
i7ria-^(ov

[book
')(^povov

Be

okiyov

airo^eperai
^fieprjv

6

133 dvaa<;

ra Kpea, koI '^arat 6

tl fxiv

7^y o<i

alpel.

Be

airaaetov fidXiara eKeivrjv rifiav vo/nL^ova-c
iv TavTjj Be TrXeco Balra rSiv
rfj ol evBaLfiove<i

Trj

€KaaTO<i iyevero.
irporldea-dai' iv

aXXewv BiKaieovaL

avrtov ^ovv koI lttttov KaX

KUfMrfKov
Tr€V7)Te<i

koI ovov

TrpoTcdearai o\ov<; 6TrTov<; iv Kap.ivoicn, ol Be

avTOiv ra

XeTTT^ r&v irpo^aTcov TrpoTcOearai.
rai,
e'7n(f>o pi] fiacre

alrotcri Be 6\iyoL<ri •^pecov-

Be

iroWolat koX ovk aXecrf koI Bta
aneofievov^ 7reivuivra<i
otvcp Be

tovto

^acri Uepa-at Tov<i "FiXkr)va<;

iraveadai,

OTL

a(f)t

airo Beiirvov irapa^opelrai ovBev Tsxiyov

'7rapa(j)epoiTo, ea6iovTa<;

av ov iraveaOai.
efiecrat

a^iov el Be re Kapra irpoaavriov
Be
8'

Kearat,^

kuC

cr(f)t

ovk

e^eart,

ovkI

ovprj(rat

aXkov.
icodacri

TOLora

fiev

vvv

ovrca

t^vkdaaerai, fiedvaKOfievot
rtov

^ovXeveaOai rd a-irovBaLecrrara
(r(f)i

Trprjyp.dTwv.

to

av
6

dBrj

j3ov\evop,evoiai, tovto tt} vaTepair) vi](povac irpoTidel

<7Teyeap'^o<i, iv

tov av i6vT€<; ^ovXevcovTac
rjv

Kal

rjv

fjiev

dBrj
8'

KaX vi]<povai, ^pewvTai avTm,

Be

fit)

dBrj,

fieTelcri,

Ta

dv
el

v'^(f>ovTe<;

Trpo^ovXevacovTai, fiedvaKOfievoL iTrcBcayivcoaKova-i.^
B*

134 ivTvy^dvovTe^i
ofioioi
elcrt

dW'^Xoia-i iv rijai
CTo/iaai'
rjv

oBolcri, roSSe

dv Tt9 Buiyvoir}

ol crvvTifyj(dvovTe<i'

dvTX yap tov Trpocrayopeveiv
rjv

a}CK.rj\ov<i (f)iXeovcn toIctl

Be

17

ovTepo<; viroBeea^Tepo^
17

o\ly(p, Ta9
vecTTepo^i,

7rapecd<;

(fxXeovTai'

Bk

ttoWS

ovTepo<i

dyev-

irpocKwel tov CTepov. Tifuacn Be e/c irdvTcov Tov^ dy^KTTa ewvTMV olK€ovTa<; fieTa ye e(ovTov<i, BevTepa Bk Tov<} BevTepovi;' fieTa Be KUTa \6yov irpo^aLvovTet Tifiata-i'
Trpoa-TrtTTTfov

rjKLCTTa

Be

tov<;

eayvTOiv

eKaaTaTco otKruxevovi iv
[t&J Xeyofievro]

TCfirj

dyovTai,

vo/j,t^ovTe<i

e(ovTov<; elvac dvdpioirwv fiaKpta

Ta irdvTa dplaTovf;}
dpeTrjii

Tov^ Bk
Tov<i

aWov9 KUTd \oyov
€Ka(TTdT(i)

Trjf;

avTeyeaOai,
iirl

Be

olKeovTa<i diro ewvTotv KaKicrTovi elvai.
'^^

Bk

M.'qBtov

dpyovToiv KaX VPX^

eOvea dXXrfKuiV,^
Compare the
Empire,

(rvvatrdv'
of the English

' Still

a characteristic of the Persians.

*

pretensions

The statement that the Persians cooked
whole animals in their ovens seems to be parodied by Aristophanes, Akham.
85-7.
Dissert,

Celestial
tourist.

or

of

the

Stein regards t^ Xeyofjidvifi in the next clause as a false interpretation of Kari, \&yoif, " in proportion."
*

Cp.

Maxim.

Tyr.,

ed.

Diibner,

According to Ktfeias (ed. Didot, p. 79) the king was allowed to be drunk only on the day when sacrifices were made to Mithras. 8 Plainly a Greek story. 'Ert- means
xxviii.

" In the time of the Median supre-

several nations had the following precedence over each other. " Herodotos imagines a feudal system con-

macy the

ditioned by geography

;

those furthest

"yet again."

Tacitus ascribes a similar
22).

custom to the Germans {Oerm.

from the ruling power being under those nearer to it. Perhaps the notion waa

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
fidXa twp

EAST.
Se

81

Tft)i/ fjL€V

M.Tj8oi Koi TOiv ay^LCTTa OLKeovToyv cr^lac, ovtoc
ol

koX

Kara rov avrov Brj \6yov Kol ol Yiepcrat TCfi&ai' Trpoe^aive yap 8t) to edvof dp'^ov ^ecviKa Be vofiaia Hepaat TrpocrievTai 135 T€ Kul iiTLTpoTrevov.^ koX yap Brj ttjv M.r)BiKr}v iaOijra vofita-avre^t dvSpayv pA\i,(na. T^9 ea)VTa)v elvat KaWio) <f>op€Ova-i,^ Kal e? Toi/f TroX-e/ioy? Tov<i
T(bv
6fiovp(ov,

he

i'^ofievtov,

'

Alyvirriov^
fievoc

6(opr)Ka<i'

Kal evTradeiat; re
Br)

7ravToBa7ra<i

irvvdavoTratai
^

iTTiTrjBevovai, xal

Kal air

'EWt^i/cui/

fjui6ovTe<i

fiiayovrac.
yvvaiKa'i,

yafiiovai Be eKoaro';
S'

avrav TroWa?
elvac

fxev

KovpiBLa<i

ttoWm
aTToBe^r]

en

7r\eova<; 'iraWaKa<i KTcovrac.

avBpayadirj 136

Be avTTf

wTToBeBeKTat,

fiera

to

/Mi'^eadat
Be
toi»?
eTO<;.

ayadov, o?

av

TToWou?
i(T')(ypov

TralBa^'

t^

ifKelaTov^

airoBetKVvvTi,
S'

Bcopa eKTrifiTrei ^aaiKev<i
elvai.
P'^'XP''

ava irav
Be

to iroWov
iralBa^,

-qyeaTat

iracBevovcn
€lKO(ra€Teo<;,

tou?

airo

7revTaeTeo<t

dp^dfievoi

Tpia fiovva, linrevecv Kal To^eveiv
7revTa€Tr]<; yevrjTat,,

Kal dXrjdL^eaOai}
69 oy^iv To5 iraTpC,

trplv Be

rj

ovk diTLKvelTat,
TOvBe top 137

dXkd irapd Tycn yvvai^l
ovtco
irotetTaL,
iva,
rjv

BiaiTav e%et.
diroddvr]
fiev

Be

eiveKa

tovto

Tpe(f>ofievo^,

firjBefiuiv d(T7]v Tat iraTpl 7rpo(r^d\rj.
vofjLov,

alvio)
alTir}<;

vvv TovBe

aivem Be Kal TovBe, to

/jlt)

fiirj';

eiveKa ^T/re avTov

Tov ^acrCXAa firjBeva

(jjoveveiv, fiijTe tq>v

oKKcdv Uepaetov fi7]Beva

suggested by the
citadel of
^
' '

seven walls
(ch. 98).

of

the

Ekbatana

The nation continually made ad-

vances in ruling and administering." This means that the empire of Persia

belonging to "a free youth," and hence "lawfully wedded," is, it will be noticed, a word of the new Ionic dialect of the age of Herodotos.
Kovpoi,
^

Persian respect for truth

is

forcibly

had been continually growing, so that new countries were added to its borders,
as well as
after

illustrated

by the Behistun inscription where Dareios calls the Magian usurpation

new

subjects

who took rank

"a

lie,

" declares that he

is

favoured

those nearer than themselves to
itself.

Persia proper

Othere understand

the sentence of Media and render:

"it
Stein

by Ormazd because he is not "a liar," and orders his successors to^ destroy every one who is " a liar." Cp. ch. 138.
It is difficult to suppose that

governed

first

immediately, then medi-

Kyros was

ately, in a progressive fashion."

unable to read the inscriptions drawn up
for
still

asks whether
'

we should not read apxlf
?

fuvov for dpxoy
*

"Adopt foreign customs." According to ch. 71 the old Persian
and

dress consisted of a leather tunic
trousers.

the Babylonian scribes and more difficult to suppose it of Dareios whence we may conclude that Persian education was not quite so illiterate as Herotlotos would imply.
J
;

him by

On

the

monuments the kings

wear a long sleeved robe, reaching to the ankles, and fastened round the waist by a girdle. * The "Homeric" KovplSiot, from

Indeed the inscriptions Dareios took such pains to have inscribed by the side of the public road iiuply that a

knowledge of
spread.

letters

was

fairly

widely

G

L

"

82
rSiv

HERODOTOS.
etovTov
oIk€T€(ov
rjv

[book

iirl

fiirj

alrirj

avrjKea-Tov
fiei^to

-Trddof

epSeiv

aXXa
he

Xo'yi,ad/j,€vo<;

evpiaKij irXew re koI
toj

ra

dSiK-^/jbara

eovra roiv VTrovpyq/Mircov, ovtw
ovheva
ijSr)

dv/xoi '^pdrai.

diroKrelvaL

kco

Xejovai rov

ecoirrov

irarepa

ovBe firfrepa,
'

dWd
ov <ydp

OKocra

rotavra eyevero, irdaav dvdyKrjv ^aal dva^rjreo/jLeva
tjtol iiTro^oXi/JUila

rdora dv evpeOrjvat
Bi]

eovra

r)

fiof^lSia'

^acTL oIko^ elvai rov ye dX7)0€(o<; roKea viro rov ewxrrov iraiBo'i

138 aTTodv^aKecv.

daaa

Be

a<^L

iroielv

ovk

e^earc,^^

rdora ovSe
vevofiiarai,

Xeyecv e^ecrri.

ata'^icrrov

Se avrolcn rb -yjrevSea-dac

Sevrepa Be ro 6<^eiXeLv
fidXiara Be dvayKaiijv
XeyeLV.
ovro<i
<f>a(rl

%/)609,

iroXXav

fiev

Kal

dXXwv
e'^'rj,

eivexa,
yjrevBo<i

(f>aal elvai

rov o<j>eiXovra Kal rt
rj

09

dv Be

rcov

daroov Xeirprjv

XevKijv

e?

ttoXiv

ov Karep'x^erai ovBe avfi/niayerai rourt aXXoiat
Be fiiv e9 rov ijXlov d/xaprovra rt

Uepa-rja-i'

rdora

e'^eiv,

^eivov Be

iravra rov Xafi^avofievov viro rovrewv
rrj<i

[ttoWoi] e^eXavvovcn eK
.
.

p^&)p»;9,

xal rdf XevKd<i 7r€pi<Trepd<{
69

.,

rrjv avrrjv

alrir)v

139

i'7n<f)€povre<i.

irorafiov

Be

ovre ivovpeovac

ovre

efiTrrvovai,

ov '^elpa^ ivairovi^ovraL, ovBe dXXov ovBeva

Trepiopeova-t,
a-<f>L

dXXd

ae^ovrat
rcoKe

7rora/j,ov<; fjuiXiara.
/juev

Kal roBe dXXo
avrov<; XeXrjOe,
rolat,

oiyBe

avfiireTT-

yiveadac, ro IIepcra<;

Tjfi€a<;

/xevrot ov'
fjLcyaXofikv

TTpeTreiT)

rd ovvofiard cr(f>i eovra reXevrwau irdvra
roiv

ofioca

a-aifiaai

Kal

rfj

€9 roavro ypdfi/Ma, rb
Bi^tj/nevo'i

AwpieU
rd
8'

adv

KaXeovcri, "Icovef Be alyfui'^ 69 rovro

evprjcretfi

reXev-

roivra

Hepcrewv rd ovvofuira, ov rd

fiev

ov,

dXXd

rrdvra

bfioicd^J'

^ " Wherever such cases occurred they would turn out on enquiry to have been the crimes either of cliangelings or
. . .

which denoted samech the sound of xL

Among
older

the Dorians, however, the

name

of sigma {samccli) never displaced the
sliin.

of children born in adultery.
2

A

reminiscence of the two

»

Tournier conjectures

6<r(i;

for ?{e(rTt

original

letters

was preserved

in

the

{Revue de Phil. 1877). ' Xerxes could not

have

had very

much

respect for the water

when he
Super-

chastised the Hellespont

(vii. 35).

system of numeration, where sampi, i.e. son + jst, denoted 900. " This only proves Herodotos's ignorance of the Persian language. The
Greeks, of course, bestowed a final s on
Persian proper names, but in old Persian only nominatives of nouns in i and u had it. Names like Bardiy(a), Gaumat(a), etc., end in a vowel, like femi-

stitious respect for the water,

however,

was an Elamite rather than a Zoroastrian
virtue.
*

Sigma

is

the saviccJi of the

Hebrew

san the Hebrew shin. The Greeks, not having the sound expressed by samech, fused the two sibilants toalphabet,
gether,
jAt'n before tau,

nines in

-rf.

Hero<lotos

was

etjually

making sigma take the place of and giving to the symbol

wrong in imagining that all the names had reference to bodily or mental excellence. Cf. Pott on Old Persian proper

i

'•]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Tdora

EAST.

83

fievToi

a)<?

rdhe 140 fiev aTpexiw; eyw irepl avru>v €t8(o<; elirelv Kpvmofieva Xiyerac Kal ov <Ta<f)7]ve(o<; irepX rov dirokvvo<;
eX-Kvadr}.^

0av6vTo<i, 0)9 ov irporepov ddirTerau dvBpo<; Hepaeoi) o v€Kv<i irplv

^dyov^ fiev yap drp^Keayi KaraKT^ptoyap Brj iroieovai,. Mo^oi he vavre^ 8e cov tov vckw Uipcrai yea Kpiiirrovai. Ke'^copiSarat iroWov t&v t€ dXkcov dv0pco7r(ov Kav tcov ev AlyvTTTO) lepeeav. oi fiev yap dyvevova-i efi^^vyov firjBev Kreiveiv, el fiT] ocra dvovaf ol Se Sr/ M.drfoi avTO'^eipirj irdvTa ttXtjv kvvo^
av
vir

6pvi6o<i

rj

olBa rdora iroteovra^'

ifi(f>aviQ)<;

Kal dvdpatTTOv KT€Lvov(TtJ Kal dycSvLafxa /xeya tovto TroLeovrai,
KT€{vovT€<;
irereivd.
6fiOLco<;

fivpfn)Kd<; re Kal
fiev

6(f)i<;

koI

rdWa
a)<?

epireTa Kal

Kal

dfKJil

ro)

v6fi(p

tovto)

e'^ero)

Kal

dp'^ijv

ivofiia-dt), dveLfiL

Be eVi tov irporepov \6yov.
o)?

"Iwre? Be Kal Alo\el<;,
viro Hepa-ecov, eirefitrov
eirl Tota-t,

ol

dyyekov;

if XdpBt<i irapd
J^potcrq)

AvBol rd-^iara Karearpdi^aro 141 Kvpov, eOeXovTe'i
rjcrav KariJKooi.

avroiai elvai rolcn Kal
avrcov

6 Be
<jid<i

aKovcras

rd

'irpot<xj(ovTo,

eXe^e

a(f>c

\6yov,

dvBpa

avXrjTTjv IBovra

l-^6v<;

ev rfj
ft)9

daXdcrarj avXelv, BoKeovrd
"yjreva-drjvai
'rrXr]do<;

(r(f>ea<i

e^eXevaecrdaL
dfx,(j>L^XT]aTpov

69

yrjv

Be

t^9

eA.7rtSo9,

Xa^elv
7rpo<;

Kal irepi^aXelv re

TroXXx)v

t(ov I'^dvcov

Kal e^eipvaai,

IBovra Be TraXXofievov; elirelv dpa avrov
fjuot

T0U9
rolai

l')(6vf

" iravecrde

op-^eofievot,

iirel

ou8'

ifieo

avXeovro<i

rfdeXere

eKJSalveiv

op'^eofjuevoi."

K.vpo<i

jiev

rovrov rov
eXe^e, ore

Xoyov
Brj

"Iftxrt

Kal rolcn AloXevai rtovBe eiveKa

ol

''1q)V€<;
(T<f>ea<i

irporepov avrov Ku/oou BerjOevrof; Bt dyyeXcav diriaraaOal
diro

KpoLcov ovk
rjaav

eireiOovro, rore
ireidecrdat
ft)9

Be Karepyaa-fievcov ra)v
6
fiev
Brj

rrpriyp.drayv
i'^6fievo<;

erot/j,oc

lLvp<p.

opyfj

eXeye

(T(f)c

rdBe' ^lavefi Be
rei'^ed

i]Kovcrav rovrcov dveveL-^-

devrav

€9

Ta9

ir6Xca<i,

re

irepte^dXovro

eKaaroi,

Kal

avveXeyovro e?

YiavLoliVLov ol
K.vpo<i

dXXot

irXr)v ^tXTjaicov
iir

irpo<; fiovvov<;

yap

rovTOv<;

opxiov

iiroLrjcraro
this

olai

irep

6

AuSo?.

names, in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, xiii. (1859), pp. 359 sq. ^ According to Zoroastrian belief
neither earth nor
fire

custom to the Magi rather than to
Persians generally,
so

the

completely

had the Magi become
the Zoroastrian priests.
'

identified

with

may
;

be polluted

by contact with a corpse
that

the only

way
is

An

exaggeration

of

the

religious

of getting rid of the dead, therefore,

mentioned

in

the

text.

The

modem

Parsis place the dead

body on a

round tower, called a " tower of silence," where it is devoured by the viiltures. We mav notice that Herodotos ascribes

duty enjoined on the Zoroastrians of destroying all animals noxious to man. Ants are ordered to See Appendix V. be killed in Yendidad, xvi. 28 snakes, lizai-ds, ants, rats, and gnats, in Vend,
;

xiv.

10

aq.

"

84
ToX<Ji 8e \ovTro1(Ji "Iwcrt

HERODOTOS.

[book

eSo^e kolvw Xo7«i> triyjTm.v arfyiXovi e?

^Trdprrjv

he7}(TOfievov<i "Icocn TLfuopeiv.

142

Ot
iroXcat
avTr]<;

Be "Iwve? ovtol, riav
dypecov ev

koI

to

HapKuviov
Xhfiev

iari,

tov

fikv

ovpavov KoX T(ov

rS

KaXKia-rat eTiry^avov ISpvaafievoc
rjfi€i<i

Trdvroav dvOptoireov roiv

ovre <yap rd

dvay

jfwpia todvto ttouI

rrj ^layvij]

ovre rd xdrm, \oine rd irpof

T7)v

rjM

ovre rd ov

irpof;

ttjp ecr7rep7)V,^

rd

fiev inro

tov -sjrv^ov re

Kol vypov Tne^ofieva, Td 8e vtto tov depfiov re koI avyjuohea.
<y\(ao-(rav

Be

Tr}v

uvttjv

ovtol

vevofiLKaai,
p.ev

dXKd
irpcoTr]

Tp67rov<{

Te<Taepa<;

irapw^ui'^kuiv.

MtX'i/TO?

avTewv

KecTat

TToXt?

7r/30<?

fieo-afi^pltjv, fieTd Be

fiev ev Trj

Kapiy

KaTOiKTjvTai,

MyoO? re Kal Ilpirjvrj. KUTd TavTd BiaXeyofievac

avTat
a-<^iat,^

Trj AvBlj), "E^eco? KoXo^eoi/ Aej3eBo<i Tea)<? KXa^ofieval ^wKaia' avTai Be at TroXte? TrjcrL irpoTepov Ty^'^Oeiarjai ofioXocTi Be rpcK yeovai, KuTd yXaxrcrav ovBev, a<f>t(rt Be ofiocjxoveovcn. viroXoLTToc 'Ia8e9 TroXte*?, tmv at Bvo fiev vr}<7ov<i oiKeaTac, Zdfxov

aiBe Be ev

re Kol ^Lov,

7}

Be fxta ev Trj fj'rreipw iBpvTac, ^EipvOpaL

Xtoi
ctt'

fiev

vvv KoX ^^pvdpaloL KUTd TwvTO BcoXeyovTai, Sdfitot Be
fxovvoi.

ecDvrStv

OVTOL ')(apaKTr)pe<i
Bt}

y\(t)(r<r7)<; Te(T(Tepe<i

yivovTai.
a-Keiry

143

TovTcov

Siv T(ov ^loovfov ol ^(Xrjcnot fiev rjaav ev

TOV

<j>6^ov,

opKiov TTOtrjadfievoi, Tolat
oijTe

Be

avToiV

vrjaKOTTjo'i

^v

Betvov

ovBev

ydp

^oiviKe^; rjaav

kw

Yiepa-eoav KaTrjKooi oine

avTol ol Uepa-at vav^aTai.
^Icovfov

aTrea'^^LcrdTja-av

Be utto

twv dWcov

ovtol kot olKKo fiev ovBev, dcr0eveo<i Be eovTo<; tov ttuvto^
yeveo<i,

TOTe '¥jX\t)vlkov

iroWS
ol fiev

Btj

Tjv

dcrdeveaTaTov twv edveoav
fir)

to ^IcovLKov KOL \6yov eXa'^LCTTov OTL ydp

^AOrjvaL, rjv ovBev

dXko

TToKLcxfia XoyLfiov.

vvv dXkoL "Iwi/e? kol ol
KeK\.rja-6aL,

AOrjvaioi

e<j>vyov

TO

oijvofia,
fioL ol

ov ^ovXofievoL "Iwi/e?

dXXd

Koi

vvv (fyaivovTal

ttoXXol avToJv iiraLa'^vveaBaL tc5 ovvofiaTi'

al Be Bvu)BeKa TroXte? avTUL tcS re ovvofuiTL rjydXXovTo Kal lepov

IBpvaavTo eVt

cr(f>eQ)v

avTcjv, tc5 ovvofia eOevTO

IlavLa>vL0V, e^ovItovcov

XevaavTo
etc

Be

avTov fieTaBovvac fnjBafiolaL dXXoLCTL
firj

{ovS'

144 eBerjdrfaav Be ovBafiol fieTacr'^elv otl

"^fivpvaioL)'

kutu

irep ol

T^9 TrevTairoXLOf vvv X^PV^ Acopielf, irpoTepov Be e^airoXto^
"Four

'

slightly -differing

dialects."

Scarcely any trace of these differences

can be detected in the Neo-Ionic inscriptions which

'

duct of the lonians at the time of tli' Ionic revolt, which brought the ver\ name of " Ionian " into contempt. At

we

possess.

an

earlier date, the \Mei of the Houieri

" And

use the same dialect.

Hymn
title.

to

Apollo

is

proud

of

tin

In consequence of the cowardly con-

,.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
avriji;

85
fjLr]8afiov<;

T^9

TavT7j<;

KaXeofievrj^;,

<f>v\d(T<rovTai,

tav

ia-

Se^aadai roiv irpoaoiKcov Aojpifov

e?

to

TpioTTiKov iepov,'

aXXa

I

xal
TTJi;

a(f)eci)v

fi€T0'^TJ^.

avruv Tovf iv yap

irepX

to

iepov

dvofii]aavTa<;

i^cKK-qiaav
A-TroWcovof;

tcS

dycovc

tov

TpioTriov

eTidea-av to irdXac Tpiiroha^ ^a\Keov<; Tolcn viKwcri, Kal tovtov;
"Xprfv

Tou? \afi^dvovTa<f
de^.

e'/c

tov Iepov
tov
'

firj

eK<f>€pecv

d\X* avTov
ovvofia
rjv

dvaTtdevai toS
^

dvrjp

AXtKapvrjacrev';,

tc5

AyacriKXer}<i, viKija-a<;

tov vofiov KaTr}X6yr]ae,

<f>€pcov

Be 7r/309 to.
^

ecovTov OLKia TrpoaeTracradXeva-e tov Tptiroha.
alTLrjv

hid TUVTrjv ttjv
K.d/j,ecpo<i

at nrevTe 7roXt69, Aivho^; koX 'Ij/Xyo-o? re koX
tt}<;

Koi Kfti? re koI KvtSo?, e^eKXrjtcrav
'

fjieTO'^rj<;

tt]v ckttjv ttoXiv
ttjv
^rjfxiijv

AXtKapvijaaov.

tovtokjl
fioL

fj,ev

vvv

ovtoi

tuvtijv

145

€7re0r}Kav SvcoBeKa 8e

BoKeovac

rrroXcaf;

Trotijcraa-dai ol^lcovet;

Kal ovK iOeXijarat irXeova^; eaBi^aa-Bai TovBe eiveKa, otl Kal ot€
iv JleXoTTOvv^a-a oXkcov, BvtoBeKa rjv

avT&v

fiipea,

KUTd

irep vvv

^A'^aiwv Twv i^eXacrdvToov "Iwi/a? BvooBeKd
fjiiv

ea-Ti fjbepea,^ TleXX'^vr)
tt}

ye

TTpcoTT)
^

tt/do?

^iKva)V0<;, fieTa Be

Aiyecpa xal Alyai, iv
ttjv

Kpd0t<i

iroTa/MO'i

detvao^ eVrt, dir otco 6 iv ^iTaXirj Trora/io? to
koI '^Xlkt], Kal
i<i

ovvofia eo"%e> teal BoO/aa
VTTO

KaTe(f>tr/ov "loji/e?

^A-^aLwv

fid'yjj

ecro-(o6evTe<i,

Aiyiov

Kal

'PuTre?

Kal

IlaTpei<i fcal ^apel<; Kal "flXeyo?, iv tc3
itTTL,

Iletpo? iroTa/Mi^ fi€ya<i

Kal AvfiT) Kal TptTaiet<;, oc fiovvoi tovtcov p^eaoyaioi olKeovat.
^

TuoTa BvcoBeKa fiepea vvv
TovTcov
<M9
Br)

A'^atoiv icTTl Kal TOTe ye ^Ywvoav ^v.

eiveKa Kal ol

^Icove^;
"lewi^e?

SvcoBeKa iroXia^ iiroLrjo-avTO, iirel 146
elai ToiV

ye TL [laXXov ovtol

dXXwv

^Itovcov

rj

KdXXiov

Tt

yey Qvacn!'

ixdnpin)

iroXXr)

Xeyetv tmv' "A/Sai/re?
three-

fiev

i^ E^y3ot7;9

2

The Triopian cape was the
promontory

Dorian invasion from Argolis, Lakonia,

on which Knidos stood. An inscription found at Knidos states that a yvfwiKbs dyibv took place
forked
there every five years.
'

and Messenia, expel the lonians from
the part of the northern coast of the

Peloponnesos
Akhaea.
^

afterwards
past

known

as

Lindos, lalysos, and Kameiros were
of Phoenician foundation, but after-

The Krathis ran
Grsecia,

Thurii in

all

Magna

wards occupied by the Dorians like the
other
Phoenician
settlements
still

in

the

on the southern coast of Rhodes, but nothing save tombs remains of lalysos (a little southward of the town of Rhodes) and Kameiros (near Kalavarda) on the northJEgean.

Lindos

exists

where Herodotos finished The his history and ended his days. original Krathis was in Arkadia. ® " That these lonians are at all more Ionian than the rest, or in any way
better."
'

As

in

Homer, "of whom."

Accord-

ing to Aristotle the Abantes were prehistoric

I I
I

em
*

coast of the island.

Thrakians who

settle<l in

Euboea
See
//.

This refers to the legend which made the Akhaeans, when driven by the ms

(also in Khios, Paus. vii. 4, 9).
ii.

536.

86

HERODOTOS.
^loovirj'i
(T<f>i,

[book.

elal ovK iXa-^LCTTT) fioipa, roicn

fiera ovBe rov ovv6fiaTO<;

ovBiv, M.tvvac 8e ^Op'^ofjuevioC^

dvafiefit'^aTai koI

KaBfieloi

Kol Apvoireif koX ^wKel^; aTroSda-fiioc Kai

^oKoaaol Kav
'

^ApKaBe^;

JJeXaayol koX
fiefii'^araL'

Acopiei'; ^EiTriBavpioi,

aWa

re edvea TroXXa dva-

ol

Be

avTwv

diro

rov TrpvTavrjlov

rov

'

A6r}vaLfov

6pfn]6evT€<i Kal vofii^ovre<i yevvaioTaroi eivai

Icovcov,

ovtol Be ov
ety^ov, rcov

yvvalKa<i '^ydyovro e? T^i* diroiKLT^v
i<f>6v€V<Tav
Tov<i

dXka

K.aeipa<;
(f>6vov

yoveaf;.

Bid rovrov Be

top

ai yvvaiKe<i

avrai vofiov de/ievat <t<^l(ti avrrja-i 6pKov<; eirrfKjaa-av Kal irapeBoa-av rrjcrt Ovyarpdai, firj Kore op-oatrrjaai rolai dvBpdai firjBe
ovvo/xarc fioiaai, rov
a-(f)S(ov

e(ovTrj<;

dvBpa,^ TovBe e'lveKa on, i<f>6v€vcrdv

Tov'i

irarepa'i

koI dvBpa<i koI iralBa^ koX eireirev rdora

iroirjaavTef; avrrjat avvoLKeov.

rdora Be

rjv

yivofieva ev MtXT^Tft).
as well as of

The. prehistoric Minyans of Orkhoin Bceotia were famous for their wealth {II. ix. 381), and seem to have been the rivals of the Akhaeans of Myken». The shafts cut through the rock in the neighbourhood of Kopse
'

discovered at Mykenae,

menos

some of the gold objects found in one The Minyans are of the tombs there.
said to have founded Teos
3),

(Pans.

vii.

(

Topolia) in order to let

oflf

the water of
their work.

aud the Phokians Phokaea, while the Abantes helped to found Khios, and the Kadmeians Prien§. Attica was filled
with fugitives from
2).

the Kephissos

may have been
naval

all

parts (Thuk.

i.

A

prehistoric

alliance

Orkhomenos, Athens,

between Epidauros, Her-

It is i)robable,

however, that the

mione, Prasiaj (afterwards Spartan), and Nauplia (aftenvards Argive), which met
every year in the island of Kalauria, off
Argolis,

coasts of Asia Minor were occupied by " Ionian " Greeks long before they were

reinforced

by the fugitives from

the

Dorians.
^

was

preserved

in

name

into

When

a colony was founded, some of
fire,

historic times.

The recent excavations of I>r. Schliemann have shown that the Minyan city occupied only the southern
part of the later historical acropolis of

the sacred

alight in the Prytaneion,

which was always kept was taken from
her

the mother city.
^

"Nor

call

husband
is

by

his

Orkhomenos.

Prehistoric

pottery and

name."
to

A

Kafir

woman

not allowed

stone implements, similar to those found
at Mykense, have been brought to light.

name her

father-in-law even mentally,

The "Treasury

of Minyas," a gigantic

tholas or beehive

tomb, like the Trea-

any of her husband's male relations. The Bogo women may not name their husbands (Munzinger, Sitten und Rccht
or

suries of Mykenffi, only built of woll-cut

der Bogos,

p.

95).

Elsewhere,

as

iir

and

well-fitted blocks of white marble,

has been shown to have led into a rectangular chamber, the ceiling of which consisted of four huge blocks of green marble, while the walls were lined with
slabs of the
an<l slabs

America, persons avoid the use of their own names, while the Tahitians disused
all

words containing a syllable of the
of the reigning sovereign.
It is

name

clear, therefore, that

the custom origin-

same material.

The

ceiling

ated in a fear lest by mentioning a

name
it

in

the

were adorned with sculptures form of rosettes, spirals, and
of

the attention of the evil spirits might

be attracted to the person to
belonged.
forgotten.

whom

"sphinx -tails," resembling the ornamentation of one
the

In

Miletos

its

origin

was-

tombstones

1]

THE EMPIRES OF THE

EAST.

^aa-t\€a<{ Be ^ar-qaavro ol fM€v avrtav

Avklov^ avb TXavKov tov 147

'IttttoXo^ou yeyovoTw;, ol he Kau/cwi/a? TivKiovi atro

KoSpov tov
'irepie')(ovrat,
hrj

yieXdvdov, oi he
Ka6apoi<i

koI

avva/j,(f)OTepov<;.

dWa
^Icovcov,

yap

rov ovv6fMaTO<i fidWov
01

n

twv aXKcov
he

ecrrtcaav
"leui/e?,

koI

yeyov6Te<i "I&Ji/e?* elal

Travre^

oaoL dir

*AdT}ve(ov

yeyovaai xaX ^XtrarovpLa' dyovai eopTrjv dyovai he
ovtol yap fiovvot ^\(av(ov
<f)6vov
iepo<i

irdvTe<i ttXtjv ^K<f)ealcov koI K.oXo<f>covia)v

ovK dyovcTL WiraTovpca, KaX ovroi Kara
TO hk Uavuovtov eVrl
reTpafifjbevo<;, Koivrj
tC(ovi(p.
rj

rcvd
tt/jo?

(TKi}y^cv.

t^<?

Mu/caA-^;?
viro

xw/ao?
'Icovcov

e^apaipr]fievo<;

dpKTov 148 Uoaeihewvc 'E\t7rpo<i

he

Mu/caXT/

earl
e<?

Tij<;

"qireipov

dxpif]

^e(l>vpov

avefiov KartjKovaa ^dfim,
"Ituve?

rrjv

avWeyofievoi diro rSiv

TroXicov

dyeaKov

oprrjv rfj eOevTO ovvo/jm Uavioovtaj^

[Treirovdaat

Be oijTi fiovvac at 'Icovtop opraX tovto,
6ftola)<;

dWd

Kal '^XX^veov irdvroiv

irdaat e? twi/to ypdfifia reXexrrwai, Kara irep roiv TiepTroXte? etVi, a'lhe
ArjpLcrai,

aeatv

rd ovvofiara.*] Kvrat fiev al 'laSe?
KaXeofievr),

he at AioXiSe?, K.vfMr] 149
Trjfivo<i,

17

^pt.Ka>vl<;

Neoi/

Tel')(0'i,

ISoTiov, Alyipoeaaa, Uirdvi], Alyatai, M.vpiva, Tpvveca.^

KtXXa, avrai
ev
rr}

evheKa AloXecov
^fivpvT)
•ffireipu).

7r6\ie<i

al dpyalai,- fiia ydp

(r(f)ecov

irapeXvdr}

viro

^Icovcov

rjcrav

ydp KaX avrac hvcoheKa al
-y^coprjv fiev

ovToc he ol AtoXet?
he

erv^ov
(XTaaei

KTLcravTe<} dfieivo)

^l(ov(ov, ajpecov

ijKovaav ovk
}^o\o(f)coviov<i

ofjioico^.

S/jLvpvrjv he

w8e

dire- 150

^a\ov

Aio\el<i.
e/c

dvhpa<;

eaaatOevTaf;

KaX

eKireaovTaf;

ri]!;

irarpiho^ inrehe^avro.

fierd he ol

<f)vydhe<;

T<av Ko\o(f>covi(ov <f>v\d^avTe<i Tov<i ^fivpvaiovi oprrjv e^co reLyeofi
iroieofievovi Atovva(p, rd^i 7rv\a<? d'7roK\7)iaavTe<;
fiorjOrjo'dvTcov

eayov

r-qv iroXiv.

he

irdvTOiv

AioXetov

ofioXoyirj

e'^rjaavro,

rd

'

ing of the phratries,

The Apaturia was the annual meet* when the children
It took Pyanepsion (November), and

Iwrn during the two or three preceding
years were enrolled as citizens.
place
in

lasted three days.

On

the

first (Sopir/o)

the members of each phratry dined together
fices

on the second {dvd^l>v<Tis) were offered to Zeus Phratrios
;

sacri;

* This seems too absurd a truism to have been written by a Greek. ^ lu place of ^giroessa other writers have Elsea. Recent discoveries fix the site of Myrina at Kalabassery, a few miles north of Kyme, at the mouth of Mr. W. M. Bamsay the Koja Chai. has found the site of Temnos on the

and

northern side of the Boghaz or Pass
leading into the western part of
plain of Magnesia.

on the third (KovptCtrii) the children's names were registered. » In the time of Thukydides (iil 104) this feast was in great measure 8U|)erseded by the Ephesia.

the

Menimen, with which Texier identified it, had no existence in the Greek {)criod. Phokaea, which intervened between K3rm6 and Smyrna, must

88
eTTtirXa

HERODOTOS.
diroSovrcov
rtov
^ioovcov

[book

iKXtTrelv

Zfivpvqv
<T^ea<i

AloXeaf;.

TTOirjaavTcov Be

rdora ^fivpvaicov iirihietKovTo
AtoXiSe?
7r6\i€<i, e^co roiv

at evBexa
fjuep

151 TToXte? Kal iiroi'^a-avTo a-^ecov avrecov 7roX.t?;Ta9.

avrai

vvv

ai

'^7retp(OTtBe<i

ev Trj ^\Bri olKT)fi€ve(t)v'

K€')(OipiB(trai,

jdp avrai.

ai Be rd^ vr)aov<i eyovaai rrevre fiev

TToXte? TT)v AecT^ov vifiovTai (ttjv
/xivrjv

yap

ckttjv iv rfj

Aea^qt

oixeo-

^Apia^av
^

r^vBpaTroBicrav

M.rjdv/Mvaloi

iovra'i

6/JuiLfiov<;),
vi']<toi(ti

ev TeveBo) Be fiia

ocKetrai
fiia.

TroXt?, Kal ev rrja-t

'E/caroj/

KaXeofiivTjat

dWr}

Aea^ioiat
rd<;

fiev

vvv

KaX

TeveBioiat,

Kara

irep

^loovcov

rolai

vrjaov^i

e'^ovcri,
"loicrc

rjv

Betvov
rfj

ovBev

TTjat Be Xocirrja-i iroXicn

eaBe kolvtj

eTreadat

dv ovtoi

i^TjyecovTat.

152

dyye\oi

'n? Be diTLKOvTO (Kara yap

e? rrjv SirdpTrjv
Br]

rd'^o'i

rjv

tmv rdora

^Icovtov

Kal AloXecov ol
eTKovro
6 Be

irprja-crofjieva),

irpo irdvrcov Xeyeiv rov ^(OKaea, rat ovvofia

^v

Tiv6€pfio<i.

TTOp^vpeov re

elfjua

'jrepi^aXofj.evo'i, &>?

dv TrvvOavofievoi TrXelarot
rtfjucopelv

(rvveXOotev ^TraprtTjretovJ Kal Karacrrd^ ekeye rroiXXd
€(ovroL<Tt,

'^rjL^cov.
<x<^i,
/jltj

AaKeBaifioviot
n/Moypecv "Icoac.^
dTrcoa-dfievoi

Be
ol

ov
fiev

K(o<i Br)

eariKovov,

dXX'

direBo^e

diraXkaaaovro,
dyyeXov<:
BoKel,
6fio><i

AaKeBacfjLovioL

Be

rdv ^Icovwv
Kal

rov<;
i/Mol

direareikav TrevrTjKovrepq) dvBpa^, w? fiev
irovi
rSiv

KaraaKoBe

re

K.vpov

Trpijyfidrcov

'Iwi/ti/?.

diriKonevot

ovroL e? ^(OKaiav eTrefiirov €9 SdpBt<i

cr<peQ)v

avrcov rov BoKifui)-

rarov, ra> ovvofia
pijatv, yea<i
rrj<i

rjv AaKpLVT)<i,

drrepeovra K.vpo) AaKeBaL/ioviav

'EXXctSo?

firiBefiiav ttoXcv a-ivaficopelv,

w? avrfav
dvOpcoTroi

153 ov

Trepto-ylrofievoov.

rdora
Koaoi

elirovro';

rov

KtjpvKO'i,

Xeyerai K^vpov
irpoayopevovai.

eireipea-dai

rov<i

"irapeovra^ ol '^XXrivtov rlv€<; iovrei;
7rXr]0o<;

AaKeBac/jLovioi

Kal

rdora

ecovro)

Trvvdavofievov Be fiiv elirelv irpofi rov KVjpvKa rov ^iraprtyjrrjv " ovK eBeiad kco dvBpa^ roiovrov<{, rolac earl ^wpo? iv /J^a-p rfj
TToXet
diroBeBey/xevof;
rjv

e?

rov

crvXXeyofievoi

aXXT/Xov?
'I<ui/<ui/

6fj,vvvre<i

e^aTrarwac' rolai, eXXetr^a ^ dXXd rd
liave

iyo)

vytaivco, ov

rd

trddea

earat

oiKijca."

rdora

e?

tou9

"jrdvraf;

"EXX^yi/a?

been founded by the lonians after

to assist a foreign despot, Eroesos, a short

their capture of
'
^

Smyrna.

time before.
" "Into which they come together to swear and cheat one another." ^ " A matter to talk about." A.^ffxVt "a club -room," seems Iwrrowed from

Opposite the northern end of Lesbos. " In order that most of the Sjimrtiates
purple robe seems to have been a

might hear of him and come together."

A
'

luxury

unknown

in Sparta.

Phoenician
ber").

(Heb.

lishedh

"a cham1

Yet they had been willing enough

I

'.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Kvpof ra
a<fii

EAST.
d)vfj

89
re xai

arrippiyfre 6
Trpija-i

eirea,

on

dyopa<; anjadfievoc

-^oeayvTat'

avTol yap ol Uepaai

dyopfjai

ovSev icodatrt

•^dcrdat, ovSe
rpe-^a<; Td<i

iarl to Trapdtrav dyopij.

fierd

rdora

iiri-

/jlcv

Sa/aSt?

Ta^dXq) dvSpl Uiparj, rov
rSiV
^

he '^(pvaov rov

T€

K^potcrov

Koi

rov

KOfil^etv,
fi€vo<;

aTnjXavve auTO? e?
Toif<i

Kol
nfj

"leui/a?

iv

oKKmv AvSiov HaKTvrj dvSpl Ai/S&J Ay^drava, K.poiaov re dfia dyooiiBevl \6y^ irotTjcrdfievo^; rrjv irpaiTTjv
rjv eftTToSto?

elvai}

re
^

yap

BayQuXcoi/ ol

koi to ^dxTpcov edvo<!
re o-TpaTifKaTelv

Kal "^dxai

T€ KaX

Alyvimoi,

iir

0^)9

eVet^e

aifTo^, eVi Se ''l(ava({
'fl?

dWov

Trifnreiv o-TpaTrjyov.

he

dirrjXaae

K.vpo<i

€K

TOiv

Saphicov, tou?

Ai/Sou? 154

direa-TTja-e 6 Ila/CTVi;?
eirl

aTTO re

Ta^dXov
^^((ov

Kal KOpou, KaTa0d<i he

ddXaaaav, uTe top y^pvaov
re

irdvTa top eK TOiv "^aphiodv,

eircKovpovi
eireiOe

ifiiaOovTo

Kal

Tov<i

eTridaXaaalovi

dvdpu)Trov<i

<tvv

eoavTm

aTpaTeveadat.

eXdaa^ he
ttj

eirl

ra?

%dpht<i

eiroXiopKeL Td/3a\ov direpyfxevov ev
he
Ti
&>9

uKpoTToXet.

7rvdofievo<i

155

" Kpoure, KaT ohbv TdoTa 6 K.vpo<; elire tt/jo? Yipolcrov Tdhe. eaTat T€\o<i twv yivofievoiv tovtwv ifioi; ov TravaovTai Avhoi,
OLKacn, TrprjyfiaTa irape'^ovTe'i Kal avTol eyovTef;.

^poi/Tt^w

^f]

dptcTTOv ^ e^aphpairohicraadai

(jjalvofjuii TreTTOCTjKevat

w?
he

et Tt9

ydp fiot vvv ye iraTepa d'iroKTeiva<i t&v iraihwv
a-<^ea<;.

ofiOLQ)<i

avTov

(j>eio-acTO'^

cb?

Kal
dyco,

eyo)

Avhcov top
he

fiev

irXeov ti
ttjv

r)

iraTepa

eoma ae Xa^atv
S'

avTolac

Avholat,

iroXiv

irapehcoKa, Kal eireuTa ucovfjud^o) et fiot d7re(TTd<TL."
irep

6 fiev hrj

Td
<tv

evoei eXeye,
Ta'i

dfiei^eTo

Toiache, heL(Ta<;
to,

fir)

dva(TTdTov<i
etprjKai;,

TToirjcrrj

%dphi<;.

"

to

^aaiKev,

fiev

oiKOTa

-

"Accounting the lonians
first

to be in

In the Babylonian transcripts
of the Persian inscriptions the Saka are

no way his
ch. 108, V.

object."
;

So

i^ ixTTiprji,
;

106

Ik vhri, ch. 60

iK riji

rendered Zimmirrai or Kurds, and there

tWt/j, iL 161.

With the name

of Pakt-

yas compare Pakt-6los.
' In the inscription on the tomb of Darius Hystaspis at Nakhsh-i-Rusta'm,

were Sakse in Armenia adjoining the Medes and Kadusians (Strab. vi. pp. 745, Ptol. Pliny, N. H. xi. 10 767, etc. V. 13). Tlie Skythians who overthrew
; ;

the

Sakse

are

divided into the Saka

the Greek kingdom in Baktria are also
called Sakae.

Humavarga and
In
vii.

the Saka Tigrakhuda.
calls

them Amyrgian (= Humavarga) Skythians. They de64 Herodotos
noted the nomad tribes on the eastern borders of Baktria, some of whom may

conquest of

the

According to Ktesias the Sakae and Baktrians

preceded the capture of Sanies. ^^ From the old proverb ascribed to
the
iii.

Epic
21),

poet

Stasinos (Arist.

Bhet.

have been of Aryan origin. They lived north of the Jaxartes according to Arrian
(iii.

more probably forming jmrt of the Kypria (see ii. 117, note
but
ds
:

8

748),

and see Strab. xi. p. iv. 1, 4 where Herodotos places the Mas; ;

5)

iHfirio%

xaripa icrtUas iraiSai Kara-

-

90
fievTot
fir)

HERODOTOS.
iravra 6vfi(p %/3eo,
/iT/Se

[book

iroKiv apyai't]v i^avaa-T^arjii

dvafidpT7)T0P iovaav Kol tcov irporepov koI tcov vvv ia-Teoircov.

Ta

fiev fyap

(fyepo)'

irporepov eym re eirpr^^a Kai, e7&) K€<f>a\rj avafia^a<; rd Be vvv irapeovra TlaKTV7)<; rydp ia-rc 6 dStKecov, rat av
AvBolcrt Be crvyyvcofjLTjv

eTrerpeylrwi Sa/aSt?, ovTo<i B6t(o rot, Slktjv.
€')(a)v

rdSe avrolai eirlra^ov,
KC0cbvd<;

0)9 iirjre

diroaTecoa-L fii^re Beivoi roc
firj

ecoai.

direiTre fxev cr^t Tre/i-vlra? oirXa dprjia

eKrrfadat, KeKeve

Be

(T(f>ea<;

re
8'

viroBweLV rolav

eifiacn

koI

KoOopvov^

vTroBeiadat, irpoeiTre

avrolcn Kidapvi^eLV re koI -y^dXKeiv xal
/cat ra-)(e(o<; (T(f)ea<i o)

KWTTTjXeveiv TracBeveiv rov<i TratSa?.
'^/vvatKa'i

^aaCkev

dvr
fir]

dvBpwv

oyjreai

yeyovora^;,
fiev
rj

156 eaovrai

diroareoicn.^^

Yipola-o<i

ware ovBev Brj rdord ol

Betvoi roi
hirer Idero,

aipercorepa rdora evptaKcov AvBoicri
a(f>ea<;,

dvBpairoBicr6eirra<i irprfOfjvai

einardfievo^ ore

rjv firj

d^Lo-y^peov irpocfjaacv irporeivrj,
fir}

ovk

dvairelcei fiiv fiera^ovXevaaadai, dppoyBecov Bk

koX vtrrepov
koI vireU

Kore ol AvBoi,

rjv

ro irapeov vireKBpdfiaxri, dirocrrdvre^ diro roiv
Kf)/309

Uepaecov diroXcovrat.
rij<i

Be

r^a-Oel^;

rfj

virodtjKj)

opyij'i

€<f>T)

ol ireiOecrOai.

Ka\eaa<i Be M.a^dp€a dvBpa ^rfBov,

rdord re
KoX
iirl
irpo<;

ol evereiXaro irpoecirelv AvBola-L

rd

6 Kpoiao<; vireriOero,
o'c

e^avBpairoBiaaaOai
ecrrparevaavro,

rov<i

dWov<;

irdvra<;

fierd AvBcov

zdpBi^

avrov Be

UaKrvrjv

irdvrca<i

^aivra

dyayelv irap ecovrov.
157

'O fiev Br) rdora eK rd Tlepaeav, TTa/crur;?

rr)<;

oBov evrei\dfievo<; dirrjXavve e? r)6ea

Be irvdofievo<^

dy^ov

elvai

arparbv

eir

€Q)vrov lovra, Belaat; ot^ero (pevycov e? l^vfirjv.

M.a^dpr)<i Be 6

M^So?
Br)

iXdcraf;
e'^cov,

iirt r-d<i
ta?

SdpBL<i rov K.vpov crrparov fiolpav 6<n)v

Kore

ovk evpe

en

€6vra<i

rovf

dfi(f>l

UaKrvrfv iv

"SdpBcai, irpwra fiev rov^ AvBov<; rfvdyKacre rd<i
iirireXelv,
rrj<;
e'/c

Ku/aou evro\a<;

rovrov Be KeXevcrfioavvr)^ AvBol
M.a^dpr)<;

rt)v

irdaav Biairav
eirefiire

^0779

fiere^oKov.

Be fierd

rovro

e9

rr)v

K.vfir]v

0776X01/9

eKBiBovai

KcXevayv

HaKrirqv.

ol

Be

¥ivfiaioi
r)v

eyvaxrav crvfi^ov\r)<i irepi 69 Oeov dvolcrai rov iv ^pay)(^iBr)cn'

yap avroOi
Kal AloXelf

fiavrrfiov eK iraXaiov

IBpvfievov, tcS ''Ia)V€9 re irdvre<i

ed)de(Tav

'^daOai.

o

Bk

-^foipo^i

ovro^

earX

rr)<;

'*

The phrase occurs
is

in the Odyssey.

"rub," "knead," hence "smear"; Skt. mach, "grind small": iva/ji. is not to rub off on the Ketf). head," i.e. "to incur responsibility," but "to knead" or "work up with the
Mdffffw

to

'

'

head" instead of mth the hands. It was the difference between thought making and bread -making. Both here and in the Odyssey, therefore, the phrase means "what one vnW have reason to
think of."

,.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
vTrep

EAST.
Siv

91
ol

MtXi/o-t?;"?
€<?

Tlavopfjiov Xifi€vo<i.

irefi-^avre'i

Kvfiaiot 158

Toiif

l^pay^iSai; deoTrpoTTOv^ elpoireop irepl UaKTvrjv okoIov ti

7roieovTe<i deoiai

fiiWoiev

'^apielaOat,,

iireLparoxTL 84

<7<Pl

rdora
Se
&><?

yprjarriptov iyevero eKBiSovai
d'ir€V€L')(devra

UaKTWjv
o

Ueparjai.

rdora

ijKovaav oi Kvfialoi, opfiiaro eKBcSovai' opfirj/Mevov

Be ravrjj

rov irX^deoi;, W.pia-roBiKo<i
fit)

'HpaKXeiBeco

dvrjp

rSiv

daruiv
re
Tft)

icov BoKifiOf e<r^e

irocrjaai

rdora Kufiaiovi, diriarimv

^rja-fjuM kuI Bok€(ov rov<i

Oeoirpoirovf; ov Xiyetv dXrjOeoyii*

€9 h TO Bevrepov irepX YlaKrveo) eTreiprjaofMevoL rjcaav dXXoi, deoirpOTTOL, r<ov

Kal

^

Apiar6BiK0<i
^

tfv.

diriKOfievcov Be

e<?

^pay^iBa<i
"(ova^, 159

i'^7)arT]ptd^eTo ex Trdvroiv ApicrroBiKo^; eTreiptoreoiv rdBe.

^XOe irap r]p,ka^ 7rpo<i Uepaecov
ovre<i.
rjfjLei<i

iKerr}^ Ila/CTi/i;? o AvBo<;, <f>evycov

ddvarov ^laiov

ol Be fiiv e^aireovrai, irpoelvac
Beifiaivopref;
rrjv

Kvfiaiov<f KeXev-

Be

Hepa-ecov Bvvafiiv, rov iKerrjv

69

roBe
8'

ov

reroX/j.7]Kafi€v

iKBiBovai, irplv av ro diro
iroiciy/jLev."

ceo

rjfilv

BrjXcodjj

drpeKe(o<i

OKorepa
a-(f)i

6

fiev

rdora
KeXevtov

eireLpdira,

6

avTt9

rov avrov
Hepa-rja-i.

'xpijafiov

€(f)aive,
^

exBcBovai

TlaKrvTjv
eiroiei,

'7rpo<;

rdBe.

7repiiQ)V

rdora o ApLcrr6BcK0<i eK irpovocff^ rov vrjbv kvkXw e^aipei roifi arpovdov^
yevea ev
rut vrjut.
ttoic-

Kal

dXXa
Be

oara rjv vevo(Taevp,eva opviOoiv

oi'T09

avrov rdora Xeyerai
fiev
7rpo<i

<f>epovcrav

(fyovrjv €k rov dBvrov yevea-Oat, rov ^AptaroBiKov, Xeyovcrav Be rdBe " dvo-

crccorare dvdpcoTTiov, rl

rdBe roXp,a<i
^Apta-roBiKov
avro'i
fiev

irotelv

;

tou9 iK€ra<i fiov ex
diroprjo-avra
iKerjja-i

rov

vn]ov

Kepat^ei<; ;"

Be

ovk
rola-t

irpof

rdora

elirelv

" oyva^,
KeXeveL<i

ovreo

^07)del<f,

eKBiBovae';" rov Be avrt^ rolacBe " vol KeXevco, iva ye d(refii]aavre<; ddaaov dfieLyfraaOai,
\^vfiaiov<i

Be

rov

iKerrjv

diroXriade, (09
'^tjarijpt.ov."

firj

ro Xonrov irepl iKerecov e/cSocrto9 eXdrjre eirl ro rdora &)9 direveL'^devra ijKovaav oi l^vfiaioi, ov 160
ol Be M.'vnXr)-

^ovXofievot ovre iKB6vre<i diroXeadaL ovre trap ecovrolai e^oi/Te9
iroXiopKetcrdat eKirep-irovcn avrov
e<;

^vriXijvTjv.

valoc e'7rL7refnrovro<; rov Ma^a/3eo9 dyyeXiaf exBcBovac rov
rvrjv

irapeaKevd^ovro
drpeKea)<i'

eirl

fiiaOat

oaw

Btj'

elrrelv

ov yap

ireXecodr].

UaKyap e'^^co rovro ye ov Kvfialoi yap &)9 efuidov

rdora Trprjaaofieva eK rSiV M.vriXr)vaLcov, Trefiyjravre^i irXotov 69 Aea^ov eKKOfil^ovai UaKrvrjv it ^iov. ivdevrev Be e^ iepov

I

*A67]vaLr}<:

ttoXlov^ov drroairaadelt inro

X/itoi/

i^eBodi}'

i^iBoa-av

*

Tbia mistrust even of theiroraclesand
is

The
fied

oracle of Delphi

ody

too well josti-

messengers

characteristic of the Greeks.

the charge of bribery and corruption.

I

92
Be 01 ILiot
cttI
rrj<;

HERODOTOS.
t«3

[book

^Arapvii fitadS'^

rov Be ^Arapveof; tovtov

earl ^w/ao?

M.v(rir)<;,

Aicr^ov

dvTlo<;.

Uuktvijv

fiev

vvv

irapaSe^dfievot, ol Ueptrai el'^ov iv (pvXaKfj, 6i\ovre<i l^vpw diro-

Bi^ai'

Tjv

Be '^6vo<i ovto<; ovk 0X1709 y€vofi€vo<;, ore Xttov ovBel<;

Sk tov ^Arapveof tovtov ovTe ov\a<; Kpcdewv irpo'^va-iv eTroiecTo
6eSiv ovBevX ovTe irefifuiTa eireaa-eTo
j(€t6

Kapwov tov evdexhev,
ck

direi-

re

T(ov

iravTcav

lepwv

to,

irdvTa

t^?

