Învaţă şi foloseşte corect limba engleză

2

3

........................................................................... 22 VERB – PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS ....18 VERB ........... 19 VERB...................................................... 11 VERB – PRESENT PERFECT ......................................................................................... 6 MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL ................................................ 93 Bibliografie:..............................................................PAST TENSE SIMPLE ............................................................ 6 VERB .............................................. 16 PARTEA I....FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS ........... 4 PARTEA I............. 18 MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS ............................................................................................76 TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 Cheia exerciţiilor ...............TIMPUL .............................. 21 VERB – PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS ....................................................................................................................................................................... 13 VERB – PAST PERFECT SIMPLE ................................................................................................... 45 COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANŢIALE DE LOC........................................ MOD ..PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE ..........................Cuprins Prefaţă....................................................................................................... TIMP.................................................................................... 25 PERSOANA ŞI NUMĂRUL .....................................................PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS ................................... 67 TEST FINAL .................................FUTURE CONTINUOUS .............................................................................. 9 VERB .................................................................................................. 18 VERB ..................... 6 VERB ..................fişă exemplu .... 24 VERB ......................................................................91 Verbul TO WORK -model.............................................................................................ASPECTUL ............................. 94 4 ... 29 ARTICOLUL ŞI ALŢI DETERMINANŢI ...................................FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE ........................................

Nu vă ia mai mult de 10 minute să parcurgeţi un aspect gramatical. Multitudinea de exerciţii comparative variate sunt menite să sprijine înţelegerea elementelor teoretice prin aplicaţii practice. Conştiinciozitatea 5 . vă va fi răsplătită printr-un rezultat excelent la testul final propus la sfârşitul cărţii care oferă 150 întrebări asupra cunoştinţelor de gramatică şi de vocabular. Intuiţia dumneavostră va funcţiona foarte bine în stăpânirea corectă a gramaticii. iar prin metoda originală de prezentare să ajute în crearea unui sentiment de siguranţă în ceea ce priveşte corectitudinea gramaticală în exprimare. modele şi explicaţii gramaticale menite să conducă la stăpânirea unui aspect gramatical al limbii engleze. Timpul pe care sunteţi dispus să îl alocaţi este bine distribuit pe probleme gramaticale. informaţiile necesare pentru a putea folosi limba engleză corect din punct de vedere gramatical şi pentru a asigura acurateţea şi nuanţarea atât de necesare în comunicare prin intermediul oricărei limbi. Autenticitatea exerciţiilor propuse oferă o structurare a cunoştinţelor în seturi grupate pe probleme gramaticale. situaţiile reale de exprimare de la care se porneşte conferă originalitate. vă puteţi exprima corect şi coerent în limba engleză şi veţi afla care sunt aspectele care vă creează dificultăţi. veţi descoperi în ce măsură puteţi formula idei. Realitatea. la afirmativ. La sfârşitul cărţii aveţi un model de verb conjugat la timpurile modului indicativ. veţi avea ocazia să vă îmbogăţiti substanţial cunoştinţele de vocabular. probabil din şcoală. Rezolvarea testului vă va da cu siguranţă o imagine satisfăcătoare asupra stadiului la care aţi ajuns în însuşirea limbii engleze. Atingerea obiectivului dumneavoastră este scopul principal al acestei cărţi care vă pune la dispoziţie într-o formă concisă şi accesibilă. Deoarece va trebui să folosiţi din când în când dicţionarul. De asemenea aveţi şi o fişă cu regulile de formare a timpurilor. Se continuă cu exemple. Atenţie! Nimic nu se pierde! Fiecare aspect gramatical este însoţit de cel puţin un exerciţiu astfel încât punerea în practică să conducă la o finalitate pe termen lung a stăpânirii acelui aspect gramatical. Cel care studiază are de asemenea cheia exerciţiului la sfârşit. Numai în acest fel adulţii pot scăpa de un sentiment de inhibiţie cu care au rămas. Acestea vin să ilustreze tiparele structurale de bază ale limbii engleze. Modelul vă va însoţi la tot pasul. Scurte prezentări teoretice şi o serie de exemple însoţesc aceste seturi de exerciţii. negativ şi interogativ. veţi fi confruntat cu probleme de gramatică şi de vocabular.Prefaţă Gramatica de faţă îşi propune să ofere mai mult decât un simplu set de reguli gramaticale ale limbii engleze. Citind această lucrare.

numeralul. comparaţia adjectivelor. Am două fiice: Morfologia şi Sintaxa. 6 . etc. sintaxa cuprinde regulile privitoare la îmbinarea cuvintelor în propoziţii şi fraze. pronumele.INTRODUCERE Mă numesc Gramatica limbii engleze şi scopul meu principal este să vă informez asupra regulilor referitoare la forma cuvintelor. pluralul substantivelor. Ea este deosebit de importantă deoarece primul lucru care se învaţă în gramatica unei limbi străine este cum se formează categoriile gramaticale de bază: timpurile verbului. Morfologia cuprinde regulile privitoare la forma cuvintelor şi la modificările formale ale cuvintelor studiate pe părţi de vorbire. O să faceţi cunoştinţă mai ales cu prima dintre ele.

PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . apoi vom analiza verbele. Zilele săptămânii (Days of the week): Monday .Joi Friday .TIMPUL VERB .Vineri Saturday . I have many friends in the village. every day of the week: on Monday.PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL – TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : I live with my husband and my children at the countryside.Miercuri Thursday . She goes to school in the afternoon. animale) We – noi You – voi They – ei.Luni Tuesday . she. too. she is a teacher. I am a doctor. She teaches English. I like/enjoy living in nature. Haideţi să observăm câteva din cuvintele din text. on Thursday and on Friday. they sunt pronume personale. Let’s have a look at some words from the text. on Wednesday. My friend. They are farmers. my mother.Mar ţi Wednesday . My father. then we will see the verbs.Sâmbătă Sunday – Duminică 7 . I usually go to work in the morning. ele b. She does not go to school in the week end. Iată pronumele personale ale limbii engleze: I – eu You – tu He – el She – ea It – el/ea (pentru obiecte. a. my brother and my sister live here. on Tuesday. Louise. Pronumele: (Pronouns) Cuvintele: I.

părinţi child / children – copil. on Thursday and on Friday. every day of the week: on Monday. repetabilă: .Am mulţi prieteni în sat. miercuri.nepot niece . în fiecare zi a săptămânii: luni..fiu daughter. I go. She teaches English. my brother and my sister live here. ♥Adevăruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. They live.fiică brother . on Wednesday.exemplu: I read daily. I like I live with my husband and my children at the countryside. Locuiesc cu soţul şi copiii mei la ţară. – Pământul se învârte. She goes to school in the afternoon.unchi aunt . .-Tatăl meu. I have many friends in the village.Sunt doctor. she is a teacher. . She teaches. She does not go.In the afternoon – după-amiaza .Ea predă limba engleză. on Tuesday. Louise. joi şi vineri. I like/enjoy living in nature. . I usually go to work in the morning.Eu merg de obicei la lucru dimineaţa.soră grandfather / granddad / grandpa .nepoată uncle. She goes.In the evening – seara d. .c.mamă parent / parents – părinte. She does not go to school in the week end. de asemenea.Îmi place să trăiesc în natură. my mother. – Citesc zilnic. Momente ale zilei (Moments of the day) . Folosim acest timp verbal pentru a exprima: ♥ O acţiune generală.frate sister . mama mea. she is. fratele meu şi sora mea locuiesc aici.bunic grandmother / grandma / granny . .Ea merge la şcoală după-amiaza. 8 . copii son .In the morning – dimineaţa .Ea nu merge la şcoală în week-end.bunică grandson . Verbele accentuate sunt la Present Tense Simple. marţi..nepot granddaughter . too.mătuşă cousin – verişor.Prietena mea. . I have. . I am a doctor.nepoată e. They are farmers. They are. este profesor. Louise. Membrii familiei (Family members) father /dad / daddy – tată mother / mum / mummy / mom . Verbele la Prezent Simplu (Verbs at Present Tense Simple) : I live. My father. My friend. I am .Ei sunt fermieri (agricultori). verişoară nephew .

în perioada prezentă. Conjugarea unui verb la Present Tense Simple: To work = a lucra. She sometimes goes out on Friday night (vineri noaptea). etc.. 4.(de obicei) 5. The plane takes off at 7:35. obişnuită. (în fiecare zi) 3.Avionul decolează/va decola la ora 7:35. I go to school every day. My children often watch TV in the afternoon. rarely. –Sunt elev. He always forgets his keys. (adesea. never. usually. Peter works for 8 hours every day. often. I usually sleep late on Sunday morning.♥ O acţiune regulată. on Saturdays. What time do you usually have breakfast? . What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student.La ce oră iei de obicei micul dejun? ♥ Acţiuni viitoare planificate în prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial. (întotdeauna) Exerciţii – Practice Situation: My friend and I don’t do things in the same way: Example: Affirmative get up early/late I get up early. Philip gets up at 6 o'clock every morning. (în fiecare zi) 6. sometimes.(în fiecare dimineaţă) 2. but my friend gets up late 9 . Examples: 1. seldom. des) 7. every day. a munci Afirmativ I work You work He/she/it works We work You work They work Negativ I do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Cu Present Simple Tense folosim adverbe cum ar fi: always.

efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută. cu perfectul compus din limba română.am locuit I was – eram/am fost I used to go – obişnuiam să mă duc/mă duceam I had – am avut She was – a fost She went – se ducea/mergea She did not go – ea nu mergea She taught . My friend doesn’t get up late 1. 4. I was a doctor. My father. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul trecut simplu: I lived . de obicei. She went to school in the afternoon every week day. Louise. Yesterday I went for a walk. Se traduce. Ex. I used to go to work in the morning.PAST TENSE SIMPLE TIMPUL TRECUT SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : Last year I lived with my husband and my children at the countryside. I had many friends in the village. she was a good teacher in the village. They were farmers. Anul trecut am călătorit în Anglia. She did not go to school in the week end. 3. terminată. 2. My friend. too.Ieri am mers la plimbare. terminată.a predat They lived . . I liked /enjoyed living in nature.au fost/erau I liked – mi-a plăcut ♥ Verbele la Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută.au locuit They were .Interrogative get up early/late Do you get up early? Does he get up late? Negative get up early/late I don’t get up early. my brother and my sister lived here. 10 . She taught English. leave home at 12 o’clock/1 o’clock go to work by car/by train speak English well/badly get home at six/seven have two kids/three ACUM LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! VERB . 5. my mother. Last year I traveled to England. Este timpul naraţiunii.

it. Ex.Paste Tense. to work – worked Dacă verbul este neregulat. Verbele limbii engleze pot fi regulate sau neregulate. we.skated (a patina) Verbe neregulate: a) meet leave say read send spend {e} met left said read sent spent {e} met (a întâlni) left (a pleca) said (a spune) read (a citi) sent (a trimite) spent (a petrece) 11 b) have sit {æ} had sat {æ} had (a avea) sat (a sta jos) . he. forma II. they + verb +-ed Atenţie le pronunţie! Pay attention to the pronounciation! {t} a) wash – washed – washed (a se spăla) cook – cooked – cooked (a găti) {d} b) play – played – played (a se juca) listen – listened – listened (a asculta) {id} b) need – needed – needed (a avea nevoie) skate – skated . Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate. she. forma III – participiul trecut. to speak – spoke – spoken Iată o listă cu formele de Past Tense pentru verbe regulate şi neregulate: Verbe regulate: I. you. you. Ex.To work (a lucra. a munci) la Past Tense Simple Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not work Interogativ Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work).

12 . Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Daniel went on holiday in July (last month). in. a primi) got up (a se trezi) found (a găsi) did went ate forgot done (a face) gone (a merge) eaten (a mânca) forgotten(a uita) Examples: Last year I bought a car and went to Boston.(on Monday. Daniel (get up) early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. 2. He went on holiday in August. He (spend) three days in the Danube Delta last month. on.. Example: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. 1.. Daniel went on holiday in July. A mers în vacanţă în august. I didn't see the play last year. 2 months ago. (two days ago... Cele mai folosite adverbe pentru Past Tense Simple sunt: yesterday. last (month. I traveled to Japan two years ago.. year. Am călătorit în Japonia acum doi ani..) ago. I spent my holiday there.c) write speak break d) run begin drink sing swim e) be see was/were saw {i:n} been (a fi) seen (a vedea) {æ} ran began drank sang swam {۸} run (a alerga) begun (a începe) drunk (a bea) sung (a cânta) swum (a înota) {ә} wrote spoke broke written (a scrie) spoken (a vorbi) broken (a sparge) f) do go eat forget g) get get up find h) make lay come give {ei} made laid came gave made (a face) laid (a pune) come (a veni) given (a da) got got up found got (a obţine. in 1987 ) Examples: I saw a movie yesterday. – Am văzut un film ieri.. Tell how he spent his holiday (Use Past Tense Simple). two years ago). – Nu am văzut piesa anul trecut.

Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul viitor simplu: I will live – eu voi locui I will be – eu voi fi I will go – eu voi merge I will have – eu voi avea She will be – ea va fi She will go – ea va merge She will not go – ea nu va merge She will teach – ea va preda They will live – ei vor locui They will be – ei vor fi I will enjoy . Interrogative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. 5. Then he (wash) and (eat/have) breakfast with his parents. 6. The weather (be) fine all the time. Put the sentences into the negative and interrogative forms. 7. Louise. she will be a teacher in the village. She will go to school in the afternoon every week day.îmi va face plăcere 13 . She will not go to school in the week end. my brother and my sister will live there. He (come back) home in September to go to school. 8. Daniel (make) a lot of friends there. He (swim) in the Danube in the evening. I will be a doctor. I will enjoy living in nature. Did Daniel go on holiday in July? VERB . too.FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL – TIMPUL VIITOR SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS: READ THE TEXT: Next year I will live with my husband and my children at the countryside. She will teach English. Daniel did not go on holiday in July. I will have many friends in the village. They will be farmers. I will go to work in the morning.3. 4. Examples: Negative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. My father. After that he (go fishing) with his friends Irina and Larry. my mother. My friend.

.) We shall overcome. Complete his questions and Daniel’s answers... I’ll do an interesting experiment tomorrow.? What.Săptămâna viitoare voi pleca la mare.. year) I'll finish this report tomorrow. Cea mai des folosită în Engleza vorbită şi scrisă este forma prescurtată 'll.Voi veţi petrece vacanţa la munte..? What . În engleza modernă forma shall este foarte puţin utilizată. Forma negativă se formează cu will not sau forma won't în faţa verbului principal la prezent.. next (month. I’ll obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson.♥ Future Tense Simple (Viitorul simplu) exprimă un eveniment. . 2. Grandpa: Where will you go tomorow? Daniel: To the Physics lab grandpa! Daniel: 1... I will not (won't) drink wine..Nu voi bea vin.Ea nu va juca fotbal. I'll go to the seaside next week. .Va veni el săptămâna viitoare? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation 1: Grandpa does not hear very well what Daniel is saying. . (Îl voi vizita mâine.... 14 Grandpa: Where. . Forma interogativă se formează prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul will şi subiect. .. . 3.... She will not (won't) play football.Va cânta ea frumos? To work ( a lucra. Example: I will visit him tomorrow. Will he come next week? . o acţiune care are loc într-un moment viitor.Voi termina acest raport mâine.O să-l vizitez mâine. .Vom învinge... Will you work here? . apropiat de momentul vorbirii.. Example: Daniel: I’ll go to the Physics lab tomorrow. I’ll work in the lab tomorrow. You'll spend the holiday in the mountains... a munci) la Future Tense Simple: Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will work Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will not work Interogativ Will I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Adverbele cele mai utilizate pentru a exprima o acţiune viitoare cu Future Tense Simple sunt: tomorrow.Vei lucra aici? Will she sing beautifully? ...? ..

