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The Oxford Guide to English Grammar by John Eastwood.
PARADISE APARTMENTS An excellent choice for an independent summer holiday, these large apartments are along an inland waterway in a quiet residential area. The friendly resort of Gulftown with its beautiful white sandy beach is only a short walk away. Restaurant and gift shop nearby.
An adjective modifies a noun. The adjectives here express physical and other qualities (large, quiet, friendly) and the writer's opinion or attitude (excellent, beautiful). The adjective residential classifies the area, tells us what type of area it is. Adjectives can also express other meanings such as origin (an American writer), place (an inland waterway), frequency (a weekly newspaper), degree (a complete failure), necessity (an essential safeguard) and degrees of certainty (the probable result). NOTE a- We use adjectives of quality to answer the question What... like? What's the area like? ~ Oh, it's very quiet. Adjectives of type answer the question What kind of...? What kind of area is it? ~ Mainly residential. b- A modifier can also be a noun, e.g. a summer holiday, a gift shop.
a- An adjective always has the same form. There are no endings for number or gender. an old man an old woman old people
But some adjectives take comparative and superlative endings. My wife is older than I am. This is the oldest building in the town.
b- Most adjectives have no special form to show that they are adjectives. But there are some endings used to form adjectives from other words. careful planning a salty taste global warming artistic merit
The position of adjectives
1- An adjective phrase can have one or more adjectives.
a large stadium a large, empty stadium
An adverb of degree can come before an adjective. a very large stadium an almost empty stadium a very large, almost empty stadium
NOTE a- The adverb enough follows the adjective. Will the stadium be large enough?
b- We can put a phrase of measurement before some adjectives. The man is about forty years old and six feet tall.
2- An adjective can go before a noun or as complement after a linking verb such as
be, seem, get. These positions are called 'attributive' and 'predicative'. Attributive: Predicative: It is a large stadium. (before a noun) The stadium is large. (as complement)
3- These adjectives are in attributive position.
Canterbury is a lovely city. A noisy party kept us awake. I bought a black and white sweater. It's a difficult problem.
4- These adjectives are in predicative position.
Canterbury is lovely. The party seemed very noisy. NOTE a- An adjective can also be an object complement. Why must you make things difficult? A noisy party kept us awake. The sweater was black and white. Things are getting so difficult.
b- We can use an adjective in an exclamation with how. How lovely the view is! How cold your hands are!
An adjective can also be a one-word reply, e.g. Oh, good./Lovely.
5- In these patterns we leave out words before a predicative adjective.
a- I've got a friend keen on fishing. (= ... a friend who is keen on fishing.) b- Could you let me know as soon as possible?
(= ... as soon as it is possible.) I don't want to spend any more money than necessary. Chris went to bed later than usual. We can do this with a few adjectives after as or than. c- Pick the fruit when ripe. (= ... when it is ripe.)
Look at the pictures and write a phrase with an adjective and noun. Use these nouns: building, car, cat, chairs, music, power, skirt, weather
Example * a long skirt 1). ……………………………… 2). ………………………………. 3).................................................... 4).................................................. 5) ……………………………….. 6) ………………………………. * cold weather
B) Underline all the adjectives in this description of a hotel.
This comfortable hotel with its pleasant gardens is ideal for people who want a quiet holiday, yet it is only a short distance from the highly popular attractions of the area. There are lovely views from every room. The atmosphere is very friendly, and the staff are always helpful. A holiday here is very good value for money. You can eat your meals at the hotel, where the food tastes marvellous. Or you can of course try some of the excellent local restaurants.
C) Look at the notes and write the song titles. Sometimes the adjective comes before the noun,
and sometimes you need to use is or are. * your sister / elder Your elder sister * this boy / alone This boy is alone 1 the world / asleep 2 my desire / chief 3 my heart / content 4 the thing to remember / main 5 the night / alive 6 secrets / inner the girl tor me / only
And and but with attributive adjectives
a- We can sometimes put and between two adjectives. a soft, comfortable chair a soft and comfortable chair
But we do not normally use and between adjectives with different kinds of meanings. beautiful golden sands (opinion, color) b- We use and when the adjectives refer to different parts of something. a black and white sweater (partly black and partly white) We use but when the adjectives refer to two qualities in contrast. a cheap but effective solution
Adverbs of degree
1- Modifying an adjective or adverb
A- We can use an adverb of degree before some adjectives and adverbs.
+ Adjective: It's very cold. I'm so tired. You're absolutely right. These are rather expensive. We're a bit busy today. It wasn't at all interesting. I come here quite often. We hardly ever go out. I saw her fairly recently. He agreed somewhat reluctantly.