^(opr)(;

TavTr}<;

yivofieva.

161

Xtofc fiev

vvv TLaKTvrjv i^eBocrav.
eirX

Ma^a/si;? Be

fieTct

tuotu

eaTpaTeveTo

tov<;

crvfi7roXiopKr)(ravTa(;

TaySaXoi/,

koL tovto

fiev Tlpcr)vea<; e^rivBpairoBiaaTo,

tovto Be M.aidvBpov ireBiov irdv
**

inreBpafie Xtjitjv 7roie6fj,evo<; rcS aTpaTot, M.ayvrjcri'qv

re oyaavTco^;.

162 fieTa Be TdoTU uvtIku vovaq) TeXevTa.
'

dirodavovTO'; Be

tovtov
eoi}V

ApTrayo<; KUTe^r) BidBo'^O'i

tj}?
^

aTpaTrjyiTj^;, yevo<;

Kol avTO<;

M^So9, TOV 6 6 T(p Ku^&)
aipei
Td<i

M^TjBfov y9acrtX,ei»9
Trjv

A<TTvdyTj<i dvofio) TpaTre^rj eBaiae,
ovTO'i
ojvrjp

^aaiXrjLTfv

a-vyKaTepya<Tdfjbevo<;.

TOT€ VTTO K.vpov aTpaT7}yo<;
7r6\ia<;

d'rroBe')(deX<i co?

diriKeTO e? ttjv
TeL'^-qpea^

'IfovLrjv,

yoifMiaL'

ok(o<;

'

yap

iroiijcrete,

to

163 evdevTev "yoifiaTa
'Iwi/it;?

ywv

tt/so? to.

Tev^ea eiropOei.
koI ov
e<?

irpwTr) Be ^(OKaij)

e'ire-)(eip'r^(Te.

ol Be

4>et)/cafcet<?

ovtol vavTiXiyat fjuiKpfjaL

irpwTOL

'^XKrjvcov

e)(p'qa-avTo,
^Ifiijpirfv

tov

T€

ABpLrjv

kol

ttjv

TvpaijvLTjv

xal ttjv

Kai tov TapTija'a-ov ovtol
Be
crTpoyyvXrja-t
vrjvcrl

eitri

ol

KaTuBe^avTe^'^
TrevTTjKOVTepoia-L.

evavTiWovTo
^aaiXec

dWa
^v
CTea,

diriKOfievoL Be

tov TapTrjaaov
toS

7rpoa-(f>iX.ei<;

iyevovTO
^

tco

twv

TapTrja-a-icov,

ovvo/xa

fiev

Apyavd(iivio<i,^

eTvpavvevae
Brj

Be

TapTTja-aov
TOVTcp

oyBcoKovTa
Bt) tc3

e^ifaae Be TrdvTU elKocri KaX eKUTOv.
<f)iiX.ei<i

dvBpX rrpoa<r(f)ea<{

ol

^(OKUieU ovto)
^Icovcrjv

tc eyevovTO
Trji;

w?

to. fxev
j(coprf<;

Trp&Ta
ol/erjaai

€K\i7r6vTa<i

exeXeve

ecovTov

okov

"

"On

condition of receiving Atarneus

ment, was the district in the neigh bonr-

as

a recompense."

Athena does not

hood of Gibraltar which extended
haps as

i>er-

seem to have visited the perpetrators of this piece of treachery with the punishment inflicted by the Eumenides upon the Alkmseonids. Atarneus was opposite
Mitylene.
" Magnesia ad Mseandrum, with its temple still surrounded by a. ptribolos, not Magnesia ad Sipylum. " " When he had."

far as Cadiz,

Iberia being the

north-western coast of Sixain,

N. H. vii. 48) The same age was assigned him by Phlegon of Tralles. Registers of birth were evidently not kept in Spain at the time. The " roundsided " merchantmen were " the ships of
(ap.

Anakreon
live

Plin.

made A.

150 years.

Tarshish " of the Old Testament,

i.e.

the

*

"Who

made known"

(KaraSdKyvfu).

Phoenician trading-ships whose furthest

Tarteasos, the Tarshish of the Old Testa-

voyages westwards were to Tarshish.

,.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
Be, «o?

93
^a)Kaiia<i, 6
cr<f>i

^ovXovTac, fierk
8e
7rv66/jL€vo<;

tovto ye ovk eTreide rov^
irap

rov M^Soz/

avroyv

o)<;

av^oiro, iSiBou

^rjfuna T€i)(p'i irepifiaXiaOat rrjv iroKiv iBiBov Be d<f>€iBeo)<t' Kot yap Kol rj 7r€pioBo<; tov rei^eo? ovk oKvyot ardBiol elcri, tovto
Be irdv Xidcov fieyaX(ov koI ev (rvvapfioa-fievtou.
Toicrt

to fiev
6

Bt) Tel'^o<i

164

^(OKaievai Tpoirtp ToiutBe e^eTTocijdr}}

Be "Ap7rayo<i

w?
&><?

iinjXacre ttjv a-TpaTirjv, eiroXiopKei avTov<i, trpola-'^6fievo<i eirea
ol

KUTa'^a

el

^ovXovTac
xal
tt}

4>&)/catet«?

vpofui'^eayva eva fiovvov tov
oi

TeL')(eo'i

epelylrai

oiKijfia

ev

KaTiepaxrai.
eiftaaav

Be

<l>&)/catet<?

irepiTjfieKTeovTe^;
rjixepriv

BovXoavvrj

deXeiv
ev
o5

^ovXevcracrdac
Be

fiiav

Koi eireiTa

viroKpivelcrdai'

^ovXevovTUt
iroieiv,

avToi, dirayayelv eKelvov CKeXevov ttjv aTpuTirjv dirb tov Teiyeo';.
S"

"Ap'7rayo<i
cr(f>i

€<f)r)

elBevat fiev ev

to,

CKeivoc fieWotev

o/i(U9 Be

Trapievac ^ovXevaaadat,.
d'jTr]yaye
tt}v

ev

ut S)v

6

"Apirayof diro

TOV

Tei')(eo<i

aTpaTirjv, oi '^(OKatelf ev
eadefievoL

tovtw kutuyvvalKa^
e/c

anrdcravTe^ Td<i

"TrevTTjKOVTepov^,

TeKva kuI

KaX etTLifKa irdvTa, Trpo? Be koI tu dydXfiUTa Ta

twv iepdv

Kot

TO.

rfv, TO,

Be

dXXa dvadrjfjMTa, %&)/3i9 o Tt ')(aXKo<i rj Xc6o<i rj ypa<f>T)^ dXXa irdvTa €o-0evTe<i KaX avTol eVySavre? eirXeov eVt
Be ^(OKairjv €pT]fi(o0elcrav dvBpcov ea-^ov ol Tlepaai.

Xt'ou.

TTJV

01

Be

^Q)Kaiel<;, errelTe

a^t Xtoi ra?

vi]aov<;

ra?

OtVoi;cr<ra<?

^

165

KaXeofieva<? ovk efiovXovTO

wveofievotac TrcoXeiv, BeifJUilvovTef
Be avTOiv vrfao^ dTroKXrjiadrj
e?

fit}

al fxev efiiroptov yev(OVTai,
eXveKa, 7rp6<;
Tj}

rf

TdoTa

ol

^(OKaieh eaTeXXovTO
e/c
^

tovtov J^vpvov ev yap
dvecTrj-

K.vpva> eiKoa-L eTeai irpoTepov tovtodv
TToXcv,
r]B7)

deoirpoTrlov

aavTO KavTa
TTjv

t^ ovvofia
e<?

rjv

^AXaXlrj.

Apyavd(ovio<i

Be

ttjvi-

TeTeXevTijKet.
ttjv

(TTeXXofMevoi Be €7ri ttjv K.vpvov, irpwTa

KaTaTrXevaavTet
(jivXaKTjv,
fieTo,
rj

^coKalrjv

KaTe(f)6veva-av

tcov
'

Uepaeayv
ttjv

€<f)povpec

irapaBe^afievr)
a<j)c

Trapd

Apirdyov
trpo'i

iroXiv.

Be, to?

tovto

e^epyaaTO, eiroirjaavTO

l<T'^vpd<i

KaTdpa^
TavTrjai

Tc5

viroXetirofievo)
(TiBrjpeov

ecovTcov

tov

(ttoXov.

Be
fiij

KaX fivBpov

KaTeirovTcoaav
rf

KaX

wfiocrav

TTpXv e? ^a)Kalr)v q^etv

irpXv
iirX

tov fivBpov tovtov dva^avrfvat,.

a-TeXXofieviov

Bk
a

ai/Ttov
little to

Trjv

Kvpvov*
^

vrrep

rifiiaea<i

Toiv

Old Fokia

lies

the south

The

(Enussae (now Spalmadori) are

of

New

Fokia, a town founded by the

five

islands between the mainland

and

Venetians or Genoese. The substructions of a temple exist on a small island in front of the harbour of Old Fokia. ^ "Writing" rather than "painting,"
inscriptions being on stone or bronze.

the northern jart of Khios.
* Corsica.

Alalia, afterwards Aleria,

and originally founded

in B.C. 572,

on

the east coast of the island, was destroyed by Scipio (b.c. 262), bat restored

94
a<TT<ov

HERODOTOS.
eXaySe irodo^ re koI oLKTO<i
yfrevBopKLOi
o'l

[book

Trj<;

TroXto?

koc

roiv

rjdewv
e?
Trjv

T^9

'^(i)prj<;,

Be

yevofxevoi

aireifKeov

oirlaoi

^(OKaLrjv.

Se avra)v to opKiov i(f>v\a(Taov, aepdevTef ck
eireire

rwv

166 Oivovcraeaiv eifKeov.
Koivrj

Be 69 tijv K.vpvov airiKovro, oiKeov

fiera

roiv

irporepov aTTiKOfiivoyv eir
rpfov

erea irevre, koX
Tov<i

Upa

iviBpixravTO.

Koi

'yap
eir

Bt)

koX

€(f>€pov

7r€pLolKov<i

aTravTas' arparevovTac cov
Tvp(T7}vol
^QiKat€l<;

avTov<; kolvu>

Xoyw

^^prjadfievoi
ol

Kol

l^apyr)B6vL0L,^ vijval

eKarepot

e^rjKovra.

Be

7r\r}pc6o-avTe<;

Kol

avrol

ra

TrXola,

iovra

apid/xbv
avfi-

e^rjKovTa, avria^ov e? to %apB6viov KaXeofievov •7re\ayo<;.
fj,icry6vT(i)v

Be

tt} vavfJiw^LT}

KaBfieir) Tt9 VLKr)
a(f)t

"

TOc<n,

<^(OKat€va-L

iyeveTO'
eiKoat al

al

fiev

yap Teaaepd/covTa

i/ee?

Bcecjiddprjcrav,

ai Be

yap Tovii KaTa7r\coaavTe<; Be €9 Trjv ^AkaXirjv dveXa^ov to. eyx/SoXou?. TeKva KaX tcl^ yvvacKa<; Kal ttjv dWrjv KTrjaiv 6cn]v olal re eyivovTo al vee<i a<f)t dyetv, Kal eireiTa aTrevTa ttjv Kvpvov 167 eirkeov 69 'VrjyLov. tmv Be Bi,a(f>dapeiaeo)v vewv tov<; dvBpa<; o'i T€ Kap')(r)B6vioc Kal ol Tvpcrjuol ekayov re avTOiv iroXkm 7r\,eicrTov<i Kal rovTovi e^ayayovTa KaTeXevaav. Be fieTO,
Trepieovaai
rjaav d')(priaTOL'
direaTpdtfyaTO
'

.

.

.

^

AyvWaioKTc irdvTa
6fj,oi(0<i

to,

irapiovTa tov ^wpov, ev
eyiveTo
Bcd(rTpo<f)a

tS

ol 4><i)/catet9

KaTaXevaOevTe^
aTTOTrXrjKTa,

CKeaTO,

Kal

efnrrjpa

Kal
ol Be

irpo^aTa kol viro^vyia Kal avOpoynot.
of the
'

by Sylla. The Delphic oracle largely promoted colonisation at this time, urging the foundation of Greek colonies in
the western part of the Mediterranean (as, for example, at Kyrene), which had
hitherto been in the liands of the Phajnicians.

name was Carthada
;

(Soliu. Polyh.

xxviL 10 The Old
'

Isid.

Town

Hisp. Et. xv. 1, 30). " was eitlier Utica or,

less probably,
* i.e.

the mother-city Tyre.

a victory which protluces
profit.

mon

harm

The pilgrims and merchants from these trading settlements brought in a handsome revenue to the oracle. Hence AjwUo was the patron god of new
colonies.
'

The phrase is de rived from the combat between Polynikes and Eteokles by Plutarch, from the conquest of the Seven Heroes by
tliau

the Thebans, which only led to the return of the Epigoni, by Eustathios (ad Hma.

The Tyrsenians mean the
;

Etruscans.

n.
'

iv. 407).

Traces of their trade have been met with
as far north as Belgium
their colonisa-

The lacuna has been conjecturally
:

supplied thus
vCov
oi

SifKaxov, rwv Si

T!vp<rri-

tion southward extended to Cami>ania,

and their

fleets

contended with the Carthe

Agylla was said to liave been founded by the " Pelasgian.s."
'A7i'XXotot.

thaginians
nean.

for

command
of
tlie

of

the

The name

of

its

jwrt,

Pyrgi,

and

its

north-western basin

Mediterra-

consultation of the Delphic oracle, go
far to sliow that it

The Latin Carthago

is

the Greek

was not originally

Karklu'dOn, both attem})t8 to reproduce
tlie

Etruscan, and that the later

name

Caere

Pluenician Kiryath-Khadashath or

(now Cervctri) indicates
Etruscan
rule.

its

passing under

"New

Town."

The older Latin form

']

THE EMPIRES OF THE
69
17

EAST.
uKeaaadat,
to,

95
ttjv

WyvWaioc
dfiapTtiBa.

AeX</>oy9
8e

eirefiTTov

^ovXofievoL

Uvdit} (x^ka^ eKeXevae iroieiv koX jap ivayi^ovaL
eirtcrrdo'i.

koX vvv oi
fj,€yd\a><{

I

^

XyvWatot,

ert

eTrirekeovcn'

cr(f)i

Kol dycova yvfiviKov koI imriKov

koI ovtol

fiev

rtav

^(OKateoov roiovrcp ixoptp Bie'^p'^aavTO, 01 Se avrtov e? to 'VijyLov
KaTa(f)vy6vT€<;

ivdevrev
ijri,<i

opfieofievoi

eKrrjcravTO

ttoXiv

yea<;

r^?

OlvcoTpiijf; ravTrjv
'rrpof;

vvv 'TeK?)^ KaXelrat' eKTtaav 8e ravTT)v
Q)<s

dvSpo<; UocreiBtovi'qTeai fia6ovT€<i

rbv Yivpvov

(T<f>c r)

YivOirj

eyprjae KTicrai rjpwv eovra,
^(OKaiTji; /xev

aW'
tt]';

ov ttjv vrjaov.^
^Icovltj

vvv

irept
^

iv

ovtco eo'Xe, TrapairXija-ia 168

8e

TOVTOKTL

Kal

Tj]iot

itroi'qaav.

eVeiVe

yap

a^ewv
e?

elXe

'X^co/j.ari

TO

T€l')(o<;

" \p7rayo<;,

icr^dvTe<i

7rdvT€<;

rd

ifkola

otj(ovro 7r\eovT€<; eVt tt;?
" A^Brjpa,'

Spr]LKr]<i,

Kal ivOavra CKTicrav ttoXlv
Tip.'qaiO'i

TTjv

Trporepo^ tovtcov

KXa^ofi€vio<i
i^eXacrdel^;

KTLaa<i
vtto

ovK dTTwvrjro,

dW
vvv

vtto

^prjLKcov
q)<;

Tt/Aa?

vvv

TrjUov ro)v iv ^AjSSrjpoicn

ijpoji;

e')(ei,.

OvToi
fid'^rj'i

fiev

^Icovcov fiovvoc TTJV BovXoa-vvrjv
8'

ovk dve-^ofMCvoi 169
M.i\r}aia}v Bed
iK\i7r6vT€<i,

i^iXiTTOv Td<; irarplBa'i' oi
fj,€V

aXKot
^

"10)1/69

irX'qv

diTLKovTo

'

A-pirdytp
irepl

Kard

irep

oi

Kal

dvBpe<;

iyevovTO

dyadol

Trj'i

katvrov

€Ka<TT0<;

fia')(op,evoL,

€cra-o)6€VT€<i

Be Kal d\ovTe<i efievov eirerekeov.

Kara
Be,

')(d>p'r]v

eKacrrot Kal

rd
fioi

iiriracraofMeva
eiprjTai,
Bt]

MiXT^ertot

&)9

Kal irporepov
rfyov.

avrut

Kvpw, opKiov
^loyvir)

irotrjcrd/MevoL
0)9

•qcrv'^iriv

ovt(o
'^7reipa>
''Itui'69

TO

Bevrepov

iBeBovXcoTo.
ol

Be

tol'9

ev rrj

"I&)i/a9

i'X^eipcoaaTo

"Ap7rayo<;,

Td<;

vqcrov^

e'^^ovra

KaTappa)Brj(TavTe<i

rdora

a(p€a<; avroi/f; eBocrav

Kv^o)/
69 170

l^eKaKcofievwv Be ^Icavcov Kal

avWeyofievwv ovBev ^aaov

*

Better

known

as Velia

or

Elea,

whence the philosophic school of Xenophanes and Parmenides took the name Eleatic. CEn8tiia or "Vineland" was tlie name given by the Greek colonists to tliat part of Lucania into which they had
imported the vine.
Poseidonion
is

^ The ruins of Teos lie on an isthmus 1^ miles south of Sighajik on the mainland north of Samos. They consist of

little

else besides the

theatre

and the

temple of Dionysos. Abdera, originally founded by the
'•*

better

Phoenicians,

known as Psestum, southward of Naples. " "The Kymos the oracle had bidden
them
establish

goras, Anaxarklios,

and the birthplace of Protaand Demokritos, is
marshes of Hulusra or
into
vi.

now
*
'

lost in the

was a

hero,

not

the
of

Balustra.
'

island."
ex|)laining

A

very convenient

way

Entered

a

struggle
;

away the failure of the oracle. Kymos was called the son of Herakl^s,
the sun-god of the Phoenicians

H."
121.

Compare

9

iEskh.

with Prom.

i.e.

who

had discovered and colonised the

island.

* Samos, however, continued independent until the reign of Darius.

96

HERODOTOS.
yvfOfJLijv

[book

Biavra avhpa UpLrjvea airoiireidovro, irapel'^e dv a<f>t evBaifiovelv 'EiWi]P(ov fidXitrra' o? e/ce\€i;e KOivm aroXcp "Icova^
TO UaVKoviov, TTwOdvofiaL
Be^aadat,
"Itucrt

'^rjatfKOTdTTjv,'

rfj el

depdivraf irXelv €9 Sap8cb koI eireira iroXiv fiiav ktl^€iv irdvTOiv ^Icovcov, Koi ovTco diraSXa'^Oevra^ <r<f)ea<i BovKo<rvvTj<; evhaifiovr)<T€iv,

vqaoiv

re

diraaetov

/jLeyiaT'rjv

**

vep.o^evov<i
€<f)r)

Kol

dp-^ovra'}

dWiov
en

fxevovcTL he cr^i ev rfj ^Icovij)

ovk
rov

evopdv iXevdeplrjv
yvoi/MT}
eTrl

eaofjLevTjv.

avrrj

fiev

^iavTO<i

Ilpcr]veo<i
''^^^

Bie<f)0apfi€voi(Tt "laxj-L jevofievrj,
^IcovLTjv

XPV^'^V ^^

0a\eft)

dvBpo^
(Tetui/

M^iXTjaiov

^ Bte(f)6apr]vai eyevero, to dveKaOev yevo<:
^\(iiva<i

irplv

eovTo^ ^otviKO<i.'

09 CKeXeve ev ^ovXexrrrjptov

iKTrjadai,

TO Be elvai ev
TToXia'i

Te^

yap fieaov
vofil^ea-Oac

elvac

'Ia)i/ti79),

Ta9 Be dXXa<f
Brjfioi

oiKeofieva^i rjcro-ov
Bi]

kutu

rrrep

el

elev.

ovTOi fiev

cr^L yvu)fia<i

TOidaBe uTreBe^avTO.
^Icovltjv

171
eirl

"Ap'jrayo'i Be KaTa<TTpe-y^d^evo<i

eTTotecTO
dr/6fi€vo<:

a-TpaTTjirjv

Kdpa^

koX J^avvLOV<i Kol AvkIov<;,^ dfia

Kol

"Icova'i

'^

J).

178, edit,

Mahaflfy {Hist, of CI. Greek Lit. i. i.), comparing the verbally
i.

ruins of their capital

Kaunos being upon

a small stream, the Koigez, and includ-

similar statement of Diog. Laertius,

5,

concludes that in Theognis 757-68 we have an actual fragment of Bias preserved, describing the blessings of the

proposed Ionic settlement in Sardinia.
'

We learn from Karian tombs existed in Delos. Kohler has suggested that the remains found at Spata and Menidi in Attika may be those of Karian
ing Cyclopean walls.

Thukyd.

(i.

8) that

Com p.

V.

106, vi. 2,

whence

it

ap-

settlers
artistic

pears that Herodotos thought Sardinia

; but of this there is neither nor arcliitectural proof. Mysos,

the largest island in the world. even Sicily seems to be larger.
'

But

Lydos, and Kar were brothers
74,

(cp.

vii.

The Phcenician ancestry

of Thales,

the founder of Greek science, and one of the seven wise men of Hellas, is significant.

where the Mysians are called Lydiau colonists) ; but while the remains of the Lydian language preserved in Gret'k
glosses are Aryan,

See note 1 on the

first ch.

of this

book.

His j)hilosophic system, which

the remains of tli' Karian tongue hardly seem to be s^ Thirteen Karian inscriptions, in nn

derived the world from water, was of Babylonian origin : in Phoenician cos-

alphabet
yet,

only partially decipheretl as have been discovered, all except

mogony M6t was the watery chaos from
which the universe has been evolved. The astronomy of Comp. Gen. L 2. Thales equally came from Chaldea, where eclipses had been regularly predicted
centuries before.
*

The statements of Herodotos which

one (from the ruins of Krya, on the Gulf of Skopea), in Egypt, where they were inscribeil by the Karian mercenarii'> of Psammetiklios and his successors. A long list of Karian names is contained in the inscription found in the ca-stle of Budrum (Newton, Essays on Art and
Archccology, pp.
427,
etc.)

follow have a si)ecial importance, as he

The semi-

was a native of Halikarnassos, and so better acquainted with the Karians than most other Greek writers. Tlie Kaunians lived between Karia and Lykia, the

mythical Leleges are as ubiquitous as the Pelasgians. They turn up in Lykia and

Akamania (Aristot.), Karia (Strab.), Mount Ida (Nymph.), Samos (Menodot.]^

-

i]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
AtoXe'a?.
etVt

EAST.
fiev

97
e?
ttjv

Kol

8e

tovtcov

Kdpe<t

aTriyfievoc
^

ijireipov

eK roiv vtjctwv.

to yap iraXaiov i6vT€<i Mivco

KanjKooi

Kal KaXeofievoi
viroreXeovre^,

AeXeYe? eZ^ov Ta<; vrjaovi, (f)opov fikv ovheva oaov Koi eyo) 8vvaT0<; eifii iirX fuiKpoTaTou
oi Be, o/cw? MtV&><?

i^iKeadai

(ikot)'

Beoiro, eirXrjpovv oi Ta<s vea^.

are
Tc3

Brj

M.ivco

re Karearpafifiivov yijv ttoWtju Kal

€VTV^eoPTO<!
tcov

TToXefKp,

TO

KaptKov

rjv

€dvo<i

XoyificoTaTov

edvewv

airdvTwv KaTa tovtov afia top -^ovov p.aKp(p fiaXia-Ta. Kai Kal cr<l)t rpt^a i^evprjpxiTa iyevCTO Tolcn ol "EWt/i/c? iyprjcravTO'

yap eVl
Kac
eTTt,

to,

Kpdvea

\o(f)ov<; iirihelcrOai, K.dp€<i eiai oi
(TTjfjLTjca

KaTaSe^avTe^
acTTrttrt

Ta-i

acnrLoa^ ra iS,

TroieLcraaL, dc

Kat o'^ava

Khios
IJyz.

(Pherykyd.),
s.v.

Thessaly

(Steph.
(Paus.),

and ruling

in the JEgean

;

and the con-

'A/ivpos),

Megara

nection of Dajdalos, the cunning crafts-

IJoeotia, Lokris, and ^tolia (Aristot.), and Lakonia (Paus.) They api)ear along ^\'ith the mythical Kauk6nes and " divine Pelasgians" in H. x. 429, and between the Karians and Lykians. See also II. XX. 96, and xxi. 86. The KaukSnes appear in II. xx. 329, and Od. iii. 366

man, and of the Minotaur or bull, with MinOs further indicates his Semitic character. Perhaps his name comes from " the Semitic root mdndh, "to api>ortion or " measure " (whence /wa). It is diffiassociate the name with Minyans of Orkhomenos, more esj>ecially when we remember that the Phoenician legend of Athamas or

cult

not

to

that of the

(cp.

Herod,
(vii.

i.

147,

iv.

148).

Strabo

makes them one of the
Greece
465),

earliest i-aces of

where they gave their
in the

name

to the

Kaukdn

N.W.

angle

of the Peloponnesos, and to the Kaukonitae 'on

the Parthenios.

called

themselves

Tramele,

The Lykians the name

settlers

Lykia being derived from the Greek on the coast, who called the country to the east, where the sun rose from behind the mountains, " the land
of light ' or AvKla.

Hence the legend

that the Ionian Lykos gave his

name

to

Taramuz, the sun - god, is connected with them, Athamas being called the son of ilinyas. Herodotos does not seem to know of the later belief, shared by Thukyd., that Minds was a Greek. Hence he asserts that the thalassokratia of Minds and of the Karians must have been at the same time. In the Iliad Sarpeddn is a descendant of the Greek Bellerophdn and Minds, who is two generations older, has only one brother,
;

The Lykian inscriptions have been partly deciphered by the help of a few bilingual (Greek and Lykian) texts the language of them, though inflectional, is not Aryan, in spite of all the attempts that have been made to
the country.
;

legend, which

Rhadamanthys (//. xiv. 322). The earlier made Minds and Sari»eddu Phoenicians, was found in Hesiod (ac-

cording to the Scholiast on Eurip. Blus. Herodotos does not seem to know 28). the version of the myth given in the
Iliad.
1

show the contrary. * The name Minds may have the same origin as Minyas, but it has nothing to do, as has been sometimes
either Mrith the
s<'ud,

The

Balawat

bronzes

(b.c.

840)

represent the soldiers of Ararat (Van)

Aryan word man or with the Egyptian Menes. The "thalassokiatia " of Minds denotes the period

with crested helmets and small round shields held by a handle in the middle. Their short tunics and shoes with turned

up

toes are identical with those of the

when the

Phoenicians were colonising

Hittites,

and there are many

rea.sous for

H

98

HERODOTOS.
rea)<i

[book

ovTot, elcri ol "jrocrfadfievoi trpoiroL'

Be dvev

o^ducov

i<f>op€ov

Ta9

dcnriha'i 7rdvT€<i oi irep

edideaav dcnriai ypdaQaiy reKaiiwcn

aKVTLVoiat, olr}KL^ovTe<;, irepX Toiac av-^^eai re koI roiat, dpiarepola-i
cofjLOKTL TrepLKei/xevot,.

fiera Be Tov<i

Kapa?

')(pov(p

varepov TroWfo
koI ovrco
€<?

^copiei^; re koI "Iwi^e? e^avecrrrjaav eV rcov
Trjv rfireLpov diriKOVTO.

vrjcruiv,

Kara

fiev Brj

K.dpa<; ovtco KprJTef; \eyovcrt
ol
K.dpe<i,

yevecrOai'

ov fievroi aiiroi

<ye

ofioXoyeovaL tovtoicti

aXXd vofjLi^ov(TL TM ovvofULTi Toi> uvTM aUl
BeLKVV(Ti

avToX ecovrovi eivai avro-^dova^
Biu'xpecofjbevov';

rjirecpcoTa^;,

Kal

Tc3 Trep vvv.

diro-

Be
fiev

ev

Mvaoicn
KapcTL'
^

MuXacroKrt A^o? Kal AvBolcn fiereari
fiev
Br)

J^apiov
eo?

iepov

dp-^alov,

rov
Tolcrt

KaaLyv^Toicn iovcn
oaoc
Be
eoj/re?

TOP yap AvBov xal rov M.va6v Xeyovat elvai
rovrotcn,
fierea-TV,

K.apo<i

dBe\<f>eov<;.

dXkov
€k

edveo'i

ofioyXaacoi
l^avvtoi
(paaX elvai.
e6vo<i,
rj

rolcrt

l^apcrX

eyevovTo, rovToiai, Be ov fiera.
ifwl
Be
eial,

172 oi

Be

avro'^dova

BoKelv

avroX fievroc

K.pi]TT]<;

irpocrKe'^copriKaaL
ol Ka/ae? 7rpo<f

K.apiK6v
e-)(ai

yXSxraav fiev Trpo? to to KavvcKov (tovto yap ovk
Ke^x^co pierfiev oiai

drpeKeco^ BtaKplvai).
T(ov re dX\,a>v

vofioLcn Be -^pecovrai
K.ap(ov.

TToWov
Xiarov

rolcrc yap koXkut rjktKLrjv re KaX (^iXorrfxa etkaBov cvyy Lveadat iBpvOevToav Be TTOcrcv, KaX dvBpdcn KaX yvvai^X KaX iraiaL i<i lepSiV ^eiVLKOiv, fiereTrecra, w? a-<f>t direBo^e, eBo^e Be roiai cr(f)i, TraTpiocai fiovvov '^pdaOai deolai, evBvvT€<; rd OTrXa diravref: Kavvtot r)^7]B6v, rvTrrovra Bopaac rov rjepa, fi^XP'' ovpav twv KaXvvBtKwv eiTTovTO, KaX €<f>a<rav eK^dWeiv Toif<; ^eivLKOv^ deov<;.

dvOptairwv xaX

ea-TL

173 KaX ovToi
Kpi]Tr]<;

fiev

rpoTroicri

roiovroiai

^ewi'Tafc,

ol

Be

AvKtoi eK

rdip^aXov yeyovacL (rrfv yap i^p'^rrfv el^ov to irdXaiov

irdaav ^dp^apoi)

Bievetx^^vTcov Be ev ILprjTrj irepX t^? fia(n\rfiri<i

thinking that the Hittites and ProtoArmenians belonged to the same race,

into the houses.

About twelve miles
site of

distant are the ruins of a temple which

Perhaps the devices on

tlie

shields of

probably mark the

the temple

which Herodotos

sjieaks

were originally

of Zeus Labrandeus (derived from the

Hittite hieroglyphics, which were borrowed by the people of Western Asia Minor during the Hittite occupation of the country. Compare the devices on the shields of the seven champions in the legendary war against Thebes. ^ Mylasa, now Melassa, is about twenty miles inland, with a pyramidal mausoleum just outside the walls, and numer-

Karian lahranda, Lydiau labryn,
axe").

"an

Karios was

made

a son of Zti,-

and Torrhebia by Xanthus, and wa worshii>i)ed in the Lydian district

Torhebia, according to Steph. Byz.
tion about the Karians, his assertion
their recognition of the

A
<>t

Herodotos had special means of inform;i-

common

kinslii

of the Karians, Lydiaus, and
is

M ysian

ous fragments of ancient buildings built

valuable.

]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
re Kal re
ardcret

EAST.
MiVo),
ta?

99
eireKpaTqae
koI
e<?

Ta)v Eivpa>7ri]<i iraihuiv 2,ap7n]B6vo<;
rrj

Mti/&)9,

e^-qkaae

avrov

ZapTrrjBova
t^<»
^

tov<;

^m ^*

crracrttuTa? avrov, ol Be diruxrdevTe'i
rrfv

diriKovro

Xairj^

yrjv

MiXuttSa*

ttjv

^v MtXva?, ol Be
ai/Twv
ovvofia

yap vvv AvKCOt vefiovrac, avrt) to iraXaibv Mt\uat rore %6\vfiot e/cdkeovro.^ retu? fiev Bi]
VPX^'
ert
°*'

SapTTTjBciiv

^^

eKaXeovro to irep re -^veiKavro
6
TIavBiovo<{,

Kal

vvv
&)<?

xaXeovTai vtto twv irepioiKOiv ol Avkiol,
e^e\aadei<i

Tepfitkai •*

Be i^ ^AOrjvecov AvKO<i

KaX ovTO<i VTTO Tov dBe\<^eov Alyeo<;, diriKero e? tou? TepfitKa<;

irapa

Z.apirTjBova,

ovtco

Bt)

Kara tov Avkov
vofioKTi

ttjv

eTrayvv/jLlijv

AvKLOL dva ypovov eKKrjOriaav.

Be

to,

fiev ^ptjtlkoIgl

ra

Be

K.apiKoi(ri

^eoyvTat.

ev

Be

ToBe

iBiov

vevofiiKaat

Kol ovBafiotai aXkoLcn crvfi<f)epovTat dvOpcoTrayv.
Tcov fiTjTepiov ecovTovs Kal ovkI diro
'

KaXeovai diro

tcov

iraTepcov' elpofievov Be
all

The

plain of the Kayster

is called

heads,"
hair.

shorn except a single tuft of

"the Asian meatl" in H. ii. 461 (see th. 104, note 4), and it would seem tliat it was still known as "Asia" in the time of Herodotos. The name was afterwards extended to denote the Roman province of Asia (in Asia Minor), and Justin firet si)eaks of " Asia Major " as denoting the continent in contradistinction to " Asia Minor." In the Augustan age Milyas was the plateau, 4000 feet above the sea, the capital of which is now Almali. It was bounded by Tauros on the north, and Klimax and Solyma on the east. Strabo makes the Milyans as well as the Kabalians Solymi (xiii. p. 904 ; xiv. p. 952), who once extended along the Tauros from Lykia to Pisidia. According to Pliny (iV. H. v. 27) and Steph. Byz., the Pisidians were Solymi. Khoerilos (a j)oet of the fourth century B.C.) stated that the Solymi formed
part of the
Egridir

As Klimax and Solyma were

different mountains, there is little reason
for

ex2)laining the latter
* '

Hebrew mdldm,
283.
•*

a ladder. "

name by the The Solymi
Od. v.
inscrip-

are mentioned, B. vi. 184, sq. ;

The Tramele of the native
:

tions
"
is

Tremileis in Steph. Byz.
it

Herodotos was mistaken here, as
the rule

among

primitive tribes to

through the mother and not through the father. "Even among hunting tribes," says Sir J.
trace the descent

Lubbock, "though men were unable to maintain so many wives, still, as changes
are of frequent occurrence,

the

tie

be-

tween a mother and child is much stronger than that which binds a child
to its father."

On
also

the western poast of
are
his
sister's

Africa

a man's
as

lieirs

children,
(Caillie's

in
i.

Central
p.

Africa

army of Xerxes, inhabited

the shores of a lake (supposed to be
cian language.

by Leake), and s^wke the PhoeniThe last assertion, however, was probably due to the fancied similarity of the word Solymi to Hierosolyma, the Greek form of Jerusalem. At any rate Josephus {Cont. Ap.. L)
takes
it

on the Congo, among the Berbers, and in MadaDescent was reckoned from tlie gascar. mother among the Lokriaus, according to Polybios, and is still among the Kasias, Kochs, and Nairs of India. ProTraveU,
153),

perty
Trails.

is

transmitted

through
p.

females
Elliot,

alone on the Malabar coast (Sir

W.

for granted tliat Khoerilos

the inhabitants of Judaea,

meant though he

Ethn.

Soc 1869,
is

119).

A

chiefs successor

his sister's sou

among

describes the Solymi as having "sooty

the Battas of Siunatra and other Malav

"

:

100
erepov tov
fi't]Tpo<;

HERODOTOS.
itXtjctIov Ti?
etr],

[book

KaraXe^ei ecovrov ^7)Tp60€i/ koI
koI
tjv

Tr}<i

avavefielrai
avvoLKriar),
^

Ta<;

fji,r)T€pa<i.

fiev

ye yvvrj
fjv

daTTj
dvrjp
e'Xj],

BovXo)

yevvala

to,

reicva

vevofiicrrav
rj

he

daTO<; KoX
drtfia

o

7rpoiro<;

avroiv yvvaiKU ^eivijv

TraWaKrjv

Ta reKva yiveTai.
fiev

174

Ot

vvv

Kdpe<;
'

ovBep

Xafiirpov

ipyov

dTToSe^d/jbevoi,

i8ov\o)dr)(Tav viro

ApTrdyov, ovre avroi oi Kape? dTroBe^dfievoc
OLKeovat

ovBev, ovre oaoc 'KWijvcov ravTijv rrjv ^ojpTjv oiKeovaL'
Be Kot
Trj<i

dWoi
Be

Kal AaKeBaifiovitov aTroiKoi, J^vtSiot' ot
e? irovrov, to
r?}?
hrj

T779 '^coprff

(T<f>eTip7]<i T€Tpafji/j,€vr]<;
e'/c

Tptoircov KoXetTai,^
€ovcrr]<i

dpy/j,evr)<;
TTttcTT;?
7r/30<?

tt)?

^epo-ovijaov

Bi/ySacro-M;?,

re

T^9

}^vtBir)<i

TrKr^v

oXiyrj^ irepippoov

{rd fiev yap

avTr]<;

^oper}v dvefiov o
rj

K.epa/j,ei,KO<;

koXttoi? direpyei,

rd Be
Brj

Trpo?

voTov

Kara
rrjv

"Xv/mtju

re Kal 'VoBov ddXaaaa), to oiv

oXiyov

TovTo, iov oaov re
" Aprrayofi
•^doprjv

eirl rrevre

ardBia, wpvaaov ol H-viBioi ev oatp
^ovXofievoL
rfj

^lavcrjv
evro^;

Karecrrpe^ero,

vrj<rov
17

rijv

nroirjcraL,

Be irdcrd a<^L eyivero'

ydp

K^viBltj

X^^PV €"> "^V^ rjireipov reXevra, ravrij 6 iaOfio^ e<m rov cjpvaaov. Kal Br) iroXXfj x^ipl epya^ofievcov rSiv K-viBifov, fidXXov ydp ri
Kal deiorepov €(f>aLvovro rtrptoaKeadac ol epya^ofievot rov oIkoto^

rd re dXXa rov
6pavofj,evT}^

(r(OfjLaro<i

xal fidXicrra rd rrepl rov^
e«f

6(f>6aXfiov<i
eTreipTj-

rij<; Trerprj^;,

errefirrov
rj

AeXc^ou? Oeoirporrovi
cr(f>i,

crofievov;

ro

dvri^oov.
ev rpifierpw
fir]

Be

HvBIt)

w?

avrol

}^viBloi

Xeyovai,

^pd

rova rdBe.
rrvpyovre
firjS'

laOfiov Be

opvcraere'

Zey? ydp K edrjKe vrjaov,
KviBioi
fiev

eX

k e^ovXero? rov re 6pvyfiaro<;
errpar (o
dfia)(r)T:

rdora
Kal

rrj<}

Ilv6l7)<i

')(priad<7T}<i

eTTavaavro
175 a(f>ea^
'

Apirayat

eirLovn
rjcrav rolcrc

avv
Be
o/co)?

tc5

avrom

irapeBoaav.

TlrjBacreL^

olK€ovre<i

vTrep

AXcKapprjaa-ov fieaoyaiav,

tt
r)

fieXXoi
lepiij

dvemrr'jBeoi'

eaecrdac, avrolai re Kal rotai •jrepioiKoia-i,
rrojycova fieyav
ta-'X^ei.

t^9 Wdrjvairj^
Kal

rpi<; a(f)i

rovro iyevero.
'

ovroi riov rrepl
rrpriy-

l^apirjv dvBpcov fiovvoi re dvre<7')(ov
Sumatra,

^ovov Apirdyw
"As
for

tribes (Mai-sden's

p. 376),

and
the
the

'^

them, siuce their country
peninsula

descent

is

in the female lino

among

looks towards the sea

Iroquois and most other North American

the Triopian
(d/>x<')

—now — and

it

is

called
"

juts out

Indian

tribes,

as

well as

among

Tongans of the
Australians.
"

Pacific

and some of the
is

from the Bybassiau Khersonese between the mainland and the Triopian). Se eh. 144, note 2.
{ue. the peninsula
g
..

" Even tliough he

their leading

nian.

Dig „ot the isthmus, nor build An iaUnd it were h»d Zeus will'd."

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
napca-'^ov
TrXela-ra,
6po<;
T€i.'^i(Tain-€<;

101

fiara
AiBr).

rw

ovvofid

ia-ri

UrjSaael'i fjUv
"B-dvOiov
'

vvv yjpdv(^ i^aipedijaav Avklol

Be, 0)9 e?

to 176

ireBiov rjXaae 6 "Ap7ra'yo<; top (rrparov, iire^iovre^ koX

fia-^ofievoc oXiyot irpo^

ttoWoi"? dp€Ta<; direBeiKvvvro, kaaoiOevrefi

Be Kal KareiX'qOevre'i 69 ro
rdi;

darv <rvv^\taav

69 ttjv aKpoiroXtv

reKva Kal rd '^prjfiara Kal Tov<i olK€Ta<i, Kal eirena virii-^av ttjv aKpoiroKcv irdaav TavTrjv KaieaOai.
re yvvatKa^ Kal
to,

rdora Be

iroirjcavre'i

Kal <Tvvop,oaavTe<i 6pKov<i
/Mi'x^ofxevoi.

B€cvov<i, iire^eX-

66vTe<i direOavov irdpra Sdvdiot
<l>afMevo)v "Biavdibiv elvai ol

rtov Be vvv AvKLtov
la-rtaicov,^ elal

ttoWoI,

ifKrjv

oyBooKOvra

e7n]\vB€<i'

ai

Be

oyBtoKovra

lariai

avrai
ttjv

erv^^ov

TTjviKavra

eKB'qfieovaat
ea-^^e 6

Kal ovray irepieyevovro.

fiev Br) "B-dvOov ovra>

" Apirayo^;,' irapaifK'qa-Lai'i Be

Kal rrjv H^avvov eo-^e* Kal

yap
Be

ol l^avvLoc tow? Avkiov<;

e/Mifj,i]cravTo
'

rd

Trkeco.

Ta
dvQ)

fiev vvv Kdrco 7^9
avTrj<;

*Acrii]<;

Apirayo'i
e6vo<i

dvdarara

iiroieL,

rd 177
Kal

avTO<i

}^vpo<;,

rrrdv

Kara(TTpe(^6fievo<i

ovBev

irapieL';.

Ta

fiev

vvv avrSiV irXeeo iraprjaofiev Ta Be ol
ecrrc,

Trapea'x^e

re irovov ifkelcrTOV Kal d^iaTrrjyTjrorard

rovrwv
178

eircfivrja-o/juii.

Ki}po9 eireire rd iravra
^

Tfj(i

'^ireipov

vTro'^eipca
icrrl

e'TroL'qaaro,

Aaavploiai

eireriOero.

rr]<i

Be ^AcravpLT)<;

fiev

kov koI
Kal

oKSm

iroXiafJLara

fieydXa

TroWd,
Nti/ou

ro
*

Be

ovofiaarorarov
yevofJuevT}^
ri<;

Icr-^vporarov

Kal

evOa
r]v

a(f>i,

dvacrrdrov

rd

^aa-cXijia KarearrjKei,

Ba^v\oi)V, eoixra roiavrrj B^

7roX.t9.

Kelrai ev ireBitp fieydXa), fi.eya6o<i eovaa fxereoTrov eKaarov ecKoat Kal

eKarov araBlcov,

€ovcrr)<;

rerpaycovov ovrot (rrdBioL
Anna
British

rrj<;

irepioBov
Kaias,

The

towTi of

Xanthos

is

called

Museum mentions

"the

on the native coins and inscriptions (Arna in Steph. Byz.) Koprile also appears on the coins of the place, and miy denote the district in which Arina stood, as Canon Rawlinson suggests. Xanthos was primarily the Greek name of the river on which Arina stood, and which was called Sirbe or Sirbes by the
natives (Strabo, xiv. p. 951; Steph. Byz.
S.V.

son of Harjagos"; but as this seems to

belong to a period neaily 100 years later

than the Persian conquest of Karia, a Harpagos must be meant, * Herodotos means the Babylonians who had succeeded to the jwwer of the
different

Assyrians.
in

2d Kings

The same inaccuracy occurs The conquest of xxiii. 29.
B.c. 638.

Babylonia took place in

See

Tpe/dKrf

;

Eustath. ad

II.

xii.

907-

30).
^

Appendix II. Nineveh
"•

"Belonging to the hearth,"

i.e.

native texts

— Ninua or Nina in the — was ofAccadian foundation,

"families," a peculiar use of the word.

Comp. ivUrria, v. 72. 2 The Lykian obelisk now

and is now represented by the mounds of Kouyunjik and Nebi Yunus opjioKite
Mosul.

in

the

I

102
T?7<?

HERODOTOS.
7ro\t09

[book

ylvovrac

<Tvvd'rravre<i

oyBcoKovra koX

rerpaKoa-iot/'

TO fieu vvv fieyado<; Toaourov
eKeKocrfirjTO he to? ovhev
fiev

ecrri

rov

dcrreo'i

rov l^a^vXoiviov,
iB/Mev.

dWo

TroXicrfia tcop

rifi6l<i

rd^po^

irpSyrd

fiiv

/SaOea re Kal evpea xal

TrXerj

vSaTO<i irepidel,

fiera Se ret^o? Trevr'^KovTa fiev Tnr^eayv ^acnXijLcov iou to evpo<i,

vi^o? he

Bt,7}KoaL(i)v

Trrj^iov

o 8e ^aaiXtjiof;

tt^^i;?
fie

tov fieTpiov
Tovrotai
Kal

179 iaTl
6Tt

irrj'yeo'i

fMc^av Tpial BaKTvXoiai.'
iva

Bel
77

Bi]

7r/3o?

^pdcrai

re

e'/c

t?}?

Td<f>pov

777

dvai<TLfji(i)6r),

to

Tel-^of;

ovTLva

Tpoirov epyacrTO.

6pv<TcrovTe<i

dfia

ttjv

Td<f>pov

eTfKivOevov ttjv yijv Tr)v eK tov 6pvypuTo<; iK<^epop,ev7}v, kXKvaavTe<i

Be 7rXivdov<; iKava^ (OTTTTjaav avTd<; ev Kafiivoicn'
d(T<^dXT(p
depjifj

fieTo,

Be

TeXfiuTi j(peu>[ievoL

koX

Bid

TpiijKovTa

Bofioiv

irXivdov Tapaov<; KaXdfiwv Bca(rToi^d^ovT€<;,^ eBeifiav irptoTa fiev

T^9 Td^pov Ta '^elXea, BevTepa Be avTO
TpoTTOv.
iirdvo)

to

Tel'^o<;

tov avTov
olKrjfuiTa

Be

tov

Tel'^eo^

irapd

Ta

ea'^aTa to
irvXat

fiovvoKcoXa eBetp,av, TeTpafifieva e?
olKTjfidTcov

dXXijXa'

fiecrov

Be

tmv

eXcTTov
Tei')(eo<i

TedpiTnrq)

TrepieXaa-iv.

Be evecrTcicn

irepi^ TOV

eKaTOV, '^dXxeai Trdcrai, Kal aTaOfioC re Kal

virepdvpa
TjfMepetov

Q)a-avTQj<;.

eaTi
Kal

Be

dXXr)
I9

TroXa

aTre^ouca
avTrj.

oktod

oBov ov

diro

Bay9y\wj/o9'

ovvofia

ev6a ecTi
iafidXXec Be
*I«»

TTOTtt/to?

fieyai;' *I<?

tw

iroTapLot to ovvofMa'

ovTOf

e<?

TOV
dfui

l^v<l>pr]T'r}V ^

iroTa/xov to peWpov.

ovto^ tav

'iroTafi6<i

to5

vBaTi dpofi^ov<; dcr(f>dXTov dvaBiBoi 7r6\Xov<i,
but we

of

That is 56 miles, enclosing an area about 200 square miles, which is Ktesias, who adds a third absurd.
'

may

reckon the

ammat

or cubit

wall,

contrary to the evidence of the

monuments,
stades
(42

makes
miles),

the

circuit
(xvi.
1,

360
5)

Strabo

386 stades, Qu. Curtius (vi. 1, 26) 368 stades, and Kleitarkhos (aj). Diod. Nebuchadrezzar Sic. ii. 7) 365 stades. himself states that " the citadel of Baby-

lon" occupied a space of 4000 square
cubits.

The height would then
feet

be about
;

twenty inches. ^ Layers of reeds have been found bedding the courses of crude brick among the ruins of Babylonia, and so binding them together. Asphalt (iddu in Semitic, ebu in Accadian) was plentiful in the Babylonian plain, especially at Is, now Hit, which probably took its name from the word iddu. As, however, hid was the Accadian term for '* a river," it is possible that the town was named after the river on which it stood.
at about
It
is

385

(the

width
the

Ktesias

made

85 feet) height 200 cubits,

being

called

Aeiiwlis

by

Isid.

Khar.,

Idikara by Ptolemy.
" The Euphrates was called by the Accadians the Pur-rat or " winding water,"

Strabo only 50 cubits.

In the time of

Xenophon, we may remember, the ruined wall of Nineveh was 150 feet high
{Anah.
'
iii.

4,

10).

whence the A.ssyrian Purratu Heb., P'rath Old Persian, Ufratu and Greek,
;

;

;

It

is

im^K>ssible

to determine

the

exact equivalents of these two measures,

to the

Euphrates (with a play on e5 in reference " good " waters of the river).

']

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
7]

103
ererei-

€V0€v
-^laTo

aa-^a\ro<i e? ro iv Tia^vXtavi relyo'i eKOfiiadr}.

fif.p

vvv

7}

3af3v\(ov^ rpoirw roLwBe,
avTrj<i

ea-rc

Be Bvo (fxlpaea 180

^1
^^

Tfj<;

TToXto?.

TO yap fieaov
pel Be

irorap.o'i

Biepyei, ray

ovvofia

ear I

^v<f)p7]rr]<;'

e^ ^Apfievifov, ewv fiiyat koI ^aOiif KaX

ra'x^v'i'

e^iei

Be ovro^i if rrjv ^Kpvdprju

daXaaaav.

to

wv

Bi}

ret^o? exdrepop Tov<i ar/KOiva<i e? rov trorafiov ekriXarai.' to Be
aTTO TovTov at eTTLKafxiral
alfjUKTir]
"

irapa p^etXo? eKUTepov tov TroTUfiov
irapaTeivet,.

irXivdoov

oirTeujv

to

Be

aaTV avTo iov
KaTaTeTfirjrat

ifKfipe<i

OLKiMV

TpiQ)p6<f>a)v

re

koI

TeTp(op6(f)(i)v ^
to,'?

Ta<; oBov<i

I6ea<i, Ta^;

re aW<z<? koI
Br) oiv

eiriKapaiaf; Ta<i eVt tov
Trj

iroTafiov e'^ovcra<i.

KaTct

eKaaTijv oBov ev
eirrjcrav,

aifiaaifj

ttj

irapa

tov

iroTafiov

TrvXiBe^;

oaai

Trep

ai

Xavpai,
koI
doipi]^ 181

TocravTaL dpiOfiov

rjaav

Be

Koi

avTat '^aXKcai,
fiev
Brj

(f)epov<rai
Tel-^o^;

avToX
e<rTt,

e?

avTov tov

iroTaixov.
Tel')(o<i

tovto

to

erepov Be eacoOev

Trepcdel,*

ov ttoWcS Tea daOevecTTeiv Be (pdpcrei eKaTepay
""

pov TOV eTepov

Tei')(eo<;,

crTecvoTepov Be.
fxeao)] iv

T^9 TToXto? iTCTei'X^LaTo [iv

^o\^

T€ fieyaku} koX

l(T')(yp(p,

iv Be

tw fiev to, ^acyvkrjt,a tS eTepw Ato? Bt^Xou
iov,

irepi-

iepov

)(a\K07rv\x)v, koX e?
TeTpdyoovov.^'
^

ip,e

€tc

tovto

Bvo o-tuBlcov

irdvTrf, iov

iv fieao) Be tov iepov irvpyo^ aTepeo^ olKoBofirjTai,
of the river.
(ii.

Babylon,

is

the

lonian

now represented by Hillah, Hebrew Babel, the Assyro-BabyBab-ili, "Gate of the god," the
translation

8,

4)

it

According to Diodoros was surrounded by three
in
circuit.

walls, the outermost being sixty stades

Semitic

of

the

original

(seven miles)

The inner

Accadian name Ka-dimirra. It was also known in Accadian times as E, "the
liollow,"

walls were adorned

mth

jminted bricks,

and two of

its gates,

and Din-Tir, "the city of the tree (of life)." It first became the capital of tlie country under Khammuragas, tlie
leader of the Cassite dynasty.
^

machines, were of brass.

opened and shut by It was begun

"Winding"
"Three and
shows

with the
four

river.

'

stories

high."

This

that

the
is

city

was more

densely built than

usually supposed,

and that the system of building in stories which prevailed in Rome liad
already been
*

known

in Babylon.
is

The salkhu

or outer wall

called

Niniitti-Bilu ("foundation of Bel") in

by Nabojwlassar, and finished in fifteen days by Nebucliadrezzar, who calls it "The guardhouse of mankind." It overlooked the Ai - ipur - sabu, or great reservoir of Babylon, and stretched from this to the Euphrates on the one side, and from the Imgur-Bel to the Libil or Within it eastern canal on the other. were the hanging gardens, watered by An earlier ruined means of a screw. palace is represented by the Amram mound, the smaller ^lalace of Neriglis-sar
standing in the western
city.
"

the inscriptions, the inner wall being
called Imgur-Bilu (" habitation of Bel").

jMirt

of

the
or

Both were
'

by Nebuchadrezzar, by the Kasr or "Palace" mound, which Herodotos inbuilt

Now

represented by the

BabU

Now

represented

Mujellibeh mound.
inscriptions)

Bel (Bilu in the

correctly transfers to the western l)ank

is the same word as the Pha-niko-Hebrew Baal, " loi-d," and was

"

104

HERODOTOS.
firJKo<;

[book
cttI

arahiov Kol ro

koI to

evpo<i,

koI

tovtq)

rut

irvpyo)

a\Xo9
oKTo)

7rvp<yo<i

iTn^e^rjKe, koX €Tepo<; fiaka eVt tovtq),

fJ'^'Xpc

ov

TTvpycov.

avdfiaaLt

Be

e?

avTov<;

efw^ei/
fieaovvrt,

KVK\a> irepl
Be kov tt)?

Trdvraf; rov<;

7rvp<yov<i

e'^ovaa TreTroirjTai.

dva^daio<i earl Karaycoyij re kol Owkoi dfnravtTTijpioi, ev rolai
tcari^ovTef;

dfiiravovrai ol dva^alvovre^.
eireari fieya^i'

ev

Be

rut

reXexnaioi

irvpyo)

vr]o<i

ev Be rcS vt^m KXivr] fMeyaXr) Kelrac ev
y^pvaeri.

iarpoyfievT] Kai oi rpdirei^a TrapaKecTUi

dyaXfia Be ovk
evavXl^erai

ivi

ovBev avToOi ivlBpVfievov'

ovBe
rcov

vvxra

ovBel<i

dvOpcoTTcov

on

fjbT}

yvvrj
&)<?

fiovvr}

eTn-^oypLayv, rrjv
'

eXrjrai ex iraaewv,

\eyovo-L ol y^aXBalot

.i6vTe<; iepei<;

av 6 6eo<i rovrov
eirl

Tov Oeov.
182 TOV
Trj<;

(fyaal

Bk ol avTol ovroi, ifiol fiev ov iriarct \eyovre<i,

Oeov

avTov

^otrdv
ev

re e?

rov

vijbv

koI dfiTravecrOat
AlyvTrrirja-i

K\ivr]<i,

Kurd, irep
tu?