.? Who . My friend.. Daniel contradicts everything Irina says about her friend Larry. They have been farmers. She has taught English. Larry will read his lesson later. He’ll wash the car on Sunday morning. my brother and my sister have lived there. 4. I’ll study hydrogen next week. I have gone to work in the morning. 2.. my mother.exprimă o stare care a început în trecut şi care încă se continuă. she has been a teacher in the village.. I have had many friends in the village. too. 15 .. I have enjoyed living in nature. 6. I have been a doctor. Larry will go to the cinema next Sunday...Suntem prieteni de mult timp.? Situation 2..? What . My father... We’ve been friends for a long time.4.. 6. She has gone to school in the afternoon every week day.. I’ll ask the teacher a lot of questions.. 5. 3. 5. She has not gone/hasn’t gone to school in the week end.. ..... VERB – PRESENT PERFECT CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time. 8... Example: Irina: Larry will go fishing tomorrow Daniel: Larry won’t go fishing tomrrow. He’ll buy a new car next year. He’ll help you tomorrow evening. He’ll take a new project next month. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect: I have lived – eu am locuit I have been – eu am fost I have gone – eu am mers I have had – eu am avut She has been – ea a fost She has gone – ea a mers She has not gone/hasn’t gone – ea nu a mers She has taught – ea a predat They have lived – ei au locuit They have been – ei au fost I have enjoyed – mi-a plăcut ♥ Present Perfect . When .. I’ll learn interesting things next week. 1.. He’ll go shopping tomorrow morning. Louise. 7. He’ll have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week...

until now. pentru care momentul când a avut loc nu prezintă interes.Nu am mai auzit niciodată un astfel de lucru. . accentul este pus pe experienţa în sine trăită prin acţiunea respectivă I’ve never been to China. So far. so far. a munci) la Present Perfect Afirmativ I/you/we/they have worked he/she/it has worked Negativ I/you/we/they have not worked (haven’t worked) he/she/it has not worked (hasn’t worked) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they worked? Has he/she/it worked? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu: already. . They haven't written the exercise yet. I've had my own car for four years. 3. 3.exprimă o acţiune trecută al cărei rezultat este vizibil în prezent He’s broken his arm. Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary. . up to now Exemple: 1. 2. To work (a lucra. I haven't heard about this English singer..exprimă o stare terminată în trecut. He has already finished his classes. yet Exemple: 1. often Exemple: 1.-Tom tocmai a vorbit la telefon cu Maria. 2.N-am fost niciodată în China. – Până acum nu am auzit de acest cântăreţ englez. 2. never. I have often traveled by car to the countryside. ever and before Exemplu: Have you ever heard this song before? – Ai mai auzit vreodată cântecul acesta? for and since Exemple: 1. – Am călătorit adesea cu maşina la ţară. Exerciţii – Practice 16 . I haven't had any Math problems up to now. – Nu am mai avut probleme la matematică până acum.Şi-a rupt braţul. Ei nu au scris exerciţiul încă. just. She has been ill since yesterday. ever. Until now. 2. he hasn't complained about his wage. ♥ .A terminat deja orele. – Până acum nu s-a pl âns de salariul său. – Este bolnavă de ieri. – Am avut propria mea maşină timp de patru ani.♥ . I have never heard such a thing. Have you ever read this news? – Ai citit vreodată ştirea aceasta? 3.

.. (arrive) . 4. home. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect...... I .. ca în exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: Tom ... 5. (buy) 5.. I had had many friends in the village........ she had been a teacher in the village....... 1... Now everything is over. I had enjoyed living in nature. folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: Exemplu: This is the most beautiful girl I ..... She had not gone/hadn’t gone to school in the week end. 2. (see) ............ Completează următoarele propoziţii ca în exemplul de mai jos. He ...... my brother and my sister had lived there.. 3. his homework.LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! I.. corespondentul timpului mai mult ca perfect din limba română: I had lived – eu locuisem I had been – eu fusesem I had gone – eu mersesem I had had – eu avusesem She had been – ea fusese She had gone – ea mersese She had not gone/hadn’t gone – ea nu mersese 17 ... My friend..... to cry.. our Math teacher...... I have moved in town.......... (leave) .......... She had gone to school in the afternoon every week day..... Father ..... (read) 3..... Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Simplu... I had been a doctor. (see) 2...... She had taught English. My father. my mother..... Louise.... Those are the most wonderful monuments they ..... to the theatre....... Tom has just written his homework........ This is the biggest mall they ... my car. (see) VERB – PAST PERFECT SIMPLE CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time before I moved in Piteşti.... (begin) .... (write) ..... (visit) 4....... This is the best book she .. II. They had been farmers.. These are the most attractive souvenirs they ...... too.. We .. That is the most interesting movie he .......... I had gone to work in the morning. (fix) ... (see) This is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen. 1. They ....

I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Crete. Verbul to work (a lucra.She has taught – ea predase They had lived – ei locuiseră They had been – ei fuseseră I had enjoyed – îmi plăcuse ♥ Past Perfect . a munci ) la Past Perfect: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had worked Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadn’t worked Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they worked? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Past Perfect Simplu: Before. Îmi doresc să nu fi pierdut avionul. ♥ . – Nu văzusem niciodată o plajă aşa de frumoasă până nu am mers în Creta. – Băieţelul vorbea de parcă văzuse o zână. ♥ . she hadn’t. Had Susan ever studied Chinese before she moved to China? – Studiase Susan vreodată chineza până să se mute în China? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Daniel and Irina spent their last summer holiday at the seaside. – Băieţelul a spus că văzuse o zână în grădină.Tom a spus că se va duce în Franţa după ce va fi învăţat puţină franceză. Had Irina been to the beach before? No. he had. – Studiasei engleza înainte să te muţi în NY.exprimă o dorinţă nerealizată I wish/ wished I hadn't missed the flight. never.. The little spoke as if he had seen a fairy. Irina went there for the first time. Ask and answer questions about them: Example: be to the beach Had Daniel been to the beach before? Yes. Daniel had been there before. 18 .exprimă o acţiune anterioară unei acţiuni Tom said that he would go to France after he had learned French a little bit.exprimă o acţiune anterioară altei acţiuni din trecut sau anterioară unui moment din trecut The little boy said that he had seen a fairy in the garden. ever You had studied English before you moved to New York.

see the Black Sea swim in the sea sunbathe on the beach go fishing in the sea 5. stay at a hotel 7. visit Eforie Nord 19 . 2. 3. walk down the beach 6. 4.1. make the tour of Constanţa 8.

Example: I usually wake up early but today I am waking up late. my brother and my sister are in the field now. she is at school now.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . They are woking in this moment. My father. She is teaching English.in this moment ♥ o acţiune temporară ce are loc în prezent ca o excepţie de la regulă. Example: I am writing now. I am studying English now.PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: In this moment I am living with my husband and my children at the countryside.ea predă They are woking – ei lucrează ♥ Present Tense Continuous exprimă o acţiune desfăşurată ce are loc în momentul vorbirii. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Continuous I am living – eu locuiesc She is teaching . Example: She is always telling lies. my mother. Verbul to work (a lucra. Louise. a munci) la Present Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I am working You/we/you/they are working he/she/it is working Negativ I am not working You/we/you/they are not working he/she/it is not working Interogativ Am I working? Are you/we/you/they working? Is he/she/it working? 20 . ♥ o acţiune obişnuită care enervează.ASPECTUL VERB . My friend.

1. Suntem în grevă. always. Întotdeauna trebuie să intre în cameră fix când vorbim noi lucruri importante.PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I was living with my husband and my children at the countryside while my father. Larry is in his office (work) Daniel is in the secretariate (type a letter) Ioana is in the conference room (present a project) Maria is in the hall (speak on the phone) Matei is in the guests room (meet some clients) VERB . She is sending emails right now to all her friends. I was having many friends in the village.Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu prezentul continuu: now. We are not working in this moment. 2. Nu lucrăm în acest moment. My friend. All the employees are at work. we are on strike. 5. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII Situation: Today is Monday. my brother and my sister were living in town. Louise was going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister was going in the afternoon. in various rooms of the building. (give information) She is giving information at this moment/now. Example: Irina is in the director’s office. I was going to work in the morning. Say what they are doing at the moment. They were not going to school in the week end. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Tense Continuous (echivalentul imperfectului din limba română): I was living – eu locuiam They were living – ei locuiau I was going – eu mergeam I was having – eu aveam 21 . my mother. 3. in this moment. It is nine o’clock in the morning. She's always coming in when we talk something important. Louise was teaching English while my sister was teaching History. 4. – Ea trimite emailuri acum tuturor prietenilor săi.

Example: Larry and Irina/discuss about a marketing project Larry and Irina were discussing about a marketing project when Mr Smith came in. came in. – La ora şapte ieri dimineaţă. îmi spălam faţa. – Pe vremea asta săptămâna trecută tu citeai revista. This time last week you were reading the magazine. this time last week.Louise was going – Louise mergea My sister was going – sora mea mergea They were not going – ei nu mergeau Louise was teaching – Louise preda My sister was teaching – sora mea preda ♥ Past Tense Continuous se foloseşte pentru a exprima o acţiune care se desfăşura într-un moment bine definit în trecut. While she was watching TV yesterday. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Yesterday afternoon all the employees were at work. eram în baie. Say what they were doing when Mr Smith. a munci) la Past Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I was working You/we/you/they were working he/she/it was working Negativ I was not working You/we/you/they were not working he/she/it was not working Interogativ was I working? were you/we/you/they working? was he/she/it working? Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu past continuous: At this time yesterday. 22 . I was washing my face. her friend came to see her. the boss. Examples: At seven o’clock yesterday morning. I was in the bathroom. Verbul to work (a lucra.

They will not be going to school in the week end. I will be working in the morning. at this time next week. my mother.ei nu vor merge Louise will be teaching – Louise va preda My sister will be teaching – sora mea va preda Verbul to work (a lucra.FUTURE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I will be living with my husband and my children at the countryside at this time next year when my father.1. 4. Louise will be going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister will be going in the evening. 7. Daniel and John / work in the office Matei and Maria / speak on the phone Ioana /write a report Martha / water the flowers Victor / talk to his colleague Angela/open the windows Mark and Chris /look at some pictures Fiona/read the newspapers VERB. my brother and my sister will be living in town. 23 . Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Continuous: I will be living – voi locui They will be living – vor locui I will be working – voi lucra Louise will be going – Louise va merge They will not be going . a munci) la Future Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I /we shall/will be working You he/she/it /they will be working Negativ I /we shall/will not be working You he/she/it /they will not be working Interogativ Shall/will I /we be working? Will you he/she/it /they be working? ♥ Future Tense Continuous exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. Exemplu: I shall/will be walking at two o’clock tomorrow. 5. Louise will be teaching English while my sister will be teaching History. my friend. 3. 2. 6. posterior momentului vorbirii. 8.

(to fly) 9) Mary ______________to the party on Sunday. (to play) Answer: Mark will be playing on the computer when his mother arrives home. (to sing) 4) He ______________when you call her. Example: Mark ______________ on the computer when his mother arrives home. ♥ . I will be eating. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Puneţi verbele din paranteză la Future Continuous.exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare întreruptă de o acţiune momentană. Exemplu: She will be walking while I am sleeping. has been going to school in the afternoon every week day. etc Examples: You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. eu voi fi în mijlocul mesei. year. probably) 6) Mary ______________ a video when I arrive tonight. while. 1) She ______________ him next week.Ea se va plimba în timp ce eu voi dormi. – Tu o vei aştepta când soseşte avionul diseară. –Când ea va sosi diseară. Louise. (to watch) 7) You ______________ spaghetti soon. săptămâna viitoare la ora asta. (to eat) 8) This time next week he ______________ to Africa. – Când va veni. I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. She has been teaching English for 5 years at the same village school and she is 24 . (to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I ______________a test paper. month. ♥ .exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare în viitor în paralel cu o altă acţiune în desfăşurare. de asemenea în viitor. (to rain.. Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu Future Continuous: when. (to meet) 2) We ______________ in Piteşti just about now. I have been going to work in the morning but my friend.Mă voi plimba mâine la ora două. (to arrive) 3) At 8 o'clock on Tuesday they ______________ the new song. eu voi fi la televizor. (to write) VERB – PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have been living with my husband and my children at the countryside for 5 years. Exemplu: When he comes. (to sleep) 5) It ______________ when I reach Madrid. at his time next week.

for Exemplu: They have been watching TV for 3 hours. care este cauza unui efect simţit în prezent A: Why are your hands dirty? B: I’ve been repairing my bike. my brother and my sister have been living there. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect Continuous: I have been living – eu locuiesc I have been going – eu merg Louise has been going – Louise merge She has been teaching – ea predă They have been living – ei locuiesc ♥ Present Perfect Continuous . – Se uită la televizor de 3 ore. – Locuieşti în Paris din 1996. – Am muncit în grădină toată ziua. My father. încheiată recent. 25 . I have been working in the garden all day long. ♥ . We like living in nature. They have been playing tennis for half an hour – Joacă tenis de jumătate de oră. there have been arriving 10 passengers from London.still enjoying this. Până acum au sosit 10 pasageri din Londra. so far Exemplu: So far.exprimă o acţiune care s-a desfăşurat până acum şi va continua probabil şi în viitor. a munci) la Present Perfect Continuous Afirmativ I/you/we/they have been working he/she/it has been working Negativ I/you/we/they have not been working (haven’t been working) he/she/it has not been working (hasn’t been working) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they been working? Has he/she/it been working? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Present Perfect Continuous: since Exemplu: You have been living in Paris since 1996.exprimă o acţiune trecută. To work (a lucra.. They are farmers. într-o perioadă de timp care se întinde din trecut până în prezent He has been writing poems since he was a child. ♥ . my mother.Scrie poezii de când era copil. too.exprimă o acţiune repetată frecvent.

last summer....ever Exemplu: Have you ever been listening to the radio? – Ai ascultat vreodată la radio? never Exemplu: I have never been travelling to France until now.... She had been teaching English. she had been going to school in the afternoon every week day before leaving the countryside. 26 .. Helen has been studying English since last summer. Now everything is over... half an hour...... de la). Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect Contionuous: I had been living – eu locuisem I had been going – eu mersesem She had been going – ea mersese She had been teaching – ea predase They had been living – ei locuiseră ♥ Past Perfect Continuous .. too... 5. my mother.... 1..... My friend. 1 hour.... 2... the last five minutes... She (cook) a chicken soup . Mary (live) in Manhattan .exprimă o acţiune în curs până la un moment dat trecut când a fost oprit de o altă acţiune a cărei urmări continuă şi azi. my brother and my sister had been living there... Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completează spaţiile goale cu "FOR"( de) şi "SINCE"(din. Louise.... Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Continuu: Exemplu: Helen (study) English .. morning...... VERB – PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had been living with my husband and my children at the countryside before I came in town.. It (rain) . I had been going to work in the morning. My father.. too. I have moved in town..Nu am călătorit în Franţa până acum... We (talk) about that horrible accident .... 3.. 4.. June 1998.... They (phone) the manager .

etc You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. too. (Ei) lucrau la casa cea nouă înainte să fie distrusă de foc. Until next year. Louise will have been teaching English in the afternoon for 5 years. Ai aşteptat-o cel mult două ore când în final a sosit. we will have been staying there for 6 years. I (not / walk) for a long time. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect continuous).FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: When my friends will come to live at the countryside I will have been living with my husband and my children there for 5 years. They were very tired in the evening because they (help) on the farm all day. How long (learn / she) English before she went to London? She (drive) less than an hour when he ran out of gas. I (not / work) all day. "for two weeks". They (cycle) all day so their legs were sore in the evening. when it suddenly began to rain. so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. a munci ) la Past Perfect Continuous: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had been working Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadn’t been working Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they been working Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Past Perfect Continuous: For five minutes" .They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it. 27 . We (wait) at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. She (sleep) for 10 hours when he woke us up. They (look for) her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom. Verbul to work (a lucra. VERB . I will have already been working for a couple of years as a doctor.

acest timp se foloseşte rar în vorbire. she will have been selling blouses for eight hours. a munci) la Future Perfect Continuous : Afirmativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will have been working Negativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will not have been working Interogativ Will I / you/ he/she/it /we /they have been working? ♥ Future Perfect Continuous . she (finish) everything by then. Mike: She (cook) for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner. Exemplu: By 2010 he will have been working for 40 years.Până la ora 18 ea va fi vândut bluze timp de opt ore.. Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand. fiind o formă caracteristică limbii scrise şi pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lungă de timp decât Future Continuous Se traduce tot prin "voi fi lucrat". şi ca toate formele de timpuri continue implică o acţiune în derulare.În 2010 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani Adverbul cel mai des utilizat cu Future Perfect Continuous: for Example: By six o’clock p.. Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party.m.Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been living – voi fi locuit I will have been working – eu voi fi lucrat Louise will have been teaching – Louise va fi predat We will have been staying – noi vom fi stat Verbul to work (a lucra. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Puneţi verbele din paranteză la Future Perfect Continuous sau la Future Perfect Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long. 28 . Hopefully..

29 .

II Verbul este la diateza pasivă când subiectul gramatical suferă acţiunea săvârşită de obiect.utilizarea verbului be sau get . The classrooms are being cleaned now. We were seen. – Ea a fost aşteptată la gară de fratele meu. He has been seen I had been seen.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . – Această scrisoare a fost scrisă de Lucia. transformând complementul persoanei în subiect. I was seen. He will have been seen. We will be seen. The school was being cleaned when we wanted to visit it. I shall be seen. Diateza pasivă se remarcă prin: . I am seen.complementul de agent introdus de prepoziţia by exemplu: She was met at the station by my brother. I shall have been seen. He is seen. Exemplu: Lucy has written a letter. 30 . Exemplu: This letter has been written by Lucy. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă.Lucia a scris o scrisoare. We are seen. I have been seen.DIATEZA I DIATEZA ACTIVĂ II DIATEZA PASIVĂ I Verbul este la diateza activă când subiectul gramatical săvârşeşte acţiunea. Conjugarea unui verb la diateza pasivă: Aspectul simplu: Present simple: Past Simple: Present Perfect Past Perfect: Future Future Perfect Aspectul continuu: Present Continuous: Past Continuous: Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1.. care se răsfrânge asupra subiectului (în cazul verbelor tranzitive).

they play. she plays. They have appointed him president. (Diana) 10) Have ___ got a computer. (the posters) 4) ___is running. (George) 2) ___is green. (my mother and I) 6) ___are in the garden. She has given me a good dictionary. we wash. (Marc) 8) ___is from Bucharest. (the cat) 5) ___are watching TV. I’ll pay the carpenter for his work. Exemplu: ___ often reads books. PERSOANA ŞI NUMĂRUL Spre deosebire de verbul românesc. you wash. you play. Tom? 31 . I play. you play. They are being shown the museum. we play. (the flowers) 7) ___is riding his horse.Exemplu: The guide is showing them the museum. Nu s-a dormit în acest pat. 1) ___is dreaming. Copiii au fost bine îngrijiţi. They will tell you what time the bus leaves. indicativ prezent. verbul englez are puţini indici formali care să marcheze persoana şi numărul. This matter must be looked into. (Victoria) 9) ___has got a sister. (the blackboard) 3) ___are on the wall. He promised them new bicycles. I wash. Vor râde de tine dacă vei purta rochia asta. he plays. Traduceţi următoarele propoziţii în limba engleză. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Folosiţi pronumele personal corect. Singura desinenţă specifică este –s/es pentru persoana a III-a singular. he washes. 2. (Lisa) She often reads books. Câinele a fost călcat de un autobuz. she washes. they wash. folosind verbe la diateza pasivă: Exemplu: Această problemă trebuie analizată. you wash.