Here are some common adverbs of degree. Full degree: Large degree: Medium degree: Small degree: Negative: Others: completely, totally, absolutely, entirely, quite very, extremely, really, awfully, terribly rather, fairly, quite, pretty, somewhat a little, a bit, slightly hardly, scarcely, at all so, as; too; more, most, less, least
We can also use a fraction or percentage. The bottle is only half full. The forecast was eighty per cent accurate.
NOTE a- We use completely, totally, absolutely etc with words expressing a full or large degree. This tin opener is completely useless. (useless = absolutely no use) We are absolutely delighted at the news. (delighted = very pleased) We do not normally use very or extremely with these words. It's very unsatisfactory. NOT It's very useless. We were extremely pleased. NOT We were extremely delighted Some words that do not normally take very or extremely are: amazed, amazing, appalled,appalling, awful, complete, delighted, dreadful, essential, false, fascinated, horrible, ideal, impossible, incredible, magnificent, marvellous, perfect, terrible, terrific, useless. b- After a phrase with very we can put indeed for extra emphasis. It's very cold indeed today. c- We often use very with a negative. These photos aren't very good. This is more usual than These photos aren't good or These photos are bad. d- Instead of really we can use real in informal speech, especially in American English. It's real cold today. e- Pretty and a bit are informal. f Somewhat, a little, a bit and slightly have an unfavorable sense. The carriage was somewhat crowded. I felt a bit sick. But we can use them with comparatives in a favorable sense.
I felt a bit better/somewhat more cheerful. g- At all can also go in end position. It wasn't interesting at all. h- In informal English we can use that instead of so in a negative sentence. No, they don't own an aeroplane. They aren't that rich. i- We can use much, far or rather to modify too. This coat is much too big for me. j For twice/three times as expensive,
B- Enough comes after the adjective or adverb it modifies.
Are you warm enough? Steve didn't react quickly enough. Compare too and enough. It's too small (for me)./It isn't big enough (for me).
The modal verbs for suggestions, offers and invitations:
We can also use could for a suggestion.
We could watch this comedy on TV tonight. ~ Well, actually I've seen it before. You could invite a few friends around. ~ Yes, why not?
To ask for a suggestion we use shall, should or can.
Where shall/should we go for our holiday? ~ What about Spain? What can I get Claire for her birthday? ~ I've no idea.
We can use will or can to offer to do something.
I'll carry your bag. ~ Oh, thanks. We can give you a lift. ~ Oh, that would be great. Thank you.
We can also use question forms with shall or can.
Shall we pay you the money now? ~ Oh, there's no hurry. Can I get a taxi for you? ~ Yes, please.
To offer food or drink, we use would like.
Would you like one of these chocolates? ~ Yes, please. Thank you. Would anyone like more coffee? ~ No, thanks.
In informal speech we can use the imperative.
Have a biscuit. ~ Thank you.
The words we use in invitations are similar to those we use in offers of food and drink. To invite someone, we often use Would you like to...?
Would you like to have lunch with us? ~ Yes, I'd love to. Thank you. Would like can have a verb with to after it, or an object with a noun. Would you like to stay the night. ~ Oh, that's very kind of you. Would you like a bed for the night? ~ Are you sure it's not too much trouble?
A) Put the words in the right order and write in the sentences: post I for you I I'll / that letter for a minute I shall / stop /we have / one of these / wont I you a game / like / would /you
* Wont you have one of these?
2) Complete the conversation. Put in could, shall, will or would.
Daniel: Where shall we have our picnic, then? Rachel: This looks all right. (1) ......................we sit here? Emma: Oh, I've forgotten the sausages. They're in the car. Matthew: (2).................... I get them? Emma: Oh, thanks, Matthew. Vicky: We (3)…………………sit by those trees. It looks nicer over there. Rachel: No, it's fine here. Daniel: Yes, it's better here, I think. Emma: (4) ................you like a sandwich, Vicky?
Vicky: Oh, thank you. Emma: (5) ....................you have one, Rachel? Matthew: And here are the sausages. (6)…………….. anyone like one?
3) What would you say? There is more than one correct answer.
* A friend has called at your flat. Invite him to come in.
*Would you like to come in ?
1) Offer your visitor a cup of tea. 2) You don't know what to say in your letter. Ask your friend for a suggestion. 3) You are walking in town with a friend. Suggest having a cup of coffee. 4) A woman you know is afraid to walk home alone. Offer to walk home with her. 5) You are writing to a friend. Invite her to visit you one weekend.
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