®i]^ijcrt

rrjcn

Kara rov
Br)

avrbv Tpoirov,

Xeyovai ol AiyvTrriof
e?
ofiiXlrjv

koI

yap

CKeldi

KOifidrai ev tc3 tov Ato? tov Srj^aieo^; yvvr)' dfKpOTepat, Be avTui

XeyovTac dvBpcov ovBajxSiV
TlaTdpoc(Tt
^
Trj<i

(fiotTav

Kai Kard irep ev

AvkItj^

-q

irpofjuavTi^

tov deov, etreav yevnjTat
tc5 v7)at.
ecrTC Be

ov yap
S)v

Siv alei ecTTi

'^(^p'qaTripiov

avToOf
vr}6<i,

eireav Be yevijTai, totc

(TvyKaTaKXr^ieTai

Td<;

vvKTaf eaat ev

tov ev

183 ^a^vXcovc lepov xal dXXo<; Kdrco

evOa dyaXfia fieya tov
eart'

Ato9 evi KaTTjfievov
'^vtrer],

'^(^pvcreov

Kai ol Tpdire^a fieydXr} TrapaKeiTai
Kai
&)?

Kai to ^ddpov ol Kai o 6povo<i ^pvaeoi;
Be

eXeyov ol ^aXBaloi, ToXdvTcov OKraKotrloov '^pvalov
TooTa.
e^&)

ireiroi-qTat

tov

vrjov

fia}[i6<i

eari 'xpva-eo^.

eoTi

Bk

Kai

specially applied to Merodach, tlie patron

to the whole of it

among the

Greeks.

deity of liabylon.

The Accadian god

of the lower world was also called Bel

The reputation of the Babylonians for magic and astrology caused the name
Khaldtean to become 8)nionymou8 with '"priest" and " soothsayer, " as in this
passage. The Casdim of the Old Testament cannot he identified with tlie Khaldseans, but are probably to be explained

by

tlie

Assyro-Babyloniaiis, and in later

times was distinguished from Bel-Mero-

dach by the epithet of "the older." In saying that the temple of Bel still existed in his time, Herodotos betrays the fact that he had never really visited Babylon; see ch. 183, note
1. '

as the Casidi or Semitic

' '

conquerors

of Accad and Sumir.
^ Still called Patara on the sea coast, and marked by ruins of tombs, temples, and other buildings, besides a theatre,

The Kaldai

are

first

met with

in the

inscriptions as a small non-Semitic tribe

on the shores of the Persian Gulf in the
ninth century
Ionia,
b.c.

containing

Under

their chief,

thirty-four rows of seats, Ajwllo was supjMjsed to dwell here during

Merodach-baladan, they conqtiered Baby-

the six months of winter, delivering his
oracles

and became so

integral a portion

at

Delos during the
iii.

summer,

of the population as to give their

name

(See Hor. Od.

4,

64.)

I]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST,

105

dWo(; /3(i)/xo<i fieya^!, okov Overac to, reXea rdv irpo^dreov iwl yap Tov -^pvaeov ^oiixov ovk e^earc dveiv on firj yakadrjvd fiovva.^

Wm ^^

€7rl

Be

TOV

fiei^ovot

ficofiov

raXavra Tw 6e^
iicelvov
fitv

€Teo<i eKaa-rov oi

TovTot.

rjv

he

koI Karayi^ovai Xi^avcorov -x^iXia ^aXhaloL rore iiredv rrjv oprrjv dywai ev rat refievei rovrw en tov ')(p6vov
'^pv(reo<i

Kol dvZpLO,^ BvaiBeKa 'mj'^ecov
elSov, TO, Be

(TTepe6<i'

eyui fiev

OVK

XeyeTai viro ^a\Bai(ov, tuotu Xeyw.
fiev

Tc5

dvBptdvTt

Aapeloii

o 6

TaTacnreo^

tovtw eTn^ovXevaa^ ovk
xal tov

eToXfirjcre

Xa^elv,

He/jf-j;?
firj

Be

Aapeiov eXaySe

Upea
Bt}

cvrreKTeLve

dirayopevovTa

KLvelv

tov dvBptdvTa.

to fiev

lepov tovto ovto) KeKOcrfii]Tac, ecrTt Be koX iBia dvaOijfiaTa
Trj<i

iroWd.
184

Be

Ha^vXtovo^

TavTr]<i

ttoXXoI fiev kov koI dXXoL eyevovTo
fiv^firjv
iroi'^crofiai,'

^aaiXel^, twv ev toIctc ^Aa-crvpioLai, Xoyoicrt
01 to, Tei')(ed

re eTreKocrfMTjaav koI

to,

lepd, ev Be Brj

koI yvvaiKe<:

Bvo.

r)

fiev irpoTepov
Trj

dp^aaa,
Tjv

t^<?

vcrTepov yeverjac irevTe irpoavTr) fiev direBe^aTo

Tepov
*

yevofiei/7},

ovvofia

%e/jLipa/j,c<;,

The iucense

altar before the ark in

Jewish tabernacle was similarly overlaid with gold (Ex. xx;xvii. 26). In front of the ark was also a table overlaid with gold (Ex. xxxvii. 11). ^ According to Arrian (vii. 17) Xerxes " destroyed " the temple after his return from Greece. In this case Herodotos could not have seen the temple himself, but must have derived his information about it from some earlier author, whom he quotes without acknowledgment. This is supported by his reference (ch. 182) to Egyptian Thebes, which, as will be seen, he also never visited.
the
-

queen, but of the goddess Istar, whose legend was rationalised by the Persian
historians and their Greek followers. 'Sammuramat, the queen of Rimmonnirari (b.c. 810-792), was an Assyrian princess, and lived a century earlier tlian the Semiramis of Herodotos. Besides,

her

identical with that and the reading of it is not quite certain. Perhaps Scaliger was

name may not be

of Semiramis,

right in proposing to read "fifty" in-

stead of "five," which would bring us 2050, the period at which the Semiramis of Greek romance was popularl}' supposed to have flourished (Synto B.C. kellos
B.C.

See ch. 106, note

1.

2177,

Ensebios B.c.

1984,

'

We learn from ch.
queen,
;

the later

188 that Nit6kris, was the mother of

Nabonidos

consequently the Semiramis
if

of Herotlotos will have flourished about

150 years before,
years for a

we assume
as

thirty

both on the authority of Ktesias). On the other hand, Polyhistor endeavours to combine the dynasties of Berosos with the Greek legend of Semiramis by introducing her as a queen of the Assyrians before the rise of the Assyrian

generation,

elsewhere.

This brings us to B.C. 700, when Babylonia was oven-un by Assyrians and Elamites, and a prey to internal discords.

No great public works could have been executed at this time, and a few yeare later (B.C. 695) Babylon was razed to
the ground by Sennacherib.

dynasty in Babylonia B.C. 1272, and Hellanikos makes her a contemiwrary She beof the Trojan War b.c. 1229. longs, however, not to Assyrian history, but to Assyrian mythology. Vitringa's reading "fifteen" is supported by Mahafiy's corrections in L 72 and ii. 34 but 450 years would bring us to Rc.
;

Semiramis,

moreover, was the name, not of a

human

106
'X^cofiara

HERODOTOS.
ava to ava to
ttcBlov

[book

iovra
ovvofia

d^toderjra' irporepov Se ewdei 6
rj

185

7roTafi6<;

irehiov irav TreXajL^eiv.
ttj

he

Bj)

BeuTepov yevo-

fiivrj TavTr)<;

^aatXeia,

-qv ^iT(OKpL<i,*

avTr) Be <rvveTa)Tepr}
to,

yevofiemj tt}? irpoTepov dp^dar)^ tovto jxev fivrjfioavva eXiireTO
e7ft>

dTTTjy^aofiat, tovto

Be

ttjv

^rjB(ov opiovaa dpyrjv fieydXrjv

T€ Kal ovK dTpe/Mi^ov(rav,
iv Be
Brj

dW

aXKa

re dpaiprjfieva da-Tea avToiai,

Kal TTJV Nivov, 7rpoe(f)v\d^aTo oaa
'EiV(f>pi]T7)v
fie(rrj<;

eBvvaTo fidXicTTa.

irpoiTa fiev top

iroTafiov peovTa irpoTepov

Wvv,

o<f

<7^l

Bi^ T^9 TToXto?
Bt) Tfc €7roc7}(X€

pel,

tovtov dvcoOev Bmpv)(a^ opv^aaa ovto)
Bt]
T|Ot<?

CKoXcov MaT€

69 Tcov TLva
Kcofijj

Kwfiewv Twv iv
ea-TC,
e<?

Tjj

^Kcravplrj

diriKvelTav pecov

ttj

Be

ovuofid

ttjv

diriKveiTaL 6 ^v^pijTrjf;, ^ApBepcKKa.^
aTTo

Kal vvv at dv KOfii^covTai
avTijv TavTrjv KcofiTjv irapafiev Brj

TTjaBe Trjf OaXdcrcrrj'i

e?

Ba/SfXcoj/a, KaTairXeovTe'; e? tov
ttjv

¥iv^pi]Tr)v TTOTa/JLOv T/Jt? re e?

yLvovTai Kal iv Tptal ^fMeprjai.
')((Ofia

tovto

tocovtov

iirolijae,

Be irape'X^coae irap

eKUTepov tov iroTafiov to ^6t\o? d^tov
ocrov tc eVrt.

0(0VfJ,aTO<i fieyado<;

Kal

vylro<i

KaTxmepde Be iroXXw
irapaTeivovaa diro

^a^vX(ovo<; wpvaae eXvTpov

Xifivrj, 6Xir/ov tl

TOV

'JTOTafiov,

pd9o<; fiev e? to vBcop alel opvacrovcra, evpo^ Be to
elKocri re

TreplfieTpov

avTov iroieovcra

Kal TeTpaKoaiav

aTaBiwv

TOV Be 6pv<T(TOfievov xovv e/c tovtov tov 6piiyfiaT0<; dvaiaifiov irapa Ta '^eiXea tov TroTafiov irapa-x^eovaa. eVetTe Be oi opcopvKTo,
1000,
*

Xidovi
to

dyayofievT]
which

KprjirlBa

KVKXtp
'

irepl

avTrjv

ijXaa-e.

a date

Semiramis

is

Arderikka
is
' : '

is

assigned by no classical author.
is an Egyjitian name (NeitaNabonidos did not belong to the royal family, and his mother might She easily have been an Egyptian. must be the queen-mother who figures so prominently in the tablet of Kyros, which records the reign and fall of

probably

imaginary.

not yet identified, and Sir H. Rawlin-

NitSkris

son says

No

such cuttings as thosf

krit).

here described by Herodotus can ever

Nabonidos. From this we learn that while the king himself was wasting his time in idleness at Babylon, his mother was encouraging the army by her presence in the
It is

have existed." In vi. 119 Herodotos places Arderikka near Susa. ' If we venture to throw aside the authority of all the MSS., with Schweighaiiser, and omit is before rdv Ev<pfr/ini», the meaning of the passage would be simple enough "Those who would now go from our (Mediterranean) sea to
:

Babylonia,

sail
4s,

down

the

Euphrates."

camp near

Sii>para,

where

Retaining
late
:

however, we must trans-

she died on the 5th of Nisan B.c. 547.
therefore very prol)able

that the

this
it

.sea

"Those who would now go from into Babylonia, sailing down
the Euphrates."

works

of

defence

which

Nabonidos

into

In this case
be

claimed to have made against the attack
of the Persians were really due to the

the sea would be the Persian Gulf, and the
writer would

not

Herodotos,
is

energy of the queen-mother, as Herodotos states.

but

some

unknown one whom he

quoting.

t-l

THE EMPIRES OF THE

EAST.

107

iiroiet.

Be dfi<f>OT€pa rdora, rov re trorafiov (TkoXcov koI to opvyfia
eXrj

irdv eXo'i, to? o re irorafio'i ^pahvrepo^
dyvv/j,evo<>,

irepl KUfnrd'i

ttoXX^?
e/c

xal ol ttXooi
'

etoaL

(tkoXcoX e? rr)v Ba^i/Xwya,

re

rmv ttXowv
Be epyd^ero
rrj^ €/c

eKBeKrjTat TreptoSo? t?}? Xifivrj^ fiaKprj.
Tfj(;

'^o6pr](;

rf/
fir)

Kara rovro aX re ea^okal rjaav koI rd avvrofxa
eTri/jicayofievoi ol
fiev
Bt)
e/c

Mt^Swi/ oBov,^ iva

M?}Sot eKfiavddvoiev
Trepce^dXero,^ 186
eov(TT}<i

avTr]<;

rd

irprjyfjuna.

rdora

^ddea

roiijvBe Be i^ avroiv TrapevO-qKrjv eiroirjaaro.

ri)^ TToXto?

Bvo (Papaewv, rov Be 7rora/Mov
^acrtXecov
6kq)<;

fiecrov e')(ovro^,

eVl rSiv irporepov
e?

rt?

edekoc eV rov

erepov

<f)dp(Teo<;

rovrepov
ro

Bia^r)vat, "XP^v irXoiw Bia^aiveiv, koI ^v, a)9 eyco BoKeco, 6-^7)pov

rovro.

avrr)
rrj

Be

Kal rovro

irpoelBe'

eireire

yap

wpvcrcre

eXvrpov
eXiTTero.
eroifioi

Xip-vy, fivrffiocrvvov roBe

dXXo

diro

rov avrov epyov rov rrorafiov ro
rovro, ev

irdfivero Xtdovi

Trepip.ijKea'i,^ to?

Be ol rjcrav ol XiOoi

Kal
rrdv

ro
e?

'^oapiov

opcopvxro, eKrpeyJraa-a
'^(opiov, ev
c5

peWpov

ro

copvaae

eirlp^'TrXaro

rovrqt aTre^ijpacrfievov rov dp'^alov peidpov rovro fiev rd ^eiXea

rov TTorafMov Kara

rrjv iroXiv

xal t^? Kara^da-ca<i

rd<i

€K r5)v

TTvXiBoov 69 rov irorafiov <f>epov<ra<; dvoLKoBofnjae TrXivOoccri OTrrjjai

Kara

rov avrov Xoyov ru>
rrjv troXiv

rei'^eL,

rovro Be Kara

p,ecn)v

kov

fidXiara

rolcn XlOoktl roix; oapv^aro olKoBojxei ye<f>vpav,
eirireiveaKe Be iir
err

Beovcra rovf Xidov; criBijptp re Kal fioXvjSBo).
avrriv, 6k(o<;
fiev
"^fiepT)

yevoiro,

^vXa
firj

rerpdr/cova,

wv

rrjv

Bid^acriv eiroieovro ol ^a^vXtovioc rd<; Be vvKra<s rd ^vXa rdora

drraipeeaKov

rovBe

e'iveKa,

'iva

Bia<^ot,reovre<i

rd<i

vvKra<i
7rX-^p7j<i

KXerrrroiev Trap^ aXX-qXcov.

co?

Be ro

re opvyjdev Xifivrj

iyeyovei viro rov Trorafiov Kal rd irepl rrjv y€<f)vpav

iKeKO<T/j,r}ro,
rrjf;

rov ^v<f)p^rriv irorafiov
~

i<i

rd dp^ata peWpa ex

Xlfivrji;

"At
"In

the end of the voyage."
that part of the country where

tween the Nahr Malcha and Bagdad
{Jrl.
'

*

R. a. S. xxxvii.)

the passes were and the shortest roads

"Such were

the defences she
soil."

made

That would be on the north-east. The camp was pitched near Sippara (now Abu-Habba), and the efforts made by Kyros to jienetrate into Babylonia from the north-east proved uninto

Media."

by digging out the
1

availing.

See Apj)endix
vii.

II.

Xenophon

{Andb.

i.

15) passed a wall sixtylength,

nine miles in

fto

which had been from the and the remains of which have discovered by Lieut. Bewsher beprotect

Babylonia

I,

Herodotos had never ho would not have spoken of "immense stones" being hewn in a country which is The few absolutely devoid of them. stones brought from Babylonia are either gems or boundary stones, the smallest pebble being of high value. It was no doubt the rarity and conacquent preciousness of stone which caused the BabyIt is clear that

visited Babylonia, otherwise

108
e^rjyaye,

HERODOTOS.
Kol
ovto)

[book
e<?

to

6pv)(dev

eXot yivofievov

Biov

iBoKet

yeyovivat koI
187

toIcti TroXi^TrjcrL ye<f)vpa rjv KaTecrKevacfiivrj.

'H
craro.
kiovrrj

8'

avTT) avTT}

^aaCkeia koI dirdTrjv
fjuerecopov

rocijvSe rivd ifirj-^ainj-

virep roiv fiakicrra Xeo)<f)op(ov TrvXewv rov dcneo<i Td<j>ov

KaTecrKevda-aro

eVtTroX^? avrewv rtov irvXewv,
" roiV Tt?
XP"*?-

ivcKoXa'^e Be e? rbv rd^ov ypdfifutra X&yovra rdZe.
e//.eo

varepov yivofievcov Ra^v\(ovo<i ^aaiXicov
dvoi^as tov
Td<f>ov

-qv a-iraviar)

fidrcov,
fir}

Xa^eroi oKocra ^ovXerai •^pijfiaTa'

fievTOt,

ye

fit}

airavCaa^ ye aWtu? dvoi^rf ov yap dfietvov"

ovTOf}

6

Td(l>o<;

rjv

dKivqro^

H'^XP''

°^

^'^

^apelov 7repci]X6e
TrvXTjcri,

17

^aaCXrfiT}' Aapeio) Be Kal Becvov eBoKei elvac rfjai
fiTjBev '^pdcrdai,

TavTjjat

koX ^prj/jbdroyv Keifievcov Kal avroiv rSiv •^prjfxdrcov
firj

iiTLKaXeofievoiv,

ov Xa^etv avrd.

rfjac Be

irvXTjcn

ravT-pffi

ovBev e-^pdro rovBe eXveKa,
Bce^eXavvovTt.
Be
€a<i

on

virep Ke^aXr\<i ol iyivero 6 veKpof;

dvoi^a^;

Be rov Td<f>ov evpe ')(pr]funa fiev ov, tov

veKpov Kal ypdfifxaTa XeyovTa ToBe.
'^rjfidTwv Kal
al(T')(poKepB'qf;,

" el

firj

dirXrjcrTO'i

re

ovk dv veKpcov

6r]Ka<i dveq)ye<;."~

188

Br) Ki)/309 eTrl

AvTT) p,ev vvv q fiacriXeia TOiavTr) rt? Xeyerai yeveadar 6 Be ravrr)^ t^9 yvvaiKo<i tov TraiBa eaTpareveTO, e')(ovTd

Te TOV iraTpofi tov etovTov Tovvo/xa
dp'^rjv.^

Aa^vvqTov Kal
Brj

ttjv

^

Aaavpitov

(TTpaTeveTat Be

Brj

ySaertXey? 6 fieya<i

Kal aiTioiat ev

€crKevaa-fievo<;

e^ oikov Kal irpo^dToiai, Kal
"*

Kal vBoyp diro tov

Xoao-Tretu TroTafwv

d/jui

dyerai tov irapd Sovaa peovTO<i, rov

fxovvov TTLvei ^aaiXev<i Kal

dXXov ovBevof
dTreyfrrjfievov

irorafjiov.

rovrov Be
d/jui^aL

TOV Xoao-Treo) rov vBaTO<;

TroXXal

Kdpra

rerpdKVKXoi qfiioveiai KOfiL^ovcrac ev dyyTjioiat dpyvpeoiac eirov189 rat, oKrj dv iXavvrj eKdarore. eireire Be 6 J^vpot tropevofievos
eirl rrjv loniaus
*

Ba)9u\&>i/a iyivero iirl TvvBr)
become
famous
as

^

irorafi^, rov ai
in ch. 74.

fjuev

injyal
in

to

gem-

Labynetos

His ignorance

engravers.

regard to so comparatively well -known
is

This

evidently

"moral

stories"

the

one of those Greeks were so

a portion of Babylonian history prov.

that

we need not

regret tlie loss of

hi.-,

fond of inventing.
in style

It is needless to say

Assyrian history.

The

father of Nalw-

that the inscriptions are wholly Greek

nidos was really Nebo-balatsu-ikbi, the

and conception. ' Herodotos means Nabonidos and the empire of the Babylonians. So far from
being the son of another Nabonidos, however, Nabonidos did not belong to
the royal family, but was elected to the

Rab-Mag. * Apparently the motlem Kerkhah.
Strabo (xv.
p.

1043)

tells

the story

the Eulwus (Ulai), supi>osed to be repri sented by a dried -uji channel on tlie
eastern side of Susa, from the bridge of

throne after the murder of Laborosoarkhod, the son of Neriglissar. Herodotos
is

Pai I^il on the
*

Kerkhah
is

to the Shapnr,

a branch of the Kanin.

thinking of the king he has miscalled

The Gyndes

usually

identified

I]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
^

EAST.

109

eV MaTcijvolai opeai,^ pel Be Bia AapSaviajv,' eKSiSoi 8k if erepov
irorafiov TLyptjv, 6 Se Trapa ^flTriv

iroXiv pecov

e<»

rrjv

^Kpvdprjv

BaXaaaav
iTTirayv tojp

eKSiSol,

rovrov

Bt}

tov TvvSijv Trorafiov w? Sia^aiveiv
ti<;

eiretpdro 6 KO/jo? iovra UTjvanripijTov, ivdavrd oi roiv

lepojp

XevKtav vrro v^piof ia^a^

e«f

tov Trorafiov hia^aiveiv
<f)ep(ov.

iireiparo, 6 8e fiiv avfiyjnja-a*; vTro^pif^iov oi-^wKei

Kapra

T€

Br)

i'^aXeiraive ru> TrorafiS 6 Kf)/9o? tovto

v^piaavri, Koi ol

eTn^Tre'iXrjae ovto) Bi] ficv dcrdevea

iroLrjaetv Mcrre

tov Xolttov koX
Bia^^a-ecrdai.

yvvaiKd<i
fiera
Be

fxiv

euTrereo)?
dTreiXrjv

to

yovv
ttjv

ov

fipe'^ovaa^;

ttjv T7)v

/ierei?
Bi'^a,

iirl

IBa^vKcova
KUTereive
^

crTpuTevcnv
a-'^oivorevea^i

Biaipet

(TTpaTirjv

BieXiav

Be

v7roBe^a<i

Bicopi^wi

oyBooKovTa

koL

eKUTov

Trap'

eKCLTepov

to

p^eiXo? TOV TvvBeo) TeTpap.fieva'; TrdvTa

TpoTrov, Bcard^a^i Be rov

crrpaTOV opvaa-etv i/ceXeve.

ola Be ofiiXov

ttoWov epya^ofievov
avTov ravTj]
190

yvcTO

fiev

TO epyov,

ofico<;

fievToi tt)v depeLrjv Trdaav

BieTpiyjrav epya^ofievoi.

'n? Be TOV TvvBrjv TTOTafiov eTiaaTO

K.vpo'i

e<?

TpiTjKoa-laf koI

k^KOVTa
ovTCt) Bt]

Buopv'^d'i fiiv Buika^cov,^ Kal to BevTepov cap vTreXafiire,

TjXavve eVl T-qv ^a^vXcova.
efievov avTov.

oi Be

Ba^vXcovioc eKdTpa-

Tevcrdfievoc

eVet Be eyeveTo ekavvtov dy^ov

t%

with the Diyalah, but tlie legend ])robably rather has in ^^ew the Gingir, which is divided into a number of small
streams at Mendalli. ^ The Araxes also is said to
rise in

'

"By
Sir

stretching roi^es

he

marked

out 180 straight trenches."
^

H. Rawlinson rightly divined

that the whole story was

"a

fable,"

a.s

the

is

now proved by

the tablet inscription

SamasKhanatsiruca, king of the Matai, in the mountains to the north-east of Assyria, and sacked his capital Sagbita, and Lake Urumiyeh was known as Lake Matiana
Matienian mountains, ch. 202.

of Kyros, from which

we

learn that the

Rimmon

(b.c.

821)

defeated

Persians marelied upon Babylonia from

the south,
believes

it

tradition

not from the north. He embodies "some popular with regard to the great
hills,

hydraulic works on the Diydlali below
the

to

classical

geography.

The

j)lace

of

Hamaran

where the river has
jierfect

the Matai seems to be taken by the Medes (Madai) in later inscriptions.

l)een

dammed

across to raise the level of

the water,
either side."

and a

network
it

of

See
"

iii.

94, note 9.

canals has been opened out from

on

Otherwise unknown.

It is not surprising, there-

8

Herodotos

must

mean

that

the

fore,

that the geography of Herodotos

Gyndes

joins the Tigris near Opis (Uiie

in the inscriptions), after which the Tigris
flows southward.
iL iv.

But Xenophon (Anab.

13-25) shows that Opis lay near

the junction of the Physkos, not the

should be as confused as his narrative, or that the channels should be just 360, the number of days in the old Babylonian year, perhajis suggested by the fact that the horse was sacretl to the sun.

Gyndes, with the Tigris, the north of the Diyalah.

many

miles to

We may

well doubt whether such a stream as hia Gyndes really existed at all.

no
7ro\t09,

HERODOTOS.
avve^aXov re
oi Ha^vXcovLoi kuI
k(T(Ta)devT€<;
rfj

[book
fid-xji

KarecX'qOrjcrav €?

to aarv.

ola Be e^€7ri(TTdfievoc ert irporepov

Tov K.vpov ovK drpefii^ovra, aX)C opeovTei avrov iravrX edvet
6fwi(ii<i

einyeLpeovTa, irpoea-d^avro (Titui ereayv Kapra TroW&ii/.
/xev

evdavra ovroc

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are

el-)(ov

t^9

iroXiopKLrj^; ovteva, Ki}/309 he
(TV')(yov
Bt}

aTTopirjcn eveL')(ero,

^ovov
Kat,

re eyycvofievov
etre

dvtoTepto

191 re ovSev roiv TrpTjyfidToyv TrpoKoirro/jLevwv^^

cjv dXX,o<i oi
fjv,

diropeovTC viredrjKaTo, eire
eiroieL Brj rocovBe.

avTO<i

ejxaOe

to TrotTjreov oi

rd^a<; rrjv (TTpaTirjv diraaav e^ efx^oXrjf rov

TTOTafiov, TTJ 69 rrfv iroXiv ecr^dXKei, KaX oirLcrOe

aina t^9

7roXto9
tc5

Td^a<i erepoviy

tt}

i^let

e'/c

t^9 7ro\to9 o

'iroTafi6<i, irpoetTre

(TTpaTM, orav BiaBarov
TavTrj €9 T7}v itoXlv.
ve(ra<; d'TrrfKavve

to

peWpov
Bt)

iBcovTai,

yevofievov, iaievai

ovt(o Te

Ta^a9 koI kuto, tuotu irapaid'm,Kop,evo<i

avTOf avv tS d'^rjiw tov crTpaTov.

Be ewX Tr}v XI/mvijv,

rd

irep

rj

to3v lda^v\(ovLO)v /SaaiXeca eiroirjae
XifjLvijv, eirocei

Kard Te tov
eovaav
eX,09

iroTa/jLov

koI Kara ttjv

kol 6 K{)po9
ttjv Xlfivrjv
xrrro-

erepa ToiavTW tov <ydp iroTa/Mov Bicopv^t iaaya/yMV if
vo<7TricravTO<i

to dp'^alov peldpov Bia^aTov elvai eTroirjae,

tov TTOTUfiov.^
eTerd'^aTO
eir

yevofievov

Be

tovtov tolovtov, oi
kuto, to peldpov tov
609

TIepa-at ol
Eiv<f>p'qTeo)

nrep

avTm tovtw
dvBpl
e<i

TTOTafiov

v7rovevo(rTr]KOTO<i

69

(xe<Tov

firjpov

fidXia-Tu

KTj,

KUTo, TOVTO earjKTav
rj

ttjv

Ha^vXcova.
e'/c

el fiev

vvv

TrpoeirvOovTO
fievov, oi
8'

e/Madov oi ^a^vXcovcot to

tov K.vpov

iroteo-

av irepuBovTe^ T0v<i Uepaai; eaeXdelv e? rr/v ttoXiv av KdKicrTa' KaTaKXT)LaavTe<; yap av trdaa^ Ta9 C9 TOV TTOTafiov TTvXlBa^; e^oucra9 Kal avrol eVi Ta9 aifiaaid'i dvafidvTe<i Ta9 irapa to, ')(eCXea tov Trorafiov eXr)Xafi€va<;, eXa/3ov av
Bc€(f>deipav
cr(f>ea<; ei)9

ev KvpTT).
vtto

vvv Be i^ aTTpoaBoKijTov
ft>9

cr(f>t

TTapecrTTjcrav

oi

Uepaai.

Be fieyd6eo<i t^9 TToXio<i,
TO,

Xeyerac vtto tS)v
7ro\409 eaXoiKOTwi'

TavTTj otKTffievcov, Tcjv TTepl
TOv<;

ea-ycLTa

TTJ<i

TO fieaov otKeovTa^; rwv Via^vXwvioiv ov fiavddveiv eaXta-

KOTai;,

dXXd

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ydp

a-<f>t

eovaav
eivat,

opTTjv)
€9

•yopeveiv Te tovtov
Btj

TOV

')(p6vov

KaX ev

ex/TTadeirjci.

o

xaX

to

Kdpra

eTTvOovTO.

*

All this is unhistorical, as

we

learn

from the tablet inscription (see Apj>entlix II.) There was no s'ege of Babylon, ami Kyros did not enter the city until three months after it had opened its gates to Gobrya«. The account given here by

Herodotos must be a confused echo <>f the siege of Babylon by Darius Hystaspi^.

'The

unhistorical

character of

tin

whole narrative relieves us from the ncod
of entering into the geograjihical diHieulties of this passage.

']

THE EMPIRES OF THE
Kat BaySuXoby
fiev

EAST.
Trjv

Ill
Se 192
ocrr}

ovto)

rare Trpcorov dpaiprfro'*

Svvafiiv rcav Ba^vXojvlcov TroWotcrt fiev xal aWoc(rc hr^'KaxTa)
Tt9 ia-ri,

iv

Be

Srj

koI tmBc.

^aatXel
fjbtjvoiv
rj

t&J

fieyaXtp

i<i

Tpo<f)r]v
yrj

aiiTOv T€ Kol T^9 crTpaTir]<i

BiapaipiiTai,

irdpe^ rov

<f)opov,

iraaa
Tot»9

oarjf;

dp')(et,'

BucaBexa Syv
rpet^ei, fiiv

iovroyv e? rov iviavTov
yoctprj,

Te(raepa<;
TOiV

fii]va<i
rj

^a^vKoavirj
Aalr).

rov<;

Be
17

OKTCD
^

firjVbiv
"^V

XocTTT)

irdcTa
tt}?

ovrco

TpirrjfioptT)
rj

A-o-crvpi-q

X^P^
TOiv

Bvvdfiet
ol

dWr]^'*AaL'r)<;.
o-aTpaTrrjLrjv

kuI

dp^V "^^
ecrrl

Xo>pv^
T(p fiev

TavT7](i,

TT)v

IIe/30"at

KoXeovat,,
11

diracrecov
^

dp-^^cov

ttoWov
T)fi€pri<i

ti

KpartcrTr),

okov

pnavrat'XH'V
Be

Apra^d^ov eK
rrpoa-qie

^a(Tt\.€o<i

e^ovrL rov vofiov tovtov dpyvpiov

€Kda-T7]<i

dprd^rj ixearrj

17

dprd^rj

^

fierpov

eov
^

UepaiKov

%«i)/3et

fieBifivov
01

^Attlkov
rjcrav

ifkeov

;;^otVtft

rptal

ArTLKTjcn.

'nriroi

Be

avrov
Td<;

IBcrj,

irdpe^

r&v

iroKefiLar'qpiwv, ol fxev dva^aivovre<i

6r]\ia<i

oKraKoacoi, al

Be ^atvofjuevat e^aKKrxt^.i'O'i'

Kal /j^vptac

dve^aive yap eKa<no<i
'

T(ov ipcrevcov tovtcov eiKocrt i7nrov<;.
B-q

KvvSiv Be ^IvBlkwv

rocrovro

Ti irXfjOo'i

erpe^ero &a-re recraepe^; rcov iv
dlCkwv
eova-ai,

tc3 ireBio) kco/jmi,

fierfdXaL, roiv

dreXel^, rolat kv(t\ TrpocreTeTdxdTO
fiev

cnrid

irapexj^tv.
rj

TOtavra

rS

dp^ovn

Trj<i

Ba/SyXwi/o? 193

vTrrjpx^ eovra'

Be yrj rSiV ^Aaavpitov verat fiev oKiyo),^ koI to

eKTpe(f>ov T7]v pL^av

rov ctltov

ecrrl

rovro' apBofxevov fievroL
crlro<;,

e'/c

rov TTorafiov dBpvverai re ro Xijtov Kal Trapayiverai 6

ov

Kara

rrep iv

Alyvirra avrov rov Trorafiov dva^aivovro<i
%epcrt

e? ra^;
rj

dpovpa<i,

dXkd

re Kal KrfKwvqioLo-t,

^

dpB6fievo<i.

yap

Ba^vXcovirj

^^PV
is

"J^daa,

Kard wep

r}

AiyvTrrirj, KararerfiTjrai e?

*

Herodotos

ignorant of the numer-

'

ous captures of the city by the Assyrians,
l>eginning with that of Tiglath - Adar and ending with that of Sennacherib.

the

See Mr. W. Houghton's Papers on Mammalia of the Assyrian Ijiscripthe Trans. Soc. Bibl. Archaol.

tions, in

V. (1877).
* A good deal of rain falls in Assyria, In Babylonia it is rare during the summer, though there is plenty in the winter and spring. ' The Egyptian An early shaduf. Accadian collection of agricultural proverbs says "The irrigation - machine he puts together the bucket he hangs, and the water he will draw up." Irrigation naturally playetl a large part in the economy of Baby:

Probably he
Hystaspis (see

mshed

to

contrast

this

capture of Babylon with that by Darius
iii. 159), though the legend borrowed may have intended nothing more than a reference to the two captures

lie

in the reign of Darius.
'

" Satrap

See iii. 159. " is the old Persian khsha' '

Irapd for khshatrapdvxin,
the empire."
'

defender of

;

Hence the

modem

Egyptian ardeb

(nearly 5 bushels).

The artabe would

have contained

1 } busliels.

lonia.

112
Bia)pv^a<;'

HERODOTOS.
kuX
rj

[book

fxeyiaTr) to)V Sicopv^cov earl v7}v<Ti7rep7]T0<;, tt/jo?
i(Te-)(et,

rjXiov T€TpafifM6vrj rov -^et/jLepivov,

Be e?

aXXop

Trora^iov

e/c

Tov

¥iV<f)p'^T€(o, e?

Tov TiypTjv, Trap' ov NtVo? TroXt?

oiktjto.^

iari
^

he ^copeoyv avTrj iraaewv fxaxpS

apicmj tcov
ovre

r}fiel<i

iBfiev ^rj^n^rpof

Kapirov eK(f)epecv
ipepeiv,
oijTe

ra yap

Brj

aXXa BevBpea ovBe

Treipdrai dp^rjv

avKet^v

ovre afiireXov

iXaiijv.

tov
iirl

Bk

Trj<i

Ai^fir)Tpo<;

Kapirov wBe dya6r) cKcfyepeiv ecri oiare

BnjKoaca

fiev
iirX

TO irapdirav aTroBiBol, eiretBdv Be dpiaTa avTrj
TptrjKoaLa CK^epei.
Kpideeov to
to,

ecovTTJ'i eveLKrj,

Be <f>vXKa avTodi, tcov re irvpSiV koI

T(ov

TrXaro? yiveTai Teaaepcov euTrereo)? BaKTvXeov.
arjcrdfjiov

CK Be

Key^pov koI

ocrov

ti BivBpov /jLeyado<i yCvcTui,

i^€'7ri(TTdfievo<i

/jlvij/mijv

ov

7roii](TOfiai,
'^(^caprjv

ev

elBoo'i

otl

Tolai,

fjiij

diriyiMevoKTb e? Tr)v ^a^vXcovirjv
i-^ofieva e? dTriaTLrfv

koI

to,

elpT^fieva

Kapirwv

ttoWtjv aTriKTai.
7roLeovTe<i
.
.

'^eoiVTat, Be ovBev eXaLO),
.

dX)C

eK

TCOV

arjcrdfjicov

elcrl

Be

cT<f>t

cf>olviK€<i

'ir€(f)VKOTe<i

dvd irdv to

ireBiov, ol TrXeove^
/u,eXt

avTcov Kap7ro<f>6poi, eK
tov<; crvKecov Tpoirov

Toyv Kol criTia koI olvov /cat

iroieovTai'

Oepairevovo-i
KoXeovcTi,

Td re aXXa KaX
KapiTOV

c^olvlkcov

Tou<i

€pcreva<i "EXXt/i/cs"

TovTcov TOV

TrepcBeovcrt,
crcfji

ttjcti

^aXavrjcfiopoccn

Tcav <f)otvLKcov, Xva TreTratvij re

6

yjrrjv

Kol

fj.T)

diropper] 6 Kapirov tov ^oivLKo<;'
Brj

^dXavov iaBvvcov yjrrjva^; yap Bt) cftepovai
ttjv

194 iv Tc5 Kapircp ol €paeve<i xaTd irep
Tcov
Ooivfia
fjbiyLCTTOv
fiou

ol oXvvOoi:^

to Be dirdvttjv

eaTi tcov TavTij fieTd ye avTr)v
to.

ttoXlv, ep')(0fiai (f>pd(rcov.

irXola avTolai ea-TL Ta kuto, tov

TTOTa/jLov Tropevofxeva e? ttjv

Ha^vXcova, eovTa KVKXoTepea, irdvTa
Tolcn
'Apfievioicrc
lTer]<i

cTKVTCva.
^

iiredv

yap

ev

toIctc

KaTvirepde
TToirjacovTai,
eBdc^eO'^

AcrcTvpicov

oiKTjfievoiac

vofj,ea<i

Tafiofievoc

TrepcTeivovcTC

TovToiai
TTpVfJLVTJV

Bi(ji6epa<i

aTeyaaTpLBa<i

e^codev

TpOTTOV^ OVT€

dlTOKpiVOVTe'i

OVTC TTpcopiJV aVvdr/OVT€<i,
7rX»/-

dXX^

dcTiriBo';

Tpoirov KVKXoTepea 7roc'^cravTe<t Kal KaXd/M7)<i

aavTe<i irdv to ttXoIov tovto dTrcelcrc

KaTa tov

TTOTafcov <f>€p€adai,

^

" The

Tigris,

Nineveh stood."

Xm the banks Of course

of which
this

fniit

of the date-tree only needs the

has

{)oIlen of
*

the male palm,
stretch a covering of skins
floor."

nothing to do with the great canal of Babylonia, which was probably the

"They

on these outside, like a

Circula

"Royal River," called Annalchar by Pliny, and firat constructod by Khammuragas.

Nahr Malcha

or

* •

"At

all."

This, as
Plant,

(Hist.

Theophrastus pointed oat ii. is an error. The 9)

same kind awl still used on the Tigris and Euphrates, The rafts which are floated do«-n the river, supported on inflated skins, are broken up when they reach their destination. The pixoi carried by them seem
boats, or ku/as, of the
II

I

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
'

113

(f)opTicov •rrXrjaavTe^

fiaXiarra

Se ^lkov<s

<f)OLViK7jiov<;

KaTayovac

otvov TrXeouf.
6p6oiv
wOei.

Wvverai, Be vtto re Bvo TrXrjKrpwv Koi hvo avhpwv
ea-ay

earecoTav, xal 6 fikv
iroielraL Be Kal

eX/cet

to irXrJKTpov 6 Be e^a>
"TrXota

Kapra fieyaXa rdora ra
^co6<i evecrri,

Kal iXda-aro)'

TO, Be fieyca-ra

avrcov Kal TrepTdKia'^iXloyv rakdvroyv yofiov e%et.
ev Be rolai fii^oa-i TrXeove?,

iv eKd(n(p Be irXoitp 6vo<i
errreav

mp

diriKoyvrat TrXeoi/re? e? rrjv
pofi€a<i fiep

IRa^vXwva Kal Bcadecovrat
ttjp

TOP ^oprop,

tov irKoiov Kal
Bi<f)0ipa<;

KaXd/MTjp Trdcrap dnr
eirl

&p

eKTfpv^ap,^

Ta<i

Be

einad^apTe'i

rov<i

6pov<i
Br)

direXavpovcn e?

TOv<i ^ApfiePLOvi.

dpa top

Trora/jbop

yap

ovk

old re iarl ifkelp ovBepl rpoirtp vtto rd'^eo'i rov Trorafiov' Bid yap

rdora xal ovk ix ^vXcop iroieoprat ra TrXola aXX' eK Bu^depewp.
etredp
Be
rov<i

opov<i

eXavpopref

diriKayprat

oiricra)

i<;

rov<i

^Apfj.€PL0v<i,

dXka

rpoTTtp

rw avrS

iroieoprai ifKola.

ra

fiep Bij

195

irXoia avrolat earl roiavra'
TToBrjpeKet Xipeo), Kal eirl

iaOijri Be roifjBe 'xpeaprat, klOojpl

rovrop dXXop eipipeop KiOSiPa errepBvpei
ej(a)p iTTf^copia,

Kal '^apiBiop XevKOP Trepc^aXXofiepo^;, viroBrjixara
TrapatrXijaia rrjac ^OKarirja-L ifi^dcn.^
fiirprjcrt

KOfieopra<i Be

ra?

K€(f>aXd'i

dpaBeoprac,
^

/j,efivpiafjLepot

irap ro aonia.

a^prfylBa Be

eKaa-ro'i e^et
(TKtjTrrpq)
rj

Kal

aKrJTrrpop
rj

'^eipoTroiTjrop •
firjXop
rj

eV
rj

eKdaro)
rj

Be

eirean
Bi]

Treiroirffiepop

poBop

Kpipop

aiero'i

dXXo re dpev yap
a<f>i

eiriarifiov

ov

<T<f>t

pofio<i

earl e'^eip aKrjvrpop.
pofioc Be

avrrj fiep

dprrjaL<i irepl

ro awfia earC'

avrolai 196

wSe Kareardai, o
€Kdara<i
TrapOepoc

fiep ao(f)coraro<; oBe

Kara

yp(6fir)p rrjp r/fiereprfp,

rut Kal ^YKXvpioiP 'EyeroiK?

irvpOdpofiac -^pdaOat.

aTra^

rov

€r€o<;

eKdarov
d>paiat,,

eiroielro

rdBe.
OK(o<i

Kara Koctfia^ w? ap at
avpaydyocep

yipotaro
;

ydficop
Heb.

ravra^
Herodotos

of Semitic origin

cp. the

bakbUJc,

'

refers to the cylinders of

"a
'^

bottle."

For

dveK-^pv^av,

"they
ii.

sell

by

auction."

An

instance of the so-called

which most museums contain specimens. A cord, passed through the hole which pierces them from end to end, fastened

Homeric
iv. 60,
ii.

tmesis.

Comp.
10
as
c.

39,
;

40, 47,
iii.
;

them

to the wrists of their owners.

70, 85, 86, 87, 88, 96, 122, 172

196

;

vii.

Cf.

82 also ch. 66

designs engraved

The upon them usually remore
rarely

;

present deities or scenes from the ancient

141, 181.
*

Chaldean

epic

;

human

The

priests,

we

learn from the
robes.

beings or animals only.

About one half

cylinders,

wore

flounced

The

right

arm and shoulder were

left bare,

and in early times a cap with two horns on either side was common. Sandals or shoes, however, were the exception rather than the rule, in contrast to Assyria, where only the poorer classes went barefoot.
I

have inscriptions which usually give merely the names of the owner and his father and patron deity, * The Eneti or Hcneti represent the Venetians (Liv. i. 1). The Illjrrians are supposed to have belonged to the same
race as the

modem

Albanians.

i

114
Tracra?, e?

HERODOTOS.
ev '^copiov

[book
"rrepi^

eadyea-Kov aXea?,

Be avTa<;

icrraro

ofit\o<; dv8pa)v, dvLcrrd<; hk

Kara

fiiav

eKaaTr^v Ki)pv^ TreoXiecTKe,
fiera Be,
OK(o<i
rj

Trpcora fiev rrjv eveiBeaTdTijv

e'/c

iraaewv
Be

avTrj
fier
ocrot

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€Keiv7}v
fiev
Br)

ttoWov '^pvaiov
ecTKe

irprjOeirj,

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eveLBeardrrj'

eTTfoXeovro
rtav

avvocKrjcri.

ecTKOv evBaifiove^

^a^vXMvUov

eirvyayioi,
'

virep^oKBe

\ovTe<;

dXK'^\ov<;

i^coveovro

Ta<i

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ocroc

rov

Brifiov ea-Kov eiriyafiot, ovroc Be eiBeo^ fiev ovBev iBeovro ')(pT}<7Tov,

oi B'

av
Brj

')(prjiJLard

re koX ala-'^iova^ irapdevov^; ekdfi^avov.

ft)?

yap

Bie^eXdoL 6 Krjpv^ TrcoXecov Ta9 evecBecrTdTa<;

rwv

irapdevuiv,
eirj,

dvi(TTr)

av

rrjv

dfiopcfyecrrdTTjv

rj

ei

Tt? avT€(ov €fi7njpo<;

Kal

ravTqv

dveKrjpvaa-e,

oart^

6e\oi

iXd'^urrov

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Xa/Scbi/

avvoiKelv avrfj, e? b tc5 to eKa-^iarov vTriaTafievo) TrpoaeKeiro.

TO Be dv -^pvaiov eyivero diro tcov eveiBeutv irapBevwv, Kal ovrw
at €Vfiop<j}ot rd^;
Be
rrjv
dfiop<l>ov<;

xal

i/iTnjpovfj

i^eBlBocrav.

ixBovvac
e^rjv,

ewvrov

dxjyarepa oreo)
rrjv

^ovkoiro eKaaro^ ovk
irapOevov irpidfievov,
(rvvoiKijaetv
avrj},

ovBe

dvev eyyvrjrea) dirdyecrOat
Td<;

aW'
ovtco

eyyxn)-

ypriv KaraaT^(TavTa
el
Bt)
fir)

^

fiev

dtrd-

yeaOai.
v6fio<;.

avficfyepoiaro,

diro^epeiv ro j^pvaCov exeiro
K(Ofn)<;

e^Tjv

Be Kal e^

wvelaOai.

6 fiev vvv
i(ov,

dWrj<; eKdovra KakXiaro^ vofio<i

rov ^ovXofievov
rjv,

ovr6<;

cr<f)C

ov fievroi

vvv ye Bterekeae
[
,

dWo
firjB

Be
et?

n

e^evprjKaa-i vecoarl

yeveadai
Bijfiov

iva

firj

dBiKOiev avrd^

erepav iroXtv dycovrac]' eireire
rL<;

ydp
197 ^iov

dX6vre<; eKaKcoOrfaav Kal olKO^Ooprjdrfcrav, ird^
<nravi^(ov

rov

Karairopvevei
vofio<;

rd

6'^Xea

reKva.

Bevrepo<;

Be

ao<f>ir}

oBe dXXo<; a^L

Karea-rrjKe.
Bt)

rov<i

Kdfivoina<i e? rrjv

dyopTjv €K<l>opeovaL'

ov yap

'^pewvrat Irfrpolai.
rr]<:

irpoatovre^
Tt<?

&v

7r/309

rov Kdfivovra a-vfL^ovXevov<TL irepl
e-^j]

vovaov, et
r)

Kal avro<i roiovro eiraOe okoIov dv
rradovra'

6 Kdfivatv,

dXXov

elBe

rdora

irpoatovre^;

avfi^ovXevovari
rj

Kal

Trapaiveova-i,
elBe €K<f)v-

daaa
yovra.

avro<i 7roi^<Ta<; i^e<f>vye ofiotrfv vovaov
criyfj

dXXov
cr<f)i

Be Trape^eXdelv rov Kafivovra ov
ra(l>al Be
a-(f>t

e^ecrri, irplv

198 dv eireipifrac rjvrcva vovaov ex^c.
Bk irapairXriaLOL roi<ri ev Alyxnrrtp.
rfj

ev fieXirc, dprfvoi

o<rdKt<i S'

dv fiiX^V yvvaixl
i^ei,

emvrov dvr/p ^a^vXxovio^;,

rrepl

Ovfiirffia

Karayc^Ofievov

*

Nik. Damnsc, four centuries after
still

Herodotos, states that the custom
existed in his
p. 1058).

day
its

(see, too, Strabo,

xvi

it is found in the numerous commercial tablets that have come from Babylonia. Herodotos does not seem to

to

But

actual prevalence
rate

may

esteem womankind
did Euripides.

more highly than

be doubted.

At any

no reference

I

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
rj

EAST.

116

krepwOv he

ywrj tmvto tovto iroul, opOpov Be yevofievov Xovvrai
6 Be Bel
Br} at(T'^iaTo<i

Kai dfifporepOL' dyyeo<i yap ov8evb<i dyjrovTat Ttplv dv Xova-oyvrai.

ravrd
v6fiQ)v

he

rdora koL ^Apd^ioc iroceovai}
rolcrt

rwv 199

ecrrl

Ha^vXcovLotarc
^

oBe.

irda-av

yvvaiKa

eTTf^Qjpirjv l^ofievrju e? lepov

A^poBir'q'i dira^ ev ry

^orj fiiyjdrivac

dvBpX

^eiva>.'

TroXkal Be koI ovk d^teo/xevai dvafiia-yea-6at Trjai

dWrja-L ola ttKovtq) v7rep(f>popeovaai,, ein ^evyeiov ev Kafidprjat
eKacracrai 7rp6<i to lepov ecndai'
Bepairrjir) Be
a>Be.

a^v oiriaOe
refievei
^

eirerai

ttoWt}

at

Be

TrXiova

Troieovcrt

ev

X<^poBirrj<i

Karearat aTe<f>avov
yvvaiKe<i'
voT€vel<i Be Bie^oBoi
Bi

irepX rrjai Ke(f>a\fj<ri e')(ovcraL ddtficyya

iroWaX
cr')(OL-

ai fiev yap irpocrep'X^ovTai, al Be d'7rep')(ovraL'
^elvot Bi,e^i6vTe<i eKXeyovrac.

trdvra rpoirov oBuv e'^ovai Btd rcov yvvaiKcJv,

wv

o'l

evOa iiredv
ri<i

i^rjTat yvvij,

ov TTporepov diraXKaxjaerai e? rd ocKia ^
€fjL^a\a)v e?

ol ^eivoiv

dpyvptov

rd yovvara fiix^V ^^^
ttjv

"^^^ lepov '

ifi^aXovra Be Bel

elirelv rocrovBe, "

eirLKaXew roc rrjv deov MuXtrra."
^A<f)po8LT7}v
^

MuXirra
dpyvpiov
Be Be
irpfOTOi
fiL'^dfj,

Be

KaXeovac
ia-rc

A.ar<TvpLOL?

to

Be

fi€ya66<;
earrL'

oaovwv
ydp
rrj

ov yap

firj

aTraxrrjTaL'

ov yap ol Oe/ni^
reS

yiverai

lepov

tovto

to

dpyvpiov.
ovBeva.
e?

ififiaXovTL

CTreTai

ovBe
dea>

diroBoKLfia

eiredv

dirotnaxraixevT)

diraXXdaaeTat TovTov OVK ovTM ficya TL 01 B(t)0'€t<i W9
eial,

rd

oiKia,

xal

rtuTro
fiev

/Miv XdfMylreai.

oaai

vvv eXBeo^ re eirafifievat elal xal fieyddeo^, Ta'^v diraXXdaaovTac,

oaai Be dfiopcpot avrecov

-^povov iroXXov

irpoafievovai

ov

Bvvdfievac tov vofiov eKirXrjaai,'
fxeTe^eTepat '^(povov fievovcn.
irapa'TrXriaLO'i tovtco
vo/j,o<;.

KaX ydp Tpterea KaX Terpaerea
Be

evta'^fj

KaX

rrj^i

K.v7rpov

*

etrrl

No/iot fiev

Btj

Tolcrt,

Ba^vXfovioiai ovtol KaTeaTaai'
firj

elaX Be 200

avTOiv irarpiaX rpet? at ovBev dXXo aiTeovTac el
Tov<i

lj(6v^ /jlovvov,

eireLTe

dv

Or^pevcravTefi av^vcoai tt/jo? ^Xlov, iroceovai, ToBe*
virepotai,

ecT^dXXovat e? oXfiov KaX XerivavTe<;
KaX 09
fjiev

awau Bid

acvBovo^,

dv jSovXrjTai avTOiv are fid^av
OTTTT^Ca?.

fia^dfievo<i e'^ei, o Be

dpTOV TpOTTOV
'

And also, it may be added, the Jews. This custom is mentioned by Strabo (xvi p. 1058). It was practised in the
-

in the Assyrian inscriptions)

among the

Assyro

-

Babylonians,

the

Phcenicians,

name

of religion, the

woman thus placing
Istar,

herself

under the protection of
(cp.

the

and the Hebrews (see Deut xiv. 18), who lived around the temples of Astoreth or Istar and the sun-god.
^

goddess of love
It

Numb.

xxv. 1-15).

See ch. 131, note
in

4.

was the natural

result of the existence
(called

* i.e.

the

Phcenician

colonies.

of religious prostitutes

Kadisti

Com p.

Justin. 18, 5.

i

116 201
'ill?

HERODOTOS.
Se Tc3 Ky^ft) Koi tovto to
^

[book

eOvo^ Karepyaa-ro, iiredv^rja-e

^aaaayiTa<i
rfKiov

vnr

ecovroi

Trocijaaa-dai.

ro Be e^i/o? tovto koX

fieya XeyeTat elvat kol akKtfiov, olKrifjuevov Be Trpo?

^w

re xal
^Yacrrj-

avaToXd^,

irepr^v

tov ^Apd^eo) iroTafiov, dvTiov Be
oXTi,ve<i

Bovcov dvBpcbv.

elal Be

koX ZKvdiKov \eyovat tovto to
Ae<r/3&)

202 €6vo<i elvai.

6 Be ^Apd^r}<i XeyeTav kuI fie^cov koX iXdaacov elvai
vri<Tov<i

Tov^lcTpov
<rv'xvd<;
(f)ao'i

Be ev

avTw

fieyd6ea irapairXT^aiat

elvac,

ev Be avTrjat dvdpd)7rov<i oi

aiTeovTat

fiev

pC^a<i

TO $epo<i opvaaovTe'i TravToCa^, Kapiroit^ Be aTro BevBpetov

e^evprjfievovi

a^t

€<;

<f>op^r)v

KaTaTideadac atpaiov^, koI tovtov^

atTeiadai
Kap7rov<i

ttjv

'x^eifieptvi]V.

dWa
irvp

Be

a-(f)t

e^evpija-Oai
iireiTe
civ

BevBpea

TOiovaBe

Tivd<;

<f>epovTa.

tov<;

€?

twvto

<rvve\.6cocn
fievov<;

KUTa etXa? kol
eirX

dvaKavatovTat kvkXq)

irepui^o-

iTTt^dXXeiv

to irvp, 6cr(f)paivofi€vov<; Be KUTayc^ofievov
tj}

TOV Kapirov tov eTTL^aXXofievov fiedvaKeadat
/MeOvcTKea-daL,^

oBfifj

KUTd

rrep

"KXX7]va<; too otvo), irXeovo'i Be eiri^aXKofievov tov Kapirov fidXXov
e<;

o

i<i

op'^rjcrtv

re

dvia-TaaOac koI e? doLBr^v
BiatTa
elvac.

aTTiKvetcrOai.
*Apd^rj<i
€?
Td<i

tovtcov

fiev

avTt)
e/c

XeyeTai
re Ka\

6

Be

^ 7roTa/jio<i

pel fiev
Td<;

^aTirjvfov, 66ev irep 6 YvvBrff; tov
Tpir}KocrLa<i

Bi,(opv^a<i

e^rjKOVTd

BieTuL^e
to.

6

KO/309,
'

aTOfiaac

Be

e^epevyeTai TeaaepdKovTa, tcjv
as
22)

irdvTa

The Massagetse were regarded
like

Skyths,

the Thyssagetae

(iv.

and the Getse. Herodotos states that they lived on the western hank of the A raxes, opposite the Issedones. The Arimaspeia of Aristeas of Prokonnesos (iv. 13) seems to have first spread among the Greeks a knowledge of the Issedones and of their eastern neighbours the Baldheaded Men, the Arimaspi or Oneeyed Men, and the gold-guarding Griffins (see iiL 116, and iv. 27). Tlie Greek colonists of the Euxine, liowever, must have previously become acquainted with these legends through the caravan-trade from Eastern Asia. A Chinese book on
zoologj' and anthroiwlogy, which claims to have been written B.o. 1100, and is at least as old as the time of Confucius, has pictures of the One-

6) are said to walk arm in arm lest they should be carried away by the birds. The legend of the griffins originated in

mammoths and fossil whose honis are still supposed to be bird's olaws by the Siberians, on the gold - bearing banks of the Siberian rivers (see H. Howorth on the
the discovery of
rhinoceroses,

"Mammoth,"

Geol.