He will have read it by then.. II MODUL SUBJONCTIV (The Subjunctive Mood) Modul subjonctiv prezintă acţiunea ca posibilă când acţiunea este proiectată în viitor . SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC ♥ exprimă o acţiune posibilă. sau ireală.. SUBJONCTIVUL TRECUT ♥ coincide ca formă cu Past Tense Simple. was 32 .Va înapoia cartea la bibliotecă lunea viitoare. Exemplu: I wish he/they told the truth. Modul indicativ prezintă acţiunea. I wish my sister _________ here. MODUL INDICATIV (The Indicative Mood) I. exprimată de verb ca reală .He will return the book to the library next Monday.MODUL – THE MOOD I. I have read it. . etc. Observaţie: Verbul be are formă unică pentru toate persoanele: were Exemplu: I wish he/they were here. (subjonctiv) The fact is that sport facilities will be improved.I can return the book now. were B. starea. SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT ♥ exprimă o acţiune considerată posibilă.Este necesar ca el să fie aici. pentru a sublinia ideea de acţiune şi nu acţiunea propriu-zisă sau îndeplinirea ei. Exemplu: It is necessary that he be here. come in time.He returned the book to the library after he had read it. . presupusă.să vină la timp. Exemplu: The idea is that sport facilities should be improved. will be dressed C. be dressed 2. Am citit-o.. (indicativ) Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. – Pot să înapoiez cartea la bibliotecă acum. deci nu contrară realităţii. care sunt redate cu indicativul.m. Exemplu: . A. are dressed B.A înapoiat cartea la bibliotecă după ce a citit-o.. A. când acţiunea trebuia să aibă loc în trecut..Aş dori să spună adevărul. O va fi citit până atunci. It is very important that all employees _______________ in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a. îndeplinită chiar.

adesea cunoscut sub denumirea de formă în –ing reprezintă un substantiv format dintr. I can’t remember doing/having done this exercise before. I detest going to supermarkets.Îmi place să învăţ engleza. be adjourned 5. marcat de particula to şi infinitivul scurt (The Short Infinitive) fără particula to.3. Perfect Gerund He denies having been invited. A. Perfect Gerund He denies having taken the books. -Diateza pasivă: Gerund: He can’t stand being interrupted. I wish I _________ better today. If only Mark ______ a little more responsible in his choice of courses! A. A..THE INFINITIVE to + verb = infinitive Infinitivul are doua forme: infinitivul lung (The Long Infinitive). observe. were B.caracteristici substantivale: Exemplu: The sound of a loud knocking at the door interrupted us. A. would that she _______ here with us now! A.Nu suportă să fie întrerupt. – A greşi este omenesc. – Neagă că a fost invitat. GERUNZIUL . A. ♥ . watch. Exemplu: To err is human. was B. the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema. Smith as though she _______ a queen. a baby’s crying interrupted us. notice. plays B. Mary hoped that the meeting _______________. was B. My mother would know what to do. feel B.Diateza activă: Gerund: I enjoy learning English. I made her work harder. were 7. her coming in interrupted us. see. Her employees treated Mrs. ♥ . was 6. The coach insisted that Mario _______ the center position. Oh. even though he's much too short for that position.. were 9. were B. had been 8. make. let. A.. felt INFINITIVUL .un verb la care se adaugă terminaţia –ing. – Am făcut-o să muncească mai mult. Exemplu: I adore reading your books. If Mrs. was adjourned B. perceive. Acesta se foloseşte de obicei după verbe de percepţie : hear. sau după have.THE GERUND Gerunziul. play 4. – Neagă că a luat cărţile. 33 . Smith ________ ill that night. I quit smoking.are categoriile gramaticale de timp şi diateză: .

Exemplu: They go on _______ (read) the book. A drunken man is unpleasant to look at. He is a learned man – Este un om învăţat. 1) I can't imagine Peter (go) by bike.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Pune verbul din paranteze la gerunziu sau la infinitivul lung (to-).PAST PARTICIPLE Este forma nepersonală a verbului care denumeşte acţiunea ca rezultat. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. PARTICIPIUL TRECUT . Se formează de la infinitiv la care se adaugă terminaţia – ed (în cazul verbelor regulate). Exemple: He is an aged man. Completaţi corect formele de participiu trecut. 9) She doesn't mind (work) the night shift. – Este un om în vârstă. 3) The question is easy (answer). şi forma a III-a în cazul verbelor neregulate. They go on reading the book. 6) Are you thinking of (visit) Paris? 7) We decided (run) through the dark forest. 8) The teacher expected Sarah (study) hard. the (lose) son an (interest) audience a (break) leg an (empty) bottle a (close) door a (decorate) room two (pack) bags the (write) letters the (sell) car the (buy) apples - 34 . – Un om beat este neplăcut la vedere. 4) The man asked me how (get) to the railway station. 5) I look forward to (see) you at the weekend. 2) He agreed (buy) a new washing machine. 10) I learned (ride) the bike at the age of 3.

AUXILIARY VERBS Au următoarele caracteristici: ♥ sunt golite de sens lexical: I shall leave after he comes. Future: I will give Future Perfect: I will have given Conditional: I would give Conditional Perfect: I would have given 5. Verbele auxiliare: 1.Locuieşti în acest oraş? 35 .. – I have not got a book.VERBELE AUXILIARE .S-au grăbit ca să ajungem la timp. Do you live in this town?. Let me think! – Lasă-mă să mă gândesc. shall/should 4... do/does Exemple: 1. let 7. ♥ înlociuesc verbele noţionale în răspunsuri scurte şi întrebări disjunctive: Do you like this book? Yes. Future: I shall give Future Perfect:I shall have given Conditional: I should give Conditional Perfect: I should have given 4. They hurried so that we might arrive in time. I haven’t got a book. may/might 6.. 7. He’s come. I do.He has come He’s here. have/had/had 3. will/would 5...Grăbeşte-te ca să ajungem la timp. be/was/were/been 2. He has written a good composition. Hurry up.Voi pleca după ce vine el. Perfect Infinitive: have read Perfect Gerund: having read Present Perfect: He has read Past Perfect: He had read Future Perfect: He will have read Conditional Perfect: He would have read 3. 6. hasn’t he? ♥ apar adesea sub forme reduse: I’ve got a book. so that we may arrive in time. Infinitive: be reading Present: He is reading Past: He was reading Future: He will be reading Conditional: He would be reading Infinitive Perfect: have been reading Present Perfect: He has been reading Past Perfect: He had been reading Future Perfect: He will have been reading Conditional Perfect: He would have been reading 2.I have got a book.He is here.

Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Alegeţi auxiliarul potrivit: What ________ you done? I ________ not like this song. may. The train ________ just arrived. will şi parţial need şi dare formează grupul de verbe modale. ________anybody rung up for me? She ________ not play the piano. În acest ultim caz de obicei se înlocuieşte cu 'will'. I ________ not live here. ar fi cazul shall .a trebui. must . must.suc de struguri). de exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' . can .a trebui. My friend ________sent me some photos. ________you drink milk? Who ________ eaten my biscuits? It ________ not matter. ________ she know that you are here? The lesson ________not started yet. particula 'voi' din româneşte. cu înţelesul de a fi în stare. a provoca pe cineva 36 . În plus se foloseşte în urări.Does he work here? – Lucrează aici? Did he attend this school? – A urmat această şcoală? I don’t like it.ar trebui. shall. cu înţelesul de a avea nevoie dare . We ________ not seen you for a long time. cu întelesul de a avea voie.a putea. How ________ we get there? Where ________ he live? VERBELE MODALE .a îndrazni. (înseamnă şi luna mai). need .formează viitorul. I will come = Voi veni. – Nu-mi place. a fi necesar (înseamnă şi must.a putea. Altfel formează viitorul persoanei întâi. ought to. (înseamnă şi „testament” şi „voinţă”). În vorbirea curentă mai ales în întrebări se foloseşte în locul lui 'may' (înseamnă şi conservă şi 'to can' = a face conservă) may . will . Aceste verbe nu formează infinitivul cu particula 'to'.MODAL VERBS ♥ Verbele: can. poate fi tradus uneori şi prin probabil (sau 'trebuie ca') ought to. ________ you heard that? My uncle ________ not eat fish. Se foloseşte şi la formarea viitorului. They ________ not want to play outside.este o întărire a unui ordin dacă este spus apăsat. ________ you understand? They ________been learning English for two years.

Mănânci carne? Can you eat meat? . nu-i aşa? CAN/COULD exprimă ♥ capacitatea fizică sau intelectuală Daniel can speak three foreign languages.Ştiu că pot. în limba română se spune: Trebuie să mănânc. May I have this dance? (Pot să am acest dans) . În limba engleză se spune: I must eat. mustn't = must not. Adică. can't I? . you can.Poţi să mănânci carne? Must you eat meat? .Pot să mă duc. adică să ai noroc. ♥ Forma negativă nu cere do. Daniel ştie trei limbi străine.Trebuie să mănânci carne? ♥ Aceste verbe nu se schimbă după persoană: I can.Mănânc carne.E nevoie să continui? How dare you talk like this! . can't = can not. I eat meat . Do you eat meat? .Dacă trebuie. 37 . Din exemplele de mai sus vedem că această regulă a verbelor modale e respectată: I know I can (fără 'to'). Din această cauză multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe.Nu mănânc carne. Condiţional: Would you be able to manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Could you manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Te-ai putea descurca singur dacă ar fi nevoie ? Observaţie ! Diferenţa de sens între could şi was/were able to se pierde la negativ sau cu verbe de percepţie: I couldn’t swim yesterday as the weather was very bad. Adică în cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not sau does not pentru negaţie. Foarte important: Verbul care urmează unui verb modal nu are to în faţă. I will survive = Voi supravieţui.Cum îndrăzneşti să vorbeşti aşa! ♥ Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale ♥ Nu acceptă particula to pentru infinitiv.Exemple: I know I can. – Ar fi cazul/ar trebui/îţi recomand să nu mai fumezi. Irina could run faster than you last year. May I have this dance? (fără 'to') etc. Irina putea să alerge mai repede decât tine anul trecut.Îmi acordaţi acest dans? May the force be with you! . won't = will not sunt verbele modale care folosesc cel mai mult această regulă. nu au participiu şi nici forma cu -ing. Need I go on? ..Nu pot să mănânc carne.Fie ca forţa să te însoţească! din filmul StarWars.need aici nu e verb modal). Viitor: I’ll be able to skate next year. ♥ Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i aşa' din engleză e necesar folosirea acestor verbe. Adică persoana a treia singular nu primeşte 's'. Forma 'nu-i aşa' depinde de verbul modal folosit în prima parte a întrebării. ♥ Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propoziţii negative. I do not eat meat .Va merge. I must be dreaming . (particula do cade) ♥ Forma interogativă nu cere do. Atenţie: I need to eat . nu-i aşa? sau He will go. he/she can etc.Trebuie că visez (probabil că visez). I can go. You ought to stop smoking. If you must. You shall not kill = Nu vei omorî (să nu omori). I can not eat meat . trebuie. you must . won't he? .

Prezent: You must stay home for a few days. (It’s my decision). She left two hours ago. can/could poate fi înlocuit de be allowed to. You’ve got flu. 2.Duminică aveam voie să stăm în pat până la ora 10. It’s most important. give me an answer) MUST / HAVE TO / NEED MUST Must se foloseşte pentru a exprima: 1) obligaţia: They must stop because the traffic light is red now. În acest sens. I couldn’t see him in the dark. Must exprimând obligaţia poate fi înlocuit de have to sau ‘ve got to. 38 . ♥ might este folosit în cereri insistente sau atunci când vorbitorul este iritat de neîndeplinirea unei acţiuni You might give me an answer.. (The shop is closing). NEED/NEEDN’T ♥ folosit pentru a exprima lipsa obligativităţii You needn’t come early to work= You don’t have to come early. HAVE TO. He was quite ill. pe când have to exprimă o obligaţie impusă din exterior: I must go. Past Tense: He had to stay home last week. You’ll have to stay home when you feel feverish again. I wasn’t able to see him in the dark. o rugăminte politicoasă (may este mai politicos şi oficial decât can/could): May I use your phone ? Îmi daţi voie să dau telefon ? ♥ exprimă o posibilitate prezentă sau viitoare He may come today. se adaugă got la have to. We have to go. ♥ exprimă o cerere. urgentă: I must be at the hospital at two. be permitted to: On Sundays we were allowed to stay in bed until ten o’clock. (Please. ♥ permisiunea în trecut On Sundays we could stay in bed until ten o’clock. (nu era nevoie) SHALL/SHOULD. b) Must exprimă o obligaţie importantă. Viitor: You must stay home tomorrow if you don’t feel better.Se poate să vină azi. iar have se contrage obţinându-se I’ve got/I haven’t got to phone her. Have to exprimă o obligaţie obişnuită. I begin work at seven.I wasn’t able to swim yesterday as the weather was very bad. deducţia logică: She must be at home. MAY/MIGHT ♥ folosit pentru a cere (a) sau a acorda (b) permisiunea (mai oficial decât can): a) May I go ? Pot să plec ? b) You may go. You have to stay home when you have flu. repetată (habitual obligation): I have to be at the hospital at seven o’clock every morning. Între must şi have to există următoarele diferenţe de sens: a) Must exprimă o obligaţie impusă de către vorbitor. ♥ permisiunea A: Can I borrow your pen ? B: Of course you can. Poţi să pleci. HAVE GOT TO În vorbirea familiară.

mergem la cinema diseară ? What shall we do ? Ce trebuie să facem ? b). a avea curajul. de obicei sub formă de sfat de către vorbitor: The novel is very interesting. o sugestie. ought to exprimă obligaţia sau datoria.cu would: Would you do me a favor? ♥ insistenţa. un ordin: Where shall we put the flowers ? Unde să punem florile ? Shall we go to the cinema tonight ? (Ce spui). I don’t do this anymore. o rugăminte: Will you sign the papers. Trebuie/va sta /urmează să stea în clădire pînă la miezul nopţii. regulamente. ♥ o acţiune planificată: The meeting is to start at 7:30. N-ar trebui să mintă. Angajatorul va furniza documentele necesare în timp util. în stil oficial (acte. no matter what I said. please? ♥ o rugăminte foarte politicoasă. necesitatea logică de înfăptuire a unei acţiuni. b) o presupunere: He should be there by now..Întâlnirea urmează să înceapă la 7:30. Ar trebui să-l citeşti. Obişnuiam să îl sun când erma student. un obicei trecut care încă mai este repetat în prezent: They used to go there every year and it is likely to find them there. OUGHT TO ♥ La fel ca şi should. ♥ Shall este folosit în propoziţii interogative.♥ Shall este folosit: pentru a exprima obligaţie.pentru a cere un sfat.Probabil că acela este stiloul lui. la persoana I singular sau plural: a). Ar trebui să fi ajuns acolo deja. He shouldn’t tell lies. ♥ probabilitatea: That would be his pen. DARE ♥ este folosit cu sensul de a îndrăzni. la persoana a II-a şi a III-a) The employer shall supply the necessary documents in due time. nu mai fac asta acum. You should read it. BE TO folosit pentru a exprima ♥ o comandă sau instrucţiuni într-un mod impersonal: He is to stay in the building till midnight. ♥ o acţiune repetată. etc. un obicei trecut care nu mai este repetat în prezent: I used to call him when I was a student. mai ales în propoziţii interogative: How dare you say that? – Cum îndrăzneşti să spui asta? Exerciţii – Practice 39 . too. Obişnuiau să se ducă acolo în fiecare an şi e posibil să îi găseşti acolo. Romanul este foarte interesant. WILL/WOULD ♥ exprimă o comandă:You will do that immediately! ♥ exprimă insistenţa: He will work as a doctor no matter what! ♥ o invitaţie:Will you have another slice of pizza? ♥ o cerere. USED TO exprimă ♥ o acţiune repetată.pentru a face o ofertă: Shall I help you ? Să te ajut ? ♥ Should este folosit pentru a exprima: a) obligaţia. de obicei sub forma unui sfat dat de către vorbitor: You ought to start packing before 12 o’clock to make the check out. hotărârea de a efectua ceva în trecut: He would continue writing for hours..

My teacher said we _________ read them if we needed extra credit. But we _________read them if we don't want to. He's the only one who would send you flowers. You _________be rich to be famous. you will be rejected and you _______reapply at a later date. 2. 5. He __________ pass the exam if he studied harder. 3. It _________damaged during the move. The refrigerator isn't working. We're going to a wedding. The weather was too bad. 1. 3. A 'm not able to B can't C fish 4. You _______forget to pay the rent. 5. _________. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. you know. I __________ remember his name. 2. there's no card. If the form is not complete. 6. I ____________ do it yet. Mike: _________you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No. EX 3. Daniel _________ hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. Teacher. A can B will be able to C would be able to 3. You _______be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. A wasn't able to B couldn't C haven't been able to EX. I _______be at the meeting by 10:00. A weren't able to B can't C couldn't 5.LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. Alegeţi între must şi have to: 1. Tina: Look at these flowers . 40 . Sorry. A won't be able to B will can't C couldn't D want be able to 2. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time.they're beautiful! But. 4. You _______submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. Alegeţi verbul modal potrivit situaţiilor de mai jos: 1.We ______________ go to the party. 4.2. Alegeţi varianta corectă de răspuns. They ____________ go. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. He _________ quite exhausted after such a long flight. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It _______David. The books are optional. 1.

If you don't. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. You _________do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work. The lamp _________be broken. If I had gone to an University in England. so they _________be here by 5:00. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It _________cost a fortune. You _________worry so much. _________we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. 15. so you get rid of them! 16. the answer in the book _________wrong! 8. I _________participated in their English immersion program. or you don't. 10. _________ you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. 11. just apply for another job. You had better take along some cash.7. 9. You _________ leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. 12. Either you get the promotion. The machine _________start moving by pressing the left button. 14. You _________ no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19. It doesn't do you any good.I don ’t understand their priciples. I _________stand these people . 20. So. 18. I've redone this math problem at least ten times. 41 . 13. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something. The shop _________accept credit cards.

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA - SUBSTANTIVUL
Definiţie: Substantivul: a) denumeşte obiecte în sens foarte larg, adică fiinţe, lucruri, fenomene (woman, desk, rain, go, happiness); b) are categorii gramaticale de gen, număr şi caz; c) poate îndeplini în propoziţie funcţiile de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut, apoziţie, complement, element predicativ suplimentar, sau poate fi echivalentul unei propoziţii sau fraze. Clasificare: a) substantive simple: boy, meal, day; b) substantive formate din derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: childhood, disgust, unhappiness; c) substantive formate prin compunere (substantivele compuse): schoolboy d) substantive formate prin conversiune, din alte părţi de vorbire: - adjective: the good, the evil, the rich, the poor; - verbe la infinitiv: cook, fall; - verbe la Gerund: reading, boxing; - verbe la participiul trecut: the injured; e) substantive formate prin contragere: ad (advertisement), fridge (refrigerator), gym (gymnasium), lab (laboratory), liv (livingroom), poly (polytechnic), pub (public house); f) abrevieri: MP (Member of Parliament), Dr (doctor), Mr Brown (Dl. Brown), Mrs Brown (dna Brown), Miss Brown (dra Brown), Ms Brown (apelativ pentru femei, căsătorite sau necăsătorite) g) substantive comune şi substantive proprii - Substantivele comune pot fi: - substantive colective, care denumesc obiecte constând din mai multe elemente de acelaşi fel: family, people; - substantive concrete, care denumesc obiecte sau substanţa constitutivă a unor obiecte: table, wood, steel; - substantive abstracte, care denumesc abstracţiuni: difficulty, worry, peace Substantivele (numele) proprii au capacitatea de a individualiza un obiect dintr-o categorie de obiecte de acelaşi fel, denumind în principiu un singur element dintr-o categorie. În limba engleză, substantivele proprii denumesc: - nume de persoane: John, Larry, Daniel; - denumiri geografice - nume de localităţi: London, Paris - nume de ţări şi continente: Romania, France, Europe - nume de ape şi munţi: London River, Carpathians - diviziuni temporale - lunile anului: January, February, March, April, June, July, August, September, October, November, December - zilele săptămânii: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday - sărbători: Halloween d) nume de cărţi, ziare, reviste: The English Magazine, Nine o ’Clock e) nume de instituţii 42

Numărul substantivelor : I. Substantive numărabile (Count nouns) II. Substantive nenumărabile (Mass nouns). I. Substantivele numărabile denumesc noţiunile ca unităţi separate, care pot fi numărate: a boy, two boys, a few boys, etc. Au următoarele caracteristici: a) sunt variabile ca formă, având atât numărul singular, cât şi numărul plural: museum - museums, child - children; b) pot fi precedate de numerale cardinale sau cuantificatori: one book, three books, several apples, a lot of brushes; c) la numărul singular se acordă cu verbe la singular: The book is on the table. /The apples are in the basket. Formarea pluralului substantivelor numărabile: Formele de plural sunt de două feluri: A. regulate, când pluralul se formează prin adăugarea desinenţei -s la forma de singular: book - books. B. Neregulate, când pluralul se formează în alte moduri: - Substantivele terminate în -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh adaugă es: bus - buses; glass - glasses; buzz buzzes; box - boxes; watch - watches; brush – brushes - când -o e precedat de o vocală: cuckoos; kangaroos; radios; scenarios; studios, zoos; - adaugă -es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, mosquitoes, Negroes, potatoes, tomatoes - Substantivele terminate în -y precedat de o consoană transformă pe y în i şi adaugă -es: city cities; factory - factories. Transformarea nu are loc după vocale: boy - boys, play - plays; 1) -th→ ths: bath - baths; mouth - mouths; path - paths; 2) -f(e) [f]→ ves [vz]: calf - calves; elf - elves; half - halves; knife - knives; leaf - leaves; life lives; loaf - loaves; self - selves; shelf - shelves; 3) -se [s]→ ses [ziz]: house - houses II. Substantivele nenumărabile - denumesc noţiuni văzute ca un întreg. - pot fi concrete: sugar, coal, steel sau abstracte: beauty, kindness. Substantivele nenumărabile au următoarele caracteristici: a) sunt invariabile ca formă: tea, information, cattle. b) neavând contrastul singular - plural, ele nu pot fi numărate cu ajutorul numeralelor sau al altor cuantificatori: I need (some) tea. I need (some) information. I need (some) scissors. c) Se acordă cu verbul singular: Chinese tea is very good. Ceaiul chinezesc este foarte bun, sau la plural: The scissors are on the table. Foarfeca este pe masă. d) Unele substantive englezeşti fac parte atât din clasa substantivelor numărabile, cât şi din a celor nenumărabile, cu diferenţe de sens: She is a beauty. (Ea) este o frumuseţe. Beauty is to be admired. Frumuseţea trebuie admirată. She has got a new iron. Are un nou fier de călcat. This tool is made of iron. Această unealtă este din fier. În limba engleză fac parte din clasa substantivelor invariabile la singular unele substantive care sunt numărabile sau invariabile la plural în limba română: - advice, business, furniture, homework, income, information, knowledge, luggage, merchandise, money etc He always gives me good advice. Totdeauna îmi dă sfaturi bune. You must do your homework carefully. Trebuie să-ţi faci cu atenţie lecţiile. 43

I need further information. Am nevoie de informaţii suplimentare. His knowledge of English is poor. Cunoştinţele lui de engleză sunt slabe. Numărul substantivelor invariabile Substantivele invariabile nu au opoziţia singular - plural. Ele au numai singular: gold, sau numai plural the police, cattle etc. Cuantificarea substantivelor invariabile la singular se poate realiza cu ajutorul unor cuvinte ca: a piece of, an item of, a bar of, a bag of etc. Substantive concrete: a piece of bacon a slice of cake a piece of bread a loaf of bread a piece of land a strip of land a piece of furniture an article of furniture a bit of grass a blade of grass a piece of paper a sheet of paper Substantive abstracte: a piece of advice a word of advice a piece of information an item of news an item of business a bit of business a piece of work a bit of work a word of abuse a fit of passion an attack of fever

Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns) - genul este marcat formal: boy - girl, lion - lioness, - se poate identifica de obicei cu ajutorul pronumelor care se referă la substantive şi care au forme diferite după gen: The librarian is at his desk. He is writing something. (el) The librarian is at her desk. She is writing something. (ea) Clasificare: A. substantive nume de persoane B. substantive nume de animale C. substantive nume de obiecte A. brother/sister earl/countess father/mother king/queen lord/lady man/woman uncle/aunt - ess: actor/actress count/countess god/goddess master/mistress waiter/waitress -ine: hero/heroine; -er: widow/widower -groom: bride/bridegroom 44

musician.. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case). devotion. vanity. jealousy.. – Le-a dat nişte dulciuri copiilor.prepoziţii: I bought it for Mary. hope..Bărbatul a deschis fereastra. . Apartenenţa la genul masculin sau feminin se precizează în context.Am mâncat o pizza acum o oră. the Cheviot. 45 .desinenţă: the child’s book.Am cumpărat un cadou pentru fratele meu. friend. cazul dativ este marcat de prepoziţia to sau for sau prin topică: She gave some sweets to the children. liberty. river. B: horse: stallion/mare ox: bull/cow sheep: ram/ewe pig: boar/sow deer: stag/hind lion/lioness tiger/tigress cock/hen dog/bitch drake/duck cock sparrow/hen sparrow he goat/she goat Tom cat/she cat C: Sunt masculine substantivele care denumesc: a) pasiuni intense şi acţiuni violente: anger. un caracter blând. Cazul acuzativ (The Acusative Case) I ate a pizza an hour ago. c) substantive abstracte ca: fortune. b) substantivele care denumesc trăsături negative de caracter: ambition. cele care indică fertilitatea: affection. quest.topică: The man (N) opened the window (Ac). science Cazul substantivelor: În limba engleză.. categoria gramaticală a cazului este marcată prin: . Sunt feminine: a) substantivele care sugerează o caracteristică feminină. doctor.. the Thames. justice. the girl’s dress. nature. cousin. c) nume de fluvii: the Danube. Ele aparţin genului comun: artist. chairman. de dragul comodităţii Observaţie: Apostroful nu este obligatoriu în acest caz. I lent her (D) a book (Ac).cartea copilului . b) fenomene naturale puternice: ocean. parent.Am cumpărat-o pentru Mary. cook. writer.I-am împrumutat o carte. murder. mercy. afectuos. Substantivul în cazul genitiv exprimă în principal ideea de posesiune: Marc’s car is new. d) nume de munţi: the Carpathians.Fata îşi aşteaptă prietenul. the pupil’s question – rochia fetei. întrebarea elevului for goodness’ sake. I bought a present for my mother.Maşina lui Marc este nouă. revenge. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case) The girl is waiting for her friend. sun. peace... teacher. for convenience’ sake – pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. fear.- alte substantive nume de persoane au o singură formă atât pentru masculin cât şi pentru feminin. foreigner. folly. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case) În limba engleză. faith.

(Peter) 2) Let's go to the _______. Puneţi forma de plural corespunzătoare substantivelor: Put in the correct form of the plural of the given nouns. (Mary) Answer: I met Mary's sister yesterday.10) fish – EX.9) day . (boys) EX 2. the drivers’ attention (atenţia şoferilor) . 3. lemonade. La numele proprii terminate în -s se poate întâlni şi genitivul cu ‘s: Dickens’s novels Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX 1.la substantivele nume de persoane terminate în -s: Dickens’ life (viaţa lui Dickens). (men) 7) My _______ car was not expensive.Steve) 6) _______ shoes are on the second floor. jam.la forma de plural a substantivelor regulate: the boys’ bicycles (bicicletele băieţilor). Example: car . (Charles) 9) This is the _______ bike. Completaţi spaţiile cu următoarele cuvinte: advice.7) penny . chocolate. Obs: 1.8) bus . (boy) 10) These are the _______ pencils. 1) This is _______ book.4) mouth .6) sheep . (Smiths) 3) The room is upstairs. Exemplu: ira = air aet ikn ilo fgo eber einw doow acek 46 aclo ahir . (John) 5) _______and _______ bags have blue stickers. (Susan .2) kilo -3) woman . fără desinenţa -s se adaugă: . rice. tennis Example: a cube of _____ Answer: a cube of sugar 1) a piece of _____2) a packet of _____3) a bar of _____4) a glass of _____ 5) a cup of _____6) a bottle of _____7) a slice of _____8) a barrel of _____ 9) a game of _____10) a jar of _____ EX 4. Charles’ books (cărţile lui Charles). tea. oil. (children) 4) _______sister is twelve years old. Scrie forma de genitiv în spaţiile libere: Example: I met _______ sister yesterday.cars 1) half . Creaţi substantive nenumărabile din literele de mai jos.Apostroful singur. meat.___ Answer: car . milk. (parents) 8) _______CD player is new.5) foot .

b) articolul zero pentru substantivele nenumărabile: Milk is good for our health. Articolul nehotărât (The Indefinite Article) Articolul nehotărât are două forme: a şi an Ex: a story. an honest man Articolul zero (The Zero Article) În unele cazuri.ARTICOLUL ŞI ALŢI DETERMINANŢI Determinanţii propriu-zişi ai substantivului Articolul hotărât the child Articolul nehotărât a child. the United States. any idea . Cows give us milk. their car. the table. an orange. an egg. articolul nehotărât a sau an sau prin articolul zero. no idea. its tail Adjectivul interogativ what/which/whose car do you want? Adjectivul nehotărât each. those trees Adjectivul posesiv my. There are (some) books on the table Observaţie: a) articolul hotărât the. (articolul hotărât the) 47 . a magazine. our. your. There is an orange on the table. the window. (articolul zero = funcţia generică) I like the honey they sell here. person. neither student Articolul nu poate fi o parte de vorbire independentă. the Art Gallery. a year an architect. absenţa articolului echivalează ca funcţie cu prezenţa unui articol. substantivele nenumărabile. etc The United Kingdom. el contribuind doar la determinarea unică sau individuală a substantivului pe care îl însoţeşte. either side. Clothes do not make the man. Acesta este de obicei numit articolul zero. your. that tree. articolul nehotărât a( n) sau articolul zero pentru substantivele numărabile: The cow gives us milk. . an elephant Articolul zero men. some notebooks. an hour. her. an heir. a water-melon. În astfel de cazuri. Articolul hotărât (The Definite Article) Articolul hotărât are forma unică the Ex:the door. Articolul este redat prin articolul hotărât the. these trees. his. etc. person every. Aceste articole se folosesc pentru a realiza: 1) referinţa unică (unique reference) şi 2) referinţa individuală (individual reference) 1) The girl was running very fast. substantivele numărabile la plural şi numele proprii par neînsoţite de articol: She drinks tea every day. Îmi place mierea care se vinde aici. Îmi place mierea.Fata alerga foarte repede. books. A cow gives us milk. The Sahara. 2) Where are the books I gave you? – Unde sunt cărţile pe care ţi le-am dat? There is a pen on the table. Omisiunea articolului (The Elypsis of the Article) Ex: a) I like honey. schools Adjectivul demonstrativ this tree.

Would you like to see ___ movie? ___ apple a day keeps ___ doctor away. ___ milk is good for you. 7. _______is my cousin. _______exhibition will be open until the end of May. _______are the old classrooms.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! A. 48 . _______people come from that hotel over there. acelea This house is more expensive than that one. _______beach was quite empty last year. acestea ♥ Those – aceia. 9. Those are the new ones. 2. _______exhibition closed a month ago. He was dismissed on the 13th. 3. Pune răspunsul corect: This coat was designed by ___ famous New York artist.. the sau articolul zero.. Adjectivul posesiv se acordă în gen şi număr cu numele obiectului posedat: Her book . His bike is excellent . Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi cu this/that/ these/ those 1.cartea ei. Wasn't _______ a horrible thing to say? Adjectivul posesiv (The Posesive Adjective) ♥ înlocuieşte posesorul şi determină numele obiectului posedat: Peter’s bike is excellent for him to keep fit. Jessica. 10. Do you see _______birds at the top of the tree? 8. What does_______ notice say? 5. aceasta ♥ That – acela. – Această casă este mai scumpă decât aceea. He is one of ___ smartest people I know. aceea ♥ These – aceştia. 6. an. _______ night the factory went on fire. 4. Can you tell me how to get to ___ bank from here? ___ city museum is closed today. I can't believe I failed ___ yesterday's test! Do you have ___ dictionary that I can borrow? ALŢI DETERMINANŢI : Adjectivul demonstrativ (The Demonstrative Adjective) ♥ This – acesta. I recommend you eat ___ apple pie at this restaurant.