Mag., Sept. 1880).

mjrthical

eyed

men

(or

Kyklopes), described as
the
Pigmies.
iii.

living beyond the deserts to the west,

and of

their neighbours

For the various forms assumed by the legend of the Kyklops see Sayce, Introduction to the Sciciux of Language, ii. pp. 263 sq. " This sounds like a confused account of the use of tobacco, which, however, could not have made its way from America to Asia at this time. ' Herodotos has mixed two rivers together, the Aras or Araxes, which rise* near ErzerAm, and flows eastward into the Caspian, and a large river on the eastern side of the Caspian (according to ch. 202), which was probably the
Jaxartes.

The

latter (already

known

to the II.

;

I]
ttXtjv
€Vo<;

THE EMPIRES OF THE
e?

EAST.

117
rolcri dvOpcoirovi
ea-Orjri,

cKed re koI revdyea
Qi/jiov<;

e/cStSot, eV

KaTOLKi]crdai Xeyovci tp^^O?

acreofievov^,

Se vofii-

I

^ovTw:

')(^pdcrdac

(fxoKeayv

Bipfiaai.
e<?

to Bk ev riov (rrofiarmv rov
K.a(nrir)v

^Apd^eo) pel Bid Kadapov
K.a(rrrLr)

ttjv

OdXaaaav.
rfj

rj

Be 203

ddXacraa earl
rrjv

eV

ewwT^?, ov

avfifiiayova-a

CTepr)

daXdaar].

€^(o a-rrjXecov

fiev ydp "EXX»;i/€9 OdXaaaa 77 'ArXar^Ti?
tj

vavrCKKovrai.
KoXeofievr) koX

'rrdcrav
rj

xal

rj

^Ftpvdpr) fita

eovcra

rvy^dvei '^

Be

Kao-TrtT/

earl erepr)

eV

ecovrrji;,

eovaa

firJKO<; fiev

irXoov elpeairj '^pecofiivq) irevreKaiBeKa rj^epewv, €vpo<s
ea)VTrj<i,
Trj<;

Be, rrj
•irp6<;

evpvTdrr) ecrrt avrrj
TTjv
ea-ireprjv

okto) •qp.epeojv.
ravri^<i

/cat

rd

fiev

<f>epovTa

6a7ui<Taij<i

6

}^avKa(ro<;

Traparelvei, iov opecov xal ifK'qdet fieyia-rov xal fieydOei i/y^rfKo-

rarov.

edvea Be dvOpcoTrav

TroWd koI
v\r}<i
IBeiji;

iravrola ev ea>VT& ep^et o
dypitj^;

Kay/cao"09,^

rd iroWd irdvra air

^(oovrw ev
ewvrola-i
e?

rotcri

Kol BevBpea
rpi^ovrd';

^vkXa
kol

rotrjaBe

irape'^ofieva elvav Xejerai,

rd
rr]v

re

irapafiia-yovra^;

vBcop

^wa

ecrOrjra eyypd(f)etv' rd Be ^u>a ovk eKirXiivea-Oai, dWd avyKarayqpdaKeiv ru> dXkrn elplw Kara rrep evv^avOevra dp'^'^v. fii^tv

Be rovrtov

rwv

dvOputiroiv elvai €fi<f)av€a

Kara

irep

rolcri

irpofid

^

The circumnavigation of
42)

Africa by

Lesghic,

(2)

Ude,
(5)

(3)

Circassian,

(4)

the ships of the Egj^tian king Necho
(iv.

the Indian Ocean were one

had shown that the Atlantic and and the

Kartwelian or AlaUnder Lesghic are comprised rodian. Avar, Audi, Dido, Kasikumuk, and

Thushian, and

same sea. * The Kaukasos has been always famous as the last refuge of numerous diflferent races and languages which have become extinct elsewhere. Mithridates knew twenty - four languages spoken by his subjects, and Pliny {N. H. vi. 5) states that in Colchis there were more than 300 tribes speaking different languages, and requiring 130
interpreters
;

under Circassian, Abkhas or Absne, Kurinian, Cherkess, Bzyb, and Adige ; under Thushian, Thush, Chetchenz, Arshte, and Ingush or Lamur and under Kartwelian, Georgian, Lazian,
;

Akush

Suanian, and the extinct language of the cuneiform inscriptions of
Mingrelian,

Van.
^

This

is

not very probable.

Almost

the only well-authenticated case of the

for

intercourse
(x. p.

with

the

Romans while Strabo
gether
into

498) asserts

that seventy distinct tribes gathered toDioskurias.

caravans

along

the

The Greek Volga employed
iv. 24).

kind is that of the Arctic highlanders, a degraded branch of the Eskimaux, first visited by Ross and Parry. For the Andamanners, Bushmen, Nairs, and Techurs of Oude, Califomians, and natives

seven interpreters (Herod,

The

of

Queen Charlotte Island,

see

Kaukasos resolve themselves into five groups, which have no connection either with one another or with any other tongues (1)
of the
:

known languages

Lubbock's Origin of Civilisation, Third Edit., pp. 82, 83. Strabo asserts the same of the Garamantes. See also Herod, iv. 180, and i. 216.

I

118

HERODOTOS.

[book
TavTrj<i
rjo)

204

Ta

fi€v Sr] irpo'j €<nr€pT]v

t^? 6a\daar)<;

t^? Kao-Trtiy?
re koX rjXiov

Ka\.€Ofiivr]<i

6

Kav/cacro? uTrepyec, ra Be

tt/oo?

avareXkovra
a)v
Bt)

ireSiov eKheKerai 7rXrj6o<; airetpov e? utto'^^lv.

tov
/Ltere-

irehiov tovtov tov fieydXov
ol

ovk iKa'^icrTqv fiolpav

'^ovat,

yiaaaayeraL,

eir

ov'i

o

revacurOai.

TroXKd re yap
rjv.

fiiv
rj

ical

K.vpo^ ^^X^ irpoOv/xLijv arpafieyaXa ra eiraeipovra koX
yevea-a, to
r]

etrorpvvovra

irpSiTOv

fi€v
7}

BoKeiv
tov<;

irXeov

Tt

elvai dv6pb)7rov,
yivofjLevr)'

Bevrepa Be
Bia<f>vyecv.

evrir^iij

Kara
K.vpo<;,

7ro\efiov<i
rjv

okt]

yap idvaece (TTpaTeveadaL
rjv

d/xij'^avov

205 eKelvo to
TOiV
6

e6vo<i

Be tov dvBpo^; d.TrodavovTO'i yvvrj
Tofivpt<;

M.aaaayeTe(ov

^aaCkeia'

ol

rjv

ovvo/xa,
ffv

TavTrjv
rj

irifjbTTQyv

Kupo?

ifivaTO tc3 Xoyqt 6e\a>v yvvalKa

ej^eiv?

Be Tofivpi^ avvietaa ovk avTijv fiLV fivcofievov

aXXd

tijv

MatrtraBe

ycTeeov ^a(Ti,\7)L7}v, direiTraTO ttjv

irpocroBov.

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fieTa

tovto, W9 ol Bo\q) ov trpoe'^oipeL, eX.daa<; eVt tov ^Apd^ea iirotelTO

eK TOv

€fM(f>aveo<;

iirl

Tov<i

M.aaaayeTa<i

a-TpaTrjirjv, ye<f)vpa<i

re

^evyvvfov eVt tov TroTafMov Bcd^aacv tcS aTpaTw, xal
i-rrl

Trvpyov^

irXouov tcov Biairop6fiev6vT(ov tov iroTajjiov olKoBofie6fievo<i.
Tre/i-^^acra
77

206 eyovTi, Be ol tovtov tov ttovov
TdBe.

To/nvpa KiqpvKa eXeye
to,

"

0)

^aaiKev

M?;S&)i/,

iravaai (nrevBwv

a7revB€i<i'

ov

yap av

etSew;? et TOt €9 xaipov eaTai

TdoTa

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iravard-

fievo^ Be

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fidXXov
rj

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dve'^eo opecov dp-^ovTa^
')(fid(T$aL,

Toyv Trep dp'^ofiev.

ovk(ov i6eX'^a-ei<; virodrjKrja-L TrjacBe
Bi
r]av')(^L'r}^

dXTui

irdvTto';

elvac
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crv

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dva')((opT}(7dvTwv

dwo TOV
el
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TTOTafiov TpiMv rjfiepeoiv oBov Bid^acve e? Tr)v rifxeTepffv.

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tow?
al

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tovtov? ^9 fiiirov cr<f>i OKOTepa iroif}. twv Be
KeXevovTcov

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yvoifiai

a-vve^eimrTov
avTrj<i

eaBeKeadai
irapeoav Be

207 Tofivpiv re xal tov a-TpaTOv

e? tt]v ^(oprjv.

Kal fie/x^6/xevo<; rrjv yvcofirjv TavTtjv Kpotcro? 6 AvB6<; direBelKvino " w fiacriXev, elrrov ivavTLTjv TTJ TrpoKeifievrj yvcofirj, Xeyajv TdBe.
fiev

Kal TrpoTepov toc otl eireC
iov oXkw tc3
<ju>,

fie

Zeu? eBcoKe

toi,

a<f)dXfjui

Kara Bvvafiiv

d'rroTpey^eiv'
el

iradrifuiTa tcl iovTa d'^dpiTa futdijfiaTa yeyove.

cLv opem tA Be /tot fikv dddvaro^

to

*

" On the pretext that he wished

to

make her

his wife."

Keflexire

f|r,

as in

Homer.

I.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE

EAST.
eXrj

119
irprffyM,

8oKei<i elvac

kuI aTpaTt7)<; roiavTTjq dp-^eiv, ovhkv av

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Kal OVK dvaa-^eTov K.vpov ye tov K-afi/Svaeca yvvaiKc ei^avTa
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KO/ao? Be K-polcov e? Td<i
to3

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ttjv

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Xtjltjv iBlBov,

Kal TToXXd evTetXdfiev6<i ol Tifidv re avTov Kal ev

TToieiv,

rjv

Tj

Bid^aaa

tj

eirl

M.a(r(TayeTa<i
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TOV iroTafiov Kal 6 <rTpaTo<i avTov. iireiTe Be itrepatcodTj tov 209 *Apd^ea, vvKTOf; eTreXOovarj^ elBe 6-^lv evBcov ev twv ^acraayeTe<ov
TTJ )(fopTj TOL'^vBe.

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TTTepvyaf;

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tov irpea-^vTaTov
ttj

eirl

Kal TovTetov

fiev

ttjv ^Xairjv
*

Be ttjv

iiTLcrKid^etv.

'Ta-Tdtnrei Be t<o

Ap(Tdfieo<;

eovTt dvBpl W.'^aifie-

120
viSr)

HERODOTOS.
^v Twv 7rai8(ov Aapelo^
ec-^e

[book

Trpecr/Si/raTo?,

eiKoa-L

Kov fiaXiara erea, koX

ovto<;

e(ov t6t€ r/XiKLr/v e? KareXiXenrTO iv Uepa-rjaL'
eTrel

ov yap

kw
rj

'^Xikltjv

crrpareveadat.
Ti]<;

5)v
&)?

Brj

i^TjyipOtf

6 Ki}/309, iBiBov Xoyov kwvTut irepX
fieydXr) elvai
elire
6^fn<;,

oyjno';.

Be ol iBoxei

KaX€aa<i Tcndcnrea Kol aTroXa^iov fiovvov

" "Taraaire^,
idX(OK€.
tu?

7rai<;

co? iirL^ovXevoav

ifioL re

Kal

rfj

ifiy

apyrj
ifieo

Be

rdora
fioi
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drpeKeo)^

olBa,

€70)

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iv

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OTriao)

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OKa)<i,

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KaraaTpe-y^dp^evo^ eXdco eKel, w? pML KaraaTifja-ei'i rov iraiBa e?

210 eXey^ov"

Kv^o?
77

p,ev

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01
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rdBe' rut Be 6 Baipujov irpoe^atve
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Be
6
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Aapeiov iiri/SovXeveiv eXeye pbev reXevrijaetv avrov

dp^ei^erai
dvrjp

Br)

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avrov Trepf^topeoi e? Aapeiov. " o) ^aacXev, p,rj etr) rol<TiBe.
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eari, diro-

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09

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Uipaai; elvac, dvrX Be \rov\ dp'^eaOai vir aXXcov dp-^eiv dirdvrcov.
el Be Tt9 roL o^lrt?

drrayyiXXei iralBa rov ip,ov vewrepa ^ovXevecv
ai)

vepX aeo, iya> rot 7rapaBlB(op,i -^pacrdai avrS rovro o ri
211
"T<Trda-7rr}<i
rfce
€<?

^ovXeai."
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p-ev

rovroiari dpLec'^dpbevo'i

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B^

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(ffvXd^wv J^vpa

rov TralBa Aapeiov,
oBov
itroieL rd^i

•TrpoeXdoyv aTrb

rov ^Apd^eto

T^pLeprj^

K.poiaov xnro-

* Darius calls himself the son of Hystaspes (Vishtdspa), son of Arsames (Arshama), son of Ariaranmes (Ariyardmana), son of Teispes (Chishpdish), son of Akha3mcnes (Uakhamanish). name probably Akhaemenes, whose means "friendly," or i)erhaps " having

tobulus,

the companion of Alexander,

not only saw the tomb of Kyros at Pasargadip, but his corpse also (Arrian,
vi. 29),

which
story.

effectuallj' dis{K)ses of

the

whole
die in

Xenophon makes Kyros
(Cyrop.
viii. but his 7), According to Etesias

bed
is

authority

small.

friends," seems to have been the leader

of the Persian tribe at the time of the

Aryan migration from Baktria westward. The introduction of the dream shows us that we are again in the domain of legend, even apart from the fact that the story of the death of Kyros recounted by Herodotos was only one out
of

he died in camp of the wounds received in battle against the Derbikes, whom he had conquered with the help of the Sakian king Amorges. The tomb at Murghab, long supposed to be that of
Kyros, must be referred to a later prince
of the same name, probably Akhaemenes,

the brother of Xerxes.

See

iii.

12.

and

many

different ones (ch. 214).

Aris-

Appendix Y.

,.]

THE EMPIRES OF THE
fiera 8e

EAST.

121

di]Ka<i.

rdora Kupou re KaX Yiepaeutv rov Kadapov <nparov
iirl

aireKdaavTO^; oTriaui

rov ^Apa^ea,
o-rpaTirj^

\ei,<^devTO<i Be

rov u-^tjlov,
rov<i

I

iireXOovaa rtov ^lacraayeTewv
\€i(f>devTa<;
tt}?

Tptrrj/jiopl^

rov crrparov

re

K.vpov

i<f>ov€V€

aXe^ofievov^ Koi rrfv
tov<;

irpoKeifiivrjv

lSopT€<i

Saira,

w?

i'^etpdxravTO
he
<f>op^i]<;

ivavriov^,

K\idevT€<i

ihalvvvTO,

irXripoidevTet

koX olvov evBov.

oi he Uepcrac €7re\d6vTe<;
8'

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e^ar/pTjaav

ttoWou? fxev <T<f)e(i)v €(f>ov€V(Tav, ttoWw Kal aWov<i KaX rov rrj<; ^aaiKelrjii
Maa-crayerecav,

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rralha

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rj

rS

ouvofia

r}v

S7rapya7ri<Tr)<i^

he irvOofievr)

rd re

irepl

rr}v

arparcrjv <yeyo- 212

vora KaX ra
eXeye rdhe.
vort

TrepX

rov iralha, irefiTTOvaa KtjpvKa irapa Yivpov
fjLtjhev eiraepdrj'i

" dirXTja-re aijxaro^ K.vp€,
Trp'^y/Mirt,
el

tc5

yeyoifi-

rShe

dfnre\iv(p Kaptrut,

to3

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fJ'd-^rj

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TraiSo? rov ifiov,

aW'

ov

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vvv rov

Siv fieo

ev irapatveovarTj'i viroXa^e rov
rrj<; '^(opr)<;

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arparov Karv^piaa'i.
roc rov

el

he

rdora ov

ijXcov

dirXrjarov

iovra

M-aa-aayerecov heairorijv, ^ fiiv ae iyo) KaX KO/ao? fiev iirecov ovheva 213 a'tfULroi; Kopeo-co"
eiroielro

rovrcov
Tofivpiof
'iva
rjv

dvevei'^Oevrcov
iral'i

Xoyov
fiiv

6

he

t?}?

fiaacXeLrjii

%'irapya'Triari';, M<i
her)6eX<i

o re oivo<; dvrjKe Kai e/Made
heaficov Xvdrjvai erv^e, to?
eKpdrtjcre,

KaKov,
re

Kvpov

e/c

rwv

he

eXvO?)

rd'^iara KaX
hrj

rcov

•^eipcov

hcepyd^erat

etovrov.

KaX

ovro^

fiev rpo7rq>

roiovro) reXevra' Tofivpa he, 214
rrjv ewvrrf^ hvvafiiv

w?

oi KO/309

ovK

earjKova-e,

avXXe^acra iraaav
fid'^r}v,

(Tvve^aXe ^vpw.
fid-^ai eyevovro,

ravrrjv rrjv

oaai

hrj

^ap^dpcov dvhpSyv
hrj

Kplvw la'^vpordrrjv yeveaQai, KaX
irpoyra fiev

KaX irvvdd-

vofiac

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rovro yevofievov.
e?

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dXX-qXov'i

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fia')(^ofA€vov<i

e^erero^evro, crvfi7rea6vra<; rfjcn al'^fjcri re KaX roiai iy^eipihioia-i
tTvve-)(e(TdaL.

'^povov re

hrj

cttX

ttoWoi' avvecrrdvac
arparLrjf;

KaX ovherepov<; edeXeuv (j^evyeiv reXo'i he oi ^aaraayerai, irepieyevovro.
fi

re KaX

hrj hr)

ttoXXt)

rrj<i

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hie<f)6dp'r)

KaX avr6<; K.vpo<; reXevra, ^acnXevaa^ rd trdvra

€1/09

heovra rpcijKovra erea.

daKov

he TrXrjaaaa al'fiaro<; dv-

0p(O7n}iov Tofivpt<; ehi^rjro ev rolcn redvetoat roiv

Hepa-ecov rov

*

Cp. the

name

of the Skythian king Si)argapeithe8,

iv. 76.

122
'K.vpov

HERODOTOS.
veKvv,
oaii

[book
rrjv

he

evpe, ivaTrrJKe

avrov

K€(f>aX7jv

e?

top
ifie

da-Kov.

Xvfjiatvofiivr}

8e ra> veKpat iireX-eye rdSe.

" (Tv fjxv

^(ocrdv re koX viKOiO'dv

ae

fid'^rj dTrayKea-a^;,

iraiBa top ifiov eXotv Kopeaco."
to,

Boktp'
fiev
Brf

ae

S'

iyco,

Kard

Trep

qirelXTja'a,

aifuiTo^i

Kara

rrju

l^vpov

reXevrr^v

rov ^iov,

ttoWmv

Xoycov

Xeyo/xevcov, 68e /not 6 7n6av(OTaTO<; eipTjrai.

215

M.aa<Tay€Tac Be eo-Orjrd re
fiere'^ovat) koX
e'^eiv.

OfJboirjv rfj

'^kvOikt} <f>opeovai koI

SiaiTav e'^ovau, iTnroTai Si elat koX dvLinroi^ {dfKftorepcov yap

ro^orat re koI al-^oipopoi, aaydpi<;
Se kol ^aX/co)

vofj,L^ovT€<;

^pvaS

if

al-^fjLd<i

rd irdpra -^pecovraf oaa fiev yap Kal dphtf Koi aaydpL<;, -^aXKut rd irdvTa '^eayvrai,
^a>aTi]pa<;

otra Be irepX K€<f)a\r}v Kal
Koo-fieovrai.
co? 8' avTco<;

Kal fiaa'^aXiarripaf,

^pvam

roiv 'irnroav

rd

fxev

\prepl

ra\ arepva

')(a\Keov<i 6copT]Ka<i

Trepi^dWova-t, rd 8e irepl tou? 'X^aXivovf Kal
aihrjpcp
rfj

arofMia Kal (f)d\apa '^pvaq).

Be ovB*
'X^coprj,

dpyvpat j^pecovrai
Be ^pv(To<i

ovBev ovBe ydp ovBe

a-(f>i

earl iv

6

Kal o

yvvaiKa fiev vo/jloco-l Be '^peoyvrai, roiol(ri,Be. 216 XctX'co? aTrXero?.^ ya/xet cKaa-ro^, ravrrjcn Be eTTiKoiva '^pefovrai'' to ydp ^Kvda<i
<f>acrl

" EiW7)v€<i irotelv,
tt}?

ov AKvOai elal oi iroieovre'i

dWd

Mao"rov
Be

aayerat'^
ovpo<i

ydp

eTnOvfi-^ar)

yvvatKO'i yiaaaayerrj^
Tij<;

dvrjp,

t^aperpebiva
Be

diroKpefida-ai;
cr(f>L

nrpo

dfjud^rfi

fiiayerai
ouSet?*

oSew?.

rfkiKLrif

TTpoKelrac
ol

aWo9
ol

fiev

eiredv

yepwv yevrjrai Kapra,

7rpo(Ti]KovT€<i

irdvre'i

avve\dovTe<;

on horseback and " usually emplojang the sagaris," which was also used by the the Persians, Mossynoeki, and Amazons, and according to Hesykh. was singleedged (see Herod, iv. 70). Sir H. Raw"

" They
.

fight both
.

the latter he means the nomade and
half-settled tribes

on foot"

.

which spread over the southern part of Bussia, extending on
the one side to Thrace, and on the other
into the stepi)es of Tatary.

Many

of
;

these were

no doubt Turkish - Tatars

linson suggests that

it

is

the

modem

others perhaps belonged to the or other races whose relics are

Mongol
pre-

Persian khanjar.
short dagger

We may

compare the

now

worn by the warriors of

served in the

the Hittite sculptures.
• Gold abounds in the Ural and Altai mountains, and a large proiwrtion of the names of Tatar heroes are compounded vdi\\ the word alien, "gold." As the tumuli of the steppes show, the Skythians of Herodotos were still in the bronze age. ' See ch. 203, note 1, and iii. 101.

Kaukasos but a lai*ge part seem to have been Sarmatians or
;

Aryan

Slavs.

Among
The

the latter are inetc.,

cluded the Budini, Neuri,
otos (bk. iv.)
Sakffl

of Herod-

Massagetee, like tin

with whom they are associated, were probably connected with the modem
Kirghizes. At all events, they seem to have been Tatars like the Sakie who founded the Turanian kingdom of Baktriana between B.C. 165 and 150. The " Greeks" mean perhaps Hekatseoa.

'

Here

Herodotos

distinctly

states

that the Massagetse are not Skyths.

By

I.l

THE EMPIRES OF THE EAST.
aX\a irpo^ara
rdora
ore
fiev
cifia

123

dvovcri fiiv Kol

avrat, hp"t](TavT€<: Se
cr<f>c

ra Kpea
top

Karevw^iovTaLp

ra oX^KoTard
e?

vevo/jLicrrai,

I

Be vov<T(p TeKevrrjaavra ov KaTaa-criovrat
a-vfi<f)opr)v

aXXa yea

KpvirTova-c,
(TireipovcrL

TTOLeofxepoi

ovk ik€to

to rvOrjvai.
ol Be

he ovBev,
a-(f)t

aXV

dirb KTrjvecov ^(oovcrc koI I'^Oixov
rrroTafiov

d<f)dovoL
8'

ex Tov ^Apd^eco

trapayivovraL'

yaXaKTOiroTai
tTTTroi/?.^

eicrL

OeSiv Be fxovvov 'ijXiov ae^ovrat,
Trj<;

rS Ovovat

v6o<;

Be ovTO<;

6v(TLr)<i'

roiv

dedv rS Ta-^iaro) Trdvrav

roiv 6vt}T(ou

TO rd'^tarov Bareovrai.
^

death, after a feast,
old.
1

So the Fijians put their parents to when they become
See
iii.

that horses were sacrificed to the sun in

Armenia.

The noblest

sacrifice

that

38, note 8.
fish."

could be ofiered by the Aryans of the
Rig- Veda was the horse.

" Plenty of

^

Xenophon

{Aiuxb. iv. 5, 35)

found

;

124

HERODOTOS.

[book

BOOK
1

II.

Te\evTr](ravTO<i Be }^vpov

irapeka^e
Kv/309

ttjv

^aaiKrjiTjv
ttJ?

Ka/i,-

^vat)^^

l^vpov

ioiv

iral^

kuI

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eTrooja-aro koX rolat aXXoiac
irocelaOai.
ravrrji;
Bt}
Trj<;

irpoelire

Traat

re pAya t&v ^px^

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imv

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koI

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re

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koX AloKea^

<»? Bov\ov<i TrarpcoLov; i6vTa<;

ivopi^e,

i-jrl

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a\\ov<;

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ivofjLt^ov

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rj

p,ev

"^ap^p.rjrixpv a(f>e(ov

^aaikevaai,
eTreuBrj

€a>VTOv<i

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yeveaOac TrdvTcov dvdpoiirwv'
that,

^

Three. Babylonian contract - tablets
in

exist

the British

Museum, bearing
first

the dates

—(1)

"the

year of

Eam-

bys&, king of Babylon, his father Kyros being king of the world;" (2) "the eighth year of Kambyses, king of Babylon and the world ; " (3) the eleventh year of Kambyses, king of Babylon." (See Pinches in the Trans. Soc. Bib. ArchcEol. vi. 2.) This supports Africanus
'
'

making the length of the reign of Kambyses eleven years as against the eight years of Ptolemy's Canon and the seven years and five months of Herodin
otos.

like Nero, he was jK)pularly supposed to be still living. Manetho, according to Africanus, made Kambyses reign six years in Egypt, which would make his invasion of the country take place in B.c. 528 (B.C. 522 being the eighth year of Kambys^ as king of Babylon, and the date of the Magian usurpation). This was probably the year of the death of Kyros. On the other hand, Egj^itian scholars agree with Eusebios and Diodoros in plac-

ing the invasion in B.C. 525.

But

this

depends on assigning
I.

b.c.

664 as the
{Sir.

We

must, therefore, suppose that

date of the accession of Psammetikhos

Kyros made his son Kambyses king of
Babylon, reserving to himself the imperial title, in b.o. 530, since

According to Clem. Alex.

i.

p.

895),

Kambyses reigned nineteen years

we

2>osses8

Ktesias says eighteen.
"

~
considered

tablets
(B.C.

dated from the accession year 539) to the ninth year of Kyros as

The Egyptians

them-

king of Babylon, and that Kamby^s was officially considered to be king up
the accession of Darius, after the overthrow of the pretender Nebuchadrezto

to have been created by tin supreme demiurge Khnum while the races of Asia and Europe were only
selves
;

the formations of the goddess Sekhet,

and

the negroes of the younger god

zar III. in B.C. 519.

It is

very possible

Horus.

".]
I

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
^acnXevaafj
i^de\r](re

125
oiTiv€(i

8e '^afifxijTi'^o'i
irpfOTOi,

elBivac

yepotaro
yevecrdac

diro

tovtou

vofii^ovai,

^pirya<;

irporepovi
«!><?

I

ioiVT&v, rcov Be

aWxov

icovrov^.

^ap,firiTLyo<i he
o't

ovk iSvvaro
dvdpoiiircov

irxjvdavofievof; iropov

ovBeva tovtov avevpelv,
roiovBe.
iraihia hvo

yevoiaro TrpuTot

dvOpayircov, eTTire'x^vdTac

veoyvd

rSiv eTTtTir^ovTap

BlBoxTt irocfievc rpe^eiv e?
/jirjBeva

ra

irolfivia Tpo<f)'t]v
firjBefiLav (fxavrjv
^

Tiva TOirjvhe, evT€i\.dfi€vo<i
Uvai, iv (neyrj Be
eirwyLvelv
a<f>i
eprjfirf eir

dvrLov avriov

ecovTav Keladat avrd, koI rrjv wprjv

alya<},

TrXi^travTa Be yd\aKTo<i

rdWa

Biairprjo--

aeadaL.

rdora Be
(fxovrjv

etroLei re

koX evereXkero "^ajMfirjTL'^o^ OeKoiv

aKovtrai rtov iraiBitov, dTraWw^Oevroiv roiv

darj^v

Kvv^rjfiaTeov,

qvTiva
Bierrj^;

prj^ovat irpwrrfv

rd
rat

irep Siv koI eyevero.
Trocfievi irprjaa-ovri,,

w? yap
dvolyovrt

^ovo<; iyeyovei rdora
opeyovra
rd<i
ct)<?

rrjv Ovprjv
e<f>(t)V€ov,

Kal eatovrc rd TraiBca dfM(f>or€pa irpocnrLTrrovra ^eKO<i
'^eipa<;.

rd

fikv

Brj

irpdra

dKov(Ta<i

rj(nj^o(; r/v o ttoi/jlijv

Be 7roXXa/ct<f <f)OtreovrL koI eirifieXofievqy

iroXXov ^v rovro ro ctto?, ovrio Br) crrjfiriva<i t&) Beairortj riyaye rd iraiBia K€\evcravro<i e? o^y^iv rrjv CKelvov. dKOvaa^ Be koli
avrb<;
6
'^afifirjrL'^o'i

eirvvddvero

oirive<i

dvOpoiyKwv

fieK6<i

re

KaXeovaL, 7rvv6avofievo<i Be evpiaKe ^pvya<; KaXeovraf rbv dprov.*
ovro) avve'X^copTjaav
fiari rov<i ^pvya<; irpea^vrepov^; elvat, ecovrwv.

roiv lepecov

-Alyinmoi Kal roLovrat aradfiTjadfievot irprjy. ayBe fiev yeveaOac rov 'H^aiarov^ rov iv ^ificf)!,*^ ijKovov "FiWrjve'i Be
a)<i

Xeyovai dXXa re fidrata TroXXa KaX
»

yvvaiKOiV

rd<i

yXaxraa'i

"At

a fixed time"

(viii.

19).

So

die."

Cp. ^eKKea^rjve, Aristoph. Clouds,

the adverbial dic/tV. the accusative expressiug limitation.
* B6k6s is said

398.

by Hipponax

(fr.

82,

Bergk) to have been also used by the Kyprians for "bread." The word is akin to iriffao) (= veK-yw), tStuv, Skt.
pack, Zend pac, Lat. coquo, culina, but

That is, Ptah, identified with Heby the Greeks on account of the similarity of sound between the two
^

phaestos

names. " Egyptian Men-nofer, "good place," corrupted into Ma-nuf, Copt. Menf and

not to the English bake, Germ, backen

Psammetikhos, no doubt, ol)tained his knowledge of Phrygian from the Karian and Ionian mercenaries sent him from Lydia. It is evident that the
(Gk.
(puryu).

Memfi (Moph and Noph in the Old The most ancient name of the city was "the white wall," the Ptah and special title of the citadel. his son Imhotep (the Egyptian AskleTestament).
pios), along with hisl "great lover," It was Sekhet, were worshipped there. built by Menes, and was the capital of

uttered by the children was merely an imitation of the bleating of The Pap3rrus - Ebers, the the goats. standard Eg}'ptian work on medicine, compiled in the sixteenth century B.C., says : If " a child on the day of birth .

cry bek

the Old Empire.

From

the worship of

Ptah Memphis received the sacred name
of Ha-ka-Ptah, "city of the worship of

.

says ni,

it

will live

;

if it

says ba,

it

will

Ptah."


126

HERODOTOS.
ovrw
iTroirja-aro

[book

6 ^afiixrjTL'^o'i eKTafiQiv rrjv hiatrav

twv

TraiScov

irapa ravrrja-t rfjai yvvai^L

3

Kara
'H<f>aL(rTOV.

/jlcv

Btj

rrjv

Tpo<f)r}v
M^€fi(f)i

rwv

"jraiBtov

roaavra

ekeyov,

TjKovaa Be koI

aXKa
Br)

iv

iX6cbv e? \o'yov<; rolcn Upevcn rov

koX

koX [e? ST]^a<;^ re koI] e? 'HXlov iroXiv^
irpaTTOfirfv, iOiXeov elBivai el avfifiriaovTaL

avTMV TOVTiov €iV€K€v
rotac Xoyotai rolai

iv

M.efi<f>i'

ol

yap 'HXtoTroXtrat Xeyovrat
vvv Oeia rfav aTrijyrjfidTOiv

KlyvTrrCwv elvai \oyL(i>raTOL.
ola riKOVOv, ovk
elfil

ra

fiev

irpoOvfio^ i^TjyeiaOat,
iravra^;

e^a

rj

ra ovvofutra
irepl

avrcov

fiovvov,
^

vofii^cov

dvOpcoTrov;

Xcrov

avroiv

etriaraadaf
eXeyov
dypecov

rd

8'

dv

iirifivrjaOeoi)

4 Ka^6fi€V0<; iirifivrjad^a-ofiai.
6fioXoyeovre<i
(T<f)Lcri,

\6yov i^avayoaa Be dvOpcoinjta TrpijyfiaTa, wBe
avroyv, viro rov
irpatrov;

Alyvrrriov^i

dv6pa>7ro)v

aTrdvTcov i^evpelv rov eviavrov, BvooBcku fjbepea Baaa/xevovi tojv
e?

avrov

rdora Be e^evpelv ex t&v da-repcov
<70(f>(i)Tepov 'l£iXX'^v(ov, ifiol

eXeyov.

dyovat Be roaSBe
jji^v

BoKelv, 6<T(p "EXX^/i/e?

Bid rpirov eTeo<i
Be

ifjifioXifiov

iirefi^aXXovac tcov utpecov eiveKev,

AiyvimoL
a<f>L

rpirjKOVT7)fjiepov<;
€ro<;

dyovre^

tov<;

BvcoBeKa

firjva^

iirdyovai dvd irdv

irevre rjfiepa^

irdpe^ rov dpi6/Mov, xal
Bv(o-

6 KVKXo<i rSiV oypecov e?

tmvto irepuMV irapayiveraL?
a cover for ignorance.
47, 48, 61, 62,
65, 81,

'

The Egyptian name

of Thebes was

So chh.

45, 46,

Us, the sacred quarter on the east

bank

132, 170, 171.
is

of the Nile being T-Ape, "the head," whence the Greek 0^/3ai. It is called Nia in the Assyrian inscriptions, NoAmmon or "No of Amun" in the Old

As Wiedemann
jiart

points out, "there

no

of the

work

of Herodotos [on Egypt]

which betrays so much ignorance as that which deals with religion." He is not
therefore likely to have

Testament, from the popular Egyptian

known

an}i;hing

name Nu, "the
great city," also
its

city," or Nu-a,

Nu-Amon.
It
first

"the Amun was

of the mysteries of the Egyptian faith,

more

patron deity.
I

appears in

history as the

Empire.

capital of the Middle have bracketed the words is

especially as his only informants were half-caste dragomen. In ch. 86 he says he will not divulge the name of

6iJ/3ai T6 Kal for

the reason given in ch.

the deity who was embalmed, and yet every child in Egypt knew that it was
Osiris,

29, note 7.
"

Heliopolis, close to Cairo, the ancient

of sepulchral monuments.
saj's

and the name appears on myriads " It is clear,"

seat of Egyptian learning,

now marked
I.,

by the
tlie

solitary obelisk of Sesurtasen

oldest known. Its Egyptian name was Ei-n-Ra, "the abode of the Sun," or Anu, whence the Old Test. On. * This 7nay be rendered: "Considerall people are convinced that they ought not to be talked about." Thia affectation of religious scrupulosity on the part of Herodotos was probably

ing that

Wiedemann, "that Herodotos had not understood the name, and tried to conceal his ignorance under an affectation of secret knowledge." ^ Herodotos shows that he does not understand the Egyptian method of in tercalation, which must have been by th<
intercalation of the quarter days.
IK'

equally forgets the claims of the Babylonians to early knowledge of astronomy

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

127

BeKa re Oeatv eiroivvfila'i eXeyov 7rpu>Tov<i AlyvTrriovf: vofxicraL koX "EWi7i/a9 Trapa (T(f)e(ov avaka^elv,^ ^cofiov'; re koI dyaXfiara xal

I

V170U9

Oeoitri

diroveifiat

a<^ea^

rrpatTov;

xal

fcSa

iv

Xidoc<ri

eyykvyjrai.

Koi tovtcov fiev vvv ra TrXeo)

epyw iSrjXovv

ovrat

yevofieva.

/SacriXevaai Be irpSiTOv Alyvirrov

avOpwirov ekeyov

Mti/a*
elvat

^

iirX

tovtov, ttXtjv tov Srj^aiKov vofiov,

waaav AtyvTTTOv
rwv
diro

eXo?,*
Trj<;

koI

avTij';

elvac

ovSev
€9
ttjv

virepe'^ov

vvv

evepde

\ifjivr]<i

Moi/3to?

iovTcov,

dvdirXoof;

OaXdaarjfj

kirra ^fi€pecov iarl
irepl

dva rov
ep^et,

iroTafiov.
Br)

Kol ev
firj

fioi

iSoKcov Xeyecv 5

T^? ^(wp?;?' BijXa yap

koI

irpoaKovcravri IBovri Be,

6aTC<i

ye crvveaiv

ore AiyvirTOf, e? rrjv "KXXT]ve<i vavriX-

Xovrai, earl AiyvTrrioLat iiriKrrfTO^i re yff koX Batpov tov TroraKarvirepOe en Trj<i XifjLvr}<; TavT7]<; H'^XP'' '^P''^^ fMov,^ Kol rd
^fiepewv ttXoov,
Be erepov tocovtop.
eKeivoc ovBev ere rocovBe eXeyov, earc Aiyxnrrov yap ^vaL<i earl t^9 x^PV^ ToirjBe. "TrpocnrXecov ert kol '^ju,epi]<; Bpofiov aTre^wi/ aTro yea<;,
rrj^

irepc

irpwra

fiev

Karel<i KaTaTreiprjrrjpirjv irrfXav re dvoLaei^ koI ev

evBexa opyvirjai

and the calendar.
the

The Sothic

cycle of

on wrong conclusions drawn from^ the
appearance of nature. Pottery has been found at Memphis by Hekekyan Bey
thirty-nine feet below the colossal statue

Egyptians proves that they had knoAVTi from an early date that 1460 Sothic years were equal to 1461 vague ones. In reckoning the dates of a king's reign, however, they used the year of 360 days, and reckoned the months of his reign, not from his accession, but from the beginning of the year in which The Babyhe ascended the throne.
lonians
in
later

of

Ramses

II.,

which would have been
if

deposited there 11,646 years B.c.
rate of increase of Nile

the

mud had

been

the same before the age of Ramses that it has been since. Memphis itself is far
to the north of

times

distinguished

between the year of a king's accession

Lake Mceris, and the which formed the necropolis of Memphis had been dry and bare for
desert

and the first year of his reign. The Zodiac was a Babylonian discovery, not, as Herodotos imagines, an Egyptian one. 2 The ciceroni employed by Herodotos probably knew more about Greek than
about Egyptian mytliology, and, as their employers were Greeks, took care to tell

countless ages before the time of Menes.
Bubastis, Pelusium,

and other towns of
the days of the

the Delta, existed in

Old Empire, and Busiris, near the coast, was supposed to be the burial-place of
Osiris.
'

This

is

taken without acknowledg(see Arrian. v. 6).

them what would interest or flatter them. Hence the astounding statemet^t
of the text.

ment from Hekatteos
by the Nile
;

^No doubt the Delta was originally formed
but as marine deposits are
not found at a depth of forty feet, it must have existed for thousands of years before the foundation of the Egyptian monarchy. The laud is sinking along
the north coast of Egypt, so that the Delta is really becoming smaller instead
oflarger.

Menes was not the first "human" king of Egypt (after the demigods and gods), but the first monarch of all Egypt.
*

Herodotos probably wrote
assimilated to the
* This,

Jd.i}va

(as in

three MSS.), which the copyists have

name
is

of Minds.

of course,

a

fiction,

based

See also ch. 10.

128
eaeai.

HERODOTOS.
tovto
aifTrj<;

[book

fiev iirl

roaovTO BijXol
fjLrJKO<;

Trpo-^va-iv

T7J<;

yea? iovcrav,

6 atrrt? Be
(Tj(olvoi,

iari AlyvTrrov
r)fi€l<;

to irapa ddXaaaav

e^Kovra
HXtvocroc

Kara
^

Biaipeofiev elvac Atyvrrrov aTro tov

OtvTjTeo)

koXttov

/ie^/Jt

%€p^(ovl8o'i
diro

\ifivr}(i,

irap"

rfv

to K-daiov
eltTC.

opof TCLvei'
fikv

TavTTj'i

oiv

ol i^ijKOvra

a'^olvoL

yap yewrrelvai
o'i

eicrt

dvOpwirwv, opyvifjat
Xltjv,

/xefieTp-qKaa-c

rijv

-^copijv,

oaoL he rfaaov yeooirelvac, aTaBloLai, at Be ttoXXtjv
Be
d(f)dovov
a-^oivoia-i.

e'^ovcri,

TrapacdyyTjcri,
7rapacrdyyr)<;

BvpaTai Be 6
€KacrTO<;,

rpiijKOvra crTdBia,

o

Be

a-^olvo<i

fierpov

ebv

AlyvTTTLOv, e^rjKOVTa

crrdBia.

ovtco

dv

ecrja-av

AlyvTrrov
evOeinev
icrrl

7 ardBiOL e^aKocnoi Kal Tpta-'^iXcot to
fiev

nrapa OdXaa-aav.
Tr)v

Kal

fie'X^pi

'HXlov

TroXto?

e9

fieaoyaiav
^

evpea
ecrrt

AiyvTTTo^, eovcra irda-a virTir) re Kal evvBpo<i
Be 6Bo<i e? 'HXlov ttoXcv dirb

Kal tXu?.

OaXdaa-r)^ dvco
TJ}
^

lovTt, TrapairXTjaLr}

TO

firJKoi;
^

Trj

i^ ^A6r]vea>v oBm
e?

aTro
eirl

rSiv

BvcoBeKa OeSiv rov

^(Ofxov

^epovcrr]

re Uia-av
Ti TO
fit}

Kal

tov vqov tov Ato? tov
ov TrXeov TrevTeKaiBeKa
Be e?

^OXv/jLttlov.

a-jMLKpov

Bid<f)opov

evpot Tt? dv XoyL^6fievo<i

T(ov 6B(ov TOVTecov TO

taaf

fiiJKOf elvai,

(TTaBiaiv

7)

fiev

yap

e?

Uio-av i^ ^Adrjveayv KaraBel irevTeKatBeKa
tj

araBicov

firj

elvac TrevTaKoalav Kol '^iXiav,

'HXiov iroXiv

*

Plinthine was on the Mareotic Lake.
still exists,

divinity (Joseph.

Antiq.
or

xv.

7,

9),

as

The Serbonian Lake

as Mr.

has

been

sometimes

supposed.

The

6. Chester's explorations have shown, divided from the sea by a narrow strip
of sand,

Egj'ptian kliennaJi

skhoenos varied

and extending along the coast
It is a sea-water, not a fresh-

from thirty to forty stadia (Plin. N. H. v. 10, xii. 14), whereas Herodotos
here makes
it

of the Mediterranean eastwards of the
Delta. water,
lake.

sixty stadia.

He

thus

Mount

Kasios stretches

into the sea in the form of a promontory,

makes the length of the coast 3600 stadia or more than 400 miles, while the real length is hardly more than
300 miles. 7 "Flat, and without spring water." * The roads of Attica were due to
Peisistratos,

and took

its name from the Phoenician temple of Baal-Katsiu ("Baal of the

promontory "), which stood upon it. Like Mount Kasios on the Syrian coast, it was also known as the mountain of
Baal Tsephon,

who

the country,

unified and centralised making them all meet in

"Baal

of

the

North"
found in

the market-place of Athens.
• Olympia was orginally the suburban temple of Pisa, which it supplanted and destroyed with the help of Sjiarta. According to Pausauias, Pisa was razed to

{Bahli- Tsapuna in the Assyrian texts).

The name

of the

god Katsiu
{e.g.

is

Nabathean inscriptions Syrie centrale, 4), and
the god
stone.
is

de Vogiie,
Kdo-io?

Zei5j

on

bronze coins of Seleukia in Pieria, where
represented

by a

conical

the ground in b.o. 572. Its site is no longer traceable. The road must have

The name is not connected with that of Kais, a pre-Islamitic deity of the Arabs, or Kof^, an Idamseau

continued

to bear the name of the "Pisan" rather than "Olympian" up

to the age of Herodotus.

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
da\d<T<T7]<t

120
diro 8e 'HXtou 8
fiep

uTTo

TrXrjpol e?

top dptOfiov tovtov.
icrri

TToXio?

dv(o

lovTi

areiv^

Atyv7rT0<i.

Trj

<ydp

rrj^

^Apa^irj<i 6po<;

irapaTerarac,

(ftepov air
e<?

dpKTOv irpof
Td<i

fiecrafifipirjv

T€ Kol vorov, alei dvo) relvov

ttjv

^^pvdprjv KaXeofievrjv 6d\a<T-

aav

iv

rat

ai XcdoTOfiiac
M.e/jb<f>i}

ev€t(Ti

ai e?

TrvpafjLiSat

Karai^^oi

TfirfdelaaL
eipTjTai

rdf iv
6po<i'

ravrr} p.ev Xijyov dvaKdp.irTei e? rd
o)?

TO

TT)

Be avTo ecovTov eart puKporarov,
elvat
Tr}<;

eTrvvOavop.rjv,
ia-ireprjv,

hvo prjvayv avro
irpbt ttjv
tJoj

oBov dirb
ro Be

rjOv<i

7rpo<{

rd Be

Xc^av(oro(ji6pa avrov rd repp^ra

elvat.
rr]<;

rovro

p.ev
6po<i

vvv ro

6po<i

rocovro

ea-ri,

tt/jo? Ai^vr}<i

Alyinrrov

dXXo

irerptvov

relvei,

ev ra> at

7rvpap,L8e<i

eveiai,

^dpp.w KareiXvp,€vov, Kard rov avrov rpoTrov Kal rov
rrp6<i

^Apa^iov rd
Tjp.epetov

p,ecrap^pLr]v

<f>epovra.

ro S)V

Br}

diro

'UXCov
'

iroXiof ovKeri iroXXov ycopiov co? elvat. Alyvirrov, aXX,' oaov re
recrcrepaiv
[/cat

BeKa^ dvairXoov earX arecvr) Aiyv7rro<i
p,ev

eovcra.

rSiv Be opecov rcov elpr]p,evcov ro p.era^v 7reBcd<i

<yrj,

crrdBioi

Be

paXierra

eBoKeov

p.0L

elvat,,

rij

aretvorarov

i<rri,

BirjKoa-ioiv

ov TrXeoix; eK rov ^Apa^iov
S'

6peo(; e?

ro Al^vkov KaXeo7re(f>VKe p.€v

p,evov.

ro

evdevrev avri^ evpea Atyvirro<i eari.
aTTo

9

vvv

17

x^PV

^vrr} ovro).

Be 'HXlov iroXio^ e? 0»7/9a9 eVrt

dvd7rXoo<;

ivvea

'qp.epeatv,

crrdBiot

Be

r^?

oBov e^ijKOvra xal
evo<;

OKraKoaioi
eovrcov.

Kal

rerpaKKT-^CXioi,

cryoivoiv

Kal

oyBcoKOvra
re
e<i

ovroi crvvri6ep,evoc oi crdBioi, Alyvirrov, ro p,ev irapd
rjBr)

ddXaaaav
earl

p,ot

Kal

irporepov

BeBrfXcurai ore e^aKocricov

crraBifov

Kal rpicr'^tXicov, oaov

Be

rt,

aTTo

6aXdcr<77j<i

p.e(Toyaiav P'eyjit Stj^ccov iari, crrjpuveo)'

ardBiot,

yap

elcn eiKoai

Kal cKarov Kal

€^aKia''^lXi,oi.'

ro Be ajro Sij^ecov €9

'EXe^velat,.*

rivqv KaXeop,evr]v iroXiv ardBcoc '^iXcot xal OKraKoaioi
^

These quarries are at Ma'sara and

either side of the Nile.
Kal Sixa (inserted

Turra, between Cairo and Helwan, in

The MSS. omit by Dietsch), which are
Herodotos himself

the

Mokattum range

of hills, the north-

required for the real distance as well as
for the calculations of

em

continuation of the "Arabian moun-

tains " on the eastern

bank of the

Nile.

elsewhere (chh. 9 and 29).
*

Turra is the Ta-rofu, later Taroue, "region of the wide rock gateway," of
the monuments,
the

In reality

it is

not more than 666

miles.

On

the other hand, Herodotos

Troja of Strabo
8up})ose

and

Diodoros,

who

that the

has stated that there are 1500 stades from the sea to Heliopolia, and 4860
stades from Heliopolis to Thebeji,

quarries were

first

Trojans of Alenelaos.

worked by the captive They were worked

making

altogether 6360 stadea
*

!

from the tim# of the fourth dynasty downwards. ' lilgypt, it must be remembered, is only the strip of cultivated land on

Really only 124 miles.

Slephan tintto

is

the small island opjtosite Assoan, at

the

northern

entrancb

the

First

Cataract

K

"

130
10
TavTrjf; cov
lepel<;
Trj<;

HERODOTOS.
'^(opr]<i

[book

T^f

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yap
rut

eXirofiat

ye Kal fxvpLcov ei/ro? ^(oadrjvat
j^iovw irporepov
Red
Sea.
rj

dv^ kov ye

Brj

ev

Trpoavacatficofievo)

ifie

yeveaOai ovk dv

^ *

See oh.

5,

note

5,

Mr. F. Calvert has shown that there has been no increase of land on the Trojan coast. The increase at the mouth of the Kaikos (where Teuthrania stood) has been small. At Ephesos there are now three miles of marsh between the

Ocean,

The latter signifieil the Indian but also included the Persian Gulf and our Red Sea. The Gulf <it Suez is included in it in ch. 158.
*

"Forming a gidf which
northern
sea
(the

stretched

from the

Meditirrancan) to Ethiopia, while the other."

and the ruins of the ancient city, and at Miletos the Maeander has silted up for a distance of twelve or thirteen miles from what was the sea-line in the
sea

Schweighauser and Stein reject the words
'Apdipiov rbf (pxofuu \^^uy.
" " Leaving a between them.
*

little strip

of count r\

time of Herodotos.
'

The

geological

ideas of Herodot.

The Gulf

of Suez, running into the

were certainly somewhat vague.

1

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
ttoXX^
/jue^ayv

131
vtto

ywcrdeir) koXtto*; koL

ere tovtov
irepi

roaoxnov re
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TTOTafMov Kol ovTO) ipyaTLKOv ;

ra

Acyvirrov

koL roiai 12

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<f)aiv6fi€va
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iirl

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koI
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koI

irvpafiihaf;

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fiovvov AlyviTTOv 6po<i

TovTO TO

virep

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ov /jL€v ovBe rfj Svpir] iri)<; yap ^ApaficT)<i ra irapd daXaaaav Svpoi vefwvrai), dWa fieXdr/yeov re Kal Karapp-qyvvfievrfv ware eovaav iXvv re Kal irpoyyaiv i^ AldioTrL7]<i Karevr)veiyp.ev7]v viro

rov irorafiov.

rrjv Be Aifivrjv XBfjbev

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re yffv Kal

viro-\lrafifiorepr]v,

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re

Kal

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OK(i)<i

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oi
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'

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rjv

evepde
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koI M.oipc ovkq)

erea eivaKoaia rereXevrijvvv Be
re
el
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ore

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rj

iepe(ov

rdora

iyo)

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eV'

cKKaCBeKa

irevreKaiBeKa
e?
rrjv

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dvajSrj ro eXd'^icrrov 6 Trorafio^i,

ovK
ro

virep^aivei,

'^(apijv.^

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fioL

Alyvirriayv

oi evepde XifivT}^ t^?

KaXeofxevov
vyfro^i

Motpto? olKeovre<; rd re dXXa '^capia Kal AeXra, rjv ovrw r) X'^PV o,vrr] Kara Xoyov
Kal ro ofiotov dTroBiBo) €9
av^r}<riv,'
firj

iirtBtB^ 69
^
' '

Kara-

Juts out beyond the neighbouring

(about B.C. 2900).
is

He, therefore, will

shores."

The

coast-line

of

the Delta

be the Moeris of Herodotos, as the latter
stated in ch. 101 to have
;

projects a little beyond that of the desert on either side. ^ Herodotos refers to the fossils of the tertiary nummulite limestone. In many places the desert is covered with a solid g3rp8eous and saline crust. * Herodotos could not have travelled to the south of Memphis with observant
eyes.

made the

Sand-drifts are

common,

especially

on the western side of the Nile. * Moeris is one of the imaginary Egyptian kings of Herodotos. In Egyptian tneri signified "a lake," and was therefore applied to the great artificial reservoir of the Fay{lm,whose proper name was hun-t, "the discharge lake." It seems to have been constructed by Amen-em-hat III. of the twelfth dynasty

but instead of being only 900 years older than Herodotos, he was between two and three thousand. « 23 cubits 2 inches (about 41 feet 2 inches) are now required. In the time of Amen - em - hat III. the river rose 27 feet 3 inches higher than it does today at Semneh (thirty miles south of the Second Cataract). Between his date and that of the eighteenth dynasty the First Cataract was formed, reducing Nubia to a desert, and no doubt causing the rise in the height of the inundation in Egypt mentioned in the text. ' "If the country goes on increasing in height as it has done, and grows equally in amount."
lake

132

HERODOTOS.
rov Travra
')(p6vov

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KXv^ovTO<i avrrju rov NetXov ireLcrea-OaL

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vvv ye ovTot aTrovrjTOTaTa Kapirbv KOfiit^ovTai eK yea<i

yap 8r) twv re

dXK(ov dvdpcoircov irdvTOiv KaX twv XotTrayv

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ovTe

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15

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was
10).

HrjTLOvauiK&v,^

OdXacraav elvai avTri^ Btj TeaaepdKOVTd elai

'

Rain
iii.

a

prodigy

at in

Thebes

(Herod,

Showers

fall

Upper
during

Egypt, however, several times

the year (particularly in April and May),

^ Oxen were used for this purpose, and sometimes asses, but not swine. Other Greek writers copied the mistak' of Herodotos (see ^1. Hial. An. x. 16

;

and from time to time there is heavy rain. In Lower Egypt, especially near the sea-coast, rain is more abundant and since the cutting of the Suez and freshwater canals, heavy rains have visited Cairo most years. The scarcity of rain is due to the absorbing power of the desert. * On the contrary, the monuments show that the plough was largely used by the Egyptians.
;

Pliny, 18, 168).
^ Col. Mure has shown that Hekataeos can hardly be meant here, as he divided the world into two parts, but some other Ionian writers who divided it into

three (ch. 16).
^

The watch-tower of Perseus was west

of the Canopic mouth, on the jwint of

Abukir.

The

Pelusiac salt-pans (see ch.

118) were near Pelusium,

now marked

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
TO
Se
dnro
OaKdaa-T}<;

133
e?

(T'^oivoc,

Xeyovrcov

fieaoyeav

reiveip

Kar fjv a-'^i^erai o NeiXo? e? re TirfKovcnov petav kol if Kai/a)/9or, rd 8k aXXa Xeyovrcov Trjq AtyvTTTOv rd /m€v Ai^v7]<i rd Be 'A/^aySt'i;? elvai, d'rroheLKvvoip.ev dv TOVTO) Tft) \6ya> -^eutfievoi. AlyvTrrLOKri ovk ioxxrav Trporepov -^(opTjv rjEr) yap <T(f>L to ye AeXra, o)? avTol Xeyovat AlyvTTTioc Koi ifiol SoKei, ecTTt KaTappvTov re koI reaxxrl cu? Xoyo) eiirelv
avrrjv fji^e^i K^epKaacopov 7ro\to9,
dvaTre<j>T]vo<i.

el

tolvvv

a(f)i

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fiijBefiCa virrjp'^e, tl
;

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BoKeo)

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Toy?

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irpolovar}';

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avTbiV ytveaOat 7roWoi»9 Be Tov<i v7roKaTa^aivovTa<;.

to

B'

o)v

irdXai ai &rj^ai AlyvirTOfi eKoKelro,^ t^9 to irepifiCTpov aTaBiol
elcri

eiKoai

koX

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e^aKia-'^tXiot.

el

(ov

r}fiel<i

opdw

16

Trepl avTOiv yivmaKOfiev, "Icoi^e?
el Be opdrj
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rj

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<f)poveovcrt irepl

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ot
(fyaal

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ovk eTncTTafievovi Xoyt^ea-dac,
Fivpcoinjv

Tpla

fiopia elvac yijv Trdaav,

re

kol ^Ao-ltjv

koi Ai^vrjv.