That classroom is theirs. _________________ mother is a nurse ? 4. ____ brother's nine.Ce film ai văzut aseară? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi spaţiile cu adjectivul interogativpotrivit. which şi what sunt invariabile. ____ children's names are Lauren and Daniel. That is your book. 3 We're brothers. ____name's Alberto. This classroom is ours. Their toys . 49 . This is our classroom.His bike . _________________ time is the flight ? 2. Comparaţi: Adjectiv posesiv This is my book. to (vorbire curentă) what which Acuzativ whom (formă literară) who (vorbire curentă) what which Exemplu: What film did you see last night ?.jucăriile lor. 5 I'm British. 4 She's eight.. Caz Pronume who what which Nominativ who what which Genitiv whose what which Dativ to whom (formă literară) who . _________________ subject do you like ? 5. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi propoziţiile cu adjective posesive: 1 He's from Spain. 6 You're students. Adjectivul interogativ (The Interrogative Adjective) ♥ determină numele obiectului asupra căruia se cer informaţii: who are forme flexionare pentru caz. _________________ books are these ? Pronume posesiv This book is mine. That book is yours.. _________________ girl has a red bag ? 3. That is her/his/its food. 1. ____ books are in the classroom.bicicleta lui. 2 They're married. That is their classroom. ____ parents are French. That food is hers/his. ____ name's Peter.

4. câteva. no. vreun. either side) Some = ceva. No problem. nici una. Any = vreun. Are there any onions? No. I can give her ______. . there are ______. orice: Any student in your class could answer the question. Oh. there are ______. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi cu "any". se întrebuinţează în propoziţii afirmative şi indică existenţa unui număr restrâns de lucruri. We had better get ______. nici o. Are there ______ good movies this weekend? No. unele. vreo. there is ______ hot water. fiinţe. 2. unii. "some". 3. a unei cantităţi restrânse. Do ______ black people work in your company? Yes. She hasn't ______ clothes to wear to the party. Mary. there aren't any. There are some books on his desk. nişte.în propoziţii afirmative cu sensul: oricare. Every = fiecare (se referă la membrii unui grup fără a-i individualiza) Every woman in the room has the right to speak. vreo. there is ______ gas in the car. Each = fiecare (se referă la membrii unui grup luaţi individual) Each pupil must bring some plants to school. se întrebuinţează: . 50 .în propoziţii interogative şi negative: There isn’t any milk in the cup.Adjectivul nehotărât (The Indefinite Adjective) ♥ determină substantivul într-un mod global (all the pens. is there ______ hot water? I'm sorry. every child) sau parţial (each pupil. 5. câţiva. I want to take a shower. puţină. nici un(ul). "no" or "none": Exemplu: 1.

b. three etc. iar numitorul printr-un numeral ordinal: 1/2 = a/one half = o jumătate. Numeralul ordinal: the first.NUMERALUL –THE NUMERAL ♥ este partea de vorbire care exprimă un număr. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral) ♥ arată că obiectele sunt considerate în grup şi nu izolat Numeralele colective sunt: couple. several pair(s) of shoes 51 . pair. the second etc. dozen. Numeralul cardinal: one. Numeralul cardinal: 0 zero (nought) 1 one 11 eleven 2 two 12 twelve 3 three 13 thirteen 4 four 14 fourteen 5 five 15 fifteen 6 six 16 sixteen 7 seven 17 seventeen 8 eight 18 eighteen 9 nine 19 nineteen 100 200 … 900 1. Numeralul fracţionar (The Fractional Numeral) ♥ sunt redate sub forma unor fracţii. determinarea numerică a obiectelor (numeralul cardinal) sau ordinea obiectelor prin numărare (numeralul ordinal) a. yoke Ex: two dozen of eggs. team. two. score. not "v") sixty seventy eighty (only one "t") ninety (note the "e") b. o doime. a. Numărul fracţiei este exprimat printr-un numeral cardinal. 1/3/ = a/one third = o treime 1. Numeralul ordinal: 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th zeroth or noughth first 11th eleventh second 12th twelfth third 13th thirteenth fourth 14th fourteenth fifth 15th fifteenth sixth 16th sixteenth seventh17th seventeenth eighth 18th eighteenth ninth 19th nineteenth 10th 20th 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th tenth twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth c.000 one hundred two hundred … nine hundred one thousand 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ten twenty thirty forty (no "u") fifty (note "f".5 = one point nought five d.

de două ori. ? Lesson Nine ? Lesson Ninth ? Lesson Nineth ? the nineth lesson 5. ? a third ? third ? the third ? the third of the 9. The experiment will last for one hundred fifty days. by twos.odată.de trei ori. ? Hundred ? Hundreds ? Five hundreds ? Five hundred ? 2. etc. three times . Au franceza de două ori pe săptămână. four times. ________ of people sat quietly in the hall. număr şi caz. ? two dozens ? two dozen ? two a dozen ? two dozens of them? 3. two and two. About ________ of the workers are young people. I bought __________.e. The scientist is in his _________. Today is __________ day. two by two. twice. each). He wrote a __________ report. three times (thrice). "C" is _______ letter of the English alphabet. ? one year and a half ? one year and half ? one year and an half ? one and half years 10. Elevii au părăsit clasa câte doi. Next week. a hundred times. They have French twice a week. ? five-thousand-words ? five-thousands-word ? five-thousands-words ? five-thousand-word 4. g. twice as fast etc. you) sau desemnează global sau parţial obiecte sau fenomene (all. ? thirties ? thirtys ? thirty's ? thirtieths 8. ? two thousand of ? two thousand ? two thousands ? two thousands of 7. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. in tows (in pairs): The pupils left the classroom two by two/in twos. exemplu: two at a time. ♥ are categoriile gramaticale de persoană. once more. twice . Clasificarea pronumelor: 52 . we are going to study __________.Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numeral) once . He's been in the United States for __________. five times. ? third-fifths ? three-fifth ? three-fifths ? third-fifth 6. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) ♥ exprimă gruparea numerică a obiectelor. ten times. ? the one hundred fourty-ninth ? the one hundred forty-nineth ? one hundred forty ninth ? the one hundred forty-ninth PRONUMELE -THE PRONOUN ♥ poate înlocui substantive: The man is here. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral) ♥ arată: de câte ori are loc o acţiune: once. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) f. He is here ♥ desemnează direct vorbitorul şi ascultătorul (I. once again. About ___________ old people died of the flu last winter. Eggs are cheap. gen.

) themselves itself (neutru) Exemple: He looked at himself in the mirror. negativ: seria no. Irina? Adjective posesive It's my food It's your food It's his food It's her food It's its food Pronume posesive It's mine It's yours It's his It's hers -Pronume personal It belongs to me It belongs to you It belongs to him It belongs to her It belongs to it 53 .Ţie îţi place de mine şi mie îmi place de tine. neither Pronumele personal: Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ I me you you he him she her it it we us they them Exemple: You like me and I like you. several.) herself (fem.Pronumele personal Pronumele reflexiv Pronumele posesiv Pronumele relativ Pronumele interogativ Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele nehotărât pozitiv universal :each. Pronumele posesiv ♥ înlocuieşte atât numele obiectului posedat cât şi al posesorului Formele pronumelui posesiv sunt: Persoana I singular mine I plural ours a II-a singular/plural yours a III-a masculin singular his plural theirs feminin singular hers plural theirs Exemplu: Is this his pen? No. enough. Pronumele reflexiv ♥ are terminaţia -self la singular şi -selves la plural Persoana Singular Plural I myself ourselves a II-a yourself yourselves a III-a himself (masc. seria some neafirmativ: seria any. little. much. every afirmativ: many. Ask Irina if is hers. few. Is it yours. one. either. it’s not ours.. all.

O/Îl va lua pe oricare este a/al lui. which şi that Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ Genitiv Who Who(m) Whose Exemplu: I don’t know whose car is this one. vreo. câteva. nişte. He will take whichever is his. etc) Did you visit some of the museums the tourist guide recommended ? Any = vreun. either) obiecte sau fenomene Some = ceva.nothing Exemple: I saw somebody in your room. se întrebuinţează în propoziţii afirmative. ♥ Compuşii lui some. puţin. vreun. items. (vegetables. Pronumele nehotărât ♥ desemnează global (all) sau parţial (each. Oricine vorbeşte trebuie să traducă.oricare. orice: Any of you could answer this question. Pronumele relative sunt: who. puţină. I saw something in your room. niciuna se întrebuinţează: în propoziţii afirmative cu sensul: oricare. câţiva. I saw nothing in your room. any şi no: somebody/someone . Whoever speaks must translate. I saw nobody in your room. whoever -oricine. nicio. niciun(ul). Each = fiecare: Each of them . etc Exemple: Who are they waiting for?.nobody/no one none something .anybody/anyone . în propoziţii interogative şi negative: Have you got any ? I haven’t got any. I know people that don’t like this kind of food.Pe cine aşteaptă ei? What did he tell you? – Ce ţi-a spus? What time is it? – Cât este ceasul? Which of these books do you prefer ? – Pe care din aceste cărţi o preferi? From what country does he come from? – Din ce ţară vine? Pronumele relativ ♥ se referă la un substantiv sau înlocuitor al acestuia menţionat anterior şi face legătura între propoziţia în care se află şi cea pe care o însoţeşte: I know people who don’t like this kind of food.It's our food It's ours It belongs to us It's your food It's yours It belongs to you It's their food It's theirs It belongs to them Pronumele interogativ who este folosit pentru fiinţe what pentru lucruri which pentru fiinţe şi lucruri how much pentru cantităţi how many pentru număr what kind of pentru calităţi. unii..Nu ştiu a cui este maşina aceasta. Whichever. vreo. unele. interogative (ptr a pune accentul pe ceva) Exemplu: She bought some.anything .Fiecare (dintre ei) Either (forma negativă neither) = fiecare: Have you seen either of them ? L-ai văzut pe vreunul dintre ei (doi) ? 54 .

6) Thank you very much for your e-mail____ was very interesting. Ce-ai cumpărat ? Nimic. the girl ____ has just arrived at the airport. What have you bought ? Nothing. Nici unul dintre ei (doi) nu are dreptate. neither (nici unul din doi). unul.yourself . 6) He cut ___ with the knife while he was doing the dishes. Pronumele negativ nobody. 9) Tim and Gerry. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest ____ is in the south of Romania. EX. none (nici unul).ourselves . did you take the photo all by ___ ? 5) I wrote this poem ___ . 4) This is the boy ____ comes from France. ___ name is Cookie. (the blackboard) ___are on the wall. 8) My mother often talks to ___ .I have got a pet.herself . This is ___ friend Jason. Folosiţi pronumele personale potrivite. ___ name is John.2.themselves 1) Robert made this T-shirt ___ . 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers ___ .Alegeţi pronumele posesiv corect Example: I have got a pet. (the dog) ___are watching TV. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ___is dreaming. One = un. Le-am văzut pe toate. All = tot. 7) The man. Example: ___ often reads books. no one (nimeni). He's 32. (my mother and I) EX. (the posters) ___is running. if you want more milk. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX1. (Lisa).Atenţie la cuvintele din paranteză.4. (George) ___is green. toate: I’ve seen them all. Alegeţi pronumele reflexiv corect din lista de mai jos: myself ..Every =fiecare: Every pupil must do his homework. Hi Daniel.himself . 55 .yourselves .She often reads books.3. forgot his umbrella. There are 150 employees in ___ company. 2) Lisa did the homework ___ 3) We helped ___ to some cola at the party. ____ is a taxi driver. nothing (nimic): Exemple: Neither of them is right. 4) Emma. toată. Its name is Cookie. which or whose: 1) I talked to the boy ____ car had broken down in front of the building. Alegeţi pronumele relativ corect: who. una cineva:There were two children in the room: one was good and one was bad. toţi. lives in the neighbourhood.itself . Jason and I work in the same office. 5) That's Irina. ___ sister is 34 and ___ workplace is very near. ____ father is a professor. 7) The lion can defend ___ . help ___ . EX. 2) Mr John.

the thinnest (subţire-mai subţire-cel mai subţire) happy .more difficult .cel mai grijuliu) difficult .the best-known (binecunoscut) ill-paid .smaller .the hottest (fierbinte. She's a little bit selfish.the fattest (gras-mai gras-cel mai gras) thin . Answer: Daniel and Irina have known each other since 2000.mai nervos. is from England. are not from our school. 5) People often give ____ presents at Christmas.thinner . ____ shouted in the street. ourselves.happier .the worst-paid (prost plătit) intelligent-looking. Example: Daniel and Irina have known __________ since 2007. yourself.cel mai fericit) angry .the happiest (fericit-mai fericit.the smallest ( mic-mai mic-cel mai mic) short . 2) My friends enjoyed ____ at the party. yourselves.mai grijuliu. 9) They often write e-mails to ____ because they're best friends.angrier . 3) Daniel repaired computer car ____.mai dificil. ____ driver is a young man. 4) We helped ____ with our written task.the most difficult (dificil. .bigger .fatter . itself.the most careful (grijuliu. herself. Adjectvele compuse formează gradele de comparaţie în felul următor: a) când primul element este un adjectiv care îşi păstrează sensul. 7) Katie.mai scurt-cel mai scurt) Observaţie: La ortografiere pot apărea unele modificări: big .worse-paid .cel mai mare) hot .cel mai dificil) 3.the shortest (scurt. ADJECTIVUL.more careful . 10) What did you do with the money ____ your parents lent you? EX 5. 9) The car. did you do the homework ____? 8) They looked at ____ and smiled. themselves or each other.hotter . 1) John and Angela haven't met ____ for a very long time.cel mai nervos) 2. Adjectivele monosilabice primesc -(e)r la comparativ şi the -(e)st la superlativ: small . 6) I bought ____ a new record player. Comparaţia adjectivelor (The Comparison of Adjectives) 1.mai fierbinte-cel mai fierbinte) fat .THE ADJECTIVE ♥ este partea de vorbire care: a) exprimă o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting class. Alegeţi pronumele corecte din lista de mai jos: myself. 10) She only thinks of ____.the most intelligent-looking (privire inteligentă) 56 . a young man) b) are categoria gramaticală a comparaţiei: He is taller than his sister.more intelligent-looking . Adjectivele formate din două sau mai multe silabe formează comparativul şi superlativul cu ajutorul lui more şi the most: careful .shorter . himself.the biggest (mare-mai mare.8) The children.the angriest (nervos. acesta se schimbă la comparativ şi superlativ: well-known – better-known .

My house is ____ than yours.cel mai bun) bad .the furthest Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).Adjective neregulate good . vechi. Who is ____ man on earth? The weather is even ____ than last summer. 4. b) poate avea categoria gramaticală a comparaţiei. obviously.mai mult.the oldest (bătrân. He was ____ student of all.farther .more heart-broken .older.mai în vârstă. certainly.more.the eldest (în vârstă. mai puţin.mai rău. vechi) old – elder.worse .cel mai mult) old.. Ele mai pot fi adverbe: .weekly Excepţii: true . c) îndeplineşte funcţia sintactică de complement circumstanţial Exemplu: Is this idea really good? Locuţiuni adverbiale: as a rule = de obicei.the most (mult. Which is ____ insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is ____ than a holiday in the mountains. extremely. by the way = apropo.cel mai în vârstă) little -less . badly. etc.cel mai bătrân. (mai puţin interesant decât) ♥ superlativul absolut se construieşte cu ajutorul adverbelor very. This film is less interesting than the previous one. whole – wholly. It is strange but often a coke is ____ than a beer. highly. It is extremelly difficult to make such a film. slowly etc. vechi. Adverbele de mod indică modalitatea propriu-zisă: well.cel mai rău) much. quickly. Adverbele de mod sau timp se formează prin adăugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului: slow.the least (puţin.mai bun. too.b) când cele două elemente formează un tot din punct de vedere al sensului comparaţia se realizează cu ajutorul lui more şi the most: heart-broken .cel mai puţin) far . utterly: The film was very amusing.the farthest (depărtat – mai depărtat. Non-smokers usually live ____ than smokers. at once = imediat. as a matter-of-fact = de fapt.better .slowly.duly. ADVERBUL – THE ADVERB ♥ a)arată o caracteristică a unei acţiuni. now and then = din când în când. week. a unei stări sau a unei calităţi..cel mai depărtat) sau further .the most heart-broken (inima frântă) ♥ comparativului de egalitate şi inferioritate: My room is as large as hers (la fel de mare ca) My homework is not as easy as yours. beautifully. to-and fro = încoace şi încolo. really. Adverbele de mod (Adverbs of manner). This is ____ magazine I have ever read.de întărire: actually.mai bătrân.the best ( bun.the worst (rău. 57 . once in while.truly. due . This red flower is ____ than that yellow one.

Adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time). Our mum was angry. then. . greatly. formerly. barely. once in a while. previosly. no. probally. My neighbour is a careless driver. . He shouts ____. Adverbele de timp indică: . not at all. there.more carefully Comparativul de egalitate: She dances on ice as quickly as her brother. recently. foward(s). Her English is fluent. soon. early – earlier quickly .more quickly. (the) least + adverb Comparaţia neregulată a adverbelor: Gradul pozitiv Gradul comparativ well (bine) better (mai bine) badly (rău) worse (mai rău) much (mult) more (mai mult) Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Găsiţi adjectivul din prima propoziţie şi completaţi spaţiile libere cu adverbul corespunzător: Joanne is happy. nedefinită: often. today. You ____ have to put one word in each space. Superlativul relativ: (the) most intelligently (of all). still. .momentul acţiunii: now. righ. She dances really ____. Comparaţia adverbelor: Comparativ: fast . This girl is very quiet. nowadays. The painter is awful. Superlativul absolut: se formează cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very. eventually. usually. yet. three times a day.durata: lately. Comparativul de inferioritate: She dances on ice less carefully than her brother. somewhere.faster. Altele indică direcţia: aside. before. . Adverbele de loc (Adverbs of Place) Unele adverbe de loc indică locul propriu-zis: here. Gradul superlativ (the) best (cel mai bine) (the) worst (cel mai rău) (the) most (cel mai mult) 58 . The boy is loud.de afirmaţie sau negaţie: yes. She is a good dancer. .succesiunea în timp: afterwards. completely. quite. seldom. This exercise is simple.de probabilitate: maybe. most care preced adverbul respectiv. backward(s). carefully .. She often sneaks out of the house ____. He paints____ . She speaks English ____. He plays the piano____ . of course. since. She spoke to____ us .de amplificare: absolutely. hardly. perhaps. Jim is a wonderful piano player.frecvenţa: definită: weekly. Majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a exprima atât locul cât şi direcţia: Loc: He doesn’t live far (Nu locuieşte departe). left. He drives____ . She smiles____ . Direcţie: He didn’t go far (Nu s-a dus departe).

delighted. ask. a present from Jane a page of the book. sell.aim. shake. There is another chair next to the woman. side. chance. opportunity + of. . look + at. boast. kindness + to. gaze.afraid. kind. . jealous. deprive.cause. stiff. turn + to.complete. . ashamed. die. . die. threaten. . c) Verbe: .PREPOZIŢIA . mediate + on. prefer. the bag is under the table the fish are below the surface put a jacket over your shirt. adjust. go to London . Unele cuvinte sunt urmate în mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziţii: a) Substantive: . attribute. aware. indifferent. satisfaction + in. on the first floor. report. cling. conform. subscribe. + in.affectionate. at the station. . b) Adjective: . sail. cure. .accuse. originate. . glow. blame. over 16 years of age. at 45 on the table.bound. refer. the picture of a palace 59 . amazed. swim across the lake drive through the tunnel go to the cinema.in the car.adapt. thankful + to. at a concert. belong. beside Under Below Over Above Across Through To Into Towards Onto From Of Example in the kitchen. fit.anxious. in London. busy. famous. listen. rude. . polite. pale. remind take care + of. subscribe. deaf. worthy + of. hide. consistent. cruel. comment. tired. protect + from. identical. . shiver. charmed. .exception.go to bed go into the kitchen / the house go 5 steps towards the house jump onto the table a flower from the garden. . on the bus. typical. a path above the lake walk across the bridge. succeed (+-ing). on the left. wet + with. Prepositions In At On by.disappointed. attentive. next to. good + at. escape.angry. invitation. fire. fail. prevent. fond. progress. apply. characteristic. satisfied. differ. Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.interest. at the table. sure. I can see a woman who is sitting at a table. . care. leave long + for. clever. tremble + with. eager. dizzy.agree. adjective.abound.account. rich. proud. flush. . contrary. concentrate. arrive. . in the book. astonished. reduce. She is sitting on a chair. consent. verbe sau adverbe de substantive sau substitute ale acestora: In the picture.alarmed. faint. congratulate. parallel. full. believe.PREPOSITION ♥ leagă părţi de vorbire diferite: substantive.conceal. enthusiastic + about. sorry + for. in a taxi at the door. link. supply. successful + in. glance. end. appropiate.

____eight ____ a quarter to eleven. around. for. Alege prepoziţia de timp corectă: 1. ____ my wall. But I would prefer to go there ____ the evening. But I must hurry home ____ the film. till/until. over. Alege prepoziţia de loc corectă: We live ____ London.. 6. beside. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX.. below. by. over Prepositions of manner With (cu). That's interesting. 9. The flight ____Bucharest ____ Lecce was ____ Berlin. out of. underneath. against. about. It lasts ____ two hours and forty-five minutes. onto. off. EX. I am visiting my grandma ____Saturday. for. We are going ____ holiday next week. I don't know yet. The town lies 530 meters ____sea level. I can pick you up ____ half ____ seven.That's right. within. during. without (fără). before. in. I have to be home ____ eleven o'clock. despite (formal). towards.. up. along. on. to. on. 3. past.. by bus talking about you Prepositions of place: at.1.. through (din cauză de) Prepositions of concession: in spite. in front of. out of. by. with all (familiar) ( în ciuda. Would you like to go ____ the cinema tonight? No. What are you doing ____ the weekend? 2. I was ____ the cinema yesterday. in regard to.. 60 . 5. next to. near. regarding. beneath. That would be great. 7. Maybe I'll go to the cinema ____ Saturday. we want to watch TV. after¸ from. manner/way Prepositions of direction: to. (all) through/throughout. above. between. before. in. through. on account of (formal). top of. There is a bridge ____ the river. on (despre): Prepositions of cause: because of. thanks. How long does the film last? 8. close to. under. from. behind. concerning (formal). over. We could go there together ____ the afternoon. Who is the person ____ this picture? Come ____ the sitting room. The film starts ____ eight o'clock. I haven't been to the cinema ____ so many years. down. into.By Off Out of By About a book by Mark Twain get off the train get out of the taxi by car. About. after. by. 4. cu toată / toate. as for. That's okay. 10. across. among Prepositions of time at. for all. in.2. there are many picture postcards. from Prepositions of reference: as to.

c) de mod: (exactly) as. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX.nici. Irina needed some money. Daniel was cold. The concert was cancelled. as b. a. _____ she took a part-time job. while/as ... even though b because I don't drink coffee ________ it makes me nervous. 5. ori. = Văd un băiat şi o fată. 61 . con = impreuna.atât. Conjuncţiile subordonatoare . b) de timp: when . g) consecutive: so that .as .. c) adversative: but ..precum. so/such.. de parcă. cu scopul ca.. since . sau. _____he put on a coat. in order that/so (that) (mai formal) . _____ we drank it together.(pentru) ca. i) comparative: as. if. before înainte ca. _____ she plays it really well. but. Alegeţi conjuncţia coordonatoare potrivită din următoarele: and. wherever ..dacă.(aşa) cum.. while. _____ you can go by car. The teacher was not very nice. since.. and . I bought a bottle of wine. h) concesive: though. a.. Because ________ She doesn't speak English.mai (mult)...or .încât.: conjunctio. whereas (formal). she can't translate that text. either..cu condiţia. not only. I wasn’t cold. as well as . ci.. _____ it was too difficult.dar. unless . neither.deoarece. but also . _____ we went to a disco instead. cu toate că..încât. so (familiar) . d) de cauză: as. although (mai formal). or. e) de scop: so that. 8. He speaks English as well as German.în timp ce. you can take a bus. f) condiţionale: if .aşa/astfel. exemple: I see a boy and a girl. both.. 9. 3.CONJUNCTIA . = El vorbeşte engleza precum şi germana. Maria tried to translate the text. EX. To get from Piteşti to Bucharest. 7.. so 1. 6.universale: that ..când... cât şi..unde. a.sau. _____ maybe it's just coincidence. junctio = legatura) Conjuncţiile coordonatoare : a) copulative: and ..după ce. chiar dacă.nici. încât.1.afară dacă. as if/as though . numai dacă nu. (that) .nu numai. (exact) cum. b) disjunctive: or . _____ the mark was good. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new family who has just moved in . even if.şi..oriunde. _____the shop didn't have it.2 Alegeţi conjuncţia subordonatoare potrivită: Daniel couldn't buy any presents ________ he didn't have any money.până când. fiindcă.nor .. 10. after . 4.de când. Although b.dar şi.specializate: de loc: where .ca şi cum. 2. provided (that) / on condition (that) as long as/so longs as . although ________ it was snowing. Julie has a guitar.THE CONJUNCTION (lat. I went to buy my favorite CD. because . till/until . (just) as . decât. whether – dacă .că.deşi.though .sau.

because b. b) surpriză: Oh ! Wow ! (a. Ssh! Hush! Silence! (Sst. Dear me ! What are you doing over there ? d) admiraţie: Whew !(ah. într-adevăr) Oh. dear. k) durere: Ouch! Ow! (vai. Puteţi folosi interjecţii ca: ah. " ____. un îndemn: Oh! Help! (oh! Ajutor!). f) dispreţ: Fie ! Pshaw ! What a shame! (Ptiu. aha!): Aha. doamne): Whew. etc. g) dezgust: Ugh! (îh!): Ugh. ura!). Whereas b. ah. Whereas b. " ____. linişte!): Hush! The baby’s sleeping! b) o încurajare: Cheer up! Come on! (Curaj! Haide!): Come on. it hurts! 2) manifestări de voinţă: a) o rugăminte.wow ! Miaow! Baa! Buzz! (Ham . a.a. ah. oh. er. Oh. I can’t find my purse. uh-huh. what a nice dress ! c) mirare: Oh. a. dear. allas. don’t be afraid! You’ll be fine. ouch. while Paula got the job she wanted ________ she had no experience. i) dezaprobare: Nonsense! What a nuisance! (Prostii ! Ce pacoste!): What a nuisance! Now I’ll have to do it all over again! j) regret: Ah! Oh! What a pity! (a!. how dirty your hands are ! h) aprobare: Well done ! Congratulations ! (Foarte bine! Felicitări!) Well done. as I will be late today ________ my car has broken down. she's dead now" 3. well. c) o avertizare: Look Out! Fire! (Atenţie! Foc!): Fire ! The house is on fire! 3) se reproduc sunete şi zgomote din mediul înconjurător: Bow . I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. ah. a. aoleu!): ouch. a.INTERJECTION Clasificare: Cu ajutorul interjecţiilor se exteriorizează: 1) senzaţii şi sentimente: a) bucurie: Ah ! Ooh ! Jippee ! Hurray ! (a. that feels good" 2. eh. hello. as b.ham ! Miau! Beh! Bzzz!): Bang! Click! Crash! Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Alegeţi interjecţia potrivită situaţiilor de mai jos. oh!). even though b. vai de mine. Since Daniel passed the exam first time ________ his brother had to retake it four times. Since INTERJECŢIA. how beautiful she is ! e) înţelegere: Aha ! (a. Peter ! You’ve passed all your exams brilliantly. these gloves are exactly what I was looking for. pah. 1. ce ruşine!): Fie upon you ! You ought to be ashamed at what you have done. oh! ce păcat!): What a pity you couldn’t come! It was a good play. " Oh ____ ! Does it hurt ?" 62 . hmm. though ________ my wife likes to travel abroad. dear ! Dear me ! Indeed ! (vai dragă.

" ____. "What do you think of that.. " ____ . "Lima is the capital of. " ____.. ____..Peru" 6. ____ ?" 5..4. ____.. " ____ John. " 85 divided by 5 is.. please say 'yes' !" 9.. what did he say " 10. I'm not so sure" 8. "Shall we go ? " " ____" 12.17" 11.. How are you today ?" 7.. " ____ ! That hurts !" 63 .

indirect. He looks pale. stay. grow. get. SUBIECTUL – THE SUBJECT ♥ Subiectul este partea principală de propoziţie despre care se spune ceva cu ajutorul predicatului. b) printr-un adjectiv. David plays the piano The police interviewed all the witnesses. Exemple:He is a really nice guy. She was eager to come. PREDICATUL . complemente circumstanţiale (de timp.) şi atributul. cauză etc. Verbe copulative: a. singur sau cu o complinire: She was happy. turn: Her hair has turned grey. c. elementul predicativ suplimentar. c) printr-un participiu trecut: The village seemed deserted. Îmbătrâneşte. 64 . Numele predicativ este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia: My nephew has become a doctor. 2) părţi secundare de propoziţie: complementul direct.PARTEA A II-A PĂRŢILE DE PROPOZIŢIE (The Parts of the Sentence) ♥ Părţile de propoziţie se clasifică în: 1) părţi principale de propoziţie: subiectul şi predicatul. d.THE PREDICATE ♥ Predicatul este partea principală de propoziţie care atribuie subiectului o acţiune. She is getting old. keep. Subiectul simplu: man Subiectul complex: the man who had followed us inside Subiectul compus: The man and the woman walked over to the telephone. loc. verbe ale devenirii: become. prepoziţional. verbe ale aparenţei: appear. hold. look. Părea bolnavă. o stare sau o însuşire. Verbe ale continuării în aceeaşi stare : continue. Tăcea. verbul be: He is clever. The man who had followed us inside walked over to the telephone. mod. Predicatul nominal este alcătuit din: un verb copulativ + un nume predicativ. remain. A încărunţit. My dog attacked the burglar. He kept silent. El este deştept b. seem: She seemed ill. Este palid.

After his speech. este aceea de a transforma fraza respectivă la diateza pasivă. lived in the attic last winter. => Passive: A song was sung by Todd.2. 65 . 1. " a rock star " nu este complement direct şi deci nu poate deveni subiectul propoziţiei la diateza pasivă.Interpretăm un cântec în fiecare zi. We suddenly realized that someone was listening. We enjoyed ourselves at the cinema. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Identificaţi complementul direct.. Complementul direct va trebui sa devină subiectul propoziţiei la diateza pasivă. The president of the bank looked everywhere for the papers. Mai multe variante sunt posibile. prowled through the dark alley. The yellow race car with red stripes finished the first in the race. Nu l-am văzut de mult. and all of the other animals were outside. 1. 3. Ne-am distrat la cinematograf. baked delicious apple pies. 4.1. the president of the meeting shook hands with all members of the crowd. I drink milk every day. Did she ask you any questions ? Ţi-a pus vreo întrebare ? Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente directe. the lions. Răspund la una din întrebările pe cine?. ce? O altă metodă pentru a afla dacă un cuvânt este sau nu complement direct. The computer programmer is testing his new software. 6.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. Exemplu: 1. were late yesterday. 5. waited patiently for his victim.Încercuiţi subiectele şi subliniaţi predicatele din propoziţiile de mai jos. COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT -THE DIRECT OBJECT I haven’t seen him for a long tim. EX. sold used cars. 2. 2. Ross and Monica took their children to the zoo. apoi traduceţi propoziţiile. Yesterday. We sing a song every day. They listened quietly. Potriviţi subiectul cu predicatul. The elephants. was from the Middle East. 2. Ashley became a rock star. Todd sang a song. Un exemplu este făcut pentru a vă ajuta: Subjects The dirty yellow cat We Tom and his brother The taxi driver Anna's elderly mother The green tree snake The detective in the gray raincoat Seven rats Predicates stood outside the hotel all night. Beau lapte în fiecare zi.

The students read English writers in their literature class. Am fugit după ea. COMPLEMENTUL PREPOZIŢIONAL . I owe you some money. 7.THE INDIRECT OBJECT Please. precedat de prepoziţia to sau for: We offered presents to our teacher.THE PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT ♥ Complementul prepoziţional este exprimat prin: a) un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia precedat de o prepoziţie: He is looking for his suit. 5. send an email to me. Will you give Mary the candy? (Hint: change it to a statement) 5. They can't read what you've just written. Tell them the news now. Smith gave us a long speech about science. 3. She bought a new shirt for her husband. 6. 2. This exercise involves clicking on the screen. 12. c) o propoziţie subordonată: He boasts that he is the best football player in the school. She bought her brother a new shirt. We offered flowers to her. Traffic controllers in the towers at the airport control air traffic. I like rain. 4. ♥ Complementul prepoziţional este întrebuinţat după: 66 .3. Have you written many letters this summer? 10. precedată de o prepoziţie: Would they agree to leave at once? Ar fi de acord să plecăm imediat? He boasts of being the best football player in the school. She bought books for her children. 9. 4. Mr. Se laudă că este cel mai bun jucător de fotbal din şcoală. John gave his son the keys to his car. Şi-a vândut maşina celui mai bun prieten. b) o construcţie infinitivală sau gerundială. 11. I ran after her. Complementul indirect este exprimat de regulă printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia. Amy has decided to go to university. Răspund la întrebarea cui? sau pentru cine? Acestea pot fi precedate sau nu de prepoziţii: Exemplu: Tom sold us his old house. Mr. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Identificaţi atât complementele directe cât şi indirecte din propoziţiile de mai jos: 1. COMPLEMENTUL INDIRECT. Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente indirecte. Îşi caută costumul. Who taught them about the Civil War? 8. The principal excused the boys early last Wednesday. Jones gave the students a difficult homework. Te rog trimite-mi un email. A cumpărat o cămaşă nouă soţul ei. He sold his car to his best friend. Mrs.