TCTapTov ydp
el
p,rjTe

B'^ a(f)€a<!

Bel irpo&Koyi^eadaL AlyviTTOv to A.e\Ta,
*Aai7]<;
firjTe
Tr]<i

ye eVrt r^?

Acfivij'f

ov ydp

Br]

6

NetX-o<?
TTj

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dv.
Trepl 17

NetX.09, wcTTe ev Tat fieTa^v 'AcrtT;? re koI AiI3vtj<; yivocT

Kal

T'qv fiev ^Icovtov yvatfitjv aTrlefxev,

r]p,ei<i

Be

wBe Kol
ttjv

rovTtav Xeyofiev,
AlyvTTTLcov

AXyvirTOv

fiev

irdaav elvai
J^lXlkltjv

TavTijv
vtto

inr

olKeofievqv

KaTa

Trep

ttjv

J^cXlkcov

Kal 'Aa-avpiTjv ttjv vtto ^Aaavpiwv, ovpiafia Be
by the ruins of Tel el-Herr and Geziret
el-Farama.

^A<tltj

Kal

Ai^vy
the black

Hebrew Ham, "black," from

KerkasOros

is

called

Ker-

mud
the

deposited by the Nile,

During

kesoura by Strabo. The name (Kerkosiris) seems to mean " split of Osiris," the Nile splitting at its site into the

New Empire

the Delta was

known

"Greater Phoenicia" (the Caphtor of the Old Testament), from the
as Keft-ur or

KanQpic and Pelusiac forks. * This is a mistake. The Nile
called iEgyptos in
xiv.

is

Aristotle

number of Phoenicians settled tliere. says that Egypt was once

Homer

{Od.

iv.

477,

the latest conjecture about the latter word being that it is Ha-ka257),

called Thebes, thus still further misunderstanding the mistake of Herodotos. We must note that in what follows

ptah, the ancient
ch.
2,

note

6).

selves called

name of Memphis (see The Egyptians themtheir country Khem, the

Herodotos
geographers.

distinguishes

between

the

views of the Greek and of the Ionian

134
ocSafiev ovBev iov 8e T&) VTT

HERODOTOS.
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el
fit)

[book
el

rov^ AlyvTrritov ovpov<;.
^

'EWT^i/cyj/ vevoficcrfievat •^prjcrofjueOa, vofiiovfiev

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to,

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re xal ^^XecpavTivrf^ TroXto?
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6

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e<?

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yap Brj AXyvTnov

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^

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rjSi

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7rpo<;
rj

erepi]

twv oBwv
69

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ijBe'

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Be

Brj

Idea t<ov oBcov to3 NetXa)

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to

o^if

rov AeXra diriKvelrai,
e?

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to KaXeiTat ^e^evvvTLKov aTOfia. ovvoflora
Kevrai

ea-Ti

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<f>epovTa
69

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Toicrc

TciBe,

t&J

fiev

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18

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to Be ^oX/Sltcvov aTOfia xal
OTi

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7roXto9
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ol

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TO,

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t6

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"Attco'; 04/ceoi/T69

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ovTd
iepa
69

eXvau

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to,

Oprja-KrjLTj,

^ovXofievot drfXewv fiooiv

firj

epyeaOac,^ ewefiylrav
koivov

"Afifiwva

<f>dfievot

ovBep

a-<f>i(ri

Te

Kal AlymrrLoiai

elvat'

olKelv Te

yap e^w tov AeXTa Kal ovBev ofioXoyelv avTouri,
cr<f>l<Ti

^ovXeaBai t6 irdvTmv
• i.e. the' First •

i^eivat yeveaOai.

6 Be deo^i a<f>€a<{

Cataract.

Kanfipos was the Egyptian

Nub, or "golden soil," the It was 120 stades of which was Pakot. east of Alexandria, probably near Lake £(lku. But its exact site is unknown. The seven mouths of the Nile were (1)

Kah ensacred name

the Pelusiac or Bubastic
Busiritic, or Saitic
;

;

(2)

the Tanitic,
the Bukolic

(3)
;

the Mendcsian,
(4)

Kanopic or Herakleotic. The were artificial canals. Pliny reckons eleven mouths, besides four other "false mouths." ^ Marea gave its name to Lake Mareotis, and was celebrated for its wine. Strabo_(p. 799) places the village Apis on the coast, 100 stadia from Panetonion {Marsa Berek), and about 160 miles
(7)
tlie

two

last

(lassing

by MansArah

west of Alexandria,
*

or Phatnetic, entering the sea at
etta
;

Dami;

" Not to be prevented from eating

(5)

the Sebennytic

;

(6)

the Bol-

the flesh of cows," which, as being wcred
to Hathor,

bitic,

entering the sea at Rosetta

and

— not

Isis,

as Herodotos says

„.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
TTOtecv

135

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17

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fiovearifyr)
fiev

dveTrtcrrrj- 21

eart t^? XeXeyfievrf^, Xoyto Be elrrelv dtavfiaato)to be used as

(ch. 41),

—were forbidden

the desert will
is

know

that this statement

food,
'

though oxen might be eaten.

not true.
^

to

First Cataract the Nile begins towards the end of May, at Memphis towards the end of June, and its highest about the end of is at
rise

At the

This

is

supposed to be the opinion
ii.

of Thales (see Athen.

87).

The north-

west winds blow not only during the inundation, but also during a good part
of the winter.
'

September.

Every one who has sailed on the Nile and felt the invigorating breezes of
^

Herodotoa has forgotten that

the

rivers of Syria face west, not north.

136
rept]
*
'

HERODOTOS.
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24

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The opinion of Hekataeos
(jPrgr.

is

prob-

'

Herodotos knows
rains

nothing

the

ably referred to

278, ed. Miill.).

(Diod.
little

This was the opinion of Anaxagoras i. 38 cp. iEskh. Fr. 293), and,
;

as Herodotos approved of

it,

was

and icy mountains of Abyssinia. But frost often occurs at night even in the desert, and in the winter of 1880 ice was found as far up
tropical

nevertheless correct.
is

The inundation caused by the melting snows and

the Nile as Girgeli.
* How Herodotos came to such a wonderful meteorological conclusion it is hard to say.
*

which suddenly swell the Atbara and Blue Nile before they join the White Nile on its way from the great inland lakes of
tropical rains of Abyssinia,
Africa.
totle,

Tliese

arguments of Herodotos show

that he was not a profound logician.
Kites and swallows, moreover, do not remain in Africa the whole year, and the idea that the negro or Nubian has l)een blackened by the heat of the sun belongs to a very infantile period of
scientific inquiry.

Kallisthenes, the pupil of Aris-

Agatharkides,

and Strabo,

all

refer the

inundation to the rainy season
is

in Ethiopia.
• The wind from the desert quently very cold.
fre-

"

,,.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
6
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137
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Ac^vrj^; €p)(erai, Bie^iovra 8'

'

" The sun being driven out of his

knowledge of nature and in his capacity
for generalisation,
'

former course

by the

storms."

The

absurd explanation of the inundation proposed by Herodotos shows how much behind his older contemporaries, the Ionic philosophers, he was both in his

New
'
'

Ionic

contracted

form

of

ioucit.
'

Repels

it into

the upper parts of

\

the

air.

138

HERODOTOS.
ficv

[book

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28
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Kal

TraXippoirjv,

*

See

cli.

19, note 1.

knew
held by the

' i.e.

Neith.

The

office

sacred scribe was a very high one,

and

that the sources of the Nile were not near Syene (Assuan) by hundreds of miles, and that Elephantine (Egyptian

he seems the only priest of rank with whom Herodotos came into contact, the other " priests " mentioned by him being merely the custodians of the temples, who knew a little Greek, and showed

Abu, "the elephant-island") was not
a city, but an island, between which and

Syene there
Nile.

is

only the water of the

But Herodotos seems to have divined that the sacred scribe was only
answering the inquisitive stranger according to his folly. KrGphi and

them to travellers like the custodians As and guides of our own churches.
the sacred scribe was probably unac-

Mdphi may be a reminiscence

of the

quainted with Greek, conversation must have been carried on through the dra-

goman, and Wiedemann conjectures that
the story put into the priest's

mouth
of

was due

to a misunderstanding of the

interpreter's

meaning.

The

stele

Redesieh states that

the water

of

a

spring in the desert bubbled up like that

from the bottom of the Kerti of Elephantine, where reference is made to " two fountains" or kerti. Evorj' Egyptian

two peaks which overhang the Third Cataract, and can be seen from the rock of Abusir at the Second Cataract. The jingle of names is one in which Orientals, more esjiecially Arabs, delight, e.g. Abil and Kabil for Cain and Abel. • This, of course, was pure invention. The sacred scribe must have said something about the First Cataract, which Herodotos misunderstood.

i

>]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
firj

139

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7

The words

ain-hirTi^s

iriXtoj are

ted by one MS.,

and

for the sake of

Herodotos it may be hoi)ed that they were not in his original text, as they cannot be true. Had he really visited Elephantine he would have known that it was an island, not a town, nor would he have cared to mention the story of
the sacred priest of Sais.

88 miles, which would carry the traveller below the Firat Cataract, and as Inscriptions far south as Kalabsheh. at Philje mention a district of twelve ar or arudr on both sides of the Nile
far

from Assuan to Takamsu (Takhompso), where tithes were paid to Isis of
,

Philse.
^ There is no smooth plain through which the Nile flows around an island The after passing the First Cataract. river is shut in by cliffs most of the way to the Second Cataract. Ptolemy places Metacompso (now Kobban) op-

A

traveller,

moreover,

who has dwelt

at such length

on the wonders of Sais and the Labyrinth would not have been silent about the monuments of Thebes if he had
actually seen
too,

them. At Elephantine, he would have gained more accurate knowledge of the southward course of the Nile than that displayed in his
following
7.
8

posite

Pselkis (bakkeh)

;

here flows between
island,

cliffs,

but the river there is no
fortress

and Metacompso was a

remarks.

See

ch.

3,

note

of brick, built in the time of the eight-

So far thia is quite correct, the boats being dragged through the rapids of the First Cataract by the aid of ropes. But
it

eenth dynasty, which still exists. By Takhompso Herodotos must have intended Philae, five miles from Elephantine, and called Pilak by the Egyptians.

The "shooting"

does not take four days to pass them. of the rapids can easily

be performed in five hours. • The boat has to wind considerably in order to avoid the rocks of the
cataract.

When

the cataract

is

passed,

however, the Nile can no longer be described as "winding." Twelve skcerux would be 720 stades (ch. 6), i.e. about

Mr. Bunbury, however, would identify Takhompso with Derar, an islet near Dakkeh, considering that Herodotos has confounded the First Cataract with the district called Dodekaskoenos by Ptolemy between Syene and Pselkis. The same district is named in a Greek
graflito at Pliilse of the
'

age of Tiberius.

Nubians, not n^proes.

* ;

140
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^

HERODOTOS.
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koX

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^epOTj' Xeyerat, Be avrrj
AWcottcov.*^
ol
8'

7roXt9

eivuL fi'qrpo'jroXL'i

twv aXKcov

ev

ravrr)

Aia

Oewv

Aiovvaov fiovvov; ae^ovrai,' Tovrov<i re fi€ydX(i)<; arparevovTai Be Ttficoai, Kol cr^i fuivrrjiov Ato9 Kareo'T'ijKe' iiredv <r<^ea^ b Oeb<i ovto<; KeXevrj Btd Oea-'mcrfidrwv, koX Tp av
Kol

30 KeXevrj, eKelae.^

uTrb Be TavTrj<i t^9 7roXto9 irXecov iv

i<rq)

ypbvtp

' There is no lake, great or small, between Elephantine and the Second

be described as consisting of the countries
of

Magan and

JMelukh, and

Melukh

ac-

Cataract.
*

cordingly has been identified with Meroe
is

Eorosko

the usual starting-point
;

but originally Magan was the Accadian
designation of the Sinaitic Peninsula,

of the caravans for Khartflm
is

hence it a journey of three weeks across the

the land of "copper" and "turquoise,"

which the river is rejoined. ' The round number forty must be noticed its use in the Old Testament to express an indefinite number is well known. The Nile is not navigable from
desert, after
;

Melukh must be sought in the same region. There is no likeness between Melukh and Berua. Ethiopia is Kush in both the Egyjitiau and the
80 that

Assyrian inscriptions.
' Amun and Osiris. But they were by no means the only gods worshipped in Cush or Ethiopia. Besides the native gods, the Egyptian pantheon had been

Wadi Helfa

(on the northern side of the

Second Cataract) to Semneh, forty -five miles distant, and after that there are occasional rapids till the Third Cataract
is

passed.
^
' '

transferred thither after the conquest of
rest of the

The

Ethiopians " in

opposition to the nomads.
of

The

island
rivers

the country by the Egyptians, ^ The oracle of Meroe was famous.

It

Meroe was formed by the three
(Bahr
el-Azrek),

Astapos
(Atbara),

Astaboras

and the main stream of the Nile. The city was near the modern Denkaleh, and several of its pyramids still remain. Its Egyptian name was Berua (or Mer, "the white city"), and
it

was worked by priests and moving statues. The priests of Meroe succeeded in reducing the kings to mere puppets, whose
even were at their mercy, until Ergamenes, who has left his name in the Nubian temple of Dakkeh, rebelled in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphoe, entered "The Golden Chapel," and put them to death. The Meroe intended here was not the Meroe of Strabo and the later geographers, but Nap or Napata,
lives

seems to have succeeded to the posi-

tion of Napata, the capital of Northern

Ethiopia (To- Kens) up to the age of the
Ptolemies.

Beyond Meroe came the

land of Alo (the Aloah of the mediteval

Arab geographers). According to Josephos, Meroe was the Saba or Seba of the Old Testament (cp. Is. xviii.) In the time of Assur-bani-pal Egypt seems to

by the Egyptian kings on the sacred The temple of Amun stood at the foot of the mountain, and an inscription tells us how the "sect, odious to God, called Tum-pesiu-Pertotbuilt

Gebel-Barkal.

It.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
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Khaiu

"

("cook

not, let violence slay,"

probably in reference to the Abyssinian liabit of eating raw flesh), were forbidden The description of the to enter it. election of Aspalut to the crown states
that the "royal brothers" passed before

only a round one, but far too high ; and it is absurd to suppose that so large a

the statue of
to be king.

Aspalut, seizing

Amun, who finally selected him and declaring him
The Theban
statues
priests

body of armed men could have peacefully marched through the whole of Egj'pt, evading the strong fortress of Memphis, and running away into the far south, whither they were pursued by tlie king
with a handful of foreign mercenaries. The longest of the Greek inscriptions, however, written on the leg of one of the colossi of Abu-Simbel, goes to show
that Psammetikhos and his Greek soldiers actually made an expedition into Nubia.

had

already invented

which could

move the head, according to the legend of Ramses XII. and the princess of
King Horsiatef consults the the oracle before going to war against lands of Khedi." See Maspero in the Ann. de VAss. pour I'Enc. des Et.
Bakhten.
' '

Wiedemann, indeed,
tion
to

refers the inscrip-

the

Ethiopian

expedition of

grecques, 1877, pp. 124 sq.
it took days to get from Elephantine to Meroe, anotlier fifty-six days would be required to reach the country of the This would bring us into Deserters. *

As, according to Herodotos,

Psammetikhos II. (b.c. 594), mentioned by Herodotos (ii. 161) and Aristeas. But the cartouches of Psammetikhos II.
are not found further south than Philae,

fifty-six

and Herodotos expressly

ascribes the exI. In any Abu-Simbel

pedition to the south with the Greek

mercenaries to Psammetikhos
case the Ionic inscriptions of

Abyssinia.

Asmakh has been connected

by De Horrack with the Egjrptian semhi, " left" but the best MSS. read 'A<rx<£/*,
;

city

which reminds us of the old Abyssinian Axum. Moreover, Egyptian h is not represented by Greek Xj ^"d the

among the earliest Greek inscriptions known, and, scratched as they were by mere soldiers, show that reading and
are

story of Diodoros that the

Asmakh
is

de-

serted because the Greek mercenaries were

commonly taught at the time in the schools of Ionia. The deserters " are also called Sembrites or Sebritae, meaning "strangers" (Strab.
writing were
'

'

placed on the right of the king
fictitious,

plainly

xviL

p. 541),

living in Tenesis, inland

the

left

being

among

the

Egyptians the post of honour. Wiededoubts the legend altogether, and believes it to have been an attempt to explain the existence of Egyptian colonists in Ethiopia, who settled in the country in the time of the Ethiopian The number 240,000 is not dynasty.

mann

from the port of Saba, as well as Makhlaeonians (Hesykh. ) In the time of Strabo they were governed by a queen. ^ Daphne, the Tahpauhes of the Old Testament, was sixteen Roman miles from Brugsch identifies it with Pelusium. the Egyptian Tabenet, now Tel Defennoh.
irp6s

here

is

"on

the

side

of,"

i.t.

142

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"against";
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cp.

i.

110.

;

Thiikyd.

i.

62,

sea-IeTel.
exist.

Traces of the

temple

still

21.

The god seems

a hybrid charac-

2

"Some

of the Ethiopians

had been

ter,

at feud with him."
infer from this that Herodhad not heard of the theory which imagined Egyptian civilisation to have come from the "blameless Ethiopians." The idea that tlie Ethiopians were models
^

m&m,

being a mixture of the Baal-Kham" the fiery " sun-god of the Cartha-

We may

ginians, the ram-headed

Amun of Egypt,
Libyan
deity,

otos

whom
Zeus,

the Greeks identified with their

and an

original

The name of Etearkhos shows how strong
Greek influence was in the oasis, where Greek garrisons had been planted by the kings of the twenty -sixth dynasty. Max
Biidingcr,

of virtue, like the savage of Rousseau,

though found in
*

7Z.

L 423,

is

really a late

one, the product of Greek pliilosophy.

liowever,

ver)'

improbalily

The temple

of

Ammon

was in the
above the

oasis of Siwali,

fourteen days' journey
feet

would identify the name with Taliarka. Oasis is the Egyptian itah "dwelling,"
Arabic
el

from Cairo, and about 78

fyah.

„.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
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*

See

iv.

43.

Either Cape

Cantin

Pygmies in Central

Africa.

The Bush-

near

Mogador, or

Cape Spartel near

men

are supposed to have once extended

Tangier.

as far north as the confines of Nubia, or Pygmies south of the
-

The Akkas

and, with the dwarf races already named,

cannibal

Nyam Nyam,

north - west of

may
race.

be the descendants of an aboriginal

Lake Victoria Nyanza, described by MianL Krapf speaks of the brown
Dokos, four feet in height, to the southwest of Abyssinia in Sennaar, and Du
Chaillu of the

' Possibly the Niger or Joliba; in which case the city may be Timbuctoo. But the Waube, flowing into Lake Cliad,

Obongo

(called

Mabongo)

may

be meaot.

-

144
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*

" Runs

pai-allel

to

,the

Ister."

them the columns of Melkarth, the sungod, and Melkarth was the Herakles of

Herodotos regarded Europe and Africa as equal, and consequently balancing one another. It was necessary to this equibalance that they should each he
divided by a large river, which followed much the same course, and was of the

the Greeks.
called KivTiret.

The Kynesiaus

are

also

same

length.

It

is

very

doubtful

whether the Kelts had penetrated as far as the Pyrenees in the time of Herodotos.

Herod6ros of Herakleia, a contemporary of Sokrates, mentioned them {Fr. 20), and stated that their northern neighbours were the FX^ei. Avienus places them on the Anas or Guadiana. They represent the prse-

Aryan population of
Basques.
*

Eurojie,

and

pos-

To

call

the latter a city, and to

sibly were related to the ancestors of the

suppose that the Danube rose so far to the west, does not show that the Danube was "better known" to Herodotos than

Istria or Istrianopolis,

founded about
Kosten^je,
to

the time of the Skythian invasion of
Asia,

As Mr. Bunbury points out, Herodotos imagined the Nile to flow due east from its sources to Elephantine. • The pillars of Herakles are the two peaks of Kalpe and Abila, which face one another on either side of the Straits of Gibraltar. The Phoenicians termed
the Nile.

lay near the

modem

and

consequently sixty miles

the

south of the most southern mouth of the

Danube.
*
*

See i. 72, note 5. This is a flagrant instance of Herod

otos's ignorance of geograiihy.

".]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
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traaav

ycoprjv* TOVT(ov etveKa TrXeo) Trepl auTrj^; elpr)cr€TaL.
AlyvTTTioL
afjba

r^

r^ Kara

<T<f)ea<:
rj

iovTi krepoLtp KaX

ru> TTorafiM (pvaiv

aWoirjv

'Trapexofievcp

oi

aXkoL

irorafioL, to,

troWa irdvra
rided

efnraXiv

rolac

aXXoc(ri
/J-ev

avdpoiiroLcrt,

ecrrrjaavro

T€ Kol vofiov<i' iv rolai ai

yvvaiKe^;

dyopd^ovat koI
v<f)ai-

KaTrrjXevovcn, ol he dvBpe<i

Kar
rrjv

oikou<; eoj/re? vt^aivova-f'^

vovat Be ol
Kdro).'^

fiev

dWoi dpa
twv

KpOKrjv

(odiovre^i,

AlyviTTiot Bk
(popiovcrij

rd d^Oea
dvBpe<i

ol fiev dvBp€<i iirl
cjfioov.^

rwv Ke^aXecov
iv

al Be yvvaiKe'i eVl
ol

ovpeovai al

fiev yvvalKe'i
rolcrc

opdai,
oiKotcn,

Be

KaTi]/j,€voc.

ev/xapelrj
oBolcri,^

^^ecoj/Tat

iadiovaL Be e^co iv Trjat

iirtXeyovTa
iroLelv

(u?

dvayKota Be iv d-jroKpy^o) iarl
dva(f)avB6v.
Orfkerj'i,^

^/3eoi',

rd rd Be

fiev
firj

alcrxpd

ala-^pd

lepdrat yuvrj /xev ovBefiia ovtc epcreva

deov ovre

dvBpe<i Be TrdvTcov re

koI iracrewv.
fs/q

Tpe(f>eiv Tov<i
rfjcri,

roKeaf
deoiv 36

rolcrt fiev iraLol ovBefila

dvdyKT]
fit)

^ovXofievoiaL,
ol

Be OvyarSiv

rpda-c irdaa dvdyKtj koI
rfi fjL€v

^ovKop^evrjcn.'^

lepel<i

Kiyvinu) Be ^vpcovrat.^ rouri dWoiaL dvdpcoTTOLcn vofio^ dfia KrjBei, Kexdpdai ra? Ke(f)a\d<; tou? fidXiara iKvelrat,^ AlyvirrtoL Be vtto Tov<i davdrovi dvcelcrt rat; T/Jt^a<?

dXky

KOfieova-i, iv

av^eadat

Ta<?

re iv

rfj

Ke(f>a\y

koX tc5 yevevm,
77

reco'i

i^vprj/Mevot.

Tolat fiev aKkoKTL dvOpcoTroicri ^wpl? drjptoiv

Biaira diroKeKpiTai,
dirb irvpwv

AlyvTTTLoiat Be ofiov OrjpLOLcn

77

Biaird icm.

koX

Kpidewv oiWoL ^coovat, Alyvrrricov Be
rrjv ^07)v
6vei,Bo<i

fieyicrrov

iari,

t^ iroteofievo) aTrb tovtcov aXXd dirb dXvpecov iroUovTac
(pvpaxrt rb
fxev
<rTat<;

atria, rd<i

^eta? fjuere^erepoi

KoXeovcn.^

*

"As compared

with
iii.

every other
34.

relating to Egyptian law goes to contradict this statement.
3 All classes alike shaved the head for purposes of cleanliness, and wore large

country."
"

Cp. oh. 136,

Both men and women
sq.

alike

marketed

and plied the loom.
SZ7
"

See Soph. (Ed. Tyr.

They drove the woof sometimes upThis was never the
case,

wigs to protect themselves from the sun. * "The relations." Cp. 2 Sam. xix.
24.
'

wards, sometimes downwards.
'

except with
represented

This

is

contrary to

fact,

unless told

bakers.
*

of the very poorest class.
are

They

very rarely

'

Wheat and

barley were

not only

carrying burdens on the shoulders.
*

eaten, but were offered in the temples,

Only the poorer

classes ate out of

doors.
*

and the king ears of wheat
ing the

at his coronation offered
to the gods as represent-

fact, as

This is entirely contrary to the Herodotos himself shows in ch.

54.
3

All that we learn from the papyri

staple food of the country. 'OXvpa was not the same as fed or spelt (Theophr. H. P. viii. 1, 3 ; Dioskor. ii. 113), but was probably the doora eaten

L

146
Tolai
TTOcrt,

HERODOTOS.
Tov Be irrfKov rfjai '^epai^ koX
fjuev

[book
rr)v

Koirpov dvatpeovrai.^

ra alSola coXXot
€Ka<rTO<i
rov'i
eT^et

ewat
Be

a)<i

eyevovro, ttXtjv oaoc diro tovtcov

efjbaOov, AlyvTTTioi,

Be irepirdfivovrai.
rcov

Bvo,

KplKOv<i

Kol Tov<;
ecr(o6ev.

e'ip,aTa twv fiev dvBpwv jvvatKMV ev eKdarrr]} rcov larioiv Kd\ov<; ol p,ev aXkot e^coOev TrpoaBeovac,

AlyinrTLOi
yjr^(f)otac

Be

ypdfifiara

jpd(f>ovcri

kol

Xoyi^ovrat
(f)epovTe<i

"EWT^i^e?

p,ev dirb

rwv dpiarepcov inl rd Be^cd
rcov Be^itov €7rl
eirl

TTjv -^elpa, AljvTTTtoL Be aTTO

rd dpicnepd'^ koX
Bk

iroieovre^i
eir

rdora avrol

fjuev

^aai

Be^id Troielv, "EWT/i/a?
^

dpccrrepd,

Bt(f>aa-LOLai

Be ypd/xfiaac

^pecovrai, koI rd fxev

avroiv lepd rd Be Bij/jiOTiKd KaXelrai.

37

0eocre/3ei<?

Be

irepta-a-oi'i

eovTe<;

fidXiara Trdvrcov

dvOpooirajv
irlvovac,

vofioicn

TOLolaiBe

^pecovTui.
•qfxeprjv,

eK

yakKetav

Trorrjpiwv

BLaa/j,eovTe<;
eifjbara

dvd

irdcrav

ovk

6 fiev 6 S' ov,

dWd

Travre?.*

Be Xlvea

t^opeovcn

aiel

veoTfKvra, e7nTr}BevovTe<i
KaOapeioTrjTO^;
ol Be i€pet<i

tovto
eiveKev,

fidXtcTTa.

rd re alBola
KaOapol elvac

TrepcrdfjivovTac
rj

7rpoTLfjbb)VTe<;

evTrpeTrearepoc.

^vpwv-

rac irdv ro aSifia Bed

TpLrr)<; rjfiepr}<;,
a(f)i

iva

pLrjre

(f>delp fi'^re

dXko
^

fivcrapov firjBev iyjLVTjraL

Oepairevova-L rov<;

6eov<i.

iadfjra

Be

(f>opeovai,

ol

lepel'i

Xiverjv fjbovvrjv

koX vTroBrniara ^v/3\cva'

by the modern Egyptians when they cannot afford to buy wheat.
was mixed with the feet, not with the hands, as the moninnental representations of brick-making show. * Does Herodotos mean that other people took up manure with their feet ? " See ch. 104, Herodotos had no grounds for asserting that the Syrians (i.e. the Hebrews and Phoenicians), the Ethiopians, the Kolkhians, the Makronians, and the Syrians (i.e. the Hittites) of Kappadokia (to whom Josephos, Antiq. i. xii., see also Cont. Ap. i. 22,
^

was to give the deity his best and dearest.
See ch. 104.
^

Mud

loin-cloth,

The men wore a long robe over the but threw it off when at work.
classes often

The upper

wore an addi-

tional garment.
* The hieratic and demotic are written from right to left, the hieroglyphics either from right to left, or from left to right, or vertically. The statement of Herodotos about Greek writing shows that he was unacquainted with any specimens of writing which either ran in the old direction from right to left,

adds the Arabs), learned the rite of cirThis, cumcision from the Egyptians.
indeed, was impossible in the case of the
,

or in the later botistrophedon

fasliion.

We may infer therefore that all the
accessible to

MSS. him were written from left

Kolkhians
tised

and the rite by various tribes in
;

is

found pracinter-

to right.
' Really three, but demotic had probably entirely superseded the earlier

different parts

of the world

who have had no
It has

course with one another.

been

hieratic cursive in the time of Herodotos.

traced to an earlier form of self-mutilation,

See Appendix
*

I.

and has survived partly from

sani-

Gold, glass, and porcelain were also

tary reasons, partly as a
distinction.

mark of religious
instinct of

used.

The

first

man

See ch. 81.

Cotton npper -garments

"

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
Se
cr(}>i,

147

aWrjp
aX\a.
eKciaTr]<;

icrdfjra

ovk
t^9

e^ecrrc
^fiipr)<i

Xa^elv
kKaarrj^

ovBe

vTroSijfiara

\ovvTaL he 5t9
vvKro<;.

^jrv^p^

koI

Sl^
co?

oKXa^ re

6p7]crK7)ia<;

iircreXiovai

fivplaf

eiirelv

\oy(p.

Trdcx'^ovai

Bk koI ar^aQa ovk

Tcov

oIktjlcov ^

rpi^ovcn ovre hairavoivraL,
eKaarrj^i,

oXlyw ovre tc yap aXXa KaX crtria (T<f>i,
'^rjvidJv
7r\rj66<;
<7(f)t

eVrl lepa ireaaofxeva, xal Kpewv ^oiwv koX

ri

eKaaru) yiverac ttoXKov
olvo<i ajxireKivo^'

i^fieprjf;

hihorat,

hi

kuI

I'^dvcov he

ov

a-(f)c

e^eari irdcracrOaiJ

Kva/xov^

he ovre rt /jboka cnreipovcn AlyvTrrioi iv rrj X'^PV' t*"^? "^^ yevofievov; ovre rpcoyovai, ovre e-^ovre^; Trareovrat' oi he hr) iep€L<i

ovhe opeovre^ dve-^ovTai, vofXL^ovre'i ov KaOapov elvat
lepdrai he ovk
dp'^tepev';'

fiiv ocrirpiov.

eh eKacrrov

eireav he rif

Oewv dWd ttoXXol, twv eh iarc diroOavri, tovtov 6 irah dvrLKari<naraL.^
rcov

Tou? he ySoO? rov<i epaeva<; rov 'E7ra<^oi/ ^ elvat vofili^ovac, 38 KaX rovTov e'lveKa hoKifid^ovaL avrov<i o)he. rpi'^a rjv Kal filav ihrjrac eTreovcrav fieXaivav, ov KaOapov elvat vofii^et. hi^rjTat hk rdora iirl rovru) TeTayfievo<i rSiv rtf lepecov Kal opOov e<neSiTO<i rov Krrjveo<; Kal vwriov, Kal rrjv yXcoaaav e^eipvcra<;, el Kadaprj
ro)v irpoKetjjLevwv
a-ijfjLtjicov,

ret eyo)

iv

dWo)
(f)V(Ttv

Xoyo)
e^^et

epew^ Karopd
iret^vKvia';.
rjv

he Kal rd<i rpt'x^a^ r?}? ovpi)^ el

Kara

he rovrcDv Trdvrcov y Ka6apo<;, a-rjfiaiverat

^v^Xw

irepl

rd Kepea

etXiaacov Kal eiretra yrjv arjfiavrpiha

eTrt'irXdcra<i

iiri^dXXet rov

haKrvXtov, Kal ovrco dirdyovat.
were also worn over the linen underclothing. We find the high priest wearing a leopard's skin over his dress. The linen was frequently so fine as to be semitransparent.

darjixavrov he dvcravrt ddvaro'i

among

the Highlanders, fish being supposed to cause fever, or some similar malady. Fish alone were not offered to the gods.

The sandals

of those

who

were not priests were made of palm leaves

and leather as well as of papyrus, and fhose worn by the upper classes and women generally had the points turned No foot -covering was worn until up. the time of the fifth dynasty, and in later times even the richer classes often went barefoot like the majority of the modern
inhabitants of Egypt.

The son might not only become the some other god, and so enter another college, but also practise some
^

priest of

other profession,
soldier.

such as that of the

" Their own property.
This prohibition, which was not extended to the rest of the community, was probably a survival from a time
^

when

there was a superstitious dislike
still

to eat fish, such as

exists in

many

priest was called Sem, and there were five priestly grades. ^ i.e. Apis, Egyptian Hapi, who was identified with Epaphos on account of the similarity of name. The monuments show that bulls with black, red, and white hairs were killed both for the temples and for the private houses. Apia stood at the head of the four sacred beasts (Apis of Memphis, Mena or Mnevis of Heliopolis, Bak of Uermonthis, and Tamur).

The high

parts of the

eastern

world as well as

Compare

iii.

28.

148
ri

HERODOTOS.
eTTLKeLTai.
cr(f)c

[book

^rjfiLi]

BoKifid^€Tai fiev vvv ro KTrjvo<i rpoira TOi^Be,
aya'yovre'i to aearjfiaafievop kt7Jvo<;
ctt

39 Ovairj Be
irpo<i

'ijBe

Karea-rrjKe.

TOP
deov

^(o/jbbv

oKOv av Ovaxri, irvp avaKaiovcn, eiretra Bk
leprjiov eiriaireiaavTe^
cr(f>d^avTe<;

avTov olvov Kara tov
rov
a-(f)d^ovai,
o-co/Mi fiev Br)

/cat eTTi/caXeo-ai/re?

Be

dirordp.vova-L

rrjv

K€<f)a\.^v.

tov

KTrjveo<i Beipovai, K€<pd\'p

Be k€lv7j ttoWo, KaTa(r(f>c

prjadfievoc (pepovac, Tolau fiev
iiriBrj^LOL
e/MTTopoc, oi

av

rj

dyoprj koI ''EWT/i/e?
€<?

ewai
tov
tl

Be

<f>€povTe<;

ttjv dyoprjv air

(ov eBovTo,^
e<i

Tolai

Br)

&v

fiT)

Trapecoao "^Wr)ve<i,

ol

3'

eK^dWovai,
TJ}

TTOTafjLov'

KaTapoiVTat, Be
<T(f)icri,

ToBe \€Jovt€<; Trjac
rj

K€(f>aX.7ja-L,

et

fjLeWoL

rj

Totat Ovovctl

Aljv7rTa>

avvaTrdar)
fiev

kukov
Td<{

yevea-Oai,

e?

Ke^aXrjv tuvttjv Tpairea-dai.

KaTO,

vvv

K€^a\d<i TMV dvofievcov KTrjveatv koX Tr)v iTTLaireiaiv
irdvTe'i

tov otvov
6fioifo<;

AlyvfTTtoc

vofioicn

toIctl

avTolcn

^pecovTac

e?

irdvTa tA lepd, KaX diro tovtov tov vofiov ovBe 40
ifi'yjrv-x^ov Ke(f)d\,i]<i

dWov
Be
(T<p(,

ovBevo^

yevcreTai AlyvTrTcoyv ovBeL<;.
Kavcn<i

97

Brj

e^alpeat<i

TMV lepoiV^KoX
Trjv
S'

rj

dWr)

irepl

dXko
. .

lepov

KaTea-TrjKC

<ov

fieyia-T7)v

re Baifiova rjyrjVTat elvac KaX /jLeyiaTrjv oi
*

6pTr)v dvdyovac, TavTrjv

epjfopui epewv
/m€v

.

eiredv dnroBeipaxri,

TOV ^ovv, KaTev^dfievoc KoiXir)v

KCLvrjv

irdaav i^ wv etKov,
re

(nr\dyyya Be avTOv
KaX

\elirov<Ti

ev rcS atopuTL KaX Trjv irificXijv,
6(T<f)vv

(TKeKea Be aTroTdfivovai KaX ttjv

aKprjv KaX tov<;

a)/jL0v<i

TOV Tpd')(rfkov.

fioof tri/jLTrXdac

TdoTa Be irofqcravTe^i to dWo (Toyfju tov dpTmv Kadapwv KaX fi€\iTo<; KaX d<TTa<f>iBo<; xaX
crfivpvr)<;

avKcov KoX \c^av(OTOv koX
ifKrjcravTe'i Be tovtcov

KaX t(ov

dWatv

dva/idTcov,

KaTayl^ovai, eXaiov d(f)dovov KaTa^eovT€<i'

Trpovr}aTev(ravTe<;
'jrdvTe'i,

Be Ovovcn, Kaiofievcov Be

efredv Be dTroTvyjrcovTai, BaiTa irpoTidevTai
tov<;
fiev

twv lepwv TvrrTOVTat Td eK-iirovTo
tov<;
a<f>i

J

41 roiv lepwv.
fiocT'^ovi;

vvv Ka6apov<i ySoOf tou9 €paeva<; KaX
dvovai, ra?
Be
6ri\ea<i

ol

irdvTe<i

AlyvirTioi
iepai
elai,

ov

e^ea-Ti

dvecv,

dWd

t^9 "lo-to?'^

to yap

T7j<i

"lo-fo?

dyaXfjLa eov yvvaLKijiov ^ovKepcov iaTi,

KaTd

irep "EWTyi/e? ttjv
TrdvTe<;

^\ovv
'

^

ypd<f>ovai, KaX

Td<;

fiov<i

Td<i

6rfKea<i AiyvirTLOU

" Having poured a
it
(i.e.

libation of wine
^'ic-

upon
tim."
'

the altar), over the

"Sell
so
-

it

thereupon," an example of

the

called

Homeric

tmesis.

The

Herodotos means Isis see chh. 59, but in ch. 41 he confounds her witli Hathor, to whom, and not to Isis, tho cow was sacred. As the reclining cow, Isis was called Heset
*
;

61

;

monuments
other joint.

.show that the head was as

"

Really Hathor, see last note,
10

frequently placed on the altars as any

was the moon -goddess at Argos, according to Eustathios, her connection

11.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

149

ai^ovrat irpo^drcdv iravroiv fiaXia-ra fiaKpo)' rwv eXvcKa <yuvf) dvSpa "KWrjva (fycK'^creie av t^ (TTOfiaTi, ovBe fUL-^aipj] dvBpo<i "FiWr)vo<; '^p'qa-erat, ovSe o^eXolai ovBe Xe^rjTL, ouBe Kpeo)<; Kadapov ^oo^ BiareTfMrjfievov 'EiWtjviktj
ofioLtix;

ovT€ avTjp Alyvirrwi oijre

fia^atpj}

fyeixrerai.'

OaTrrovcn
fJ^v 0r)\€a<i

Be
i<i

TOv<i

uTrodvijaKovra^

ySou?

rpoTTov rovBe.

Ta9

rov Trorafibv

dinela-i, Tov<i Be

epaeva<i Karopvacrovat eKacroL iv rola-i irpoaa-reioiac, to

Kepa<i

TO cTepov
Be
TT)v

r)

KaX dfK^oTepa v'ir€pej(0VTa
^

o-tj/jlijlov

eivcKev
i<i

eiredv

aairf]

KaX irpoairj 6 TeTayfJ,€vo<; ^povo<i, diriKvelTat
eK
t^<?

eKaa17

ttoXlv ^dpi<i

Ilpoo-WTrtTtSo? KaXeop.evri<i vrjaov.
eicrl (T'^oIvol

8' e(TTL fiev

iv ro) AeXra, weplfieTpov Be avTij<;
TTJ TlpocrcoTriTiBi vijaq)

evvea.

ev TavTji Siv

€V€i<ri fiev

koI dXXai TroXte?
to,

av^vai,
ocTTea
^

eic

r^?
iepov

Be

ai

^dpie<;
ttj

irapwyivovTai dvaiprjcrofxevat
iroXec
e'/c

Twv

^ooiv,

ovvo/xa
d<yi,ov

'Ara/a/ST/^t?,^
TavTi}<;
Tfj<;

ev

S'

avTfj

A<f)poBLTi]<;

iBpvTai.

TroXto?

TrXa-

voJVTai TToXXot

dWoi
ToXXa

e?

aXXa9

7roXta9, dvopv^avT€<i Be

aTrdyovcrt koX OdirTovau e? eva '^(opov TrdvTe^.

Ta ocTea kutu TuvTa Be

Tolac fioval koX
trepX

KTijvea OdirTovo-c dirodvrja-KOVTa' koI
vevofiodeTijTai'

yap
ovBe

TdoTa

ovto)

cr^t,

KTeivovat,

yap
rj

Br)

TdoTa.
"O(T0L /Mev
("^Tj^aLov
el(7i,

Bt)

Ato9

077/3ateo9

XBpvvTaL
6io>v

Iepov

vofiov

tov 42

ovTOi

fiev

vvv

irdvTe^

dire'^OfievoL
op,oi(o^

alya<;

OvovcTL.

deov<;

yap

Br)

ov Tov<i avTov<i diravTe^i

AiyvTTTioi

cre^ovTau, TrXrjv "Itrto? re KaX 'Octpto?,
with Argos

tov

Br)

Aiovvaov elvai
See ch. 153, note

being

really

due

to

the
of

the crescent-horns."
9.

identity of sound between the

name

the city of Argos and that of Argos, the

^

The Egyptians considered the Greeks
not only

"bright" sky, with its thousand eyelike stars {which Here (swara, "the heaven,") had deputed to watch 18. 18 originally meant "the wanderer," from ya "to go" (whence elfu, ire, etc.);
hence the story of her wanderings. The moon goddess was given the horns of a cow from her crescent shape. South-

(like other foreigners) unclean,

because they killed the cow, but also
because they ate swine's
flesh,

and did

not practise circumcision.
agreed with their
descendants.

In this they

modem Mohammedan

8 Egyptian bari, "a Nile boat," already found on monuments of the eighteenth

ward of
its

Cairo, the

new moon

rests

on

dynasty.
" Pros8piti8 lay between the Kanopic and Sebennytic branches of the Nile

back, instead of one of

its

horns,

making the likeness to the horns of a cow very complete. Hence it was that the cow was sacred to the moon. It is
probable, however, that the Greek legend which connects the cow with 18 was

;

Atarbekhis being Aphroditopolis, or "the It is im|)ossible to city of Hathor." suppose that all the bulls of Egypt were
buried there, or that the Nile was
luted by the corpses of heifers.
j)ol-

derived from the Phoenician conception
of

Herod-

the

moon -goddess "Astarte, with

otos has here found another mare's nest.

150

HERODOTOS.
tovtov; Be
6fioico<;
r]

[book

Xeyovcrf

airavre'i

ae^ovrat}

oaoi

Be

tov
Bik

M.evB7)T0f; €KTr)vTat lepov
al'yoiv
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vw

xal

oaot,

rovTov<; oiwv aTre'^ovrai, Bia TaBe Xeyovcrt rov v6/jlov rovBe
redrjvai.

a-(f)Lcri

'HpuKXea deXrjaai,' 7ravTCi)<; IBeaOat tov Aia koI tov ovK ideXeiv 6<f>67jva(, vir avTov' TeA.09 Be, eVetVe Xiirapelv tov 'UpaKKea, tov Aia firf'^avqa-aadat Kpibv exBeipavTa irpoe-vecrOaL Te TTjv Ke^aXrjv airoTaixovTa tov Kpiov, koX evBvvTa to vdKO<;
aire tovtov KpiOTrpocrcoTrov tov Ato? TwyaXfMa iroieovac AlyvTTTtot, dvo Be AIjvtttlcov ^Afificovioi e6vTe<i AtyvTTTLWv Te koI Aldcoirfov uttoikoc koX <f)Q)vr)v fieTa^if
ovT(o 01 €(ovTov €7rtBe^ai.
. .

,

dfl<f)0T€pC0V VOfML^OVTa.

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fJbOL,

Kol TO OVVOfUt ^ AfXfMOVCOL
^A/xovv

diro TovBe a-<^icn ttjv eTreovvfiirjv eTroirjcravTO'
Tiot

yap Alyinr-

KoXeovcn tov Ata.

tov<; Be Kpiov<i
ixtfj

ov Ovovat ^rj^aioi, dXX'

elal

a^L
At6<i,

lepol

Btd tovto.

Be ^fiepj} tov eviavTov, ev opTrj

TOV

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ivBvovat Ta>yaXfia tov Ato?, koI eirecTa
rrrpoadyovo-c 7r/309 avTO.
Trepl TO lepov diravTe'i

dWo

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^

TdoTa Be

iroLrjaavTe^

oi

tov Kpiov kol eireiTa ev

lepfj OrjKri

ddnTOvai

avTov.

43

'Hpa/cXeo? Be irepi TovBe tov Xoyov rjKovaa, oti

etij

t&v

Bvto-

Bexa deS)V'^ tov cTepov Be

irepi 'Hyaa/cXeo?,

tov "EiXXr}ve^ oiBaai,

^

The Egyptian

local,

deities were originally but were united into one pantheon

"

The ruins of Mendes (Egyptian

Pibi-

neb-tat) have lately been excavated eleven

after the unification of the empire.

The

god of a city or nome, however, continued to be honoured as its chief deity, as, e.g. Amun at Thebes, or Ptah Some local deities never at Memphis. became national, and the sacred animals or totems of one district were not sacred in another. Thus the crocodile was worshipped at Ombos, Athribis, and the region of Lake Mceris, but abhorred and hunted down at Dendera, Herakleopolis, and Apollinopolis Magna. Tlie extension of the Osiris myth throughout the whole of Egypt indicates its rise after
special

miles east of Mansurah (on the Damietta branch of the Nile). The god Mend^
is

probably the Egyptian Ba-en-Tat,

also called Ba-neb-Tat

("the

soul, the

lord of Abusir ")
'

who

is

ram-headed.

the foundation of the united monarchy

means '"the hidden one," as and this, coupled with his ram's head when representing Khnum or Knuph, no doubt gave rise to the myth. Hcrakles is Khunsu or Khons (also Shu), who, with Amun and the maternal principle Mut, forms the Theban Triad, and as being "the destroyer of enemies " and" the wandering moon-god, was identified with Heracles by the G reeks.

Amun

Manetho

rightly stated,

Goats were naturally offered Amun (-Knuph), who came to absorb all the other members of the pantheon after the rise of the Theban
to the ram-headed
dynasties.

by Menes.

• •

See ch. 32, note

4.

"Strike

themselves

{i.e.

lament)

for the

ram."
are probably an
;

The twelve gods

invention of the Greeks

comp. the altar

...]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
AlyvTTTov iSvvdaOrjv axovcrai.
Kal
fir)v

151

ouSafij]

ore ye ou irap

'EWj/t'coi/

I

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icTTi

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iv

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re

tov
Kal
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tovtov

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dir

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to

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to,

koI

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ye Trap* 'l^Wrjvtov eKajSov oijvofid Teo

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^

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wcrTe

tovtwv av Kal fiaSXov
rj

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tov 'H^a«Xeo9.
to? Be

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rt? dp'^alo^ tcTTt deo<i AlyinrTLOLcrL 'YipaKXetj'i'
ecTTi

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ol

cravTa, eVetTe €k twi/ OKTOi

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twv
tl 44

'UpaKXea eva elBevat i^ wv
'Trvvdav6p,evo<i

vofiL^ovat.

Kal Oekcov Be tovtwv irept

<ra<f>e^

olov re ^v, eirXevaa Kal e?

Tvpov

t/}?

^oiviKT]<i,

avToOi elvat

lepov

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dytov.

Kal

elBov

TrXovaicof;

KaTeaKevacr/xevov aXXoiai re rrroXXolcn dva6i]fjuiai, Kal

of the twelve gods in the Troad, and the twelve gods of Etruria presiding over

^

Because the mythologists made

Am-

the twelve months of the year.

Accord-

ing to Manetho, as quoted by Syncellus, after the seven gods for 13,900 years,

^gyptos, and Alkmcue of Perseus, and so of iEgyptos. The Greek Herakles (corresponding with Sansk. suryas, " the sun,"
phitryon the descendant of
for swar-yas,

came a dynasty of eight heroes
Anubis,
Herakles,
Apollo,
Tithoes, Z6sos,

(Ares,

like Hera) is the Tyrian

Ammon,

and

Zeus), for 1255 years

These were followed by other kings for 1817 years, then 30 Memphites for 1790 years, next 10 Thinites 350 years, after whom

(reduced to 189 by Syncellus).

Melkarth, the sun-god, and his twelve labours have their prototype in the twelve labours of the solar hero of the
great Chaldean epic.

came "manes" and demigods

for 5813.

"If indeed the Egyptians." The fii-st divine dynasty contained seven, not eight gods and the demigods
'

;

These prehistoric dynasties ended with Bytis, and were succeecled by Menes. From Hephaestos (Ptah) to Menes were 24,900 years. After Horus, the last of the first divine dynasty, the Turin Papyrus gives Thoth for 7226 years, then Thmei, and then the younger Horus, after whom seems to come a summation of the demigods followed by the name See the end of this ch. of Menes.

were not twelve, but eight, according to The secondary deities were Manetho. In ch. not sprung from the primary.
145 Herodotos reckons 15,000 years from Dionysos (Osiris) to Menes. Since Osiris

was included

in the first divine dynasty,

while Herakles belonged to the second
of demigods or heroes,

Herodotos had
informants.

again

misunderstood

Lis

See ch. 145.

152
ev

HERODOTOS.
(rrrjKaL

[book
d7r€<})6ou,

avrS ^aav

hvo,

rj

fiev

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77

Se afiapdy-

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a-v/jL(f)€po-

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roto-c "EXXtjci,

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^

koI rdora koI

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irevre yevefjai

ev

rfj

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45 erepfp

o)?

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evayi^ov(Ti.

Xeyovai Be iroXXd koI dXXa dvep.vdo'i

TTHTKeTrrco';

ol "EXA-T^i/e?, €v^07)<; Be avrcov koX oBe 6

iari
69
a)9

rov

irepl

rov

'H^a^\eo9
ol

Xeyovac,
AlyvTrrioi
re(o<i fiev

d><i

avrov

dircKOfMevov
i^ijyov

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viro

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6vaovre<i ra>
7r/309 Tc3

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B^

rjav^iijv e'^eiv, iirel Be

avrov
<7<^ea<i

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ifiol fiev

69 dXKr]v rpairofievov

irdvrat
rrj<;

Kara<f)0vev(TaL.
rlcov
(f)va-LO<i

vvv BoKeovai rdora Xeyovrei;
e^eti/

Alyvrr-

xal rcov vofiwv Trdfnrav direipwi
oa-irf

ol "EX,\7;i/e9*
ipcrevtov
first

rouTL yap ovBe Krrjvea
'

0veiv earl
"

%ci>|oi9

vwv xal

The

tf'mple of

Mclkarth stood in

The gold-mines of Thasos were
colonists.

insular Tyre, probably a little southward

worked by the Phoenician

The
jier-

of the ruined Crusaders' Cathedral.

The

two upright cones of stone were the Asherim (mistranslated "groves") of the Old Testament, the symbols of the goddess of fertility, which stood at the
entrance of the
the sun-god.
Phoenician temples of

temple of the Thasian Melkarth haps stood on the little hill of
Ma'shflk ("the beloved,"
i.e.

El-

Compare the two "pillars" Jachin and Boaz ("establishment" and
"strength") at the entrance of Solomon's Temple, which was built by The Phoenicians (1 Kings vii. 21). "emerald" pillar was probably of green glass. Movers makes the pillars the Khammdnim or "sun-images" of the Old Testament. "Tyre is the Heb. ts6r, "a rock." Sidon was considered tlie older settlement.

Adonis the sun-god), facing Tyre at the eastern end of the isthmus which joins the island to the mainland. The title "Thasian"! has probably nothing to do with the island of Thasos. Europa, the daughter of Agenor or Khna (Canaan), and sister of Phoenix and Kadmos, represents Astarte, who, under the form of a cow, was the bride of the bull, the symlwl of the sun-god. The name was first applied to Btrotia, where the Phoenicians were long settled. Possibly it is the Heb. 'ercbh, "the west"; to which a VolkMlymologie has given a Gn^ek ap|

pearance.

See

i.

2,

note

7.

I,.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
KaX
iio<j')((ov,

153

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ocroL
;

civ

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;

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Br)

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Oeoi/^;

elvat ol ^levB'^aioi, tov^ Be oktq)

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^ovT€<! elval fiiv

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ofMoiov rouri
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oreo Bk e'lveKa

TOIOVTOV ypd<f)ovac avTov, ov
Be 7rdvTa<i toi"? alya<; ol

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koI

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fie^ova<; e-)(ov(Tf

ex Be

TovT(ov eva fidXia-ra,

6(ttl<;

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yi.€vBi]<;.

eyeveTO Be ev

tm

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ifieo

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dvOpooTTCov diriKeTO.

tovto

e? eiriBe^iv

*Tv Bk AlyvTTTiot fiuipov
fiev rfv Ti<i yfravcrr)

TjyrjvTai

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Kal tovto ^7

avrSiv Trapicbv vo^, avTolcn Tolcn IfiaTLOccri air
/3d<;

S)v

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iovTC^ AlyvTTTLOt eyyevel<i e? lepov ovBev

twv

ev AiyinrTW i<repovBel<;

yovTai

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ovBe

(T<^t

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dvyarepa
ov

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aXV

eKBiBovTai re ol crv^SiTat, Kal
v<>

dyovTai i^ dXX'^Xayv.

Tolai fiev vvv dXXoio'i deouri dvecv

* According to the legend as found in Pherekydes of Leros {Fr. 33), strangers were sacrificed to the supreme god on the coasts of the Delta by Busiris, who As is plainly the town of that name. this part of Egj-pt was almost wholly

ian deity

is

represented with the feet
,

of an animal.

gods of

The Sesennu, or "eight" the monuments, who gave their
("the water") and Nut,
(3)

name

to Pi-Sesennu or Hermopolis, were

(1)

Nu

(2)

Hehu and Hehut,
and Kekt,

Kek ("darkness")

inhabited by Phoenicians,

it is

clear that

the

myth

is

a reminiscence of the

human

sacrifices

they offered to their sun-god,

who
"

himself had been sacrificed by his
See ch. 43, note
9.

These (4) Neni and Nenit. do not include Khem, and have nothing to do with the eight gods of Herodotos who are explained in ch. 43 (see note
9). ' Herein agreeing with Jews, Mohammedans, and Hindus, as well as with

father El.

Khem
is

is

meant

by Pan.
Panopolia.

Hence Khemmis
Herodotos
together.

the Greek
confuses

here

the

Khem and Mcndes

No

Egypt-

more refined European society.

portion

of

modern

"

154
BiKULeva-c

HERODOTOS.
AlyvTTTioc,
rfj
'^€X'>]vt)

[book

Be

Koi

Aiovvcro)

'

fiovvoicri

rov

avTov '^povov,
tS)V Kpeoiv.

avrfj

iravcrekrjvw, roy? u? dvaavTe<i irareovrav

SioTt 8e tou? v9 ev fiev rfjcn
Ovovcrc,
ecrrc

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oprfjcrc aTreo--

Tvy7]Ka(Ti iv Be ravrr)

fxev

X0709

irepl

avrov

vir

AlyvTTTicov Xeyofievofi,

ifiol fievroc

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iart XeyecrOai.^
iireav
Ova-r), ttjv

dvair}

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rov

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iroLelrai,'

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Kar

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kol CTreira Karayi^ec
iv
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ra Be aXKa

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rfj

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av ra lepa dvaxri, iv
Be Trevrjre^ avrcav vrr

dWr}

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en

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01

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Tc3

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rrj<i

ravra<i

48 Ovovcri?
Ovpecov

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^

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rrjv

aTToBofievo)

rmv av^areaiv.

Be
^

Aiovvcrw

01

AlyvrrrtoL irXrjv '^opwv

dWrfv avdyovcri oprijv rut Kara ravrd a-^eBov irdvra
iarl i^evprjfieva oaov re
Kcofia'i

"^XXrjaf dvrl Be (paXXcov dXXa
TTTj-^vata

a(f>i,

dyaXfjuara vevpoairaara, ra rrepL^opeovav Kara

yvvatKef, vevov ro alBolov, ov TroXXm refo
(Tcofiaro'i.^

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Be

avX6<;,

at Be errovrai delBova-at, rov

Ai6vv(Tov.*

Biorc Be fie^ov re ep^et ro alBolov Kal Kivel fiovvov
ecrrc

49 rov

(Ta>/jbaro<;,

X0709
^

irepl

avrov

iepo<;
t?;<?

Xeyofi€vo<;.
dvai-q'i

ijBt) oiv

BoKel
' Isis

fioL

MeX,a/i7rou9
Osiris.

o

*

A/j,vd€(ovo<i

ravrrj'i

ovk

and

Bnigsch makes

of the body."

Cp. v. 38.

Selene the Egyptian Suben, whose chief
seat of worship
polis).

the ithyphallic

The feast of Min (Khem) took place

was El-Kab (EileithyoDroves of swine have been found represented on the walls of the tombs
*

on the 26th of Pachon, in the time of

Ramses
*

III.

here.

Probably another attempt of HerodSee ch.
3,
9.

Herodotos has confused the feast of Osiris with that of Khem. " Melampous, nephew of Neleos, king
of Pylos, and brother of Bias, the soothsayer,

otos to cover his ignorance.

note
*

was

himself a

prophet and a
ears,

The

civilisation of

China has

dis-

physician.

Serpents had licked his

covered an equally cheap
^

way

of appeas-

and

so given

him understanding
binls

of the

ing the gods with paper figures.

language
the future.

of

and

knowledge of

day of the Ionic feast Apaturia. It here seems to have the general sense of "the beginning of
first

Aopwla was the

He

healed the daughters of

Prcetos with hellebore,

women

of Argos to their reason.

and restored the The

the feast."
read xofpwi', but x^pw** is the reading of the three best, and most
^

introduction of the worship of Dionysos,
ascribed to him, seems to indicate that

Two MSS.

suits the context, the

meaning being that the Egyptians have no choral dances.
' '

*

" In no

way much

less

than the

rest

myth has embodied traditions of " swarth- footed " Phoenicians, and justifies the statement of Herodotos at the end of the chapter.
the

„.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

155

elvat dSaTj'i tlW' e/iTreipo?.
i^T]yT]ad/j,€vo<i

"EXXijai yap Brj MeXa/iTTou? eVrl o Acovvaov to re ovvo/xa koI rrjv Ovair^v koI rov
(f)aWov'
8'

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tov

drpeKew^i

fiev

ou

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trefiirofievov

TOP \6yov
i^€(f)r]vav
'

€(f)r}V€,

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a)v

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rov

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rov

r&J

Aiovvcrw

MeX-a/iTToy?
iroieovcTL

eVrt

o

Kari]yr](Td/M€vo<i,

Koi uTro

rd iroieovai "EW7;i/e<?. iyca fiev ecovrw yevofxevov dvhpa (to<^ov fiavTiKrjv re
TTvOofMcvov dir
KciX
Br)

tovtov ixadovre<i vvv <f>r)fu Me\a/i7ro8a
(Tva-rfjaaL
'

koi

KlyvTTTOv

dWa

re

iroWd

iaijy^aacrOat

EWT/crt
ov yap

Ta

irepl

rov /^lovvaov, 6\iya avrtav irapaXkd^avTa.
ofiorpoTra
fiev
rj

avfiireaeiv ye (p^ao) rd re ev Alyinrrw iroieofieva tc3 6e(p Kal
ev TolcTC "KXXtjo-l'
ecnjyfieva.
rj

rd

yap dv ^v rolai
(fi-^ao)

"E\X,7;o-fc

koI ou
irap

vecoarl

ov

ovSe

oKco<i

KlyvTmoi

'EiKKrjvwv eXa^ov
fioL

tovto

dWo

kov tc vofiaiov.

irvOeaOai Be

BoKet

fidXicrra

MeXayLiTroi/?

rd

irepX

rov Acovvaov

irapd

K.dBfiov re rov Tvpiov Kal roiv crvv
69 rrjv

avrm eK

^oiviKrjf; diriKOfievayv

vvv ^oicorirjv KaXeofievrjv

'^coprjv.

S'X^eBov Be Kal

irdvrwv rd ovvofiara rSiV Oecov ef AlyvTrrov 50
Biorc
fiev

e\7j\vde

e'«?

rrjv

'KWdBa.^

yap ck
BoKeco
8'

rcov
b)v

^ap^dpcov

rjKec, 7rvv6av6/jbevo<i

ovrco evpiaKO)

iov

fidXiara drr

Alyvwrov
<B9
0e/i.to<f

aTrl')(6aL.

on ydp
rdora

Brj firj

TIoaeiBe(ovo<; Kal

AtoaKOvpav,
'larLT]<;

Kal irporepov

fioL

etprjrat,

Kal "Hp7;9 Kal

Kal

Kal ^apcrav Kal IS^rjprjiBcov, rcov dWcov deoiv Alyvirr Loiai aiel Kore rd ovvofiara earl ev rfj x^PV' ^e7<u Be rd Xeyovat. avrol AlyvTrrioi. rcov Be ov (pacri deoiv yivoacTKeiv rd ovvofiara,
ovroL Be
Be(ovo<i'
fioL

BoKeovac viro Tie\aayoiv

ovofiacrdrjvai,, ifkrjv Tlocrei-

rovrov Be rov deov irapd Aifivcov eirvdovro'

ovBafiol

ydp

drr

dp^V^

TIocreiBecovo^; ovvofia €Kri]vrat el
alel.

firj

At'/Sue?,'

Kal
eyd) 51

rcfiwo'i

rov deov rovrov
ovBev.^
'

vofiL^ovcrt

B*

wv

Alyvirrioi, ovB^

rfpaxTL

rdora

fiev

vvv Kal

dXka

irpo'i rovroiai,,

rd

EiWrfve^i dir Alyinrrtav vevofiLKacri' rov Be 'Kpfiico ra <f>pa<TQ}, ayaXfiara opOd e^eLV rd alBola Troieovre^ ovk dir AlyvTrricov

The Chauvinism
his travels,

of Herodotos, if he

' It is tell

a pity that Herodotos does not

ever had any, had been entirely removed

by

and he had the same high

us what was the Lybiau form of the name. But probably he did not know
it.

opinion

of

the Eg)'ptians that

many

In Egj'pt the sea was under the
*

Englishmen have of the French. Not only were "things better managed there," but Greece had to go to Egypt even for its theology. Of course the name of no Greek deity really "came from Egypt."

influence of Tyi)hon (Set),

"The Egyptians
The very

are in no

to heroes."

idea was

way used unknown

in Pantheistic Egypt.

The worship of

ancestors {Upu) was altogether different.

;

156
IMe^adrjKaa-L,

HERODOTOS.

[book

aW'

airo Yiekacr'ySyv irpoiTOC fiev '^W'^vcov aTravrcov

^AOrjvaloi irapaXa^ovre^,
'qB'T}

irapa Be tovtcov coWol.

^AOrjvaioiai

IleXaa-yol avvocKOi yap rrfviKavra e? "KWr)va<i reXiovai koI "EWT/j/e? rjp^avro vofiicrOfjvac. eyivovTO iv rfj 'X^coprj, oOev irep
6aTC<i Be

ra

K.afi€ip(ov

opyia

/j^efivrjrai,^

ra XafioOp^iKe'i

iTrireX-

eov(Tt TrapaXa^ovre'i trapa TVeXatryoiv, ovto<; wvijp olBe to Xeyo)'
TT)v

yap

%a/jbo0pr)LK'r}v

oiKeov irporepov YieXaayoi ovroi ol irep

^A.6r}vaiot<TL crvvoLKOc eyevovro,

Ka\ Trapa tovtoov Sa/ModpijtKe'i ra
0)v

opyta TrapaXa/jb^dvovo'C.

opOa

e'^etv

to,

alBola rayaXfuiTa

rov '^pfiea) ^AOrjvaloc irpSiTOL '^XXrjvwv fiaOovre^ irapa YieXaaol Be YieXaayol lepov riva Xoyov irepl avrov 70)1/ eiroLrjcravTO'
eXe^av,

ra

iv

Tolcri

iv

"ZafJiodpTjUrj

fivarripLoiaL

BeBrjXforai.
eo?

52 edvov Be irdvra irporepov ol TleXaa-yol Oeolcn iirev^ofievot,
iyo)

iv AcoBcovrj olBa dKov<Ta^, iiroivvfiLrjv Be ovS"

ovvofia iiroLBe irpoa-

eovTo

ovBevl

aurcov

ov yhp aKTjKoeadv kw.

6eov<i

ra irdvra irprjyfuna Ka\ 7rdaa<i vofid<i el-^ov. eireira Be -^ovov iroXXov Bie^eXOovTO^; iirvOovro ix Tr]<; Alyinrrov dinyiieva rd ovvofiara
(ovojxaadv
a(f)ea<; oltto

tov toiovtov, otl

Koa-fio)

devTe<;

' '

Beginning to be reckoned among
See
i.

islands

;

the scholiast on ApoUon.
four,

Hellenes."
^

67, note 1.

makes them

(i. 917) Axieros or Demeter,

" Has been initiated into the mysThe Kabeiri were the eight Phcenician Kabbirvm or K6birim, "the strong (or great) ones," of whom Eshmun ("the eighth"), identified with Asklepios, was the youngest. Perhaps they originally represented the planets, Eshmun being a form of the supreme god. According to Sanchonteries of the Kabeiri."

Axiokersa or Persephone, Axiokersos or AkusiAides, and Kasmilos or Hermes
;

and Pherekydes reckoned only three others only two (Zeus and Dionysos). M. James Darmesteter (Mim. de la Soe.
laos

de Linguistiquc,

iv.
'

2) seeks to identify

they were the seven sons of Sydyk or Sadykos,
iathon
{Phil.
11),

Byb.

Sons of God " of Gen. vi. 2, and supposes the legend to have originally run The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and left for them the daughters of

them with the

'

'

:

'

"the
i.e.

just."

The mother
VU.
Isid.)

of

Eshmun

God
of

(i.e.

the seven Kabciridcs or
;

women

(Damascius,

was Astronoe,

Astarte. The Greeks identified them with the Dioskuri, "the sons of

Zeus," i.e. El, the supreme god, who was the father of the seven Titans (a Greek translation of Kabeiri), and of whom Sydyk was a title. Their worship in Lemnos and Samothrake shows that
these islands once possessed Phoenician

Lemnos) the daughters of God slew them." See Herodotos, iii. 37. The old Aryan god Hermes (the Vedic S&ramcyas, the dog of the dawn) was changed into the Phoenician Kasmilos,

who
'

presided over generation.

Qt6i probably stands for

Oeffit,

from
cor-

6t; dha, the root of tWij/u, so that the

etymology of Herodotos seems to be
rect.

which Herodotos calls Pelasgic, i.e. prehistoric Greek writers vary as to their number as worshipped in these
colonies,

At any
its

rate phonetic laws jirevent

us from connecting the word with detu

and

kindred.

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

157

T(ov

Oewv TOiv aWcov, ^lovvaov Se vcrrepov ttoWS iirvOovTO.^
/jL€Ta

KoX

-x^povov
Sr)

i'^7]crT7]pid^ovTO

irepX

t6)V

ovpofidrcov

iv

TO yap fiavrrjiov tovto vevofiicrrat dp-^acoraTov riav "RWtjo-i '^7](TTr]pL(ov elvai, Kal ^v tov ')(^p6vov roiirov fiovvov. iv
A(oB(ovrj'
iirel Siv

i'^prjcmjpid^ovTO iv

rfj

AcoScovr) ol Yie\aa<yo\ el dviXcov-

rat

TO,

ovvofiaTa

ret

diro

t<ov
Br)

^ap^dpav
irapd
Be

ijKovra,

dvetXe

rb

fiavrrjLov '^pdadai.

dirb fiev

tovtov tov y^povov eOvov

toi<tl

ovvofiaac

twv Oewv

^peoofievot'

TleXaa-yoyv "KXXr]v€<;

i^eBe^avTO vaTepov. ov
re

odev Be

iyevovTO e/cao-TO? tmv deSiv, etre 53

aiel rjaav 7rdvTe<;, okoIoI t€ rtj/e?
"jrpcorjv

tu

eiBea,

ovk r^iriaTeaTO
'}\crioBov

fie-^pc

xal

^^e?

ft>9

eiirelv

Xoyco.

yap Kal

"OfiTjpov rfKiKL'qv TeTpaKoatoKTi, eTeai yevea-Oai Kal ov ifKeoaf ovtoc Be
etcri

BoKeo) fieo

Trpea-^vTepoixi

ol 7roci]aavTe<; Oeoyovirjv

"KWr}cn, Kal
T€')(ya<i

Tolcri deotai Td<; eTrcovvfila^; BovTe<i

Kal

Ttp,d<i

re Kal

Bi,e\6vTe<i

Kal eiBea avTOiv

(T7]p.rjvavTe<iJ'

oi Be irpOTepov

twv dvBpojv yeve(Tdai vaTepov, efioiye tovtwv to, fiev irpSiTa ai AQiBa)viBe<; lepeiac Xeyovai, Ta Be vcTTepa Ta i<i 'HaioBov re Kal "OfiTjpov e-^^ovTa
TTOirjTal \eyofievot tovtcov

BoKelv, iyevovTO.

iya> Xeyoi.
^p7]<TT7)pici>v

Be irepc tov T€ iv ''EWiytrt Kal tov iv Ai^vrj 54
e(f)aa-av ol lepel<i

TovBe AlyvTTTioc \6yov Xiyovac.

tov Srj^aUo^

'

The statement

of Herodotos about
is

1100, the author of the
Aristotle

life

of Herod-

the names of the gods

as incorrect as

otos B.C. 1104, Eratosthenes B.c. 1084,

his other surmises about the Pelasgians.

and Aristarkhos in the age of
migration
(b.c.

The Greeks brought most of the names of their deities with them from the early home where they had lived before the But separation of the Aryan family.
Dionysos certainly was of later importation, and came from the east, either from
the Phoenicians or from the Hittites.
• As Homer and Hesiod are here said to have formed the Greek theogony, Herodotos must understand by Homer all that mass of epic literature which in after times was called Cyclic, and distributed among various authors, together with the '* Homeric " hymns. The date of Homer birthplace largely depended on the assigned to him, i.e. to the rise of epic

the

Ionic

1144),

the

Ehians in the ninth century B.C., Euphorion and Theopompos in the age of Gyges B.C. 670. In their present form, however, the Iliad and Odyssey bear traces of the age of Perikles, and the mass of epic and didactic literature which went under the names of Homer and Hesiod must have been of slow growth. Homer is a name rather than a person, and 6n7jpos, "the fitted together," is applied by Euripides {A Ik. 870) to the marriage-bond. Why Herodotos has fixed on his particular date is clear from ch. 145, where he places the Trojan War 800 years before his own
Dividing this 800 years in half gave him 400 years before himself for
time.

poetry,

or

the formation of guilds of

rhapsodists in different localities, particular dates being connected with par-

Homer.
'

ticular places.

Krates placed

him

B.c.

Linos, Orpheos, Musteos, etc.

i

158

HERODOTOS.
Bvo yuvalKa<i
Tr}v
'

[;;uuk

Ato9
KoX

i€p€ia<i

ck Sij^etov e^a-^6fjvai vtto ^oivlkcov,
i<i

fiev avreoiv irvOecrdai,

Ai^vrjv Trprjdetcrav

tt)v Be e?

T0U9

EiWrfva^;,

ravra^; Be Ta<; yvvaiKU^ elvai ra^ iBpvaafi€va<;
iv

ra
fieo

fiavTrjLa 7rpQ)Ta<i

rolai elprjfjbevoKTi eOvea-i.
iiria-Td/xevoc

eipopbevov Be
€(f>acrav
7rpo<i

OKoOev ovrco arpeKe(o<i
^r)rr)(7iv

"Keyovat,

TCbOTa

fMeyaXrjv avro at^ewv yevecrOat, tcov yvvaiKfov rova(f>ea<;

Tewv, KoX avevpelv fiev

ov Bwarol yeveadai,, irvOeadai Be
Brj

55 varepov rdora irepX avreoiv rd irep
Ta>v

eKeyov.
Be

rdora

fiev
<f}aal

vvv ai

ev

%rj^r)(TL

iepewv rjKovov, rdBe
/jL€XaLva<i
e<?

AwBcovaLcov

7rpofidvTie<i.

Bvo 7re\eidBa<;
Be
eirj

^

e'/c

Sij^icov tcov Klyinrttjv Be

Tciiov dvairrafieva'; rrjv p,ev avrecop aTTiKecrOat,

Ai^vtjv

irapd

a<f>ea<i

l^ofievqv
&)?

/mlv

enl

<f)r]yov^

avBd^aadai
Aio<i

^(ovfj

dvOpwTT'qir]

^pebv

ixavrrjLov

avrodi

yeveadai, Koi
avTolai, xal
ol-)(Ofiev't}v

avTOv<;
a(f>€a<i

vTToXa^elv Oelov elvai to
eK

iTrayyeXkofievov

tovtou

'rroLrjaaL.
" Afi/j,Q}vo<;

tt)v

Bk e? tov9 Ai^va<;

ireXeidBa Xeyova-u
TTOielv

'^prjO'Trjpcov

KeXevaac

tov<;

A/ySfa?

eaTL Be koX tovto Ato?.

AcoBtovaLcop Be ai iepelai, TOiv
ttj

Ty
Be

Trpecr/SuTdTT)
Trj

ovvopu

rjv

Upofieveia,

Be fiCTO, ravT7}v Tifia^

peTTj,

Be vecoTdTT) ^LKdvBprj,

eXeyov TdoTa'

avvoofMoXoyeov
iyat 8' e^a>
Ta<i

<T(f)i

Kol ol dXXoL AcoBwvaloi ol irepX to lepov.
TijvBe.
el

56 Trepl avT&v yvcofnjv

dXrjOewi ol ^OLVCKe<; e^^yayop
e<?

tepa? yvpaiKai; Kol tt)p fiep avTecop

Al/3v7]p

ttjp

Be

e? tt]p

EXXdBa
i<;

direBopTO, BoKelp

ifioi,

77

yvprj avTi] t^?
Trj<;

pvp 'EWa8o<?,

irpoTepop Be IleXaayL7]<{ KaXeofiepr)<i
@€a-7rpQ)Tov<i,^

avTrj<i TavTTft;, irprjdfjpaL

eireiTa

BovXevovcra

avToOi

IBpixraadai,

vtto

' "The Theban Zeus." This does not show that Herodotos actually visited Thebes. The "priests" were the beadles who showed him over the temples. Herodotos probably had heard the story he recounts at D6d6na, and when in Egypt took the opportunity of putting " leading" questions to his guides, who

muring of water, and the bronze given by the Korkyreans. See
note
3.

vessel
i.

46,

^ We gather from this that the oracle was served by three priestesses in the time of Herodotos. At an earlier time the prophets of the god were men, be-

longing to the tribe of

Selli (later Helli),

answered accordingly. * The doves were sacred to Di6nc, the
Phoenician
Astarte,

who "washed
the ground."

not the feet and lay on
{11.

xvi.

233

ff.)

This

who

shared
Zeus.
its

the

disposes of the attempt of Herodotos to
rationalise the legend.
*
' '

temple
ireXetdj

of

Ddddna with
colour

or cushat dove

took

The name

Among

the Thesprdtians in what

from

its

"dark"

(ireXtij).

The

oracles of Dddfina

were com-

municated to their interpreters partly through the rustling of the oak leaves
{Od. xiv. 327), partly throiigh the

mur-

was formerly called Herodotos does not mean that all Greece was once called Pelasgia, but only the district of Epeiros, in which Ddddna was situated. It is interesting
is

now

Hellas, but

Pelasgia."

11.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
^((PvKvir} Afo?
lepov, (otTTrep
rjv

169

<f>r]yoi

oIko^ dficfyLTroXevovcrav iv
e-^^etv.

®r)^r]<TL lepov Ato?, €v6a airLKero, ivdavra fiv^firjv avTov

r

CK

Be

TOVTov

"^pTja-Ttjpcov

KaTrjyrjcraTO,

iiretre

avveXafie

rrjv

*EWa8a
inrb rSiv

yXaycrcrav.

(fxivai Be

ol dBe\<f)€T}v iv Ai/3vtj ireTrprjcrdai

avrwv ^oivixcov
rjcrav,

vir

wv koX
<T(f>i

auTrj

i'lrprjOi}.

7re\ecdBe<i 57

Bi fiot BoKeovat
BioTL

KXtjOjjvat. irpo^ AcoBcovaicov

eVt TovBe at yvvacKe*;,
opvicrL
(fjcovfj

^dp^apoi
Be

iBoKeov Be
ireXetdBa
a-<f>i <T(f)C

ofioico<i

(pOeyyea-Oai.

fiera

^povov
rpoTTOv

ttjv

dvBpcoTrrjiT}
r)

avBd^aaOat,
rpoirw

Xeyovcn, eireiTe a-vverd
6pvi0o<;

7}vBa
<f>6

yvvrj'

ew? Be i^ap^dpi^e,
evrel

iBoKei

eyy ea-dai,
;

reo)

dv
Be 58

TreXem? ye dvOpwrrrjirj

(fxovfj

(f>6ey^aiT0

fieXatvav Be \€yovT€<i
rj

elvat rr)v ireXeidBa arjfiaivova-c
liavrriir)
ij

on

Alyinrrirj

yvvrj
r}

rjv.

t)

re iv S'^^rjai rfjai Alyinrrirjcn

koX

iv

AcoBcovrj

irapaTfKrjcriaL dXKrfKrjat
iepSiv
7]

rvy^dvova-i iovcrai.^

eari Be KaX tmv
iravTjyvpLa'; Be

fjMVTLK^

*

a.7r'

Alyvirrov dirLyiievq.
irpuiTOL

dpa
elac

Kal

7rofj,7rd<;

koI irpoaayioya^;

dvOpcoircov

AlyvTmoL

ol iroiTjcrdfMevoL,
firjpLOv Be fioL

Kal irapd rovrcov "^X\.r)ve<; fiefiaOijKacri.
fiev

reK-

TOVTOV ToBe' al

'^povov TTOieofievai, al Be

yap <f)aivovTac ex ttoXKov tco KWrjvcKal i/ewcrrt iTroitjOrja-av.
Travrj-

Havrjyvpi^ovac Be AlyviTTioL ovk dira^ tov iviavTOv,
yvpca<} Be <TV^vd<i, fidXiaTa fiev KaX irpoOvfioTaTa e?

59

^ov^acTcv
"lert*^

ttoXlv

Trj

^ApTefiiBt,^

BevTepa Be e? "Bovaipiv ttoXlv Ty
as

iv

to

find

the ThesprStians reckoned
;

of the half month.
djTiasty were added
Osiris,

Under the twelfth
(12)

Hellenes

D6d6na,

however,

was

an

the feast of
five

Hellenic sanctuary.
' Such an assertion goes to show that Herodotos could not have visited Thebes, * "Divination by means of victims." This has been practised widely over the globe, and was not confined to Egypt and Greece, as Herodotos imagined.
* irpoaar/.

and

(13) that of the Epagoinense.

The
days.
*

feast

or

heb

usually lasted

Sekhet or Bast, the lion-headed and

cat-headed goddess of Bubastis (Pi-Bast, now Tel Bast, near Zagazig), to whom
the cat was sacred, was daughter of Ra, and bride of Ptah, and symbolised sexual passion. Her festival took place on the 16th of Khoiak (about Christmas). Bast (also called Menk) and Sekhet

refers to

the litanies and
to the sound of

hymns which were sung
musical instruments.
principal

Separate calendars

of feasts were possessed by each of the towns.

In the time of the

Empire the festival calendar of Memphis was (1) Feast of the beginning of the year (2) Feast of Thoth (4) of Uaka (5) (3) of the New Year of Sokharis (6) of the greater and lesser
Old
:

were also regarded as 137, note 4.
''

sisters.

See ch.
is

The

site of Busiris

(Abuair)

now
fifth

;

;

famous
dynasty.

for

;

;

pyramids of the So far from being in
its

the

;

burning
of the

;

(7) of holocausts

;

(8) of the
;

manifestation of
first

Khem

;

(9)
;

of Sat

(10)

of the

month

(11) of the first

middle of the Delta, however, it lies beyond it to the south-east of Gizeh. The Busiris meant by Herodotos must therefore be another town, P- User- neb-

I

"

160
ravrrj

HERODOTOS.
yap
Srj
Trj<;

[book
r}

rfj

iroXei iarl fiiytcrrov "lo-to? lepov, 'thpinai Be
/xecrq)

TToXt? avrr]
TrfV

AlyvTTTOv iv

tc5

AeXra*
e?

'lo-t? Be

eari Kara
rfj

'^iSXrjvcov
^

yXdaaav

Arj/M'^Trjp.

rpira Be e? zdcv iroXcv

'UXiov ttoXiv t&J 'HXtw, cktu Be e<» JldTrprjfiiv 'rrefjLTTTa Be e? l^ovrovv ttoXlvi rfj AtjtoI, 60 TToXcv TO) "Apec} e? fiev vvv ^ov^aa-riv irokiv eireav KOfiL^oyvrac,
^AdijvaiT]
7rav7)yvpi^ova-c,

rerapra Be

iroieovcn roidBe.

ifKeovaC re yap

Brj

dfia

dvBpe<i

yvvai^l KaX
Tive<{

iroWov

Ti irXrjdo'; eKarepoov iv eKacrrrf

^dpec

at fiev

twv

yvvatKbiv KporcCKa eyovcrai KporaXi^ovo-i, ol Be

avXeovac Kara
iroXiv

irdvra rov irXoov, ai Be Xotiral yvvaiKe<; Koi dvBpe<; deiBovac xal
Ta<>

'^etpa<;

Kporeova-L.

eiredv

Be

7rXeovTe<;
rfj

Kard riva
Be

dXXrjv yevcovrat, iy^pL/xyjravre'; rrjv ^aptv
at fiev
^ov<TO
rive'i ro)v

yea Troieovai roidBe.
eiprjKa, at

yvvaiKMV
iv
rfj

Troieovcri

rd

irep

rcoOd-

^ocoaat

rd<i

TroXet ravrrj yvvalKa<i, al Be op-^eovrai,

at

Be

dvacrvpovrat

dvia-rdfievac.

rdora irapd

tracrav

iroXiv

TrapaTTorafXLrjv iroieovcn'

irreav Be diriKcovrai e? rrjv Bov^aa-riv,
6lvo<i dfnreXLvo<i dvaicri-

oprd^ovcn fieydXa^j dvdyovre^ 6vaia<i, koI
fiovrai
irXecov

iv rfj

oprfj

ravrrj
o

rj

iv rut diravrc iviavru) rut
dvrjp

iTTcXoiTra).
rraiBiaiv,'^

avfKfyoireovai

Be,

n

koI

yvvrj

iart

vXrjv

Kal e? efiBofiijKovra jxvpidBa'i,
Brj

&>? ol iirf^copioc

Xeyov<n.

61 rdora fikv

ravrrj iroielrav, iv Be ^ovaipi iroXei to? avdyovci

ry

"Itrt rrjv oprriv, etprjrat

irporepov fioc rvTrrovrai yap

Brj

jiera

rrjv Ovcrirjv 7rdvre<;

Kal irdaac, fivptdBe<i Kdpra TroXXaX dvOpunrwv'
fioi

rov Be rvrrrovrai^ ov
elcn iv

oauov iart Xeyeiv.
Be

oaot Be K.apa)v
ere 7rXe(o iroieovo'c

Alyvirrw

olK€ovre<i, ovroi

roaovrw

rovrcov ocrw Kal rd fiercoira Koirrovrai jia-^aipyat,}
Tat,

KaX rovrtp

or rather Tatta,
lord.

of

which
4.

Osiris

was
^

See ch.

4,

note

Neith, the "great cow," which gave

birth to the world, and was a manifestation of
Isis, was identified with AthSna on account of the similarity of name. Sais was already famous in the time of

Ares was Mentu - Ra, the warriorwho steers the bark of the sun, and pierces the 8eq)ent Apophis. He is hawk-headed, and is once represented with two heads. Papremis seems to have stood between Menzaleh and Dami^

god,

etta (see ch. 165,
*

the eighteenth dynasty.

Its ruins lie

north of Sd el-Hager, on the Rosetta

and iii. 12). "ThepUgrims, reckoning men and women only, and not children, amount
to. *

arm
"

of the Nile.

The goddess Buto seems to be Uat or Uati, the genius of Lower Egj'pt, symbolised by the winged asp, who was
worshipped at Tep, at the extremity of the Rosetta branch of the Nile. The city of Buto is usually identified with the Egyptian Pi-Utfo in the

Osiris

;

see

ch.

3,

note

9.

The

Egyptians themselves felt no scruple about naming him. * Like the fanatics who gash their heads at Cairo on the night of the
'AshAra.

nome

of Am-pehu.

by Psammetikhos

The Karians were imported I., ch. 152. They are

n,]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
on
elcrl

161
e«?

etVt Brj\oi

^eivoi koI ovk AlyvTrrioc.

^div Bk ttoKlv 62 ra Be Xv-^va avro
e?
tt)v

eireav arvWc'^Oecoo-i, T^pat dvairjcn ev rivi vvktX Xv'yya Kaiov(rc
7rdvT€<i

TToWa viraWpia

irepX

ra Bcofiara

KVK\,q>'

i(Trl ifi^dfjiia efiirXea dX6<i

koI ekaiov,

iTrnrdX.rj'i

Be eTrecrrc

TO iWv'^viov, Kal TovTO Kulerac Travvv'^iov, koI
Kelrac Xv^voKatr).
oi
S'

rfj oprfj oiivofia

av

fif)

eXOaxri
rrju

twv AlyvTrricov

vvKra t^? dva'iT)<i Kaiovai Koi avTol 7rdvr€<i to. Xv-yya, koX ovrto ovk ev ^dt fiovvrj Kaierac dXXd Kal dvd Trdaav Atyvirrov. oreo Be e'iveKa ipoj'i eXa^e koI e? Be 63 Tifjbrjv T) vi)^ avTT], earc te/jo? Tre^t avrov Xo<yo<; Xe<y6/jievo<;. 'HXiov T€ TToXtv Kol ^ovTovv dvaia^i fiovva<; eirneXeovat (poireovirav^yvpiv ravrrjv,
<f>vXd(rcrovTe<i
Te<?.

ev

Be YianrprjpLt

*

6vaia<i fiev

Kal lepd Kard irep Kal
7jXio<i,

rfj

dXXrj iroceova-c evr dv Be yivTjrai KaTa^epT)<i 6
Tcve<i rSiV

oXiyot fiev

iepemv irepl ra>yaXfia ireirovearai,, oi Be iroXXol avrwv
rfj

^vXoiv Kopvva<i €-^ovT€^ eardac tov iepov ev
ev'^a)Xd<; eirireXeovre^ 7rXeove<i

eaoBw, dXXoi re

'^iXiav dvBpSiVy
icrrda-i.

CKaarot

€'^ovre<;

^vXa Kal
ev
repaij) e?

ovrot, €7rt

ra erepa aXet?
iepov.

rb Be dyaXfia ibv
rfj

VT](p fMtKpo)

^vXlvw KaraKe'^pvacofievo) TrpoeKKOfiL^ovac
otKrj/jia

irpo-

XeXeififievoc

rwyaXfia eXKOvai rerpdKVKXov dfia^av dyovaav rov vijov re Kal ro ev rS vtjm iveov dyaXfxa, oi Be ovk ewat ev rolat irpoirvea-rea>re<;

dXXo

oi /xev Br) oXtyot oi irepl

XaioicTL
iraiovtTi

iaievat, oi Be

ev'^coXc/jialot rificopeovre<; rut

Oew

avrov^

dXe^ofievov;.

evOavra

fid'^ij
ft)9

^vXoiai Kapreprj
Bokcq)
oi

yiverac Ke(f)aXd<; re crvvapdao'ovrat, Kal

e7a>

"ttoXXoI

Kal dTToOvrjCTKovaL eK rcov rpwfjidrcov' ov fievroi
e<j}aa-av diroOvrjCTKeLV

ye Alyvirrioi
ck rovBe

ovBeva.

rrjv Be Travrjyvptv ravrrjv

vo/iiaat <f)aal oi iircx^copioi.
r'qv
firjrepa,

oiKetv ev to5 iepo) rovrat rov "Apeo?

Kal rov "Apea d7rorpo<f)ov yevofievov

eXOelv

e^av-

Bpcofievov eOeXovra rfj fiTjrpl (rvfifii^ac,^ Kal rov<i irporroXov; rrj<t fn)rp6<;, ola ovk oTrtwTrora? avrov jrporepov, ov irepiopdv Trapievac

dXXd
rov<i

direpvKeLv, rov Be e^ dXXr)^ 7roXto9 dyayofievov dvOpd>7rov<i

re irpoiroXov^ rpr^'^ew'i TrepKrirecv Kal ecreXdelv irapd rr)v

the
*

Lud

or Lydians of Jer. xlvi. 9,
5. is

and

Ezek. XXX.

wheels of the Hittite chariots, as represented on the Egyptian monuments, have
four spokes.
six,

Papremis

probably the Egyptian

Rem, the name being P-ap-rem, "city The of the (goddess) Ap of Rem." Papremitic nome lay between the Khemmitic and Saitic.
'

Those of Egypt have four, and eight generally six. Persian

chariots usually have eight spokes, but

one given by Ker Porter has eleven. " Herodotos seems to have confounded
the legend of Horus with what he was told about Mentu-Ra.

Chariots with
early

four -spoked wheels

characterise

Greek

coins.

The

162
fjLr/ripa.

HERODOTOS.

[book

airb tovtov tc5 "iS-pec ravTrjv ttjv TrXijyrjv iv ry opry

vevofiiKcvaL ^aai.

64

Kal TO

fir]

fiia'yea-OaL
icrtivat

yvvai^l iv
ovrol
elart

lepoccri

firjSe

d\ovTov<; atro
6pr]crKev(TavT€<i.

yvvaiKMV €9 iepa ol fi€V yap aWot
fievoL

ol irpcoroL

(r-^eSov

TrtivTef

avdpwiroi,,'

TrXrjv

AlyinrTicov

Kol 'EXX'qvcov, fitayovrai iv iepolcn koI airo yvvaiKOJv dvia-rd-

akovTOL iaip^ovrac e? lepov,
irep

vofML^ovT€<;

dvOpdyrrov^ elvat
KT'^vea opdv KaX

Kara

rd

aWa

Krrjvea-

koI yap rd

aXXa
firj

opviOoav yevea o^evofieva ev re rolcn

vrjolcrc

TOiv

Tolcn T€fjL6V€cn' el oiv elvat

tS

Oeat

tovto

(jjCXov,

Oedv KaX iv ovk dv ovSe

65 rd KTijvea
efioiye

iroLelv.

ovtoc /niv vvv rotavra iiriXeyovTe^i iroUovai

ovk dpea-rd.
Trepl
rfj

Alyvirrtot he OprjcrKevovcrt Trepiaawf
8r]

rd re

dXXa

rd lepd KaX
Ac^vrj

KaX

rdBe.

Ofiovpoi;

ov /xdXa

OT]pi(oBr]<;

diravra lepd vevofiicrrai^ KaX rd
dvOpcoTTOicri,
Xiyot/jii,

fiev

iovaa ydp Aiyu7rT0<i icnl' rd Be iovra a(f)i crvvrpo^a avrolcri rolau

rd Be

ov.

rwv

Be eiveKev dveirat,
e?

rd

drjpia lepd

^

el

KarafiaLijv dv

rm Xoyw

rd Oela
vofio<;

irpriyfiara,

rd

iyd)

^evyco jxaXiara
dvayKairj
drjpLOiv

dirrjyelo'Oat,'

rd Be KaX
elrrov.

etprjKa avroiv im-xjrava-ai;,

KaraXafi^avofievo^
e'^cov.

Be

iart

rrepX

roiv

wSe

fieXeBayvoX diroBeBe^arai
drfkeat,
^

rij^

rpo(f)fj<;

'^copi^

eKdcrrwv KaX epcreve^ KaX
rrarpo'i

rwv
Be

Alyvirrlcov, rtov
iv
rfjcrt

7ral<i

irapd

iKBeKerac
cr<f>i

rrjv

rifirjv.

ol

iroXicri

eKaaroi
rj

eif^df

rdaBe

diroreXeovcri'
rj

ev-^oixevoi to5

deco

rov dv
rj

ro

Orjplov, ^vpa)vre<; rtov iratBiwv
ri

Trdcrav rrjv Ke(f)aXr)v

ro tj/iktv

ro rplrov

fiepo<i

t^?

Ke<\)aXri^,

lardai aradfioi irpo^ dpyvpiov
rfj

rd<i rpl-^a<i' ^

rb

8'

dv

eXKvo-r),

rovro

fieXeBtovS rtov 6r}pib}v
in
vii.

^

"The rest of mankind"
See
i.

selves into Babylonians

resolve themand Phcenicians

dveifUvoi

103.

Herodotoa

is

only.
^

199.

probably again making piety an excuse The- true origin of the for ignorance.

are

"All the animals that belong to it considered sacred." S^t is here
with
its original

animal-worship of Egj'pt was totemism. The Egyptian monuments themselves explain it on the ground that the animals were nein-anJch nuUr, "the godhead
living again " or incarnated.
^

sing, in accordance

re-

flexive

meaning

(Skt. *u>a, Lat. *wi, «6t),

which

admitted of no plural forms. was formed after the analogy of that of the first and second personal pronouns, when the reflexive signification had been lost, the dative <r^<ri (which occurs fifty-five times in Homer), being

The

plural

The guardians of the sacred animals

were

all priests, who were called khnem, " guardians, " or priestesses called mendt,

"nurses."

modelled after forms like vavffi, to distinguish it from the sing. a^pt. • "Why the sacred animals are allowed to range at large. " Cp. the use of

"They weigh the hair in a balan* sum of silver. " There was n coinage in Egypt. Though men shaved
^
>

against a

the whole head, tufts of hair were left on the heads of boys, and boys belonging

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
rj

163
fioprjv
rolcri,

B180I,

Be

avT

avrov rdfivovaa
Br)

l'^du<;

irape'^ei

drjpLOKTi.
TC<:

rpo<f)r) fiev

avrolai, roiavrij airoBeBeKraf

to
77

S'

av

T(ov OrjpLwv TovTcov airoKTelyr], rjv fiev eKcov, 6avaT0<i

fjv

Be aeKwv, airoTivec
rj

^rjfiirjv

rrjv

&v l^Lv
dvayKT).
TToXXoJ

tprjKa airoKreivrj, rjv re

av 01 eKwv

i€pel<;

^Vf^h> ra^oovrai. 09 8'

rjv

re deKtov, redvavat

ttoWmv Be eovToav ofiorpocfxov toIctl dvOpcoTrotac OrjpLoyv av en TrXeoy eyivero, el firj KareXdfi^ave tov<; aie\ovpov<i
iiredv reKoxn, at OrfKeaL,
ol Be
Bi^ijfievot

66

ToidBe.
epcreva^i'
(ov

ovkctc <f>oiT€ovai irapk

rovf
tt/^o?

fxiayecrdai avrfjcn ovk e'^ovcri.

rdora

ao<f)L^ovTat

rdBe.

dp7rd^ovTe<i dirb

rwv OrfKewv Kal

vTraipeofxevoi, to,

reKva KTeivovcrc, KTeLvavTe<i fievrot ov iraTeovrat'

ai Be cTTepLcrKOfMevaL rcov reKvcov,
Bt}

dWcov

Be eirtdvfieovcrai, ovrat

aTTiKveovTac irapd Tov<i epaeva'i' (piXoreKvov

yap to

dijpiov.

7rvpKaiTJ<i

Be yLvo/jbevr)<i Beta rrrp'^y/JULra KaraXafi^dvei
ol fiev

Toif(i

aie-

\ovpov<i'

yap AlyvTrrioL Biaa-Tdvre^
inrepdpater Kovre^ rov<i

<f)v\aKd<; e'^ovcrt, rayv

aleXovptov, d/Me\i](TavTe<i a^evvvvac ro Kaiofievov, ol Be aleXovpoc
BuiBvovre<; Kal
dv6pa>7rov<;

iadWovrai

e?

TdoTa Be yivofieva irevOea fieydXa tov<; Alyv7rTiov<; iv OTeoia-c S' av olKLoicn ale\ovpo<i diroddvri KaTa\afi^dvei. diro Tov avTOfidTov, ol evoiKeovT€<; irdvTe^ ^vpwvTat Ta<; 6<f>pva<i fiovva<i. Trap oTeocat, S' av kvchv, ttclv to aCypxi Kal ttjv Ke<f)a\'qv.
TO
TTvp.

dirdyovTai Be ol aleXovpot d'iro6avovTe<i e?
ecovTcav
T7j(TC

lepd<i

(TTeya<i,

evOa 67

OdiTTovTac TaptyevOevTe^i, iv ^ov^dcrTt irokeL'*
TTJ

tcl^ Be Kvva<i iv
OrjKrjat.

CKaaToc iroXet OdtrTovaL iv lepfjcn

w? Be

avTcof;

Kval ol I'^vevTal ddirTovTai.

Td<;

Be fivyaXdf; Kal

Tov<; tpTjKat dTrdryovcri e?

^ovtovv

ttoXiv,

Td<;

Be i^i<; €9 'Etpfieeo

TToXcv.^

Taf Be dpKTov^ iovaa^ airavia';
Te(p

Kal Tov<i \vKov<i ov
Trj

7roW«3

iovTa<;

dXaireKOiv fie^ova<;

avTov Od'rrTovcn
tow?

av
68

evpeOeaxrc Keifievoc.

T&v
lock which

Be

KpoKoBeiXwv

<f>v(Ti<;

eVrl TOtijBeJ

^ec/jbeptoy-

had a long plaited behind the ear. ' It is difficult to understand how Herodotos could have gravely noted down such a story.
to the ruling class
fell

Egypt, old Egyptian Sesunnu,

modem
is

Eshmunen. Hermopolis Parva,
ian Tema-en-Hor, "city of

—EgyptHorus,"—

now Damanhur,
andria.

to the south of Alex-

The

ibis

(Egyptian hib) wtts

As the mummies of cats, hawks, and ibises are found at Thebes and other
*
I

sacred to Thoth, the god of literature,

whom the Greeks identified
as the

with Hermes,

places, P
states.

it

is

plain that they were not
cities, as

hawk was

to Horus.

I I

earned to particular

Herodotos
(Anubis).

Bears do not, and did not (as the
exist in Egypt.

Dogs and

jackals, as guardians

monuments show)
'^

He

of Hades, were sacred to

Anub

rodotos was perhaps thinking of hycenas.

Hermopolis Magna was in

Upper

Herodotos stole his description of

I

164

HERODOTOS.
/j,i]va<i

[book

rdrov;

reaaepa'i icrdlet ovSev,^ iov Be reTpdirovv -^eptracov
i(TTt.

Kal Xifivaiov TO iroWov
iv
Tft)

riKTec

jj,€v

yap wa iv yea KaX

e/cXcTret,

KaX

hiarpL^ei iv rat ^Vp^> "^V^ Be vvKra Trdaav TTora/ioS' depfiorepov yap Brj iaxL to vBcop r?)? re aldpLT]<i
Tr]<i

r)fiipr]<;

Kal

T7J<i

Bpoaov.

irdvTOjv Bk

tmv
to,

'^fielf

cBfiev

6v7)T(ov

tovto i^

iXa-x^icTTOv fieyiaTov

yiveTac
6

fie^ova

TiKTei,

Kal

veoaao<i
i<;

yap (pd '^rjvewv ov iroWS Kara \6yov rov atov yiverai,
fiev

av^avop,evo<i
€Ti.

Be Be

ylverat Kal
6(f)0a\fiov<;

eirraKalBeKa
v6<;,

irrj'^ea'i

Kal fie^cov Kal

e^et

fiev

6BovTa<;

Be

p-eydXav^

'^av\LoBovTa<;
6r)pi(ov

Kara Xoyov
€<j)va-€.

tov

a(ofiaTo<;.

yXcoa-aav Be fiovvov

ovK

ovBe

Kivec

rrjv

Kdrco

yvdOov,

dXXd Kol

yvdOov irpoadyei, rfj Kdro).^ ^X^* Be Kal 6vv^a<; Kaprepov^; Kal Beppu XeircBoiTOV dpprjKrov iirl
rovro fxovvov
Orjpicov rrjv dvco

TOV vcoTov.
are
Br)

TV(fy\,6v Be iv vBari,^

iv Be

rfj

aWpiy o^vBepKearaTov.
opvea Kal drjpia
(f>evyet

Siv iv

vBarc Blacrav 7roie6p,evov, rb crrofxa evBodev <^opel

irav /juearov ^BeWecov.
fiiv,

rd

fiev Bt)

dWa

Be rpo'x^i\o<i elprjvatov ol iarl are otx^eXeofxevw 7rpb<i avrov'

iiredv
eirecra

yap
)(^dv7)

i<i

rr)v

yrjv

iK^fj

iK rov vBaro<; 6 KpoK6Bei\o<; Kal
di<;

(ewOe yap rovro
Be

iTriirav rrouelv irpo'i

rov

^e(f)vpov),

ivdavra

o rpo'^t\o<; 6

iaBvvcov e? ro arofia avrov Karairivei rd<i
rjBerai,

^BeXka<i'

oo<^e\e6p,evo^
Br)

Kal

ovBev
lepoi

aiverai
ol

rov

69 rpo-^iXov.

rolcn fiev

rdv Alyvirriwv
\ifjbvrjv

elat

KpoKo-

BetXoL, rolat Be

ov* dXfC are irdXefiiov;

irepLeirovai,'

ol Be irepL
ijyrjvrai

re Si]^a<; Kal rrjv M.oipLO<;

OLKeovref Kal

Kdpra

avrovi elvai iepov^' iK irdvrwv Be eva eKdrepoi rpetpovac KpoKOBeiXov BeBiBayfievov elvai
"^fetporjOea,

dprijfiard re XiOiva

yyrd

*

Kat -^pvcrea
6iov<i 7roBa<i,

e<>

ra (ora

iv0€vre<; Kal

dfjL(f>iBea<i

irepl rov^i ifiTrpoaleprjia,

Kal cnria diroraKrd BiBovre<; Kal
i^wvra<i'

Kal irepue-

irovre'; co?

KdWiara

diroOavovra'i Be Odirrova-i, rapf^ev-

ovre<i iv lepfja-i dtjKrfcn.

ol Bk irepl ^KXefpavrivrjv ttoXiv oiKeovre^

the crocodile, hippopotamus, and phoenix

has
*

now disappearwl from

the Nile north

from
12, 6).

Hekatffios

(Porj)hyr.
;

ap.

Euseb.

of the First Cataract.

Prcep. ev. x. 3, p. 466

B Hermog. ii. The inaccuracy of the descripthat

Contrary to fact. Its lower jaw really moves down-

tion

shows

ho

never

took

the

wards, though the
to detect.
^

movement

is difficult

trouble to verify the statements of his
authority, and casts a strong suspicion upon other parts of his account of Egjpt, which may have been similarly taken, without acknowledgment and verification,

This

is

absurd.

*

An

equally absurd statement.
is

* *

This

a pure myth.
1.

See ch. 42, note

from older writers.

The

crocodile

• i.e. glass.

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
-q'yeofievoi

165
etvat.

Kol ia-Oiova-c avTov<i ovk

iepov<i

KoXiovrat 8k

aXka '^a^y^at' KpoK6heC\.ov<i 8e ecKa^ovTef avrwv ra etSea rolac irapa acfiLcn
ov KpoKoSeiXot
8etXocac

"Icovet wvo^acrav,

yivofievocaL KpoKo8e
acfjecov

Tolcn

iv

rrjat

alfiaaLfjcri.
r)

aypai

ttoWoI 70
airr}-

KaT€cna<TL xal iravrolai'
y^(Tio<;

8'

Siv

e/xoiye

SoKel d^KOTarij
SeXedcrrj

elvai,

ravrr^v

ypd<f>o).

iiredv

vwrov v6?

irepX

dyKiarpov,

fieTiec e? fieaov

rov irorafiov, avT6<i Be eVl rov ^et\eo9
ravTrjv Tvirrei.
kiraKovaa<i Bk

Tov TTorafiov
Tpj<i
(f>(iivi]<;

€'^cov 8€\<f>aKa ^corju

o

KpoKoSeiXof; 'Urav
oi 8e

Kara

rrjv ^(ovrjv, ivTv^^cov 8e

tS

vcoTO)

KaraTTLvei'

eKKOvcn.

iiredv

8e

e^eXKvcrOrj

e?

yrjv,

rrpwTov dirdvTcov o
6(f>da\/jLov<i'
fj,Tj

6r)pevT7)<;
7roiij(ra<i

irriXut

Kar

tov eirXaa-e

avrov tou?
'^etpovTai,

rovTo Be
Xinroi
ol

Kdpra
"^

einrereoi^

rd XoLird

7roi^(Ta<; Be

tovto avv ttovw.
TroTdfiioi

Oi
eicTL,

Be

vop,^ fiev to) HaTrprffiiTy lepoi 71
(pvaiv Be irape-

TO tat Be dXkotcrt Aty VTrrioicn ovk iepoL
IBirj'i

"^ovrat

rotrjvBe '
e'^ov

rerpdirovv

ecrrt,

Bi^rjXov,^

oirXal

^o6<i,

(Tifiov, Xo(f)tr}v

'iinrov,^

'^avXtoBovra^; (jyalvov, ovprjv ittttov^

Kal <^a)vrjv,^ fieyaOo<; oaov re fiov<i 6 p^eytaro^ ^ ro Bepp,a 8' avrov ovToy Bij rt ira^v eart axrre avov yevop^evov ^vcrrd irotelrat aKovrta ^ ef avrov.

Vtvovrat Be Kal evvBpte<i
eivat.
vopbi^ovcTL

^

ev rat irorap,^, rd<i tepd<i rjyrjvrat 72

Be Kal rSiV I'^Ovwv rov Ka\e6p,evov XeirtBoirov

iepov elvat Kal rrjv ey^^eXw,'' iepov<i Be rourou? rov
elvai,
6pvi<f

NetXou

(pacrl

Kol ra>v opvldcov tov? '^r)vaXd>7r€Ka<i.^
te/309,

ecrrt Be

Kal dXXo<; 73
ei
p,rj

Tw

ovvopxi <f)olvi^J

iyo) p,ev p>iv

ovk elBov

*

In old Egyptian the crocodile was

trilateral at the end, is unlike that of

a

em,-suh (motlem Arabic, timsahh), em-stih

horse.
^

meaning "that which (is) from the egg." The lonians are the Greek mercenaries of Psammetikhos I. ' In the time of the Old Empire the hippopotamus inhabited the Delta, as appears from a picture in the tomb of
Ti (an official of the fifth dynasty) at Sakkarah. In the time of Pliny (N. IT. xxviii. 8), it was still found in Upper
Egypt.
St.

It does not neigh.
It is far larger

2

than the ox, averag-

ing sixteen or eighteen feet long.
8

Herodotos

means

whips
otters,

("kurhe has

bashes.")
• If

Herodotos means

made a
"

mistake, as otters do not exist
these should be added the oxy-

in Egypt.

To

John describes

it

as exist-

rhinchns.
*

ing opposite to Abii-Simbel forty or fifty years ago, but it is now not met with north of the Tliird Cataract. * It is not cloven-footed, but has four
small toes.
'

The Nile-goose was the symbol of
was not
sacred.

Seb, the earth-god, but
^

The bennu, "Phoenix,"

or bird of
It

Ra, was worshipped at Heliopolis.
is

the k/u)l or khul of Job. xxix. 18.

The

It

has no mane, and the

tail,

nearly

periotl of

500 years represents the 1500

;

166
ocrov <ypa<l)^'
ft)9

HERODOTOS.
koI yap
Bt]

[book
eTrccfyotrd
<7(^t,

koI

cr7rdvio<i

8l

irecov,
(JhktI

''HXioTToXlrai Xeyovcri, irevTaKoaicov
6
Trarrip.

(f)oiTdv
rfj

Be

totc

iiredv ol dirodavrj

ecm

Be, el

ypatpfj 7rapofioio<i,

ra fjuev avTov '^pvaoKOfui tmv irrepoiv ra ra fxakicrra alerm Trepcijyrjcrtv 6fioi6TaTO<i koX to tovtov Be Xeyovat fJirj-^avacrOaL rdBe, ifiol fiev ov /jbeya6o<i.^ i^ 'Apa/3i779 opfieofievov 69 to lepov tov 'HXiov TTLara \eyovTe<;.
roaoaBe Koi
Be ipvdpd'
roLocrBe£9

KOfii^eiv TOV iraTcpa iv crfivpvjj

efiirXdcraovTa koX ddirTetv iv tov
ovtq),

'HXiof

TO)

lepS'

KOfJLL^eLV

Be

irpoiTov

Trj<;

afivpvT]^;

mov

avTo (f)opeovTa, eiredv Be diroTreiprjOfj, ovtw Btj KoiXrjvavTa to wov tov iruTepa €9 avTO ivTiOevai, a/jLvpvrj Be dWrj enirXdaaeiv tovto KUT o Ti TOV wov eyKotXrjva<; iveOrjKe tov iraTepa, eyKei/xevov Be TOV 7raTpo<i yiveadat twvto ^dpo<;, ifXTrXdaavTa Be KOfxi^eiv ficv TdoTU fiev tovtov tov eir AlyvTTTov 69 tov 'HXlov to lepov. 74 opviv XeyovcTi iroielv. elal Be irepX %r)^a^ lepol o(f)ie<i, dvOptoircov
irXdacreiv ocrov re BvvaT0<; ecTTt
(f)epeiv, fieTo,

Be ireipaadai

ovBafjbOi^

Br]\'^fjbove<i.

o't

fieydOec
Trj<i

eovTe'i

afJUKpoX

Bvo

Kepea

(f>opeovcn

Tre^vKOTa i^
to3 lepay

dKp7]<i

Ke^aXrj<;, Tov<i

OdirTovai dtro-

OavovTa^ iv
75 ecvaL
lepov<i.
K7}

tov Af09* tovtov yap
Trj<i

<r<f)ea<;

tov Oeov

(f)aa-t

eaTC Be ^cbpo';
Keifievofi,

^Apa^i7}<i KaTo,

^ovtovv ttoXiv
elBov 6<JTea

fidXicTTd
fievo<i
6(f)LQ)v

koI

e<i

tovto to -^copiov rfkOov irvvdavodirLKOfievo^ Be

irepX

tmv

TTTepcoTtov

6(f>lcov^

Kol dKdvda<i irXridet fiev dBvvaTa dirT^yrjaaaOai,, acopol Be

rfaav aKavOecov Kal /xeydXoc xal viroBeeaTepoi Kal €Xdaaove<i ert
TOVTcov, TToXXol Be Tjaav ovtol.

eaTi Be o ^wpo'i ovto9, iv

tm

at

and 500 years required for the soul after death to wander in search of purification
its

otos actually visited the spot he describes.

He

seems to have attempted to give

connection with the Phoenix

is

due
it

probability

and

local

colouring

to

a

to the association of the latter with the

traveller's tale
it

sun.
said
:

In the Book of the Dead
' '

ia

in the first

he had heard by telling person. Neither Tep nor
(see ch. 59, note

The Bennu

is

Osiris

;

in Helio-

Pi-Ut(S in

Upper Egypt

polis the verifier of things visible

and

invisible is his

body ...

it is

an age
it

and an
*

eternity."

Had Herodotos
it

actually seen

upon

the monuments, he would have
that
'

known

was not an eagle but a heron. cerastes or horned viper was not sacred, and is extremely venomous. The equally poisonous asp, however, was sacred to Khnum, and \s'as the symbol of the goddess Ranno. * It is difficult to believe that Herod-

The

by the means the Arabian side of the Nile. The winged serpenta belong to mythical zoology, and were perhaps suggested by the monumental snakes with bird's wings and human legs. The gorge reminds us of the vallatter

9) were opposite Arabia, unless

Herodotos

ley of the roc in the Arabian Nights.

Hero<lotos can hardly have believed that

was only one entrance into Egj'pt from the east for winged creatures. See iii. 107.
tliere

I

I,.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

167

ireBlov fieya'

uKavdat KaraKe')(yaraL, roioaSe Tt?, ia-^oXt) ef opiojv (neivoiv it to Be irehiov rovro cvvdirTei t^ A.l<yxjTrTi(p TreBltp.
Be
icrrl

I

\6yo<i

afia tc3 eapi Trrepcorovf
ra<i

6(f)t<i

e'/c

Ti]<;

*Apa^ir}<i

ireTeaOat
Tr)V

eV

AiyvTrrov,
TavTT}<;

Be

tySt?

ra<i

6pvida<i d7ravTa)<ra<i e?
Tov<i

ea^oXijv

r^?