participiu prezent .participiu prezent Infinitiv cu for . . look at. about smth. (un)successful + in. . occupied. certain. mistake smb. pleased worried + about. of: Romania’s foreign trade is based on co-operation and equal rights. keen. (in)compatible. d) adjective sau participii care îndeplinesc funcţia de nume predicativ într-un predicat nominal. glad.angry. complain of. I don't want to encourage the children _____ smoke. You have similar temperaments. advise smb. . convinced.busy. delighted. The police wouldn't provide the press _____ any details about the crime. annoyed. alarmed. Alte adjective şi participii urmate de aceste prepoziţii sunt: . The judge banned him _____ driving for six months. pass for. hint at. lent.participiu trecut Nominativ cu . horrified. conscious. warn smb about smth: I convinced him about the plan. delighted. annoyed. urmate de o prepoziţie obligatorie: about: He was reasonable about her decision. argue with smb about smth. set + on.dependent. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi spaţiile libere cu prepoziţia potrivită: He reminds me _____ your brother in some ways.a) verbe intranzitive cu prepoziţie obligatorie: care for.efficient. persistent. long for. clever.to 67 . terrible. fond. amused. concerned. depend on. lucky. overcome. satisfied. with: He is angry with your behaviour.COMPLEX CONSTRUCTIONS Acuzativ cu . scared + of. c) verbe tranzitive cu prepoziţie obligatorie: acquaint smb with smth. . (un)happy. with smth. insist on. pleased + at. sick. mad. wonder at. of smth. for smth.afraid.angry. The „must not” message is designed to prevent people _____entering. The salesman failed to interest me _____ any of his products. assure smb of smth. This new software enables the user _____ get lots of reports for the management. CONSTRUCŢIILE COMPLEXE . bother smb. . upset + with. worry about : The success of the meeting will depend on the speaker ’s inspiration. blame smb for smth. bored. annoyed. exhausted. fortunate. insistent. in: He is interested in astronomy. hopeless. convince smb.infinitiv .infinitiv . happy. I don't smoke at home. at: She is good at chemistry. The team manager wouldn't allow the press _____ interview his players. content. (un)comfortable. glad. disaplointed. furious. obsessed. b) verbe intranzitive cu două prepoziţii: agree with smb about smth. pleased. uneasy. entrust smb with smth. He agreed with me about the plan. excited. impatient. warn of.

cu acuzativul Ac + infinitiv I saw him cross the street. She could hear her friend laughing. acţiunea este privită ca un rezultat: We found the dog dead. You consider his thoughts to be very weird. nominativul absolut N + infinitiv He sent the tests first. 3. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. the policemen headed to the station. The letter being written. prez He was seen smoking in the living. cu nominativul N+ infinitiv Daniel seems to speak English fluently.Recunoaşteţi construcţiile folosite în exemplele de mai jos: 1. N absolut + part. faptul petrecut. Am găsit căţelul mort. he left to the post office. 8. care este văzut ca încheiat: We saw him sleep (= that he fell asleep). we didn’t go out. their business concluded.participiu trecut a) În construcţiile infinitivale ne interesează acţiunea în sine. She was known to be a good teacher. Exemplu: They knew her to be a good teacher. c) în construcţiile cu participiul trecut. 7. The two women.1. The day being rainy. Transferaţi construcţiile Acuzativ cu infinitiv în construcţii Nominativ cu infinitiv. 3. I would like him to come. retired to the bar. Acuzativ cu participiu trecut: I want this homework done immediately. 6. 68 . The Prime Minister happened to be in Greece at the time. We advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. The manager asked him to explain the semester report. b) în construcţiile cu participiul în -ing. L-am văzut dansând. the comments to come later. acţiunea este văzută în desfăşurare: We saw him dancing (= that he was dancing). Ac + part. the players left the football ground. 2. We expected the manager to speak first. EX.trecut: The game finished. They thought him to be gifted in singing. N absolut + part. prezent The investigation being done.2. 4. 1. prez.participiu prezent . They told us not to worry. 4.Nominativul absolut cu Construcţiile gerundiale -infinitivul . I heard him walk slowly in the dark. N+ part. They saw him steal the money. 5. Am văzut că a adormit. 2.

nowadays. slowly. direcţia sau limita unei acţiuni sau stări. usually. Exemplu: The merchandise was slowly moved into the warehouse. perhaps. d) o propoziţie circumstanţială de loc: We do our shopping where everybody else does. as though: She cried as if in a terrible danger. scarcely. b) o perifrază adverbială de timp: They visit their relatives from time to time.. three times a day. seldom. barely. Complementul circumstanţial de loc (The Adverbial of Place) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb sau o perifrază advebială de loc: He is here. un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent/trecut introduse prin as if. e) un participiu prezent sau trecut. before. a little. b) succesiunea de timp: afterwards. d) frecvenţa: weekly. b) un substantiv cu sau fără prepoziţie: Helen is in town for the moment. punctul de plecare. not at all. ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de timp indică: a) momentul acţiunii: now. Complementul circumstanţial de mod comparativ (The Adverbial of Comparison) este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau pronume precedat de prepoziţia like: I slept like a baby. Ele mai pot reda şi alte sensuri: . she asked me to make certain the lights were off. then. really. still. completely. TIMP. Complementul circumstanţial de timp (The Adverbial of Time) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb de timp: My parents arrived yesterday. ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de mod indică modul în care se îndeplineşte o acţiune sau apare o însuşire. un adjectiv. highly. of course. quikly. .indică felul. today. since. Complementul circumstanţial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner) .cantitatea: enough. soon. precedat de o conjuncţie temporală: He doesn’t feel quite well when sailing by their ship. certainly. g) un substantiv introdus într-o conjuncţie temporală: While in Romania he learned to manage by himself. formerly. MOD – ADVERBIALS ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de loc indică locul. . recently.. c) un substantiv în cazul genitiv precedat de o prepoziţie: We buy vegetables at the greengrocer's . c) o construcţie adverbială: Tom was born in 1965. previously. b) printr-un substantiv cu prepoziţie. c) durata: lately. greatly. much. . . badly. often./ They went home. eventually. d) nominativul absolut cu participiul trecut: His homework written the boy went out to play. possibly.de afirmaţie sau negaţie: yes. 3) o propoziţie circumstanţială de timp: He is always air sick when he travels by plane. f) un gerund precedat de o prepoziţie: On leaving the house.întărire: actually.COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANŢIALE DE LOC.amplificare: absolutely. no. modalitatea în care decurge acţiunea sau starea: well.probabilitate: maybe. yet. 69 . once in a while. He was walking to and fro.

Uncle Daniel is really _______ man. Dacia used to be _______ car. 70 . un adjectiv.THE ATRIBUTE Atributul modifică sau determină un substntiv sau pronume care îndeplineşte în propoziţie funcţia de: 1) subiect: The tall girl is my sister-in-law. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Rewrite the sentences and put the adverbs in correctly. Fanciest/ fanciest/ most fanciest 2. (fluently) → I have seen that film. little/ a little. They were raised in _______ house in Bucharest. fine/ a fine. Those are probably _______ boys in the school. not so/as. (well) → I saw him. a fine German / a German. but.. 2) o parte secundară de prepoziţie: a) complement direct sau indirect: They made an extraordinary attempt. What could make for _______ Christmas? a merrier/ the merriest/ a merrier 5. Four weddings and a funeral is the _______ movie I've ever seen. All the family was home for the holidays. (upstairs) → We don't go skiing. than: She is as smart as her parents. (last week) → He walks his dog. comfortable/ a comfortable little 6. (rarely) → She waited. Atributul prepus: this exercise. timp etc. d) o propoziţie circumstanţială de mod comparativă: She smiled as if she were extremely happy. b) complement circumstanţial (de loc.): They often go out quiet evenings. She wanted to take a course with _______professor. an old sweet/a sweet.etc Atributul postpus: Did you find anything new ? Ai găsit ceva nou ? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. most excited/most exciting/most exciteable 7. German 4. old/ a sweet old 3. Menţionaţi felul adverbelor. my youngest brother..c) un substantiv. (there) → The girl speaks English. pronume sau numeral. Rescrieţi propoziţiile şi puneţi adverbul la locul potrivit. a comfortable. o construcţie infinitivală sau gerundială introduse prin conjuncţiile as.. (always) → Your bedroom is. (never) / (before) → ATRIBUTUL . (in summer) → Cats can hear. (patiently) → My father goes fishing. We were in London.

he is surely _______ . 9. In the fall. new economics that interesting. the less competent/ the least competent/ the competentest. economics 8. foggy/more foggier/foggier 10. worse/ worst/worser 71 . My cold is definitely _______ this morning.new. Of all the mechanics in the shop. Japanese. the valleys tend to be _______than the hilltops.that interesting new Japanese economics / that Japanese interesting.

watched watches is watching 24. is they doing are they doing do they do 12. isn't won't be isn't being 72 . Q: When ____________ you ____________ (go) to France last year? you went did you go did you went 13. Q: Mary likes visiting relatives. Q: What time ____________ he ____________ (arrive) home last Thursday? did he arrives did he arrive does he arrive 11. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (get up) at 6 o'clock? Do you always get up Are you always getting up Do always you get up 3. comes is coming will come 16. but he ____________ (love) going to the mountains. Q: Mary ____________ (not. She's at home. will be is is going to be 17. Q: John doesn't like playing basketball. tooked has taken took 25. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have. doesn't like likes isn't liking 23. went goes is going 9. Q: Next Sunday John ____________ (come) to visit his family. drove drived did drive 20. Q: They ____________ (take) their children to Italy last year. got) any brothers or sisters? Has you got Do you have got Have you got 14. Q: He ____________ (take) his friend to the theater last week. Q: Next Wednesday my sister ____________ (go) to Paris. Q: What ____________ they ____________ (do)? They're studying. She's at home. be) on holiday now. is having having has 5. Q: John doesn't like going to the beach.TEST FINAL 1. got) a motorbike? Does John have got Has John got Have John got 4. is loving love loves 6. Q: Peter ____________ (be) on holiday now.Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm working. Q: Mary ____________ (not. goed has gone went 7. Q: She ____________ (watch) a documentay at the moment. got) a good summer job? Do you got Have you got Has you got 21. Q: Last winter she ____________ (drive) to Bulgaria. but she ____________ (like) talking on the telephone. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have. Q: Where ____________ she ____________ (study) french last year? did she study did she studied has she studied 22. Q: Last winter he ____________ (go) by train from Rome to London. do you do are you doing did you do 2. did take took taked 10. isn't being isn't doesn't be 8. but he ____________ (love) playing tennis. be) at work at the moment. Q: She ____________ (teach) her husband cooking last summer. loves doesn't love is loving 15. Q: At the moment he ____________ (have) dinner. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (have) breakfast at 7 o'clock? Is he always having Does he always has Does he always have 19. He isn't at home. did teach teached taught 18. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have.

Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do) this evening? I'm doing my English homework. listens is listening has listened 44. watched was watching are watching have watched 46. but she ____________ (love) working at home. loves doesn't love isn't loving 36. Q: Next Tuesday my sister ____________ (have) dinner at that new restaurant. Q: ____________ she often ____________ (telephone) in the evening? Does she often telephone Is she often telephoning Will she often telephones 32. did ride rode have ridden 30. is you doing do you do are you doing 27. taughted taught have taught 35. got) a television? Have Daniel got Has Daniel got Does Daniel has got 41. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (play) tennis on Sundays? Do he always play Does he always plays Does he always play 45. Yet still already ever 47. Q: ____________ they ____________ (have. Q: They ____________ (ride) the train to England last spring. Q: Maria doesn't like working in the office. had finished finished have finished finishing 51. Q: She _________________ dinner by the time we arrived. Q: He has _______ friends in London. Q: Where ____________ they ____________ (go) on holiday last winter? did they went have they gone did they go 42. Q: What shall we do tonight? How about ___________ a film? to see see seeing going 73 . Q: My father let me ____________ late when I was a child. will you do do you do are you doing 31.26. isn't going to be won't been isn't 39. be) at the office tomorrow. will visit visits is going to visit 28. Q: Next Saturday my brother ____________ (visit) the new museum. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. flied has flown flew 38. Q: I ____________ (teach) my students about the mammals yesterday. to stay out stayed out stay out staying out 48. Few few of a lot much 50. doesn't like like likes 43. Q: I __________________ TV when the telephone rang. Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm playing the guitar. Q: Would you like ___________ chicken? any a some one 49. Q: Alice loves walking in the countryside. I've _______ eaten breakfast. and she ____________ (like) going to the swimming pool. He's on holiday. Q: What ____________ she ____________ (do) yesterday evening? did she do does she do is she doing 40. Q: Irina ____________ (not. are going to read reads are reading 34. Q: She ____________ (fly) to the USA last summer. Q: At the moment she ____________ (listen) to some music. got) a van? Have they got Do they have got Has they got 33. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (finish) work at 8 o'clock? Do you always finish Are you always finishing Did you always finished 29. is going to have will have has 37. Q: At the moment they ____________ (read) a magazine.

Q: Where was Dany yesterday? . interested at interesting in interested in interested for 55. Q: He's _____________ politics.Well. Q: I missed the bus. than so . I just couldn't help myself.Daniel? He __________. so I _________ take the next one. I'm so excited. that is the woman _________ horse almost trampled her! which whose who that 68. go 53. Q: He will meet you _________ the station at 9 o'clock sharp... Q: Have you finished your work ______? Yet already still just 54. I __________________ in the garden for the last two hours.. Q: Jack is really ______________ geography. will arrive arrives is arriving is going to arrive. 57.. as so . have been making have made have been made are made 72. you _______ smoke or drink alcohol. have worked worked am working have been working 71. Q: He'll give you a call as soon as he __________. In among between through 58. He ________________ seeing the doctor. gone Shall . Q: If you want to be healthy. interested interesting interested to interested in 66. Q: How is he? . in front ahead in front of behind of 64. Q: Yes. but ____ my opinion it's too chaotic. Q: Why are your hands so dirty? . 's fine s tall with blond hair 's quite a shy person actually 's twenty three 63.. Of from in with 75.... needn't couldn't shouldn't mustn't to 65. go Have . as 60. Q: What's that book _____? 74 . especially Japanese history. musted must had to had 70. told said me said told to me 61.... Q: Have you read the article _____ Time magazine ____ Google? on – on to – on in – on from – on 77. Q: I think Piteşti is ____ exciting ____ Bucharest.. as .. are photographed were photoed photographed were photographed 56. Q: Fiestas ______________ in an old city in Germany for many years now. might has been might have been couldn't have been mustn't have been 67. go Have . Q: Yes. Q: Most people like rugby. Q: Let me ___________! I didn't really want to eat all the cakes.I don't know. Q: He found his watch ___________ the papers on the table.. Q: These images ______________ by an artist named John Smith. Q: Would you like me to ______________ the kids next week? look to look at look after look into 69. will go won't go shall be going are going 74.52. Q: _______ you ever ________ to Paris? Did . to say you say you explain me explain 73. we have bought the tickets to the concert and we _______________ next Saturday.. than as ... Q: What ______________ at work? do you have to do must you do have you to do do you 62. Q: He _________ he wanted to come.. Q: Are you travelling to Prague ____ business or ____ holiday? For on to in 76. Q: Would you mind ______________ me a hand? to give give giving given 59.

Q: He was born ___ Germany ___ April. in for at to 82. please. Q: She was born ____ Spain ___ March 16. The a an 103. Q: My house is ___ the end of the street ___ the left. with to by from 90. Q: You can start the computer ___ pressing that button. Q: Daniel _____ (live) in New York for the past 15 years. in – on at – in in – at at – on 83. Q: I looked this word ____ in the dictionary. Q: You must take the medicine _____ the next five minutes. in – to on – in in – in in – at 92. Q: The post office doesn't open _____ 9 a. Q: I went ______ church last Sunday. from on up over 80. Q: Jack will be out _____ 3. Q: Luckily. For when since at 98. Q: I need to learn these verbs ___ heart ___ tomorrow.30. Q: I haven't seen Larry ___ ages! At in since until 97. next beneath to against 87. Q: I got ____ home late last night. 1992. Q: We need some sugar. Q: Were you ____ time for your appointment? Or were you late? to on at of 86. I made it to the station ___ time to catch the last train. has lived lives lived 100.about to from of 78. Works worked has worked 101. out out of over through 81. Q: Jane ____ (work) for H&M before she came to work for us. For until still just 84. At in to on 75 . Q: I stayed ____ the Ritz Hotel ________ my stay in New York. Q: That is _____ interesting book. by – on by – to from – by by – by 94. Q: It is years ____ I last played tennis. Q: Please talk __ the manager and don't shout __ me! to – to at – to to – at with – to 89. By from to in 95. but I still don't understand its meaning. in – in in – to in – on to – in 91.m. Since until within at 96. Since at from until 99. Q: Throw the ball ___ Daniel. Q: Are there ______ peaches in the kitchen? Much any some a 102. To at _ in 88. in – to to – while at – while at – during 79. Q: She'll be finished ____ the end of the week. We're almost completely ____ it. Q: Are you ___ or ___ the prime minister? pro – con for – against with – against proto – contra 85. Q: Be careful! You're going to set the paper ___ fire! to on in with 93.

in the at during in 116. In at into onto 117. I _____ (eat/already). Is there a bank near here? Please Excuse me Pardon Hey 118. a one some any 123. and I like _____.He is very friendly. at to in 108. has learned . at in on over 120. Listen listen to listening to to listening to 111. Q: My father _______ in a software company. Q: Daniel _____ (play) tennis for five years when he _____ (be) at school. Q: Daniel is a nice boy. Q: I drove my car _____ the garage. have never been was never will never be 125. didn't eat already have already eaten haven't already eaten 129. Q: There are ______ magazines on the table. He _____ (play) it ever since. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. Q: The bank is _______ the post office. I ____ (begin) work as soon as I arrived. Q: Would you like _______ coffee? Any an some to 114. italy Italy Italian italian 119. him his it 109. Q: : Do you like ______ Chinese food? an some the 127. he _____ (learn) to play the piano. Unfortunately. work – began have worked .have begun have worked – began 128. Q: How ________ money do you have in your wallet? many few much some 107. Does did is has 105. near of next to next close 121.has played learned – played 76 .has played learned . Q: I get up ______ eight o'clock every day. Q: When Daniel was at school. Q: I like __________ music. Q: I live in ______. Works work is working is worked 113. In on at to 110. I ____ (be/never) there. Q: _________. Q: I would love to visit Prague sometime. any an some a 122. Q: I _____ (work) in Spain for 5 years. Q: She came ______ home late last night. bought have bought buyed did bought 106. last ago time past yet 124. Q: I ________ a new car last month. Q: What _____ he like? . Q: He likes watching TV ______ evening. Q: What __________ in your free time? you do do you do are you doing does you do 112. Q: I _____ drive a car. Q: I went to London three years _____. Q: The bank is at the end of this street _____ the left. can't to can want have 115. has played – was played – was has played .has been 126. Q: I would like _____ rice.104.