'^cop'q'i

ov

Trapievat,

6^L<i

oKkk

KaraKTeiveiv.

koI

rr^v

l^iv

Bid

tovto

to

epyov

reTCfirjaOat

XeyovcTL ^Apd^ioc fjbeydXoj'i

tt/jo?

AlyinrTicov ofMoXoyeovcrc Bk Koi
6pvida<i ravTa<i.
€iBo<;
<f)op€i

AlyvTTTioi Bid rdora Tifidv
/lev X^iot ToBe'

Td<i

Be

t^<?

76

fieXaiva Beivw'i irdcra, uKeXea Be

yepdvov,

TTpoatoTrov Be e?

rd fidXicrra iiriypmrov,

p,eya6o<; ocrov Kpe^.
6(f)i<;

fiev Br) fieXaiveeov rSiV fia^ofieveav irpo^i tov<;
8'

ijBe

iBeT),

ev TTOcrl fidXXov eiXeo/jLevewv Toicri dvOpdoiroicri
X^ie<i)
"sfriXrj

{Bi^ai

rwv r&v ydp Bi]
XevKrj

elai

rrju

Ke<^aXr)v

koi

ttjv

Beiprjv

Trdaav,

mepolcn
Beiv(t)<i),
6(f>io<;
T)

TrXrjp Ke^aXrj<;

xal rov av^evo<i Kol

dxp^v
rfj

tSjv irrepvyoiv
icrri

KoX rov irxjyaiov aKpov {rdora Be rd elirov irdvra fieXaivd
(TKeXea
/jiop<f>T)

Be
oiT)

koi
irep

irpoaccnrov

ifKpeprjs;

ereprj.

rov Bk

r&v

vBpcov, irriXa Be ov irrepcord (f)op€i
ktj

dXXd

roiai

rr]<;

vvKrepiBof irrepoicri fidXicrrd lepwv elprjcrOw.
o'i

efi^epecrrara.

roaavra

fiev drjpioiv irepi

Avrcov
AiyuTTTOv
Be

Be

Brj

Aiyvirricov
fivijfJiTjv

fiev

irepl

rr)v

cnreipofievqv

^

77

oiKeovcri,

dvOpatirwv

Trdvrcov

eiracTKeovref;

fidXicrra Xoyi(oraroi
Tp6'ir(p
^6T)<i

eicri

fiaKpo) rcou iyd) €9 Bidireipav diriKOfiTjv,
(rvpfxai^ova-i
rrjv
rpei<i rj/jbepaf

roiwBe Bia'^pecavrai.

eire^'i

fir)vo<;

eKdarov, i/xeroiai

drjpco/jbevoi

vyieirjv

koi kXv-

afiaai, vofiL^ovre<; diro

rdv

rp€(f)ovrcov airicov irdcra'; rd<i vovcrov<;

ydp Ka\ aXX&>9 AlyvirrioL rwv oipeoiv ifioX BoKeiv eXveKev, on ov fieraXXda-crovai ai wpai' ev ydp rrjai fiera^oXfjai roZai dv6p(07roi(ri at vovaoi fidXiara yivovrai rwv re aXXwv rrrdvroiv Kal Brj koi rwv oopewv fidXiara. dproi^ayeovai
roi<Ti dv6pa>7roiai yivecrdai.

eial fiev

fierd Ai/Sfct?

vyiTfpecrraroi

nravrcov dvOpcoircov

Bh

eK rSiv

oXvpecov
oXvcp

iroieovre^;

dprov<i,

rov'i

exeivoi

KvXX^<Tri<;

6vofid^ov(Ti.

Be eK

Kpidecov

ireiroirffievw

Bia')(^pe(ovrai'

ov

ydp
^

a<f>i

elal ev

rfj

"X^copr)

dfiireXoi.^

I'^Qvuiv Be rov<i fiev 7r/309

" Of those who most go to and

fro

gives a variety of prescriptions for their

among men."
versari.
*

Cp. the use of the Lat.
as

treatment, which read like doctors' prescriptions of the present day.
'

Upper Egypt,

opposed

to

the

This

is

a mistake.

Vines were

culti-

raarshes of the Delta,
* The Papyrus Ebers, the great medical papyrus of the sixteenth century B.C.,

vated throughout Egj'pt, especially in the neighbourhood of the Mareotic Lake,

describes a large

number

of diseases, and

Memphis, and Thebes Wine {erp) was much drunk by the upper classes, the

168
"^Xiov avi]vavT€<i
fi€vov<;.

HERODOTOS.
w/iou? acreopTai,, toi»9 Be i^
TOv<i
ui/xa
a\fiT)<j

[book

rerapi'^ev-

opviOwv he
ToiV opvidicov
rj

re

6pTvya<; koI

ra<i

vrjcraa^

kuI ra

(XfitKpa

(Ttreovrat TrpoTapu'^eva'avre'i.
(r<f)t

ra

8'

aWa
78 rat.

acra

opviOav

rj

I'^dvcov

earl i'^ofieva,

%ci)/3i9 rj

oKoaoL

a<^L lepol uTToSeSi'^aTai, Tov<i XotTrou? otttoi/? koI €(f)6ov<; airiov-

iv

8e rfjcn (rvvovaiija-t rolcn evSaLfioat avrwv, eireav airo
yevcovrat,,
7r€pt(f3epei

Beiirvov

avrjp

veKpov

iv

(Topu>

^vKlvov

•jreTTOLTjfjbevov, /Me/MLfirj/jievov

e?

ra fidXiara Kol
rj

ypacfyfj

koI epyw,

fiejado^ ocrov re \7rdvrrf\ ir'q'^valov rSiv crvfiTToricov Xeyei " €<? rovrov

Sivrj^vv, B€CKvv<i Be eKaarfo

eaeat yap drroOavcov roi,ovro<i."
79 TTOieovat.
Trarptoicn Be '^pecofjuevoi

opewv irlve re Kal repireo' rdora fiev irapa rd avfi-jroa-ia vofioLcn dXKov ovBeva cTTiKrcovvo/x,i/j,a,

rac

rocaL

dWa

re

eird^id

iarc

Kol

Brj

Kal

aeiafia

€P icrrc, AtVo?,' ocnrep ev re ^olvlkt) dolBLfj,o<; eari Kal ev ILvTrpco
Anand Koptos, the Teniotic, Sebennytic, and Alexandrian. Wine is represented in the tombs of the fourth dynasty, and the monuments mention " white wine," the wine of Lower Egypt, southern wine, and "fisher's wine," bebest kinds being those of Mareotis,
thylla, Plinthine,

lauds of Scotland, he would have heard
there the same
air.

According to Athe-

naeus {Deipn. xiv. p. 620),

Nymphis made

sides wines imported

from Syria.

Beer

was only drunk by the poorer classes because it was cheaper than wine. It was called heka, and was as old as the
time of the fourth dynasty. Two kinds of beer were also imported from Kati (to the east of Egypt), alcoholic and
mild,

the

latter

being

employed

in

medicine.

Spirits were
is

made from must,
of spiced wine.

and mention

made
II.

A
*

cellar of Seti

contained as

many

as 1600 jars of wine.
*
'

ManerOs a youth who went to fetch water for the reapers and never returned, like the youths of European legend who are carried away by the water-spirits. The "first king of Egyjit" woidd not be Menes, but Ptah. ManerSs is the Egyptian ma-n-hra, "come back to me," the words of a refrain in which Isis mourns for her lost brother and husband, Osiris. Linos is the same as AlXtvos, the refrain of the Phoenician lament (at ISnu, woe to us "), which was introduced into Greece, where it was supposed to " Woe, Linos." Hence the mean, mythical name Linos. The lament was sung throughout the Semitic world by
' '

With both painting and

carving."

the

women,

"weeping

for

Tammuz"

Many months

often elapsed between the

embalming of the corpse and its removal to the tomb, during which liturgical services were held over the mummy and funeral feasts were made. The introduction of the

Dumu-zi, "son of life," or "only son"), called adoimi, "lord" (Ad6nis) in Phoenician, Duzu (whence the Greek Thoas and Theias) in Assyrian, Tammuz in Heb(the old Accadian

sun -god

mummy into

tlie

banquet, no

doubt, took place at the latter.
^

"The air of Linos"

(see II. xviii. 570).

rew (Ezek. viii. 14), Attys in Phrygia and Lydia, Bormos in Bithynia, ami Hylas in Mysia. Byblos (Gebal) was
the chief Phcenician seat of the thrto
days'
boar's

As Herodotos did not understand Egyptian, it is

only the air that he can be

mourning

for Adflnis, slain
;

by the
the

melody of most primitive peoples is the same, and had Herodotos travelled in the Highplaintive

referring to.

The

tusk of winter

and

after

introduction of Egyptian influence into
Phoenicia,

and the consequent

identifi-

J

n.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
ep^et, avfi(f>ep€Tai

169
Be tuiTO?

Kol aWrj, Karh fievTOi edvea ovvofia
KoX

elvai Tou ol "FiX\,7}ve<i Aivov 6vofj,d^ovT€<i deiSova-i,
/i€i/

ware ttoWA

aXKa

dirodoovfid^eiv fie

rdv

irepX

AiyvTrrov eovrayv, ev Bk

Bt)

Kal Tov Aivov OKodev eXa^op to ovvofjuf ^aivovrat Be aiel

Kore TovTov delBovref.
Maj/e/3W9.

can

Bk AlyvTrTiarl 6 AtVo? Kokeofievof

e(f>a<Tav Be /mlv

AlyvTrriot tov irpcoTov ^acnXeva-avTo<i
yevecrdai,

AlyviTTOv

iralBa

fiovvoyevea

dtroOavovTa
Tifiijdijvac,

Be

avTov
dot,Bi]v

dvcopov Opijvoiat, TovToiac viro AlyvTrricov
Te TUVTtjv irpcoTrjv Kal fiovvrjv
cr<f)Lcn

xal

yeveaOat.
fiovvoiat

aviK^epovTai Be 80
AaKeBaifiovLota-c'

KoX ToBe

dWo

AlyvTTTCot

'KXK'^vcou

ol veMTepoi avTa>v Tolai irpecr^vTepoLtTi axwTvy')(dvovTe<i eiKovat
T?}?

oBov Kal eKTpdirovTat Kal eiriovac ef
['EXX7;i/a)i/]

eBpT]<i

vTraviaTeaTat.

ToBe fievToi dXXoKTC

ovBap,olcrt

avfi(f)epovTaf

uvtI

TOV

irpoaayopeveiv

dXkrjXovi

ev

Tfjcc

oBolai

irpoaKweovcn

KaTi€VTe<; /^e^pt tov yovvaTO<i ttjv ')(elpa.
\tveov<; irepl
iirl
tcl

evBeBvKacri Be Ki0(ova<i 81

aKeKea

6v(rav(OTov<;,
eifjuiTa

tou9 KaXeovcn KaXaa-ipi^;'
(f>opeovcrt.^

TOVTOKTL Bk elpivea
e<?

XevKa iirava^TjBbv
Be

ov fievToi
a<f)C'

ye

to,

lepd ia(f)epeTai elpivea oi/Be avyKaTaOdTTTeTai

ov yap

ocriov.^

ofioXoyeovat

TdoTa

toIctl

^Op<f)iKol<Tt

KaXeofievotai Kal T^aK'^iKoicri, eovai Be AlyvirTioicn Kal Ilv6ayopeloicn' ovBe
elpiveoiat

yap tovtwv
dacpdfjvai.

tSjv opyicov p,eTe')(ovTa 6<tl6v iaTi ev
ecTTC

e'lfiacri

Be

irepl

avTwv
/i€L<i

lepo<i

\0709
'^fiepr)

Xeyop^vo'^.

Kal TdBe

dWa AlyvirTLOicTL ecTTL i^evprjfMeva,
oko)<;

Te Kal

82

eKdaTT) Oeoiv OTeo eaTi, Kal
eyKvprjaei Kal

ttj eKa(TT0<; rip-eprj yev6p,evo<i oTeoia-t

TeXevT'^crei Kal 6Kol6<i Tif ecrTat.
Trocijcrei
rj

koI tov-

Toiai T(ov '^W'^vcov ol ev

yevofievot i'^prjcravTo}

TepaTa

T€ TrXeco
yevofievov

a(f)L

dvevprjTai

Tolac

dWoiac

diraat

dvOpcoTrotai'

yap

TepaTO<i (^vXdaaovac ypa(f)6p,evot TOiiro^alvov, Kal

cation of Osiris

and Addnis, the

mummy-

a scribe

case containing the limbs of the dead

is represented in a skirt or tunic, which, however, was probably an upper

sun-god Osiris was believed to have been found there. An early Babylonian myth makes Istar (Aphrodite) descend into

garment worn over the
'

kilt.

husband Tammuz. from the sculptures that the usual dress was not a tunic properly BO called, but a kilt extending from the waist to a little above the knee. The woollen upper garment is not represented One or two exon the monuments. amples occur of a kilt with figures, and

Hades
*

in search of her

Wo

find

In a hot climate, where vermin are abundant, the reluctance to use woollen garments was salutary. The "Orphic and Bacchic rites" were importations from the East. ^ " This the Greek i)oet8 have turned Babylonia, rather than to account." Egyi)t, was tlie country from which the
See ch. 37.

West derived
scopes.

its

astrology and

its

horo-

"

170
i]V

HERODOTOS.

[book
vojxl-

Kore varepov irapaTrkrjcnov rovrw yevrjrai, Kara tcdvto
fiavrcKr) Be avTolcrc
77

83 ^ovac atro^rjaeaOat,.'^
TTcov /jb€v

ovBevl irpoaKelrat

re^^i/T;,

wSe ScaKelrai. dv0pQ>tmv Be Oewv fiere^eTepoicrt'
/cal

Kal yap 'Hpa/cXeo? fiavrtjiov avrodc iarl Kal 'ATToWtui'o?
^A67]vaLr)<i

Kol ^ApTifiiBo<; Kal "A^eo? xal At09, Kal to ye fMaXcara
fiavrrjioov,

iv

rififj

ayovTac irdvrwv roiv
ov fievroc
elac.^
a'i
r}

At^toO? ev Bourot 7ro\et

iarL

ye puvrriiaL a<^i Kara roavro ea-rdai, dXTui,
Bk
lijTpCKri

84 Bid(f>opoC

Kara ToBe

a-(f>c

BeBaa-raf
Trdvra
8'

fiirj<;

vovcrov eKa(TTO<i
i<TTi 7r\ea'

lr]Tpo<;

iari Kal ov ifKeovoov.
6(f)6a\fi(t)v Irjrpol

I'qTpwv
K€(f>a-

ol p.ev

yap

KaTeardai,^ ol Be

X^9, ol Be oBovTcov,

ol Be

twv Kara

vrjBvv, ol Be

rmv
dv

d(f>ave(ov

vovawv.
85
e/c

'

6

®prjvoi Be Kal Ta<^aL a<pecov elal aiBe.
TOiv oIklcov dv6p(07ro<;

rolcrc

diroyevr^rai,

rov

Ti<i

Kal \0709
tolctl

y,

rb OrjXv yevo<;

wdv
top

TO €K roiV oIkicov tovtcov Kar
rf

oiv

iirXdaaro

rrjv

Ke^aXrjv irrfKw
\c7r0vcraL

Kal TO irpoacoirov, KaireuTa iv

otKioLai

veKpov avTal dvd

ttjv ttoXlv aTpaxfxofjbevai
fia^ov<i, crvv

TinrTOVTac

eirei^focriievat,

Kal (f)aLVOvcrat tov<;

Be

a-(f)C

al irpoa-^KOuaat irdaai,

eTepwOev Be
01 eir

ol dvBpe<i TVTTTovTai eTre^wcrfievot,

kuI ovtol.

iiredv
elal Be
ox)Tol,

86 Be TdoTa rroi'^acoai, ovtq) e? ttjv Tapt'^evaiv KOfxi^ovai.
avTu> tovtq) KaTeaTai Kal
a(f)i,

Te-)(y'r}v

e'^ovai TavTrjv.
tolctl

eiredv

KOfiLcrdrj

veKpo<;,
ttj

BeiKvvovai

KOfiiaaaL
.

irapa-

Beiy/xaTa veKpoiv ^v\Lpa,

ypa(f)f}

fiefjLL/jirjfieva

.

.

,

Kal

ttjv

fiev aTTovBaLOTaTTjv avTecov <paal elvaL

tov ovk
ttjv

octlov iroLeopuL to

ovvofia

eirl

tolovtw

irprjyfiaTL
TavT7)<i

ovofjid^eLV,

Be

BevTeprjv

BeL-

KvvovaL vTroBeeaTeprjv re
evTe\e(TTdT7}v'
rjVTLva

Kal evTeXecTeprjv, ttjv Be TpLT-qv

<f>pdcravTe<i
a-<^i,

Be

irwddvovTaL irap
tov
vexpov.

avTOiV
ol

KaTa
Brj

^ovKovTaL

(TKevaa-OrjvaL

fikv

' This was true of Babylonia rather than of Egjrpt. 8

dentists
gold.

knew how

to stop teeth with
is

This, however,

disputed by

See eh. 77, note

4.

The standard
to Atho-

Sir
• '

Erasmus Wilson,
' '

work on anatomy was ascribed
this,
*

the successor of Menes.

According to the

Papyrus

Ebers,

Obscure diseases. In the form of Osiris, whose nature the deceased had put on in order to be
justified.
* The mummies show that there were more than three kinds of embalming, According to Diod. (i. 91), the most

there were more than twenty different

kinds of eye-disease. One of the prescriptions given is that of a "Semite" of Gebal, who seems to have been one of the most famous oculists of the
time.

expensive sort cost a silver talent (nearly
£250), the second 22 minse or £90.
ch. 3, note 9.

For

^(ummies found at Thebes have been supposed to show that the Egyptian
'

the religious scruples of Hero<lotos, see

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
fiiaOm
6fjLoXoyij(TavT€<;

171

eK7roBa)V

airaXkdcraovraL, ol 8k inroXei-

irofievoi iv oiK'^fiaa't,
fiev (TKokKfi cnZrjpfo
TO,
fjL€v

trpwra wSe tcL aTrovBaiorara rapc^evovai. Bia rwv fiv^Q)T^pQ)v i^drfov(TL rov i<yKe<^a\ov,

Be Xidq)
Siv

avTov ovTo) i^dr/ovTe<i, TO, he iy^eovT€<; <f>dpfiaKa' fiera AWioircK^ ofet^ 7rapaa-'^ia-avTe<t irapk ttjp TutTrdprjv i^
BctjOtj6vfiii]fjuia-c

elXov TT}v KoikLTjv iraaav, iKKadrjpavTe<i Be avrrjv Kal

cravT€<i otv(p <f>oiviKT]i(p avTi<i Btrjdeovac

Terpifi/Mevoiai'

eireira rrjv vrjBifv crfivpvr}<i dKijpaTov TerpLfifievij^i xaX Kaair)'; xal
TOiv

dWoiv

dvcofidrtov, ttXtjv Xt^avcorov, TrX^cravre'; a-yppdrrrovo'L
TroLrjaavre'i

OTTcao).
r}fiepa<i

rdora Be
Be

rapi'^evovcTL

XiTpa

Kpv-\jravTe<;

i^Bofi^Kovra' 7r\eova<i Be rovrecov ovk e^eart TapL-^eveiv.
irapeXOaxrc

eiredv

at

e^BofiijKovra,

\ovcravre<i

rov

veKpov

KareiKio-crovcrc irdv

avrov to

(Tcofia aLvB6vo<i ^vcraivij<; TeXa/xaya-t,

KaraTeTfiTj/xevoKrc, viro'^piovTe'i

rS

xofific, tc3 Btj

dvrl

KoX\.r)<; to,

TToWd ^pecovrat AlyvTmoi.

evdevrev Be irapaBe^dfievot

fiLv ol

irpo(Tr]KovTe^ Troteovrac ^vXivov tvttov

dv6pwiroeiBea,
7rpb<i

Trotrjad/jievoL

Be eaep^vvcn rov veKpov, koX KaraKXrjLa-avre'i ovtco Orjaavpi^ovai
iv
olKrjfiari,

OrjKaio),

lardvre^ opOov
iroXvreXeirjv
TrX-^crcovrat,

Tolj(ov.
Tov<i

ovtco
Be

fiev

87

Tov<i

rd iroXvTeXecnara aKevd^ovac
TTjv

veKpov<;,
(fyevyovraii

^ovXofievov<i
eiredv
rov<;

Be

rd fxecra aKevd^ovac wBe.
dvaraio-rjOr)-

KXvcrrijpa^;

rov

aTro

KeBpov dXei(^aT0<i

ytvofievov, iv
fi6vTe<i

wv

CTrXijaav rov

veKpov

rrjv

KoiXirjv, ovre

avTov ovre i^eXovre<;
'qp.epa'i, ttj

rrjv vtjBvv,
Trj<;

Kara

Be rrjv eBprjv
^
i<i

cravTe<i

Kal i7riXa^6vTe<i to KXvafia
Be

oiriaw oBov

Tapi'^evovai

Td<; 7rpoKeifieva<;

TeXevTairj i^telcn
r}

t^?

KocXtrjf;

T-qv KeBpirjv

TTjv
ecovrfj

iarjKav irpoTepov.
ttjv

Be e^et TocravTrjv Bvvafiiv

&aTe

dfia

vrjBuv

koI

tu airXdy^va KaTaTeTrjKOTa
Brj

i^dyei' Taf Be adpKa(; to XiTpov KaTaTr]Ket, kcu

XeiireTai tov
iroi'qa-foa-i.

veKpov TO Beppu fiovvov Kal Ta ocrTea.
'

iiredv Be

rdoTa

Probably Ethiopian agate or obsidian,
vii.

see

69.

The

use of stone instead of

metal implies that the practice of em-' balming in Egypt, like circumcision, went back to the stone age. Perhaps it
originated in

Assyrian sindhu (found in a list of clothes probably as old as B.C. 1800), was imported from India (i.«. the mouths of the Indus). It was not brought overland, as the initial s would have been

the natural preservation

of bodies buried in the natrons soil of

the Libyan lakes.
^ Subcarbonate of soda (Egyptian, hesmen), from the natron lakes of the Libyan

changed into h in the mouths of Iranians. Brugsch compares the Egyptian ahenti. Byssos, "fine linen," is the Egyptian
bus.
^

The well or

pit in the

inmost chamclyster from

— SineUn

Desert and El Hegs in Upper Egyjjt. K6n/u, or "gum," is the Egyptian A;amt.
or "muslin,"

ber of the tomb.
'

"Having stopped the
Comp.
iii.

Hebrew

sddin,

returning."

65.

172 88
ttTr'

HERODOTOS.
a)V

[book

eScoKUV ovtco rov vcKpov, ovBev ere 'irp7]yfMaT€v9evT€<;.
TapL'^€vai<i
icrrl
rjBe,
fj

17

Be

rpCrr)

T0U9

')(pi]/j,aai

acrOevea-Tepov;

aK€vd^€i,'

avpfMULT]

Bi7}drja-avT€<;

rrjv

KoiXirjv
oiv

rapL-^evovcn

ra?

e^BofjbijKOVTa

r)fjLepa<i

koX

eTretra air

eBwKav
etocri

a7ro(f)€p€(rOai.

89

Ta<i

Be yvvalKa<i roiv i'm^aveoav dvBpcov, iiredv reXevTija-oyat, ov

irapavTLKa BiBovcn rapt'^eveiv, ovBe oaaL av
KaX \6yov irXiovof; <yvvalK€<;'

euetSei?

Kapra

ewedv rpiralac 17 Terapralat yevcovrat, ovtco TrapaBiBovuL rocac TapL')(evovai. tovto Bk Troieovai
OVTCO TovBe e'lveKev,

dW

yvvai^i' Xaficftdijvai

Xva fi'ij a^c ol Tapiy^evToX yap Tiva cfjao-l fMCcryo/jLevov
Be

fiicrycovTat

ttjctl

veKpca irpoa^aTcp
S"

90 yvvaiKO<;,
AlyvTTTicov

KaTetirelv
rj

tov

ofiOTe'^yov.

o?

av

rj

avT&v
rj

^eivcov

ofiOLco<;

vtto

KpoKoBeiXov dp7raadel<i

vir

avTov tov iroTajMov
XavTa<i
o)?

av ttoXcv i^evec^Orj, TovTOVi irdcra dvdyKT] eVrt TapL'^evcravTaf; avTov KaX TrepucrTei(jiacvrjTaL Tedvec6<;,
rjv

KaT

KdXkicrTa Od'^at iv leprjcn

OrjKrjcn'

ovBe ^^avaai, e^eaTt

avTov dXXov ovBeva ovtc tcov irpocrrfKovTcov ovTe tcov <f)i,Xcov, dXXd ficv ol lepei^ avTol tov NetX-ou aTe irXeov tl ^ dvOpcoTrov veKpov ^ '^eipaTTTd^ovTa OdirTovcri.
91
'YiXXrjviKolcn Be vofiaiotcrc <}>evyovat 'x^pdaOac,
elirelv
fiev
firjS'

to Be crvfiirav
vofiaioccn.

dXXcov

fjbr)Ba/xd

fx,T)Ba/jbcbv

dvOpcoircov

oi

vvv dXXoi AlyvTTTioL ovtco tovto

cjjvXdcraovcri, ecrTC Be 'KefXfiL'i

770X49 jxeydXr] vofiov tov &r]^aLK0v iyyv<;^€7)<; 7r6Xto<;'^ iv TavTrj

Ty TToXei icTTc Tlepaeo<i tov Aavdr)<; lepov TeTpdycovov, irept^ Be avTov <\>OLviKe^ 7recf)VKaai. to. Be irpotrvXa tov iepov Xidivd
iaTC KdpTa pbeydXa' eVt Be avTolai dvBptdvTe<; Bvo iaTaai XLOlvol
fxeyaXoL.
iv
iv

Be

t&>

Trept^e^Xrj/xevq)

tovtco

vr)6<i

T€
oi

evi

Kal

dyaX/jia

avTot

ivecTTrjKe

tov

Il€pcTeo<;.

ovtol

^efifUTUi

*

The expensive

burial

was rather a

sort of tax to check needless loss of life

in a district.
"

Khemmis,

called

Khem and Apu by
Ekhmim,
;

the Egyptians, the modern

was the Panopolis of the Greeks Khem, who was identified with Amun during
the
process of self-generation
in

the

primordial waters, being ^identified with
Pan. Neapolis, now Keneh, is more than ninety miles further south. This geographical ignorance of Herodotos is another prodf of his not having beeo further south than the Fayflm. The
friendly feeling of the people of

Khem-

mis towards the Greeks, like the shrine of Perseus, must have been the invention of Herodotos's guides, who would be the natives of Khemmis of whom Herodotos made enquiries. Though he wishes his readers to believe that he was himself at Khemmis, he does not actually say so and had he been there he could have communicated with the people only through his dragoman. Bnigsch suggests that the shrine was that of Honis, who bore the title of jwr-sc, "son of Isis." • Statues never stood on the propylira of an Egyptian temple, and would have been seen had they done so.
;

11.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

173

\eyovai top Uepaia 7roWa/ct9 fJ^ev dva ttjv yi]P <j>aLV€<rdai a-<f>t TToWa/ct? Be eaco rov iepov, aavhakiov re avrov ire^oprjfxevov

P

evptaKecrdac eov to fieyaOo'i Siinj'^v,
airacrav

rb

eireav

(f)avf},

evdrjvelu

AXyvirrov.

rdora

fiev

\e<yov<ri,

iroteovac

Be

rdBe
irda-rf'i

'lEtWTjviKa
dr/(oviT]<i

rS

Uepa-et'

dywva

yvfiviKov

rtdelcn

Bid

e'^ovra,

7rap€^ovTe<i

deOXa
(T(f>c

Krrjvea

koI

yXaiva^;

koI

Bepfiara.

elpofievov

Be fxeo 6 ru

fiovvoLcn ewde 6

Y\.epcrev<i

etn^aiveaOaL koX o ti Ke'^copiBarai AlyvTrrlcov t&v dXXxop dya>va
yvfivLKOv Tc6evTe<;,^ e<f>acrav

rov Yiepa-ea eK

rr\<^

ecovrcov TroXto?

yeyovevar rov yap Aavaov Kal rov Airy Kea iovra<i ^efjLfiira<i iK7r\a)aai e? rrjv 'EXXaSa, aTTO Be rovrcov y€ver)Xoyeovre<i Kare^aivov 69 rov Hepcrea. aTriKOfievov Be avrov i<j AiyvTrrov Kar airirjv rrjv Kal EXX7;i'e9 Xeyovcrc, oXaovra eK Ai^vi]<; rr)v Topyov<i K€(^a\rjv, e^aaav ekdelv Kal irapd a^ea^ Kal dvayvSivai rov<i
'

avyyevea^
ro T^9

"Trdvra^'

€Kjjie/iadr}Kora Be fiiv, dirLKeadai 69 Aiyvirrov,
ireTrvcrfievov

^€fi/JiCO<i

ovvofia,

rrapd

rrj<;

fir)rp6<i'

dr/wva

Be ol yvfivcKov avrov KeKevaavro<i eTrireXelv.

Tdora
vofiL^ovai'

p,ev

rrdvra ol KarvirepOe r&v ekecov olKeovre<; Alyvirnoc 92
Be
Brj

ol

ev

rolai

eXeac
ol

KaroiKrjfievot

rolat

fiev

avroiat vofioLcn '^pewvrat rolcn Kai

aXXoL AlyvrmoL, Ka\ rd

dXXa Kal yvvatKl
drdp
eiredv
irpo'i
TrXtjpr]';

fiLy

eKaaro^ avrwv

crvvoiKei

Kara

irep

'

EXX'?;ye9,

evreXecijv

rwv

o-crcoov

rdBe

cr(})c

dXXa

e^evprjrat.
(f)verat

yevTjrai o 7rorafib<; Kal

ev ru> vBart Kpivea TroXXa,

rd nreBia ireXaylari, rd AlyvTrriot KoXeovcn Xcorov.^
irriaavre^
rj

rdor

eTredv Bpe-yfrtoai avaivovat 7r/309 rfXiov Kal erreira rb eK pueaov rov

Xxorov,

rfj

/jltjkcovl

eov

€fi(f)epe^,

iroieovrat,

e^ avrov
eBcoBifir)

dprov<i oTrroifi rrvpL

ecrrt Be

Kal

pl^a rov Xmroi) rovrov

Kal eyyXvcrcrei

emei,Keai<i,

eov arpoyyvXov, fx,eyado'i
efjL(f)epea,

Kard

fiijXov.

ecn
pi^r)<i

Be Kal

dXXa Kpivea

poBoiai

ev too Trora/xoi yLv6/j,eva
rr]<}

Kol rdora, e^

oiv 6 Kapirb^; ev aXkr)
(T(})r)K(ov IBerfv

koXvki, Trapatpvofievr} eK

yiverai, Krjpicp

bfioLorarov ev rovrcp rpcoKrd

o<Tov re TrvpT)v eXaLr)<i iyyiverat av^vd,^ rpcoyerat Be Kal

aTraXd

rdora Kal ava.

rrjv

Be

^v^Xov

^

rrjV

eirereiov ycvofievrjv etredv

' Over three feet in length was certainly a respectable size for a " little

sandal."
* Gymnastic contests were common throughout Egypt, though they never

Amenti or Hades, and the child Horus It differs from tlie lotos sits upon it. of the Iliad, which was trefoil, and the
lotus

of the

Odyssey, which was the

jujube,
^

became a religion as in Greece. ' The Nymphffia lotus, of which there It wjis the flower of are two kinds.

"In

this are

many

seeds,

good to

eat,
-

each of the size of an olive stone."

The papyrus has disappeared from

174

HERODOTOS.
fiev

[book

avaairdaaxTL ex rwv eXewv, ra

avco avTrj<; aTroTdfivovre^i e?
Trij'^vv

aXko

TL

rpdirovac, to Be Kara) XeXeififiivov ocrov re eVt
[kuI
TrcoXiovcrt].
ot

Tpcayovac

Be

&v

koX

Kapra ^ovXaivrai
^

XPV^'^d
rov<i

"^U

^^/3X(p

XpcLcdat, ev

Kki^dv(p

BLa<^avh

Trvi^avTa

ovrca rpcoyovac.

ol he Ttv€<i

avrmv

^m<TC diro Ta)V l^Ovcov fiovvov,
rrjv

iiredv Xd^cocrc

koI
avov<;

i^eXcoat
i6vTa<i

kolXlt)v,

avalvovcn
ol

irpo'i

93 rfkiov

Koi

eneLTa

aiTeovrau.

he

i-)(6ve<i

ol

dyeXatot ev fiev Tolci TTOTa/Molcn ov /xaXa yivovrai, rpe^ofievoL eiredv a<f>ea<i eaij] olarpo'i he ev T^<xi Xifivrjcrt, roidhe iroLeovaL.
KvtcTKeadac,

dyeXrjhov €K7rXa>ov(rL 69

OdXaaaav

rjyeovrat he ol

epaeve'i diroppaivovre^i rov

Oopov, al he eirofievai, dvaKdirTovai

eiredv he irXripeL^i yevwvrat, ev t^ Kol €^ avTov Kvta-Kovrai. BaXdaajj, dvairXcoovat OTriaoj 69 i]dea rd ecovTQ)v eKacrroi, rjyeov-

rai

fievToi

ye

ovKeri

ol

avrol,

dXXd

tSjv

drfXeoiV

yiverai

fj

r/yefiovLi]'

-qyeofievai

he dyeXrjhov iroceovac olov irep

iiroleov ol
Key)(pa)v,

epaeve^i'

twv yap

(pSiv

diroppacvovaL Kar
eTro/juevoi.

6Xtyov<; roiv

ol he

epcreve^i

KaraTrivovaL

elal he ol Key)(poL ovtol
firj

I'^Ove';.

€K he rSiV irepiyivofievcov koI
o'l

Karairivofievcov

Key^cov

dv avrcbv dXaxTL eKirXtoovTe9 69 OdXacraav, <f>aLvovTai TerpififMevot rd e7r dptcrepd roiv Ke(f)aXeQ)v, ot S' dv ottio-o) dvaTrXcoovre^;, rd eiri he^cd TeTpiiparat.^ irda^^ovac he rdora hid rohe' i'^ofjuevoi t^9 7ea9 iw dpicrrepd KarairXcijovcrt, i^ OdXaaaav, koX dvairXcoovre'i oiricra) Trj<; avrrji;
ol rpecfiOfMevoi I'^Ove^; yivovrai.

h

dvre'^ovrai, eyx^pifMirrofjievoi koI y^avovTe<i a)9 f^dXicrra, iva

hrj

fjurj

d/xdproLev

tPj<;

ohov hid rbv poov.
Tr]<;

eiredv he irXtjOveaOac dp-)(T]TaL

N6t\o9, rd re KoTXa
'jrorap.ov Trpayra dp'^erai

yea<;

Kol rd reXpura rd irapd rov

TrlfiirXaaOai hiT)9eovTO<; rov vhaTO<; ix
irapa'^pij/jLa

Tov TTora/MOv' Kol avTLKa re irXea ylverac rdora KaX
Ij^dxxov

afiLKpCiV
fioi

TTifjLTrXarat

irdvra.^

Kodev he

oIko<;

avrov<;

ylveaOat, eyco

hoKeo) Karavoelv Tovro.

rov Trporipov 6X609
e'9

eiredv dTroXiirrj

6

N6tX,09, ol lyjdvef; ivreKovre<i (pd

rr}v

tkvv

dfia To5 ea'^drtp vhart aTraXXdaaovrai,'

eiredv he irepieXdovro<;
rSiv ^oiv rovrtov irapav-

rov '^ovov irdXiv eireXdrj ro vhwp,

e'/c

rUa

yivovrai

01 i-^^dve^ ovroi.

it

Egypt. North of the Second Cataract is found only in Palestine and at
• *

The male
female
fish

fish deposit

the milt after the

Syracuse.

"Red-hot."
Aristotle has exposed the absurdity
iii. 5).

of this statement {De gen. anim.

have deposited -the spawn. ' This is a myth. • The fish were brought by the canals which were fed by the Nile, not by the percolation of the water through the soil.

I,.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
Kal
irepl fiev rov<i l^dva<; ovt(o €%et.

175

dX€L<f>aTi Sk 'X^picovrai

94

AlyvTTTLiov ol Trepl ra eX,ea oIk€ovt€<; afro

twv aiXXiKvirpieov rov

irapa Kapirov, TO KoXiovai fxev AlyvTrrioc kIki, Trociovcrt 8e eoSe. ra "^etXea rcov re iroraficov koI rcov Xcfivecop airelpovaL ra p-CKrdora XiKvirpta rdora, rd iv "EWi/crt avrofiara dypia (fiverai.
iv rfj Alyv7rr(p
8e'
crTreipofieva

Kapirov ^ipec ttoWov fiev BuacoSea
fiev

rovrov iiredv avWe^covrac, ol
ecrrt

KO'^avre'i dirLrrovcrL, ol hk

Kal <f>pv^avr€<; dTriy^ovai, KaX ro diroppeov drr avrov avyKOfii^ovrai.
Be irlov Be

Kal ovBev riaaov rov
irape'^eraL.

iXaiov

rS Xv^vo)
rd
dvco

7rpoar}V6<i, oBp,r]v

^apeav
cr(f)i

7rpo<;

Be rov<i KcovcoTraf 95
rov<; fiev

d(f>d6vov<i

iovra^ rdBe

iarl

fiep,7)'^av7)p,€va.

roiv eXecov olKeovra<i ol irvpyoi

u)(^eXeov(TL, e?

rov<i

dva^aivovref;

KOifieovrai'

ol

yap

Kcovfoire';

viro

{njrov Trirea-dai.

rolcri

Be irepl

rdv dveficov ovk olol re elal rd eXea olKeovai rdBe dvrl royv
dvrjp

irvpyoiv
eKTTjrai,

dXXa fxefnj^dvqrai,. rS rijt p,ev ri/j,epr]<;
rfj

irdf
l-^6v<i

avroiv

dp,^i^Xr}arpov

dypevei,^ rrjv Be vvKra rdBe

avrm

'^drai,' ev

dvairaverat

Koirrj, irepl

ravrifv larrjcri ro
ol Be kcovco-

dfi<f)i^Xr]arpov Kal eireira evBv<i vir
7re9, r]v
fJ^ev

avro KarevBet.
rj

iv

lp,arvw evecXi^dfjLevo<; evBy

atvBovi, Bid rovrcov
dp'^ijv.

BdKvovat, Bid Be rov Biktvov ovBe ireipwvrai

Td

Be

Br}

irXold
r)

a(f>i,

rolcri ^oprrjyeova-i,

iarl iK

r?}? uKdvOrji; ®

96

iroieofieva,

T?}<f

fiop(f)r)

fiev

iari ofioiordrr)

rw

^vprjvalo) X(or(p

ro Be BaKpvov

Koixfii icrri.
Biirrjj^ea

iK ravrr}<i S)v rrj^ dKdv6r)<; Ko^jrafjievoi
irXivOrjBov

^vXa
rd

ocrov

re

crvvri0elat

vavirrjyeofjbevoi

rpoirov roiovBe.
Biirrj'^ea

irepl

yofji(j}ov<;

irvKVOv<i Kal

fiaKpom irepieipovai
Be

^vXa'

iiredv

Be rut rpoiru)

rovrcp vainrrjyrjawvrai,

^uyd

iiriiroXr](i

reivovcri

avrcov.

vo/jueva-i

ovBev

"^pecovrai'

eaatOev Be rd<; dpp,ovia<i iv

wv iiraKrcoaav

rfj /3u/3X,&).

irrjBdXiov
lcrra>

Be Iv TToieovrai, Kal rovro Bid t^9 rp6ino<i Bia^vverai.

Be

aKavdivw y^peoivrai, larioicri Be ^v^Xivoicri. dva fiev rov irorafiov ov Bvvarai irXeiv, rjv
eireyrj,
e/c

rdora rd irXoia
firj

Xafiirpo<; dvefio<i

yea^;

Be irapeXKerai.

Kard poov

Be

KOfii^erai

a)Be.

ecrri

iK fivpUij^i ireiroirffievq dvpt), Kareppafifievq piirei KaXdficov,^

'

The

castor-oil plant

(Palma

Christi),

velloiisly

small meshes

if it

kept out

of which

Nubian damsels and the
still

has-

mosquitoes.
"

kets they sell to travellers^are
lent.

redo-

The modem
"

aont or acacia, of
still

which

In the Egyptian texts the kiki is called tekem (Revillout in Lcpsius's Zeitschrift, 1879, p. 92).
^

the Nile boats are
^

made,
tamarisk,

A

raft

made

of

and

stitched
reeds."

together

with a wattling of

The

fishing-net

must have had mar-

V

176 KoX \l6o<;
T7]v
T€Tp'r]fi€vo<i

HERODOTOS.
BcToXavTcx; fiaXvaTo,
/crj

[book
o-raOfiov.

tovtcov

jxev

6vp7]v

SeBe/xiv7]v

koXw

efiTrpoade

rov irkolov airCet
rj

i7n(f)6p€cr6ai,

rov Be \idov aX\.a> koXco oina-Oe.
koX eXxec
ttjv

fiev Stj dvp-q

Tov poov

ifXTrlirTovTOf; 'X^copet ra'^eco^;

^dpiv {rovro
eari Be

yap
cr<f)i

Bt)

ovvofid iart toIctl TrXoiotac rovrotai), 6 Be Xt^09 OTTcaOe

€7re\K6/jLevo<i

koX itov ev fivaaS KarcOvvec rov nfKoov.
TrXrjdec

ra ifKola rdora
^Fjireav

iroWa, Kat ayet evia 7roWd<; p^tXtaSa?

raXavreov.

97

Be

eTreXOrj

^aivovrav virepe'^ovcraL,
'ir6vT(p vrjaoKTi'

ra

fikv

Net\o9 Trjv -^fopijv, at TroXte? fxovvaL fiaXLcrra Ky €fi(fi€pei<; rfjcn ev rai Klyaitp yap aXXa Tfj<; AlyvTrrov ireXayo'i yiverai,
o

at Be 7r6Xte<i fiovvai vTrepe^ovai.
yevTjrat,

wopOfievovrai mv, eireav rovro

ovKen Kara rd peWpa rov irorapbov aXXd Bid fiecrov e? fxev ye M.€fi<f>LV eK ^avKpdrio^ dvaTrXayovrc Trap* rov rreBiov.
avrd<; rd<i rrvpap.lBa'i yiverai o rr\oo<i'

eart Be ovS* ovro'i,

dXXd
e?

rrapd ro o^v rov

AeXra ^ Kal rrapd

K-epKdcrcopov ttoXlv

Be

^avKpariv drro OaXdaatj^ Kal K.av(o^ov Bid ireBiov rrXeoiv ^ KvOvKXdv re ttoXiv Kal rrjv Ap'^dvBpov KaXeofievijv.^ rj^ei'i Kar * 98 rovricov Be r) fiev "AvOvXXa iovaa XoytfiT] iroXa e? viroBripura
^

i^aiperot;

BiBoraL rov alel ^aaiXevovro^ Alyvirrov

r^j

yvvaiKl
r)

(rovro Be yiverai e^ ocrov viro Tlepa-pcrl eari Atyvirrosi),
erepr} TroXt? BoKet fiot ro ovvofxa e'^eiv aTro
^

Be

rov /lavaov yapb^pov

TToXt?.

Ap'^dvBpov rov ^diov rov 'Ap^atoO'^ KaXelrai, ydp Bfj ^Ap^dvBpov eiT} B" dv Kal aXXo<i ri<i "Ap-^avBpo^, ov fievroi ye Al-

yvrrriov rb ovvopia.

99

^e')(pL fiev rovrov o-^ls re ifirj Kal yvcofii] Kal icrropir) ^ rdora Xiyovad eari, ro Be citto rovBe Alyxnrriov<i ep')(op.ai \6yov<i ipecov Kard rd rfKovov irpoaearai Be ri Kal avrolai Kal rrjt; ifirj<i 6-\p'i,o<i. Tov M.lva rrpwrov ^acnXevaavra Alyvirrov oi iep€t<i eXeyov
'

' Two MSS. read oiK instead of oiSi. The passage seems to mean, "whereas the (usual) way is not this, but by the

with bread, wine, and meat (CJom. Nep.
Vil. Theni. 10).
' "Son of Phthios, son of Akhax)8." Pausanias makes him son of Akhieos. ' " Enquiries." As we have seen, the "judgment " of Herodotos is not always

apex of the Delta " 6 iuOun appears to have fallen out of the text. ^ These two towns must have stood westward of the Eanopic branch of the
;

to be
">

commended.

Nile.

keep her in shoes." Revenues of towns were given to the Persian queens as pin-money (Xenoph. Anah. i. 4, 9). So three cities were given to Themistokles by Artaxerxes to provide him

*

"To

Menes ("the 4, not« 3. enduring "or "eternal") was originally The king of This (see Appendix I.) great dyke of Eokheikhe, by means of which he obtained the embankment on which to build the capital of his new
See ch.

I

_jLJ(

u.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
fihv d7roye<l)vpa)aac ttjv ^efi<f)iv.

177

rovTO
pecv

rov yap iroTafibv iravra
AtySm;?,

irapa

to

6po<i

to

yjrdfificvov

Trpo?

top Be
tt/do?

Mtva

dvcoOev, 6<Tov T€ eKaTov a-TaSiov; aTrb
/3pLr}<i

M.€fi(f)to<;,

top

fieaafi-

dyKwva

Trpoa-^docravTa to fiev dp')(alov pelOpov diro^rjpTJpac,
fiecrop tcop

TOP Be TTOTUfiop o^eTevcrat to

opecop pecp.

€TL Bk Kol
^

pvp VTTO Uepa-ecop 6 dyKOiP OUT09 tov NeiXof
€P
<^vKaKr}<TL fxeydXrjcrL

to? direpyfiepo'i perj

e^eTUi,

(f>pacr(r6fi€P0<;

dpd irdp
tovtw

eTO<;'

el

yap iOeXrjaeL
Me/x</)t

prj^a<i virep^rjpat, o TTOTafio'i
to? Be

Tainr), kipBvpo<; irda-tj

KaTaKXvtrdrjpal iaTi.

Tut

M^i/t

to3 irpoiiTcp
fiep ep

yevofiepfp ^acrtXh '^epaop yeyopepat to aTrepyfiepop, tovto

avTQi TToXtp KTiaai tuvtijp

r]TC<;

pvp Me/i^t? KaXetTat'

ecTTC

yap

Kol

T)

Me/i<^t9 ep
Xlfiprfp

Tm
eK

a-TetPot

Trj<i

AlyvrrTov
tt/jo?

e^codep

Be

avT7J<;
tt/do?

irepiopv^ac
ecnrepTjp

tov iroTafiov
T7]p
rjSi

^operjp re Kal
6

(to
^

yap

7rpb<;

avTo^

NetXo?

dtrepyeC),

TOVTO Be
€K

TOV

'ii<f>aL(TTov

TO lepop iBpvcracrOai, ep avTT}, eop fieya
fieTa Be tovtop

Te Kal u^iaTrrjyrjTOTaTOP.

KaTeXeyop ol
xal TptrjKOPTa
oKTtoKaiBeKa
Be

iepel<;

100

^vpXov dXkoip ^aacXecop
ep
TocravTrj(7v
fxla
rjo-ap,^

Tpc^Kocicop

ovpofiev

fULTa}
At^toTTe?

yepefjau
yvprj

dpOpunrwp
ein'^uipLr},^
rjp,

Be

ol
riTL<i

dWoi

dpBpe<;

AlyviTTtoi.
irep

T^

Be

yvpatKi
NtTtu/c/^t?*

oijpofia
*

e^aatXevae,

to

Ty ^a^vXcoplrj,

t7}p
(ch.

eXeyop TLfioypeovaap dBeX101) or
like

still exists near Mitrahenny; and two miles south of Memphis, Linant Bey has recognised the point where the Nile was turned in an easterly direction.

empire,

'twelfth dynasty.
one,
states

Amen-em-hat III. of the The number is a round
kings

the 350

who Sargon
the throne of

preceded

him on

We may provisionally place
Menes with
*

the date of
cut

Assyria,

and

is

plainly fictitious.

Ac-

Mariette, at 5004 B.C.
it
. .

cording to Africanus, Manetho reckoned
ofiF

"In
its

order that
old channel

may run
.

from
*

secured every

204 kings only from Menes to the fourth (t'.e.sixth) monarch of the twelfth dynasty.

year." above.

The MSS. read
The
site

fiiet.

On
fiiv

the other hand there were no Ethiorise

"And

next," answering to rouro

pian kings of Egypt until after the
of the

of the temple of Ptah
colossos

(Hephsestos), with its sacred lake, can
still

be traced, the fallen
II.

of

Ramses

having stood in front of it. * Varying lists of kings were kept in the principal cities of Egypt, owing
partly to the fact that at various periods

Empire, so that Herodotos cannot have understood his informants properly and it is possible that the 330 kings were intended by them to be reckoned down to the beginning of the
;

New

twenty-sixth dynasty (Psammetikhos
'
'

I.)

Egypt was divided into several kingdoms, one dynasty being considered legitimate in one city, another in another partly to the omission of monarchs in the several lists. The kings given by Eratosthenes were taken from the Theban
;

See last note. Egypt was ruled by more than one

queen.

Two

of the most famous were
III.,

Hatasu, the elder sister of Thothmes

and Taia, the mother of Amenophis, the heretic (see Appendix I.) * Neitakrit was the last of the sixth
dynasty according to

list.

The 330 kings ended with Moeris

Manetho.

The

N

178
<f>eS,^

HERODOTOS.

[book

TOP AiyvTTTiot ^aaiKevovrd (K^ewv aireKTetvav, airoKrelvavhiat^delpaL

Td

Be ovTOJ eKeLvrf aireZocrav rrjv ^acnXrjlrjv, Tovra> rcfuopeovaav

TToWov'i Al<yv7rTL0)v
otKrjfia 7repL/xr]Ke<i

hoXa.

Trocijcrafievijv

jdp

fiiv

VTroyeov Kacvovv

rS

\o'y<p, votp

he

dXka

fMij'^avd-

aOat' KoKeaaaav Be
<f>6vov yBei,

fitv AlyirrrrLcov

rovs fidXL<TTa fieranlovi rov

TroWov'i laridv, BaLVvp^evoicn Be iirelvac top Trora/JLOV
ravrrj^; fiev Trept,

Bl

avKoivo^ KpvTTTOv fMeydXov.

rocravra ekeyov,
ooKrjfMa

TrXrjv ore avrrfv ficv, o)?

tovto e^epyaa-ro, pi-^au e?

airoBov

101 trXeov, okco^ aTtfuopTjrof; yevrjTai.

rdv

Be dXkcov

^aaiXewv ov yap

eXeyov ovBefMiav epyoov aTToBe^cv Kol ovBev elvai XafiTrporT^ro^,^
irXrjv
€vb<;

rov e(T'^drov avrwv

M.oLpLO<;

'

tovtov Be aTroBe^aadac
dvefjbov rerpafifxeva

fiV7}/Jb6crvva

rov 'H^atVrou rd Trpo? ^opetjv
Xl/jlvtjp

TrpoTrvXaia,^

re opv^at, t^9

J?

7repio8o<; oacov ecrrl

vcrrepov BrjXdxTCi, irvpafiiBa'i re ev
/j,eyd6eo<;

avry

oiKoBofjuija-ac,

araBiwv rdv rov
fiev

irepi

ofiov avrfj

rfj

Xifivrj

eTrtfivrjaofiat.

rovrov

roaavra diroBe^aadai,
102
TiapafieL-^dixevo^i

roiv Be dXXojv ovBeva ovBev.
Siv
rjv

rovrov<i

rov

cttI

rovroiat
/MVijfirjv

yevofievov
Tronjaofiat'
e'/c

^aaiXeo<i, r<p ovvofia

Ziecroiarpi,^,

rovrov

rov eXeyov ol

lepel<i

irpwrov
rov<;

fiev TrXoioiat

fiUKpolai opfitjOevra

rov ^Apa^Lov koXttov
fi€vov<;

irapd rr)v ^^pvdprjv ddXaa-aav KarocKr}^pa'^ewv,^ evOevrev Be
rr}v
(jidriv,

Karacrrpiipea'dat, e? o irXeovrd fiiv rrpoaoi diriKeadaL e?
TrXcorrjv

ddXaaaav ovKen
aTTLKero
69

viro

oii<i

oiriao)

Atyvirrov,

xard rwv lepewv
''

(rrparLrjv

Turin Papyrus, however, has after her
Nofer-ka, Nefnis, and Ra-ab.
'

^

See ch. 13, note 5. This is in favour of the idea that

Merenra Zaf-em-saf, called Menthe-

the Memphite priests would not allow
that any kings could be illustrious

souphia by Manetho, according to

whom

who

he reigned only one year. ^ If we may argue from the silence of the monuments, this would be perfectly
true of the successors of Neitakrit
to

had neglected their own city and temple. Lake Mceris, too, was in the neighbourhood of Memphis rather than of
Thebes.
'

down
kings
Moeris
I.,

Amen-em-hat

I.,

the founder of the
earlier

Ramses

II.

of the nineteenth dynasty,
Sest&ra,

twelfth dynasty.

But the

of this latter dynasty were great warriors

and
who,
ever,

builders,

which looks as
did

if

were intended to be Amen-em-hat
however,
its

not construct the
Perhaps, howpriests

lake and

pyramids.

whence the As there was an in* terval of between one and two thousand years between Amcn-em-hat IIL and Ramses II., ^ir2 ro&roiai, "after these," must be taken in a wide
popularly called

Greek

Sesostris.

took no heed of the glories that were won for Thebes, and the buildings that adorned a rival city. Or, more probably, Hermlotos and his interpreter only half underthe
stood what was read to them.

Memphite

sense.
1 The war of Seti I., the father of Ramses II., against the Punt on the coast of Som&la seems to be referred to. For the real character and military feats of Ramses II., see App. I.

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
.
.

179
edvof;

7roWr}v rSiV
ifjL7roB(ov

Xa^oDV rfkavve Sia
oreoicn

tt}?

rjireipov, Trdv

to

KaTa<Trpe<f)6fi€vo<;.

fiev

vvv avrdv
Trj<i

oKKiyLOiai

€verv>y)(ave

Kol

Betvax; yXi'^ofjiivota-t irepl
^

iXevOepir]';,

rov-

Toia-c jjbkv (TrrfKa^

evicrr'q

i<i

ra<i '^(i>pa<;

8ia ypafifxarcov \€jov(ra<;

TO T€ ecovTov ovvofiu Kol
Karea-rpe^jraTo
Ta<s
<x<p€a<;'

T?)?

iraTprj^, koL cu? 8vvdfiet rfj ecovrov

orecov he afia-)(7}rl Kol ev7reT€&)9 irapeXafie

TToXca^, TovTOLat

Be eveypacjie iv Trjai arTrfKrjcn

Kara ravTa
koI alBota

Kul rolat avSprjioicrc rSiv edvearf jevofiepoicn,

kol

Srj

yvvacKO<; Trpocreveypacfie, 8fj\a ^ovk6fievo<i iroielv a>9 eirjo-av avoKKiSe<;.
6<?

rdora he
l^vp(t)7n}v

Trotecov hie^ijce tt)V rjireipov, e? o

ex

t?}? *Aai7)<;

103

T^i'

hia^a<; rov<i re %Kv6a<; Karearpey^aro koX rov<i
fioc

%priiKa^}

€9

Tovrovi he
a-rpar6<i'

hoKel Kal Trpoa-wTaTa diTLKeaOai,

Al'yvirrio'i

ev /xev

jap

rfj

tovtcov

X^PV

(fx^cvovrac

(xraOelaai ai crrifXac,^ to he TrpoacoTepco tovtcov oiiKeTi.

ivOevTev
^aatXevi;
hrj

he eirtaTpe-^a'i ottio-o) ^te, kol etreLTe iylveTO eVl ^d<ri iroTafi^^

ovK

e^ct)

TO

ivdevTev

aTpeKeco^

elireiv

ecTe

avTO<;

6

Z€a(i)aTpi<;

d7rohacrd/J,€vo<;

t^9 ccovtov aTpaTtij^; jioptov oaov

avTOv KaTeTuTre t^9 xi^PV^ olKrjTopa<i, eiTe twv TLve<i CTTpaTCWTecov Tj} TrXdvT) avTov d'yOeaOevTe'i irepl ^acnv iroTafiov KUTefieivav. ^aivovTat fiev jdp iovTe^; ol KoX^oi AIjvtttioi, vorjcra^ he 104 TTpoTepov avTo<i ^ aKOvaa^ aXKoov Xeyco. w? he [iol ev ^povTiht
iyeveTo, elpofnjv
dfji,(f)OT€pov<;,

Twv AlyvTTTLCov
01

rj

ol

kol fiaXkov ol KoXp^ot ifiep-veaTO AlyvTTTWt T(ov KoX^wi'* vofML^eiv 8' €<j)aaav
(rTpaTLri<i

AlyvTTTCOi,

T7)<i

%ecr(i)(TTpi,o(;

elvab

Toi><i

Ko\p^oi'9.

auT09 he etKacra
'

Tjjhe

koI otl fieXdy^poe^ eiai Kal oyXoT/9t^e9.^
* The Phasis was unknown to both Egyptians and Assyrians. ^ We may gather from this that the story of the Egyptian colony in Kolkhis had been suggested to the guides of Herodotos by his "leading" questions. * The Egyptians are not black skinned, nor have they woolly hair. This warns us against accepting Herodotos as an anthropological authority. As the Egyptians shaved, he had not much opportunity of observing their hair, but seems to have made his observations upon their It is equally difficult to negro slaves. believe that the Eolkhians were black and woolly haired. Certainly none of

Tablets rather than pillars, like the

three cut in the rock by the side of the

ancient road at the
el-Kelb or

mouth

of the

Nahr
of

Dog River

(the ancient Lykos),

eight miles north of Beyrtit.

One

these was dedicated by Ramses to Ptah,

the second to Ra, and the third to

Amun.
in the

"The same inscription case of those who had shown

as

themselves

brave."
is
*

The

description of the tablets

wholly imaginary. No Egyptian sovereign ever penetrated into Europe, or ever heard the name of Skythians and Thrakians. ' This gratuitous falsehood does not raise our opinion of the credibility of Herodotos in regard to objects which he might have seen.

the numerous races

now

inhabiting the

Kaukasoe are

so.

But the black skin of

180 Koi Tovro
fJL€V

HERODOTOS.
69 oifBev

[book

avijKec'

aWa

TolcriBe

koX [laXkov,

on

Kol AlyvTTTLOi Kol A.WioTTe'i
^oivLKe<; he KaX %vpoL ol iv

yap xal erepoi ToiovTOf avdpooTrcop KoX^ot irepndp.vovrai air ap-^rj'i ra alSola.
elal
fiovvot, iravToov

rfj

UaTuiiarivT} koI avrol o/xoXoyeovac

•Kap KlyvrrTlviV fiepudrjKevai, "^vpcoi, Be ol trepX SepfioiBovTa Kot

TlapOeviov
i6vT€<;^ aTTO ol

Trorafiov
K.oK'X^cov

KaX

M.dKp(ov€<;

ol

tovtol<tl

daTvjeiTove<i

(f)a<rX

vecoarX

fjuefiadrjKevai,.

ovtoc yap elai
Alyv7rTioi,<Ti

Trepira/xpofjievoi
7roi€ovT€<i

dvdpcoTTcov

fiovvoc,

KaX ovtol
Be

<f>aLvovTac

Kara ravrd.
eliretv
6t><?

avrcov

Klyvmiwv

KaX

AWtoircov ovK e^oj

OKorepot irapd roiv erepwv e^efiadov'
Be eTn/jbtayo/xevoi Alyinrrq)

dpyalov yap

Br)

n

(fjatverac iov.

e^ep-adov, fieya p,oi KaX roBe reK/X'^piov yiverac
rfj

^olvlkwv OKoaot

'EWaSfc eTTHxicyyovrai, ovKerc Kiyvirriov^

fMifieovrat,

105 alBola,

dWd
dWo
-q

rcov iinyivo/jbevciyv ov irepirdp.vovcn
eiira) irepX

Kara ra ra alBola. (pipe
7rpocr(f>epei<i

vvv KaX
elaL

ro3v KoX^coi/,

a)<?

AlyvTrriocai

Xlvov fiovvoi ovrol re KaX AlyvirrLOt
^orj rrda-a

ravrd, KaX

\ivov Be ro fiev

Kara yXaxraa ^ ep-^eprj^ iarv dXXrfKoLai. KoX^t/coi/ vtto '^Wijvwv SapBcovcKov KeKXrjrat,
epyd^ovrai
KaX
17

106 rb fievrot dir Aiyinrrov diTiKveop.evov KoXe'lrai Alyvirrcov.
Be
(jrrfKai
rd<;

al

lara
*

Kara

rd<i

'^oopa<i

6

Aiyinrrov ^acriXev^i
rfj

^eaoi)<Trpi<i,

al /xev irXiove^i ovKeri (^alvovrai irepieoixraL, ev Be

TlaXata-riVT}
elpr)fj,eva

Zvply

avro^ copwv

eov<7a<i

KaX
Be

ra ypdfipura ra
KaX irepX ^Ywvlrjv
rfj

eveovra KaX yvvaiKO'i alBola.

ela-X

Bvo rvTTOi ev irerprjai eyKeKoXafifjuevot rovrov rov dvBpo<i,
€K
rrj<i

re
e<?

'E<^6o-i7;9

e?

^(OKacav ep^ovrai KaX
dvrjp

rfj

ck 'SapBlcov

^fjbvpvr)v.^

eKarepcodi Be

eyyeyXvirrai jMeyaOo^

irep.Trr'qt

the Eolkhians seems to have been an
old Greek
'

Kolkhian, was as near the truth as his
hypothetical Dodonaeans,

myth

;

cf.

Pind. Pyth.
9.

iv.

212.

who could

not

See ch. 36, note

distinguish between the Egyptian lan-

^ The Thermfidon seems to be the Termeh Chai, eastward of Samsdn and

the Halys, while

tlie

Parthenios

is

the

Chati Chai or river of Bartan, considerably to the west of the Halys.

guage and the chirping of birds. ' Why Kolkhian yarn should be called Sardinian is not clear. Perhaps the Kolkhian name sounded to the Greeks
like sardonikos.
*

The

Makr&nians lived inland from Trebizond (Xen. Anab, iv. 8), and were afterwards called Sanni or Zani (Strab. xii. p. 795). Their heads were artificially elongated. For the "Syrians," see i. 72, note 3. ' There are no traces of any language related to Old Egyptian among the numerous languages of the Kaukasos. Herodotos, who knew neither Egyptian nor

note
"

At the Nahr el-Kelb, see ch. 102, 2. The female emblems upon them
The two
sculptures are carved on

are due to the imagination of Herodotos.

the rocks of the pass of Karabel, three
miles east of Nimfi, and about twentyfive

miles inland from Smyrna, on the
old road which led

sides of the

from

Smyrna

to

Ephesos through the

Mahmud

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
yetpX
€')((ov

181

<T7rt6afii]<;,^ rfj fikv Be^if}

al')^r)v rrj he apLcrrepfj

ro^aj

KoX

TTjv

aXKriv cTKevrjv
e«r

a}a-avT(o<i'
e<?

Kol yap AlyvTTTirjv Kot AWtooifiov 8ia rcov (nr)6e(ov

P

iriZa e^et"^

Se rov tofiov
^

rov erepov

ypdfjLfiara

iepa Alyvirria

BitjKec

iyKCKoXafM/Meva,

Xeyovra rdSe.
^

" iyo) T'^vBe
Be
TO,

ttjv ^(oprjv wfioiai roL<n ifioiai iKrrjo-dfirjv."

o<tti<:

KoX OKoOev icni, evdavra fiev ov BrfKol, erepcoOt Be BeB'^XcoKe.
Br}

KoX fieTe^erepot rwv

Oerja-a/juevcov

M.efjiVovo<i

ecKOva eixd-

^ovcri /Miv elvai,

ttoWov

rfj^;

dXrjdeLT)^ aTToXeXetfifievoi.^

TovTov Btj rov AlyvTTTiov "^eaaxTrptv dva^ycapeovra Kal 107 dvdyovra 7roX\,ov<i dvdpcoirov'i to)V idveeov tmv Td<i ^(opa<; Kurearpe^lraTo,

eXeyov ol

lepel<i,

iireire

eyivero

dvaKOfii^6/j,€vo'i

ev

Ad^vrjat T^ai
range.

Ilr)Xov<TLrf<Ti,

rov dBe\<f>eov etovrov,^ rS

i'jrerpe'^e

The

best preserved (discovered

by Renouard in 1839) is about 140 feet above the path on the eastern side, and represents a warrior larger than life-size,
standing in a niche, who looks southward, holds a spear in the left hand, has a bow at the back, and wears a tiara,
a tunic reaching to the knees, and boots
is

hardly have run through Karabel, though it no doubt joined the road to Ephesos at the entrance to the pass, and both figures hold the spear in the right, not
left

with turned up ends. The second, which an exact repetition of the first, is on a level with the old road, and on its western side, but is much mutilated, and has but lately been brought to light. The dress and style of art, which agree with
those of the Hittite sculptures at Bogliaz

The direct route now from hand. Ephesos to Phokaea is through Smyrna ; in the time of Herodotos the marshes at the mouth of the Hermos seem to have been impassable, and the road then doubled the eastern shoulder of Sipylos, and ran from Magnesia to KymS by the pass of Uzun Hassanly (still used by cattle drivers), and thence to Phoksea
(cf.

Academxj, April

9,

1881, p. 262).
feet,

8

A

little

over three

which

is

Keui and Eyuk (in Kappadokia), as well as at Ghiaur Kalessi (near Ancyra) and

only half the real height.
'

The bow
The
The

is

really slung

behind the

show that the sculptures are Hittite. The first-mentioned figure is also accompanied by an
Ibreez
(in

Lykaonia),

back.
8

dress

is

utterly different from

that of the Egyptians and Ethiopians.
*

inscription

in

Hittite

hieroglyphics

characters are hieroglyphs,

it is

placed between the face of the figure

true,

and the top of the spear, which does not seem to have existed in the case of the second figure, where it may have run
across

but not Egyptian. ^ This must have been the invention As the Greeks did not of the cicerone.

know what
it is

the origin of the figure was,

the breast.

The second
These

figure

looks northward.
are

figures, instead

not likely that they would have been able to interpret the long disused
characters upon
*
it.

of being memorials of the conquests of
Sesostris,

monuments

of his most

The legend was

nearer the truth

redoubtable enemies, the Hittites, and testify to the extension of their power
as far as the iEgean (see Sayce on The

Monuments of the
Soe.

Hittites in the Trans.

vii. 2). The road from Sardes to Smyrna, however, could

Bibl.

Archteol.

than the guess of Herodotos. Memnon, the son of the Dawn, was associated with the Homeric K^teians or Hittites, as Mr. Gladstone has shown {Homeric Synchronism, pp. 173 sq.) ' Manetho is said (Joseph, cont. Ap.

I

182

HERODOTOS.
^eivia avrov

[book

o 2,€aci)aTpt<i rrjv AX'finrrov, tovtov eVt

KoXeaavra
olkitjv
vXrj,

Koi

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Be

tov<;

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e^wOev
koI

rrjv

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v7ro7rpr]aai.
rfj

rov Be

ox?
Brj

p,a6elv tovto,
rrjv

avriKa

avfi^ovXeveadat
afia ayeadai.'
TOV<;

yvvaiKL' Kal yap

yvvaiKa avrop
iovrayp e^
Kaiofievov,

rrjv
rrjv

Be oi a-vfi^ovXevaat riav
TTvprjv

iraiBcov

Bvo

iirl

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rb

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eV

eKeivcov e7n^aivovTa<i eKaw^eadai.

rdora Tronjaac
rpoirq)
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Be 6

KoX

Bvo

fikv

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108 TotovT(p, TOv<i Be \oi7rov<i airocrcoOrivaL afia ru> irarpL
%ecr(i)<7TpL'i

e?

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tov<;

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/xeyddet irepifirjKea^, ovtol

Ta? vvv
eiToieov

^aav ol e\KvaavT€<i, kuI Ta<i Stwpu^a? AlyviTT^ irdaa^; ovtol dvajKa^ofievoi wpvaaov, re ovk eKOVTe'i AiyvTTTOv, to irpXv iovaav iTnraalp.rjv Kal
eovara<i iv

dfia^evofjievrjv

iraaav,

evBea

tovtcov.*

dirb

yap

tovtov

tov

yj)ovov Aiyv7rT0<i eovaa ireBtd'i irdaa dvi7nro<i koI dva/xd^evTO^

yeyove' aiTtat Be tovtcov al

Bi(opv'X^e<;

yey ovacn eovcrat iroWal
eVt
OKQ}<i

Kal iravTolovi Tpoirov^ eypvtrai.
'^(oprjv

KaTerafive Be TovBe elveKa ttjv
firj

o

^acn\ev<;'
TTokia^

oaoi twv AlyvTTTLCov

t<m

iroTafiS
dtrioL

eKTTjVTO Td<i
7roTafi6<i,

a\V

dva[xe(rov<i,

ovtol,

re

6

airavL^ovTe^i

vBdroav

irKaTVTepoLai^
tovtcov fiev

i')(pea)VT0

toutl

109

TTOfiaa-L,
i)

eK (f>pedTQ)v

-^peoo/jbevoL.

Br} e'lveKa KaTeT\ir)B'i)

Aryi/TTTO?.

KaTavetfiaL Be ttjv ^coptjv AlyvirTcoLcn diraaL tov-

tov eKeyov tov fiaaLXea, KXrjpov laov eKdoTcp TCTpdycovov BiBovTa,^ Kal diro tovtov Ta<i trpoaoBovi iroLrjaaaOaL. eiTLTd^avTa dtro<]>oprjv

eTTLTeXelv

KaT iviavTov.

el Be TLvo<i

tov KXtjpov 6 Trora/xo?

L 15) to have known of this brother, whom he called Armais, and declared to be the same as the Danaos of the Greeks. But he makes him a brother, not of Ramses II., but of Sethosis, i.e. Seti (Meneptah) II., the grandson of Ramses. As Seti II. was driven from the throne for about five years by a
successful pretender,

from the beginning of the monarchy, the other hand, horses were first introduced by the Hyksos, and, like the chariot (which had the Semitic name merkebat), are first found on the monuments of the eighteenth dynasty. * " Brackish, " ]>erhaps because rXari^t was used of the " broad " sea.

On

Amun-mes, while
dominion of a

'

This equal

division

of

the

land,

Egypt
it is

fell

under the

Semitic invader, Arisu, after his death,
possible that Manetho's account

may

be a confused rendering of actual events.
*

which was a favourite theory of Greek philosophers, was both unworkable in i)ractice and non-existent in fact Only a Greek guide could have invented the
story.

The

canal system of Egj'pt existed

j

,r.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
TrapeXoiTO, iXOoiv av
Trpo'i

183

Tfc

avrov

i<ri]fiaiv€

to yeyei^fievov 6

Be errefiTre roi/f iTria-Ke^Jrofiepov*; K'al avafierprjcrovTa'i oa(p eXda-a-cou
6 ^o)po<; yeyov€, oKoyf
d7ro<f>oprj<;

rov Xoiirov Kara Xoyov
fioi

tt}?
'

T€Tayfievr)<i

reXioi.

Bok€i Si

ivdevrev yeoifieTpcr)
fiev

evpedeicra

€9 rr/v

'FiXXaBa iiraveXOciv iroXov
t/}<?

yap koX

yvoofiova

koI

ra BudoBcKa fiepea
''FXX't)v€<;.^

'qfieprj'i

irapk

^afivXcoviav efiadov ol

Bao-tXey? fuv

Brj

ouro? fiovvo^ KiyvTTTLO'i AWioirir)^ VP^^>^ 1^^

/ivTjfioavva Be eXiireTO irpo rov 'H.<f)aicrTeiov

avBpidvTa^ XiOivou^,
rr)v

Bvo

fiev TpcijKovra irrj^eoiv,^

icomov re Koi

yvvaiKa,

TOV<i Be

TraiBaff

e6vTa<i re(T(repa<; eiKoai irrj'^efov efcaa-Tov

twv

Btj

o iep€v<;

Tov

'll<f)ai(TTOv -^povrp fiereireira

ttoXXw Aapeiov rov Hepcrrjv ov
i^a<i

irepieiBe

laravTa
irep

efxirpoa-de

dvBpidvra,

ov ol TreTroirjadai

SeadxTrpi rm Puyxrjrri(p' Secrtoa-rpiv fikv yap dXKa re Karacrrpi'^acrOai edvea ovk eXdcrao) eKeivov xal Br) Kal 2,Kv6a<i,

epya old

Aapeiov Be ov Bvvacrdrjvai
fievov Tol(TL epyoLO-i.
yv(i}fi7)v iroLTjcraa-Oai.

2,Kv6a<;

eXelv

ovkcov BiKaiov elvai
firf

lOTdvac efiTrpoaOe r&v eKeivov dvaOrjfidTcov

ovk inrep^aXXott/jo?

Aapeiov

[lev

vw

Xeyovai

rdora avy-

X€a-(o<TTpio<;
XirjCriv

Be reXevTijcravToii eKBe^acrOai eXeyov r-qv ^aai- 111
/lev

rov tralBa avrov ^epwv,^ rov drroBe^aadat

ovBefiiav

' For the geometrical papyrus that has been discovered, see App. I. ' This is perfectly correct. The sundial and gnomon were invented by the

Babylonians,

who
set

divided the day into
or

twelve

caspumi

"double
first

hours."

Anaximander
Laert.
'
ii.

up the

gnomon

(or obelisk) in Sparta in B.O. 560 (Diog.
1).

Contrary to fact. Not only the kings of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth dynasties ruled over Ethiopia,

but those of the twelfth also. After the time of Thothmes I., the kings' sons are called " princes of Kush."
colossos of

The fallen Eamses II. at Memphis is between 42 and 43 feet in length. One fonnd by Hekekyan Bey is about 34
*

i.e.

over 51 feet high.

title of the Egyptian kings "sublime Porte"). The real successor of llamses was his son Meneptah I, Herodotos now leaves history behind, and introduces us to the legends which passed current among the ignorant guides and dragomen. They are interesting, however, as examples of the folk-lore of the time and country. Hence it is that the king is not named he is simply "a Pharaoh," which Herodotos has mistaken for a proper name. The tale told of him is thoroughly Greek and non - Egj'ptian in character, and must therefore be regarded as belonging not to Egyptian but to Greek folk-lore. There is more than one Kflm el-Ahmar

house," the
(like the

;

or

"Red Mound"

in

modem
site of

Egypt, so

called from the heaps of red bricks in the

feet (20 cubits
^

=

34

feet).

,

This reason

has

plainly a Greek

author.

Pherdn

is

Pharaoh, per-aa or "great

an ancient " Red Mound " that the legend recounted by Herodotos was attachetl.
ruins which
city. It

mark the

was

to a similar

184
aTpaTr}ir)v,
Trprijfia.

HERODOTOS.
avvev€L-)(6rjvai

[book

he

oi

Tvj>\ov

r^eveaOuL

hca TotovSe

rod Trorafiov Kare\6ovro<i pi.eyLcrTa hrj rare iir oktq)KalBeKa 'irrj'^ea^, w? xnrepi^aXe ra^ apovpa<i, irvevfiaro'i ifiire-

rov Be ffaaiXea Xeyovai, 7roTa/jLo<i iyevero' KUfj,aTLi]<; rovTov araadaXiT) '^rjaafxevov, Xa^ovra al-^rjv 0a\elv e? fi€<ra^ Ta<i Biva<i rov TTora/jbov, fiera 8e avriKa Kafiovra avrov rovf BeKa fiev Bij erea elvai fxiv rv<^\6v, 6(f>6a\/jLov<; TVCjiXcodijvai.
(TovTO^
evBeKCLTrp

Be erei drriKeo-Oac oi fiavrrjLov €k Boyroi)? TroXto?
rrj<i
^r}p,['r}<i

w?

i^^Ket re oi 6 ')(p6vo^

koI ava^i-^ei yvvacKO^ ovp<p
€(ovrr]<i

vt'^d/j,€vo<i rot") 6<j>da\fiov<i,
7re(f)0Lri]Ke,

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dvBpa fiovpov
7rp<orr)<i

dXXcov dvBpwv iovcra direipo^.
&>?

xal rov

rrj^

ecovrov yvvatKo<i Treipdo-dai, fiera Be,
Traaicov iretpdcOai'
rojv
/xiav
e7reipi]07j,

ovk dvefiXeire, eVe^? dva^eyjravra Be avvayayelv rd<i yvvalxa^i
rj

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rrj<}

rS ovpw

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dve^eyjre, e?

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vvv KoXelrai *¥ipv6pT) y8wXo<?* e? ravrrjv crvvaXi-

aavra

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avv avrfj
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rfj iroXeu.

rrj<i

Be

vc-^lrdfjuevof

rS

ovpo) dve^Xey^e, Tavrtjv Be
rrjv

avro<i yvvaiKa.

dvaOrjfjuira

Be dtroi^vyutv

irdOrfv rcov

6(^6aXixo3v

dXXa

re

dvd rd lepd
eari,

irdvra rd Xoytfia dveOrjKe koX rov ye Xoyov fidXiara d^iov
e^etv, €?

rov 'HXtou ro iepov d^ioOerjra dvedijKe epya, 6^€Xov<: Bvo Xc0ivov<;,^ i^ evo<; i6vra<i exdrepov XiOov, fiTJK0<; /mcv eKarepov
TTTj'X^eoov

€Karov,' evpo<; Be OKro)

irrj-^ecov.

112

TouTOf Be eKBe^aaOai rrjv ^acnXTjLijv eXeyov dvBpa M.efi(f>irr}v, To3 Kara rrjv '^XX'qvmv yXoicrcrav ovvofia Upoyrea elvai'^ rov vvv r€fievo<i eVjt iv Me//.0t Kdpra kuXov re Kal ev iaKevaa-fievov,
Tov 'H^at(TT€iow 7r/3o? vorov dvefwv Keifievov. ro re/xevo<; rovro ^olvtK€<i Tvpiot, KaXetrac Be
avvdTra^ Tvpieov
(xrparoTreBov.

TrepLoiKeovai Be
6 p^wpo? ovro<i 6
rat

eart

Be

ev

refievei

rov

Upareof;

Iepov

ro

KaXelrac

^eivrj'i

^A(f)poBirr}'i'

a-vfifidXXofuit

The

tale, therefore,

was attached by

the guides to the two obelisks at Heliopolis,

attached to the shrine of the Phoenician Astarte at Memphis. The Greek Helen

one of which, erected by Userstands there.
feet,
1

was

easily identified

by Herodotos with
there

tesen
'

I., still

the Semitic goddess of beauty and love,

Over

50

a gross exaggeration.

more

especially

as

were

strong

The height
is

of the obelisk of Heliopolis

points of similarity between the legend
of Helen and that of AstartS and Addnis.

66 feet

;

the loftiest in Egypt, that of
is

Queen Hatasu at Kamak,

122

feet, or,

Homer makes

Prdteus live on the coast

without the pedestal, 108 feet 10 inches. Small obelisks were firet used for sepulchral purposee under the fourth and
fifth dynasties.

of the Delta, on the island of Pharos,

and Poly bos king of " Egyptian Thebes "
{Od. iv. 385, 126). Herodotos seems unacquainted with the Homeric version, but see note 2 on ch. 116.

Here we have another Greek legend

I,.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
lepov elvat 'EXei/?;?
tt}?

185

Se TOVTO TO

TvvSdpeo), xal tov \6yov
Stj

aKr]Koa><i a>9 SiartjOr] 'EXei/?;
^A(f)poBLTT)<i iiroivvfiov
ovBafji(o<i ^eivr)<i

rrapa Upoirei, kuI

koI

on
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ecrrv,

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yap

dWa
fioc
^

A<f)poSiT7]<;

iinKaXeiTai.

eXeyov Be
wSe.^
€<?

oi i€p€L<;

IcrTopiovri 113

TO,

irepl

'F,Xevr}v

yevkaOai
diroirXelv

AXe^avBpov
Kal

dpirdcavra
iyeveTo

'E\€K»;v
ev
TftJ

e/c ^'irdpTr}<i

Tr)v ecovrov'

/xiv, to?

eK^dXXovac e? ro XlyvTTTtov nreXayo';, ivOevrev Be (ou yctp dviec rh TrvevfutTo) dirLKvelraL e? AiyvTTTOv Kal Alyvirrov e<? to vvv l^avw^iKov KaXeofievov aTOfia TOV NetXou Kal e? 'Yapi-^eia^} rjv Be cttI tt)? ^i6vo<i, to Kal vvv
Alyai(p,

i^axTrac

dve/xot

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'H/3a/c\eo<?

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to

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ot/cexT;?

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Beat,

dvdpMTTQJv iTTifidXtjTac (TTLyiULTa

iepd,

ecovTov BiBov'i

tS

ouK e^e<TTL TovTov d-y^aaOat.
TO
fJ^e')(^pt'

o vofio<; ovto<; BiaTeXel eatv ofioio^

ifiio

dnr

dpyr\<i.

tov

(ov Br)

'

AXe^dvBpov diriaTeaTaL
e')(ovTa

OepdirovTe'i Trvdofievoi tov irepl

to

lepov
^

vofiov,

lK€Tat

Be l^ofievoL TOV deov

KaTTjyopeov

tov

AXe^dvBpov, ^ovXofievot
to?

^XdiTTeiv avTOv, irdvTa Xoyov
'FiXevrjv Te kuI ttjv e?
7rpo<;

k^Tjyeofievoc
dBiKirjv.

et^e

irepl

tt}v

Me^eXewy
aKovaa'i
irapa
Be

KaTrjyopeov Be TdoTa

Te tov<; lepea<; Kal tov tov aTOfjuaTO^ tovtov ^vXukov, tu>
rjv

ovvo/xa

©wrf?.*
e?
Me/i(^tz/

tovtcov

6

©wj/t?

Trefnrec

Tr)v

114

Ta-^ta-TTjv

Xeyovaav TdBe. " rjKei, ^etf 0? yevo<; fiev Teu/cpo?, epyov Be dvocnov ev Trj 'KXXdBc e^epyacrp,evo<i' ^eivov yap tov ecovTov e^airaTrjcra'i Ttjv yvvaiKa avTrjv Te TavTTjv dycov rjKei Kal iroXXd KdpTa '^prjiiaTa, viro
TIpcoTea

dyyeXirjv

dve/Kov e? yi]V ttjv arjv aTrevet^^^et?.

KOTepa BijTa tovtov
;

ioifiev
'Trpo<;

aatvea eKirXelv

rj

aTreXaifieOa to, e'^tov rfXde

" avTiTrefiiret

TaoTa
eaTL

o

TIptoTev^

XeyovTa TdBe.
^elvov

" dvBpa tovtov, oaTi<;

KOTe

dvoaia

€^epyaafievo<i
e/xe,

tov

ewvTov,

avXXa^6vTe<i
aKova-a^ 3^ 115
veaq avTov
ttjv

dirdr^eTe trap

Xva elBea) 6 ti kot^ Kal Xe^ec."

TaoTa
'^Xev7)v

©coi't? (xvXXafi/Sdvec

tov AXe^avBpov koI
'

Ta<;

KaTLo-^ec, ficTa

Be

avTov Te tovtov dvriyaye
'^^qixuTa,
Trpo<;

e?

Me/i^tv Kal
lK€Ta<;.

Te

Kal

to,

Be koI tou?

dva-

This a clear case in which Herodotos
to his wishes.

was answered according
1

Syr. 59, where we learn that the Syrians devoted themselves to the

De Dea

"The
That

salt-pans."

service of Astarte

by tattooing the wrist

"

is

the Tyrian Melkarth.

For

or neck.
*

the Phoenician colonists in the Delta, see ch. 15, note 4.
» Cf. ix.

Cp. Gal. vi. 17. Thdnis was a town on the Kanopic
of the Nile.

mouth
It

Cp. Od.

iv.

228.

Lev. xix. 28
;

;

Is. xliv.

5

;

Ezek.

and the marks of 6 ; Rev. ix. 4 the Yishnavite sects in India. See Luc.

was subsequently suiierseded by Kanopos. The name may be derived from the Egyptian ton, "canal."

L

186
KOfiiaOivTwv
Tl<i
T7J<;

HERODOTOS.
Be
irdvTcov,

-

[book
TIpa)T€if<;

elpcora
6

rov

^

AXe^avhpov

o

ecT)

Koi OKoOev irXioi.
etTre

Be ol xal to yevofi xareXe^e Kal
Bt)

7raT/0'>79

to ovvofia, xal
Be
6

koI tov ttXoov airrjjija'aTO
eipoiTa

OKoQev TrXeov.
'FiXivijv

ficTO,

T[pa)Tev<;

Xd^of

irXavwfjLevov
ttjv

Bk

tov

avTov OKodev ttjv AXe^dvBpov iv tc3 X6ya>
ol

Kol

ov Xe<yovTO<;

dXrjOeirjv,

rjXe'y^ov

jevofievoc
TeXo<t

iKeTUi,

i^Tjyeofievot

irdvTa Xoyov
€K(f)alvec

tov

dBt,KrjfiaT0<;.

Be
el

B^
iit}

a<f)t

Xoyov TovBe
TToXXov

o

Tlpa>T€v<i,

Xeycov otl " iyo)
ocrot

irepl
•tjBr}

rjyeofirjv

firjBeva

^eivcov

KTeiveiv,

vtt

dveficov
ere

d7ro7uifi<j>6evTe<;

rjXdov e? '^coprjv ttjv
09,

ip'ijv,

iyo)

dv

virep tov

"EWt/i/o? iTiadfirjv,
Kol fidXa

& xdKtaTC

dvBpcov, ^etvlcov Tv^oiv epyov
ttjv

dvoaidoTaTov ipydaao' irapd tov aecovTOv ^eivov
97X^69.

ywaiKa

TdoTd tol ovk

rfpKeae,

dX)C
vvv
fjuev

dvairTepdicra'^

avTr)v

ot'X^eat e'^^cov €KKXe-\fra<;.

Kol ovBe TdoTd tol fiovva fjpKeae,
rjKeL<i.

dX}sM Kal oLKia tov ^eivov Kepataa<i

cov

eVeiSr/

irepl
to,

TToXXov

Tjyij/jLai,

fjLrj

^etvoKTovelv,

yvvalKa

TavTtjv

Kal
'

^pijfiaTa ov TOL irporjao) dirdyecrQai,
^etvcp <l>vXd^co, €9 o

aXV

avTh,

iym tw

^XXtjvi
eOeXr}'

dv avTb<; eX6u>v eKelvo^ dirayar^eaBai
69

avTov
e/c

Be ere Kal Toii^ croi'9 o'vp.irXoov^ Tpicov ijfMepecov irpoayopevw
e/A^9

T?}9

yea'i

aXXr^v Tivd fxeTopfic^eadac,

el

Be

firj,

aTe

TToXe/jblovi Trepieylrea-Oai"

116

'E\ev7;9

/Jiev

TavTrjv dirt^LV Trapd UpcoTea eXeyov
fioi

ol

lepec<i

yeveaOac
crdat'

BoKel Be

Kal "Ofi-qpo^ tov Xoyov tovtov irvOe€9
ttjv

aW'
tS

ov yap

6fioi(o<;

eTroirouT^v

evirpeirr)^

rjv

tS
Kal
iv
Tr)v

CTepq)

irep

i^p^auTO, eKoov
dXXrj

/jieTrjKe ^

avTOv, BijXaxra^

0)9

tovtov eiricrTaLTo tov Xoyov
*lXid8i
*

BrfXov

Be
^

KaTa
Trj

trep

eiroirja-e

(Kal

ovBafir}

dveTToBLae

ecovTov)

irXdvrjv

AXe^dvBpov,
Kal

0)9 dTTTjveL'^dij

dycov '^Xevr}v

re

Brj

aXXy

irXa^o-

fievo<i

0)9 69

%cBa)va

T779 ^otvlKr}^
^

diTLKeTo.

eTnfiefivrjTat Bk
toBe.

avTOv iv
;
'^

Aio/x'^Beof dpco'TTji-p'

Xiyei Bk Td eirea
did not recover
its

*
iK(l)t>

"He

" Host " irapi, goes with the ace. threw it aside." Stein reads
for the unintelligible it 6 of the

former position until

the Assyrian wars had ruined Tyre for a short time, when it again represented

MSS.
'

"Contradicted."

This

is

the

first

mention of the Iliad as a separate poem in Greek literature. * Sidon, "the fisher's town," now Saida, though the older city, had ceased
to be the leading state of Phoenicia after

up to B.c, 678, in which year Esarhaddon destroyed it This must have therefore been the period when the robes imported from Phoenicia came to Imj called Sidonian by the Greeks.
Phoenicia
• II. vi.

290-2.

Book

v. is

the part of

the Iliad

known
in

as the

" Bravery of

the rise of Tyre under Hiram, the con-

DiomMea "
ment

temporary of David and Solomon.

It

of the

our texts. The arrangepoem by the rhapsodists

——
ir.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
€V0^

187
^

eaav

ol ireirXoc Tra/jLvoiKLXoi,
Tci<;

epya

yvpacKcov

%i8opI(i)v,

auTo<?

*

AXe^av8po<; OeoeiSrj^
avvjyayev evirarepecav.
eTreo-t.

ijyaye SiBovii^Oev, eVtTrXo)? evpea irovrov,
rrjv
'

686v

f^v 'EiXevTjv irep

[i7nfjL€/jLVT}Tai,

Se koI iv 'OBv(ra-elrj iv roicriSe rolart

Tola Aio<; Ovydrrjp e^e (fydpfiaxa /injTioevTa,
i(T0\d, TO, ol YioXvhap'Va iropev
AlyviTTir),
(f>dpfMaKa,

0wvo9

7rapaK0LTL<i

ry irKelara ^epei

^€lBa>po<i

dpovpa

TToWd
/a'

fiev icrOXd fiefMiyfieva,

iroWd

Be \vypa.

Kol rdBe erepa
AlyvTTTay

tt/jo? Ti^Xe/x^;^oi/

Mej/eXew? Xeyei.

en

Bevpo deol fie/jiawTa veeaOau

€0"^ov, iirel ov ccfyiv epe^a TeXrjetra-a^ eKaT0fi^a<i.^

iv

TovToiai Tolcrc eireat BrfKol ore rjiriaraTO rrjv e? AXyvTrrov
ofiovpec

^AXe^dpBpov irXdvrjv
^oiviK€<i, Tcov icTTi
Tj

yap

rj

"Zvpiri

Aiyvirrw,

ol

Be

'^iBcov, €v TT]

ZvpLT) ocKeovcri.

Kara rdora 117
^

Be TO, eirea KaX roBe rb '^(opiov ovk
OTC OVK 'Ofirjpov
fiev
*

rjKKna
i<TTi
to?

dWd

fidXiara
ix

BrjXoi

rd K-virpia eired
K-virploiat
i<;

aW' dXXov
rpiralo^

tcvo<;.

iv

yap

roicrc

eipTjrac

S7rdpTT)<i

AXe^avBpo<i diriKero
'^(p7}(rd/jbevo<;

to "IXiov dycov 'FiXivqv, evaei re irvevXeirj'

fiaTt

Kal OaXdaar)

iv

Be

'IXtaSi

Xeyei

(u?

iirXdt^eTO

dywv

avTrjv.

"Ofir)po<i fiev

vvv Kal Ta K.vTrpia evrea -^aipeTO).
el

elpofievov 118
EXXr/i/e? tcl

Be

fMeo

Toix;

lepea<;

fiaTaLov Xoyov Xeyovat

ol

'

must have been
Herodotos.
^

different in the time of

Menelaos in Abyssinia, because Egypt
bordered on Abyssinia.

The

logic

of
his

The digamma is absent from this word the original line probably ran
;

Herodotos
geograpliy.
'
' '

is

as

much

at fault as

KafiTcolKiKa

Fipya;

but

the

corrupt

From
this

these verses, and more espe-

reading has been imitated in Od. xv.
105.
"

Schiifer doubts the authenticity of the

passage." The words of Herodotos show that the authorship of the Kypria was in his day commonly
cially

passage between brackets, on the ground

ascribed to

Homer,

like that of other

found in all the MSS. Since Herodotos could quote the Iliad as a separate poem, there is no reason why he should not have quoted the Odyssey as a separate poem also.
it is

of rdSe in ch. 117, but

parts of epic literature (see ch. 53, note

The
«

reference is to Od. iv. 227-30.

In the Alexandrine age, when the and Odyssey alone had come to be marked off as Homeric, it was the fashion to assign the Kypria to Stasinos. If Herodotos had carried out his principle
6).

Iliad

iv. 351-2. The last line docs not scan, since the two dipthongs et ov cannot be pronounced as one syllable.

Od.

of denying a

common Homeric

author-

ship to passages which were inconsistent,

*

A

parallel

argument would be that
of

and

he would have had to anticipate Wolf Lachmann in dividing the Iliad

Homer knew

the

wanderings

of

into independent lays.

I

188
"jrepl

HERODOTOS.
^IXiov <yev6cr6at
elBivai
Trap*
rj

[book

ov,

e^aaav

irpo^;

rdora rdhe,
ikdecv
fxev

icrToplrjcrc

^dfievoL

avrov

MeveXeo).

<yap

/jLera

r7)v 'EXei'T;? dpTrayrjv e? Tr)v

TevKpiSa

yijv

'KXX-^vwv arpaTirjv

TToWrjv ^or)6eovcrav Mei/e\e&), eK^daav Be e? yrjv Kal IBpvOelaav
rrjv <7TpaT(,r}v irepbireiv
i<i

to "IXtov dyyeXov<;, <tvv Be <t^l iivat
B'

KoX

avTOV

^eveXeoiV'
re

rov<;

iireire

iaeXOelv

e?

to

rel-x^of;,

oTraLTelv

'^Xevrjv

Kol rd '^p'^fiara

rd

oi

ol'yero

KXe-^jraif

*A\€^avBpo<;, rtov re dBiKrjfidroov St/ca? alrelv roix; Be Teu/cpou?

rov avrov Xoyov Xeyeiv rore koX /xereTreira, Kal ofivvvraf Kal
dvwjjbori,
fir)

fiev e')(eLV '^Xevrjv firjBe

rd i'7nKa\e6p,eva '^rjpAxra,
BiKaLa)<;

dX)C elvac avrd rrdvra ev AlyvTrrat, Kal ovk &v
8tVa<? v7re')(eLV

avrol
ol Be

rwv Tlparev^

6

Alyv7mo<i ^a<n\ev<;
rei'^o'i

e^et.
Brj

"EWiyi/e? KarayeXdcrOai BoKeovre<; vir avrSiv ovrco
K€ov,
e?

iiroXtopt}

o

i^eikov

eXovac Be ro

d><;

ovk

e(f)aivero

'^XevT),
Br)

dXXd rov avrov Xoyov rcS irporepq) eirvvOdvovro, ovrco iriarevaavre'; rS Xoyrp ro) 'irp(i)r<p ol "^XXr)ve<i avrov Mei^eXewv
irapd
Tlpcorea.
e<i

119 diroa-reXkovai
rr)v

aTTiKOfievof

Bk

6

Mei'eXea)?

e<?

AiyvTrrov Kal dvairXaxra'^
7rp6<i Be

rr)v Me/i^ti/, etTra? rr)V dXr)deir)v

rSiv Trprjyfidrcov, Kal ^etvloov r)vrr)cre fieydXwv Kal 'EiXevr)v diraOea

KaKOiv aTreXa^e,
p,€vroL

Kal rd ecovrov •^pijfiara irdvra,
MeyeXeo)*?
dvT)p
dBiKOfi
e?

rif^oiv

rovrcdv

iyevero
opfirjfjievov
rjv,

Aiyvrrriovi.

diroTrXelv
67rt

ydp

avrov

tcr'^ov

dirXolac

iTreiBr) Be

rovro

TToXXov roiovrov

einreyydrai
rovro
rfjcri

7rprjy/iia

ovk ocrtov

Xa^wv
fiera

yap Bvo
Be
d)^

iratBia dvBpoiv eTri'^copiojv evrofid a<f)€a eTroirjae.'
eTrdia-ro'i

iyevero

epyaaiJbevo<i,

fMicrr}6ei<i

re

Kal

Bi(OKopevo<i

6lj(ero

(^evywv

vrjval

eVi At^vr)<;' ro evOevrev
rovrtov Be rd

Be oKov

en

erpdirero ovk el-^ov elrrelv Alyvirrioi.

fiev i<TropLr)<TC €(f)acrav eiriaraaOaL,

rd Be

Trap^

ewvrolai yevo/xeva

drpeKeco<; eTriardfievoc Xeyeiv.

120

Tdora
el rjv

fiev

Alyvirriwv ol

lepel^i

eXeyov

iyo) Be rat

Xoy^

Te3

Trepl 'EXei'779 Xe'^Oevrt, Kal avro<i TrpoariOefiai,

rdBe i7nXey6fX€vo<;,

'^Xevr] ev 'IX/^, diroBodrjvai
rj

CKOvro^ ye

deKovro<i

^

ySXayS^? ^v 6 TIpLafio<i

dv avrr)v rolat, "EXX7;o-t T/TOt ov ydp Br) ovroa ye (f)pevoAXe^dvBpov. oiiBe ol dXXot ol TrpoarjKovre'i avru), ware
rfj

Tolai crtperepoia-c aoofiaai Kal rolcrc reKvoLcri Kal

TroXei kiv-

' The Teukrians are probably the Tekkri of the Egyptian monuments,

' Suggested, probably, partly by the legend of the sacrifice of Iphigeneia at

who came

to the help of the Hittites, along with other allies, from the western part of Asia Minor.

Aulis,

partly by the

human

sacrifices

offered to the sun-god bj' the Phcenicians

of the Delta coast

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
i^ovXovro, o/cw? 'A\€^avBpo<; 'KXevp avvoiKJ}.
Tolcri irpuiTOLa-L ^(^povoiai
el

189
Be

^^

Bvpeveiv

H|| Tot Kol iv

rdora iyivoxrKov, eVel ttoWoI

fiev Ttov aXX.(ov Tpoioyv,

OKore avfifitayoiev

Tola
^

'

EtWrjai,

arrrcoX-

XvvTO, aiiTOu Be UptdfjLov ovk eari ore ov
7r\eov<i roiv iraiBoiv

Bvo

rj

rpeU

rj

koI ere

fidxT^

yi'VO/Mevrj^

direOvqaKov,

el -^pij rt rola-i

eTTOTTOiolai 'X^peco/Mevov Xiyeiv, tovtcov
eya) fiev
eXirofiai, el

Be tolovtwv crvfi/Saivovrcov

koI ai/ro? Tipiap,o<i avvoLKet, '^Xevrj, airoBr)

Bovvai av avrijv Tocai A'^atolcri, fieXkovrd ye
KaKOiv diraXKayrjaecrOaL.
Trepc^ce, wcrre elvai,
etav

ov fiev ovBe

77

fiaaiXrjcr} e?
eir

rwv irapeovrcov AXe^avBpov
^

yepovro^ Upidfiov eovro^
'Trpecr^vrepo'i

eKeivw

to,

TrprjyfjLara

dWa

"^KTcop Kai

koI dvrjp cKeivov fiaXkov

efieWe avTijv Tlpidfiov diroOavovro^; irapaXdfiyjredOai, top ov
eiTLTpd'jrei.v, kol rdora /xeydXcov avrov avfi^aipovrcop IBirj re avrS xal rolcrc dWoicn TpcoaL aXV ov yap et%oy KXeprjp diroBoiipaL, ovBe

7rpocr)]K€

dBiKeovTC to5 dBe\<f)ea)

KUKciyp Bi

irdaL

Xeyovcrc avrolcn rrjp dXijdelrjp
iyo) ypcofj^rjp

eiria-revop

oi

"EWi/i/e?, a>9 fxev

diroc^aipofiaL,

rov Batfioviov 7rapacrKevd^opro<i OKcof
KaTa(f)ape<;

TrapcoXeOplr)
TTOi^acoaL,
rLficopiav
o)"?

aTToXofievot
rcov

rovro

rolai

dvOpcoTrotcrc
elcrl

/jLeydXcop

dBiKrjfidroip

fxeydXat

Kal

at

irapd rSip Oecop.

Kal rdora

/xep rfj ifiol Boxel eipT]rai.

Ilp(oreo<; Be

eKBe^aadac

rrjp ^acnXiqirip 'Vafi-^iptrop^ eXeyop, 121

o? fivTjfioavva eXlirero rd TrpoirvXaia
fiepa

rd
roiP

Trpof ecnrepr^p rerpafju-

rov

'Il(f)aLcrreiov,

dpriov<;

Be

irpoirvXatcov

ecrrrjae

dpBpLdpra<i Bvo, iopra<i rb p,eya6o<i irepre Kal eiKocn, TnT^ewp,

rwp

*

"There

is

pen that
'

"=

not when it did not hap" constantly."
story of the Master-

sq.,

and Schiefner "Ueber einige mor-

genliindische Fassungen der Rhampsinit-

The old Aryan

Sage " in the Bulletin de I'Acad. Lap.
des Sciences de Saint- Pitersbourg, xiv. pp. 299-315. It is but a variant of that

thief,

which the Greek colonists had brought with them into Egypt, was attached by them to the name of Rhampsinitos, who seems to have been Ramses
lU.,
the
builder
of

told of Trophonios

and Agamedes

in

the treasury of Hyrieus at Hyria (Paus.
ix.

the

pavilion

of

37,

5),

of Angelas in Elis (Schol.
Clouds, 504),

Medinet Abu at Thebes. The name is a Greek form of Ramessu, pa miter, Ramses, the god," according to Brugsch. Maspero makes it Ramessu si-Neilh, " R. son of Neith," a title never borne by the Theban kings, but first used by the Saitic princes, which fixes the date of the tale to the period of Psammetikhos For illustrations of and his dynasty. the story, see Duulop-Liebrecht : *'Ge' '

Aristoph.

and of Hermes
;

who
d.px(>s

receives as his reward the title of

again, of the

^Xi^ewv {Hymn. Herm. 292) or Hindu legend of Karpara

and Gata, of the Highland
and the Forty Thieves
Nights.
vanni, a

tale of the Shifty Lad, or of the story of Ali Baba

in the

Arabian

In the Pecorone of Ser GioFlorentine of the fourteenth

century, a Venetian doge takes the place
of the Egyptian king.

schichte der Prosadichtungen," pp. 264

190
Alyinrrioc top
Trpo'i
/Jbkv
7r/30<?

HERODOTOS.

[book

^opeo) ecrretoTa KoXiovcn Oepo^, rov Be
fikv

vorov

'^cLficdva'

koI rov

KoXeovai

6epo<;,

tovtov

fx^v

7rpo(rKVviov<rL re Kal ev iroLeovat,, rov Be '^etfiwva KaXeofievov
a)

ra

epbiroXiv TovTcov epBovai.

ttXovtov Be tovtw

rw ^acnXh

yeve<r0aL

dpyvpov /jbiyav, rov ovBeva rcov vcrepov iinrpa^evTwv ^aaiXeav ^ovXo/Mevov Be avrov BvvaaOav virep^aXecrdaL ovS" iyyv^; ekdelv. iv aa<f)a\eLTj ra -^ij/xara drjcravpi^eiv olKoBofieladai, otKTjfxa
XlOlvov, rov rcov rol'^cov eva e? ro e^a> fi€po<i
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fiiov, rovf; Be

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rd dyyrjia ev rolav ra
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Bo^at ev Xeyeiv, Kal

iroiija-al fiiv

ireiaOevra rdora, Kal Karaptemples,
of

^ " One of the walla of which should adjoin the external part of his palace."

The
us

secret

treasure

-

chamber
in

of

the

crypts

the

reminds Egyptian

even from most employed in the edifice. At Denderah there are twelve such
concealed
those
ciypta.

„.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
top \i6ov
to?

191

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avev

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to
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KaToiKTiadfievov,

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avTov KaTaaTijaavTa ivTeiXacrdai

a(f>t,

tov dv XBcovTai aiTOKhjivdyeiv
tt/jo?

aama
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rj

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ecovTov.

dvuKpefiafiivov Be tov veKvo<i ttjv firjTepa
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dlvov,

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Kal TOV eKKe'xyfievov olvov
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tcov
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-^ovo)

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oBov koI KUTaaKevd^etv.
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Tt'va

Be

Twjov; re
it

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eyyiveadat

Kal

(rKco-\jraC

fitv

Kal

yeXcoTa

irpoayayecrOaL, iTnBovvai avTolcn
coairep elyov

twv daKcov evw

tov<; Be

avTov
tov Be
tcov

KaTaKXidevTat
Brj

iriveuv BcavoelcrOai,

Kal iKeivov irapacrv[jb7rlvet,v'

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ireiadrfvaL re
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ft)<?

Kal KaTafielvai.
iirtBovvai,

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Kal

dXXov

da-Kcov BaylrtXec Be tcm ttotw "^rjaafievovf; tov<; cf)vXdKovt inrep/MedvaOrjvat

Kal

KpaT7]dejrra<;

inro
Be, tu?

tov virvov avTov evda irep
irpocrco
rjv tt}?

einvov KaTaK0ifir)6rjvat.
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tov

vvkto<;, to re
iirl
Xvfj,r)

TOV

dBeXc}>eov

KaTaXvaai,

Kal tcov <f>vXdKcov

irdvTcov ^vprjcrai Td<i Be^id^:
-

'irapr}iBa<i,^

iindevTa Be tov vexvv
The

im-l

"When

he was come to the guards
the hanging corpse."

'The

native Egyptians usually (though
police,

who were watching

not invariably) shaved.

how-

L

192
rov';
e)

HERODOTOS.
ovov<;

[book
rfj

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eV

ockov,
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6

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he

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fiiv

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olKrjp,aro<;,

rdora firj'^aveo/xevo'i, iroLrfo-ai ttjv dvyarepa tt)v ecovrov Kariaai,
re
ofioiQ)<;

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rov Be
fjLeyd\(i)<i

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mareva-avra

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iXdelv
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avrov, 'Vafi-yjrivcrov Be

6(ovfidaai,

rr)v

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122

Mera
Kv^eveiv

Bk

rdora eXeyov rovrov rov

fiaa-iXea

^wov Kara^rjvai

Kdro) €9 rov ol "l^XXrjve'i "AiBijv vofii^ovai, elvai, KaX KeWc <rvyrfj ^r^p/rirpi^

Koi rd fiev vikolv avrrjv rd B^ eaaovadak

ever,

Matiu,

were recruited from the Libyan who had whiskers. See Maspero,

counted for the five days of the epact, needed to make up the 365 days of the
solar year,

Conies 6gyptiens, p. xl. 3a "To"; not elsewhere in Herodotoa.
*
i.e.

by declaring that Hermes

(Thoth) had won them at dice from the

Isis.

records an

Plutarch {De Is. 12) Egyptian myth which ac-

Moon

before the birth of Osiris.

The

story told by Herodotos

may

be a dis-

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
avrrj<i,

193

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fiiv

ttuXlv atrLKeadai Satpov e'X^ovra Trap* avTrj^
aTTO
8t)

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evvofiirjv

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69 Trdcrav

fieydX(i)<;, fieTO,

Be tovtov

^acnXevaavTd a^ecov XeoTra
torted form of this, since
•with a feast of Isis.
it is

KaKOTrjTa eXdarat}

KaTa-

associated

haps affixed
tion of

it

to

The Greeks perthe name of Rhampsi-

nitos in consequence of the representa-

Ramses III. seated at draughts with a woman of the harem, which holds a prominent place on the outer wall of his palace at Medlnet Abu. The romance of Setnau, given in a demotic papyrus, describes how Setnau descended into the tomb of Ptah-nofer-ka at Koptoa, and beat the dead man in a game of
fifty-two
points,

Amenti, the Egyptian Hades, was guarded by two jackals, the representatives of Anubis, who are accordingly often deHerodotos picted on the monuments. or his informants mistook them for
wolves.
" Even the faith of Herodotos was not robust enough to swallow the descent of Rhampsinitos into Hades. '

Isis

and

Osiris.

The souls of the See Appendix I. wicked alone passed into animals.
*

thereby gaining pos-

session of a magical book.
" Doubt is thrown upon the ceremony by the fact that Herodotos does not say

where this particular temple of

Isis was.

Pherekydes of Syros (Cic. Tuae. Diap. Empedokl^s, etc. ' The three pyramid-builders belonged to the fourth dynasty, and reigned about But SOOO years earlier than Ramses.

i.

16), Pythagoras,

194
Kk'qicravTa

HERODOTOS.
yap
fiLv

[book
fiev
a(f)€a<i

irdvra

ra iepa irpwra

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tcov

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iv T&)

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rrjv rplfirjvov eKdarrjv.

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eTroit^dr}

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fore

Herodotos having visited Memphis bethe pyramids, and having consequently noted down the stories attached
to the building of the city before those

which is not easy to explain. Traces of two causeways still remain, one leading
to the Great Pyramid, the other to the

Third.

The

first

is

only 32 feet broad

attached to

tlie

pyramids, imagined that

Kheops must have come after Rhampsinitos. Kheops Souphis in Manetho is the Egyptian Khufu or Shufu, "the long-

haired," the builder of the Great Pyra-

mid

of Gizeh,

and the conqueror of the

Sinaitic Peninsula' for the sake of the

copper and turquoise mines there.
far

So from being impious, he was a devoted worshipper of the gods, the builder and endower of a temple of Isis, antl even, according to tradition, the author of a religious treatise. His impiety was an invention of the Greeks, like the bad

and 85 feet high (not 48 as Herodotos makes it). " "Ten years were devoted to this and to the underground chambers on the (rock) platform whereon the ])yramids stand, which he made to be vaults for himself in the midst of an island." There is no trace of a canal, and none could have existed, as the platform on which the pyramids stand is more than 100 feet above the level of the highest inundation at the pi-esent day. « That is, 800 feet. The real length
(not 60 as Herodotos says),

of the side was originally 764 feet, the

government of his
2

reign.

perpendicular height from 480 to 485
feet,

This

is

in direct contradiction of the

and the height of each sloping

side

monuments.
' *

610 feet
8,

See ch.
' '

note

1.

'

The period during which the people were oppressed in order to make a causeway." Most MSS. read t^ dXXy Xev>

— Pyramid

The stones vary considerably in size. was abumir in Egyptian.
wortl

The Greek

properly denote«i

a
C),

pyramid -shaped cake (Atheu. 647

"
II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
fiere^erepoi Kpoaaa^i oi Be ^(OfMiha^ ovofid^ovai.

196
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made
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(irvp6s),

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Ionian settlers in

monuments, and the inscriptions written on the exterior of a pyramid were either
funeral
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Egypt with the tombs of the ancient
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is

formulae

of

a

later

date

or

The Greek guide was not

likely

plainly impossible.
*

"Or again they might have had only one machine, which, being easily moved, they transferred from tier to tier,
when they had chosen the
let the story be given.
*

stone

;

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This

ability.

is plainly contrary to probLepsios has shown that a king,

on ascending the throne, built a small pjrramid, and covered it with a fresh
coating of stone each year of his reign.

Hence the
is

size

of the Great

Pyramid
reign
of

explained

by the

long

Kheops. * This was not the kind of inscription placed by Egyptian kings upon their

to be able to read hieroglyphics, and simply guessed at their meaning, which was probably suggested to him by what looked like the head of an onion in the name of Kheops. Lentils, rather than radishes, onions, and garlick, were the staple vegetables of the Egyptian working class. The Great Pyramid was called Khtifu-khut, "the glorious throne (or lights) of Kheops," by the Egyptians. Maspero suggests that the inscription seen by Herodotos was a proscynema to Osiris for a dead person to whom the god is asked to give bread, beef, wine, oil, etc., the inscription being accompanied by the picture of a table on which the food was piled {Annuaire de FAaa.

dea Et. grecquea, 1875,

p.

17).

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This pyramid has the name of Menstory attached to
it

or Shafra in Egyptian, called Ehabryas

ka-ra (Mykorinos) painted on the ceiling.

The

of the Greek guides. that the heroine was Hont-sen, a favourite

was an invention Maspero suggests

daughter of Khufu, for whom he built a funereal pyramid near the temple of
I

by Died. Sic. His wife was Meri-s-ankh, by whom he had two sons, Neb-makhu-t and S-kem-ka-ra, and in right of whom he came to the throne, " Syenian granite. Shafra had the

command
Cataract.

of the river as far as the First

sis
'

of Rosta.

The Eg>'ptian name of the

According to Manetho sixty -three His successor was Ra-tatef acyears.
cording to the tablets of Abydos and

Sakkarah

;

then came his son-in-law

Shafra (for sixty-six years according to

Manetho, who calls him Souphis II.) * Son-in-law, not brother. Khafra

Second Pyramid was ur, "the great." Its original perpendicular height was 458 feet, the height of each sloping side 575} feet, and the length 711 j feet. • According to Manetho sixty -six years. ' Perhajw a reminiscence of the Hyksos
invasion, Philitis or Philition standing

"

II.]

THE LAND OF EGYPT.
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