Q: Peter ____ (go) to Paris last year.has been went – was has gone – was 133. Q: Irina _____ (believe) that for ages! believes has believed was believed 135.Have you been 149.has lived moved – lived has moved – lived 132. Q: She _____ (write) the email but doesn't know how to send it. have you found . Q: George lives in New York.I _____(find) it in the library.Have you been didn't know . Daniel is reading it at the moment. Q: He _____ (leave) the shop a few minutes ago. Begins has begun began 139. records has recorded recorded 140. was left left has left 147. I _____ (not get) much sleep last night. Q: Where ____ (you/find) that book? . Q: I ____ (just/have) something done to my hair. she ____ (live) in Seattle for 3 years.have been . Q: How many magazines ____ (read) this year? did you read do you read have you read 142. Did the newspaper arrived Does the newspaper arrive Has the newspaper arrived 144. Q: I _____ (not know) you ____ (be) here! _____ (you/be) here long? haven't known . That means that he ____ (be) to Paris 3 times! went . Q: How many books ____ (read) last year? do you read have you read did you read 143. Q: Just a moment! I _____ (not think) of a good idea yet! haven't thought didn't think don't think 134. records has recorded recorded 141. Q: Could you give me some advice? I _____ (buy) this sweater yesterday.130.were . Q: Nat King Cole _____ (record) many albums during his great career. Do you think I should take it back? Bought have bought buyed 131.have found did you find – found did you find .were . Q: She ____ (not leave) the house yet.have found 145. Do you like it? have just had just have had just have 138. has left hasn't left didn't leave 148. Q: ____ (you/smoke) a lot before becoming a non-smoker? Have you smoked Did you smoked Did you smoke 146. Q: I'm tired. Q: How long _____ (you/live) there before coming here? have you lived did you live do you live 136.Have you been didn't know . Q: Andra _____ (record) many albums and will probably make many more. moved . Before she _____ (move) here. haven't got didn't get wasn't get 77 . Q: Hurry up! The concert _____ (begin) and we are late. Q: _____ (you/see) today's paper? Do you see Have you seen Are you seeing 150. has written writes written 137. Q: ____ (newspaper/arrive)? Yes.

After that he went fishing with his friends Irina and Larry. 2. Interogativ 1. Then he washed and ate/had breakfast with his parents. 6. My friend doesn’t leave home at 1 o’clock. 4. I don’t speak English. I speak English well but my friend speaks English badly. 5.Cheia exerciţiilor Present Tense Simple Afirmativ: I leave home at 12 o’clock but my friend leaves home at 1 o’clock. Past Tense Simple Afirmativ He spent three days in the Danube Delta last month. I have two kids but my friend has three. My friend doesn’t speak English badly. I don’t get home at six. He swam in the Danube in the evening. 8. 7. 4. I don’t have two kids. Daniel made a lot of friends there. Interogativ: Do you leave home at 12 o’clock? Does he leave home at 1 o’clock? Do you go to work by car? Does he go to work by train? Do you speak English well? Does he speak English badly? Do you get home at six? Does he get home at seven? Do you have two kids? Does he have three kids? Negativ: I don’t leave home at 12 o’clock. 3. Daniel got up early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. I go to work by car but my friend goes to work by train. 1. My friend doesn’t go to work by train. Did he spend three days in the Danube Delta last month? Did Daniel get up early in the morning and do morning exercises? Did he wash and eat/have breakfast with his parents? After that did he go fishing with his friends Irina and Larry? Did he swim in the Danube in the evening? Was the weather fine all the time? Did Daniel make a lot of friends there? Did he come back home in September to go to school? 78 . 6. 3. The weather was fine all the time. My friend doesn’t have three kids. He came back home in September to go to school. 5. 2. My friend doesn’t get home at seven. I get home at six but my friend gets home at seven. I don’t go to work by car. 7.

I’ll obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson. He will not /won’t help you tomorrow evening.Future Tense Simple Situation 1 Daniel: 1. These are the most attractive souvenirs they have ever bought. 4. Father has just left home. He will not /won’t take a new project next month. II. I’ll learn interesting things next week. They have just arrived to the theatre. Had Daniel seen the Black Sea before? Yes. 5. 5. I’ll do an interesting experiment tomorrow. he had. 4. 2. 8. We have just seen our Math teacher. I have just fixed my car. 7. He will not /won’t go shopping tomorrow morning. 2. I’ll study hydrogen next week. 2. she hadn’t. Larry will not /won’t go to the cinema next Sunday. I’ll ask the teacher a lot of questions. That is the most interesting movie he has ever seen. I’ll work in the lab tomorrow. 2. He will not /won’t wash the car on Sunday morning. she hadn’t. 79 . 6. He will not /won’t have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week. Those are the most wonderful monuments they have ever seen. 2. 3. he had. Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Simplu: 1. He will not /won’t buy a new car next year. Had Daniel swum in the sea before? Yes. Larry will not /won’t read his lesson later. 5. Had Irina seen the Black Sea before? No. 4. 4. This is the best book she has ever read. 3. 6. Situation 2 1. 3. Past Perfect 1. Grandpa: Where will you work? What will you do? What will you obtain? When will you learn? What will you study? Who will you ask ? Present Perfect I. He has just begun to cry. 3. Completează urmatoarele propoziţii folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: 1. This is the biggest mall they have ever visited. Had Irina swum in the sea before? No. 5.

Past Tense Continuous 1. Had Irina stayed at a hotel before? No. Martha was watering the flowers when Mr Smith came in. 5. 4. Had Daniel visited Eforie Nord before? Yes. he had. Daniel is typing a letter in the secretariate 3. Mark and Chris were looking at some pictures when Mr Smith came in. Larry is working in his office now. Maria is speaking on the phone in the hall now. Daniel and John were working in the office when Mr Smith came in. Had Daniel stayed at a hotel before? Yes. 5. Had Irina walked down the beach before? No. 7. Had Daniel gone fishing in the sea before? Yes. Had Irina gone fishing in the sea before? No. Victor was talking to his coleague when Mr Smith came in. Had Irina made the tour of Constanţa before? No. Matei and Maria were speaking on the phone when Mr Smith came in. Had Daniel walked down the beach before? Yes. Matei is meeting some clients in the guests room. 3. she hadn’t. 7. Present Continuous 1. (to arrive) 80 . she hadn’t. he had. Had Irina visited Eforie Nord before? No. she hadn’t. Ioana is presenting a project in the conference room. Had Daniel made the tour of Constanţa before? Yes. he had. Ioana was writing a report when Mr Smith came in. Had Irina sunbathed on the beach before? No. he had. 2. 8. he had. 5. 8. she hadn’t. she hadn’t.3. 4. Fiona was reading the newspapers when Mr Smith came in. 2. Future Continuous 1) She will be meeting him next week. 6. Angela was opening the windows when Mr Smith came in. she hadn’t. Had Daniel sunbathed on the beach before? Yes. (to meet) 2) We will be arriving in Pitesti just about now. 6. 4. he had.

(to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I will be writing a test paper. she will have finished everything by then. 3. 4. 2. She has been cooking a chicken soup for 1 hour. The children were well looked after. We have been talking about that horrible accident for half an hour. Diateza: 1. (to write) Present Perfect Continuous 1. (to watch) 7) You will be eating spaghetti soon. when it suddenly began to rain. Future Perfect Continuous Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long. I have been given a good dictionary. (to sing) 4) He will be sleeping when you call her. (to rain) 6) Mary will be watching a video when I arrive tonight. The dog was run over by a bus. (to eat) 8) This time next week he will be flying to Africa. (to fly) 9) Peggy will be coming to the party on Sunday. so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. They had been looking her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom. I had not been working all day. 81 . This bed has not been slept in. He has been appointed president.Hopefully. (to sleep) 5) It will probably be raining when I reach Madrid.3) At 7 o'clock on Monday they will be singing the new song. The carpender will be paid for his work. It has been raining since morning. You will be laughed at if you wear this dress. Mike: She will have been cooking for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner. Mary has been living in Manhattan since June 1998. Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand. They have been phoning the manager for the last five minutes. 2. They were promised new bicycles. How long had she been learning English before she went to London? She had been driving less than an hour when he ran out of gas. We had been waiting at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. Past Perfect Continuous She had been sleeping for 10 hours when he woke us up. Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party. They had been cycling all day so their legs were sore in the evening. I had not been walking for a long time. They were very tired in the evening because they had been helping on the farm all day. You will be told what time the bus leaves. 5.

The coach insisted that Mario play the center position. 2) He agreed to buy a new car. Participiul trecut: the lost son an interested audience a broken leg an emptied bottle a closed door a decorated room two packed bags the written letters the sold car the bought apples 82 .Persoana şi numărul 1) He is dreaming. 5) I look forward to seeing you at the weekend. 5. I wish my sister were here.m. 4. It is very important that all employees be dressed in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a. 10) I learned to ride the bike at the age of 5. Infinitivul şi gerunziul 1) I can't imagine Peter going by bike. 8. Her employees treated Mrs. would that she were here with us now! 6. 9. 3) They are on the wall. Mary hoped that the meeting be adjourned. I wish I felt better today. 6) They are in the garden. 2) It is green. If Mrs. even though he's much too short for that position. 9) She has got a brother. 8) The teacher expected Sarah to study hard. Smith as though she were a queen. If only Mark were a little more responsible in his choice of courses! 7. 7) He is riding his bike. 4) It is running. Mandy? Subjonctivul 1.. 8) She is from Bristol. Oh. 6) Are you thinking of visiting London? 7) We decided to run through the forest. 2. the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema. 9) She doesn't mind working the night shift. Smith had been ill that night. 3. 10) Have you got a computer. My mother would know what to do. 3) The question is easy to answer. 4) The man asked me how to get to the airport. 5) We are watching TV.

If the form is not complete. You mustn't submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. We're going to a wedding. They weren't able to go.they're beautiful! But.1. The books are optional. 5. Does she know that you are here? The lesson has not started yet. Have you heard that? My uncle does not eat fish. there's no card. I do not live here. I must be at the meeting by 10:00.Verbele auxiliare What have you done? I do not like this song. Ex. How do we get there? Where does he live? Verbele modale Ex. It must have been damaged during the move. He must be quite exhausted after such a long flight. you will be rejected and you will have to reapply at a later date. 4. 2. I can't. 2 1. Tina: Look at these flowers . You mustn't forget to pay the rent. But we don't have to read them if we don't want to. My teacher said we could read them if we needed extra credit. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It must have been David. 1. Sorry. The train has just arrived.We couldn't go to the party. 2. 2. You don't have to be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. 5. Daniel couldn't hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. My friend has sent me some photos. you know. I can't remember his name. 3. We have not seen you for a long time. 5. Ex 3. Mike: Can you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No. I haven't been able to do it yet. Do you drink milk? Who has eaten my biscuits? It does not matter. 4. 4. 3. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. 3. 1. He's the only one who would send you flowers. 83 . Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time. The weather was too bad. Do you understand? They have been learning English for two years. They do not want to play outside. He would be able to pass the exam if he studied harder. Teacher. Has anybody rung up for me? She does not play the piano. The refrigerator isn't working.

4) John's sister is twelve years old. just apply for another job. but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. 11. 3) The children's room is upstairs. 9. Substantivul: Ex 1. You don't have to be rich to be famous. The machine can start moving by pressing the left button. I can't stand these people . Ex. If you don't. Shall we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. It doesn't do you any good.I don’t understand their priciples. If I had gone to an University in England. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. ira = air eber = beer 2) a packet of rice 5) a cup of tea 8) a barrel of oil 3) a bar of chocolate 6) a bottle of lemonade 9) a game of tennis aet = tea einw = wine ikn = ink ilo = oil doow = wood acek = cake fgo = fog aclo = coal ahir = hair 84 . 1) half – halves 2) kilo – kilos 3) woman – women 4) mouth – mouths 5) foot – feet 6) sheep – sheep 7) penny – pence 8) bus – buses 9) day – days10) fish – fish Ex 3. 5) Susan and Steve's bags have blue stickers. Can't you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. 7) My parents' car was not expensive. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work. You shall no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19. so you get rid of them! 16. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something. You had better take along some cash. 20. the answer in the book must be wrong! 8. 10. 7. 18. You shouldn't worry so much. You may leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. The shop may not accept credit cards. 14. 1) This is Peter's book. Either you get the promotion. I could have participated in their English immersion program. 9) This is the boy's bike. 13. 15. so they should be here by 5:00.4. 2. 8) Charles's CD player is new. or you don't. 2) Let's go to the Smiths'. I've redone this math problem at least ten times. 6) Men's shoes are on the second floor. 1) a piece of advice 4) a glass of milk 7) a slice of meat 10) a jar of jam Ex.6. You couldn't do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. 10) These are the boys' pencils. So. 12. The lamp might not be broken. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It must have cost a fortune.

THESE people come from that hotel over there. What does thatnotice say? 5.Those are the new ones. 3. His name's Alberto. Are there any good movies this weekend? No. 6 You're students. Our parents are French. Their children's names are Lauren and Daniel. 10. Whose mother is a nurse ? 4. Wasn't THAT a horrible thing to say? Adjectivul posesiv 1 He's from Spain. 4. My name's Peter. Jessica. 5 I'm British. Adjectivul interogativ 1. there are none. THAT night the factory went on fire. no. Mary. 3 We're brothers. there are some. Do you see THOSE birds at the top of the tree? 8. 9. THIS beach was quite empty last year. What time is the flight ? 2. Which girl has a red bag ? 3. 2 They're married. 4 She's eight. 3. 85 . Whose books are these ? Adjectivul nehotărât 1. 7. He was dismissed on the 13th.Articolul This coat was designed by a famous New York artist. What subject do you like ? 5. No problem. 6. Would you like to see the/a movie? An apple a day keeps the doctor away. THIS is my cousin. She hasn't any clothes to wear to the party. Oh. I can't believe I failed the yesterday's test! Do you have a dictionary that I can borrow? Adjectivul demonstrativ 1. Her brother's nine. THIS exhibition will be open until the end of May. Your books are in the classroom. Can you tell me how to get to a bank from here? The city museum is closed today. THESE are the old classrooms. 2. there is no gas in the car. I can give her some. 4. I recommend you eat the apple pie at this restaurant. ___ milk is good for you. 2. We had better get some. THAT exhibition closed a month ago. He is one of the smartest people I know. Do any black people work in your company? Yes.

1. 4) We helped each other with our written task. 4. EX. Numeralul 1.5. five-thousand-word 4. 2) Mr John. who shouted in the street.2. 6) He cut himself with the knife while he was doing the dishes. This is my friend Jason. did you take the photo all by yourself? 5) I wrote this poem myself. forgot his umbrella. 5) That's Irina. the third 9. lives in the neighbourhood. 1) He is dreaming. He's 32. 86 6. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest which is in the south of Romania. if you want more milk. 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers themselves. My name is John. help yourselves. 1) I talked to the boy whose car had broken down in front of the building. 4) This is the boy who comes from France. is from England. EX. 7) The lion can defend itself. thirties 8. two thousand 7. there is no hot water.3. 4) It is running. 3) They are on the wall. whose father is a professor. 2) Lisa did the homework herself 3) We helped ourselves to some cola at the party. is there any hot water? I'm sorry. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail which was very interesting. 7) The man. 3) Daniel repaired computer car himself. hundreds 2. 2) It is green. 8) My mother often talks to herself. three-fifths Pronumele EX. 9) The car. Jason and I work in the same office. I want to take a shower. 5) We are watching TV. who is a taxi driver. 10) What did you do with the money which your parents lent you? EX. 4) Emma. 9) Tim and Gerry. the girl who has just arrived at the airport. EX.5. Lesson Nine 5. two dozen 3. 1) John and Angela haven't met each other for a very long time. 8) The children. 2) My friends enjoyed themselves at the party. 1) Robert made this T-shirt himself. There are 150 employees in our company. one year and a half 10 the one hundred forty-ninth . His sister is 34 and her workplace is very near. are not from our school. whose driver is a young man.

EX. 6) I bought myself a new record player. This red flower is more beautiful than that yellow one. 1. Who is the person in this picture? Come into the sitting room. He paints awfully. She's a little bit selfish. we want to watch TV. 87 . She dances really well. That's interesting. She smiles happily . there are many picture postcards. Non-smokers usually live longer than smokers. Prepoziţia EX. Her English is fluent. Adverbul Joanne is happy. thanks. It is strange but often a coke is more expensive than a beer. You simply have to put one word in each space. He drives carelessly. The boy is loud. 7) Katie. She speaks English fluently. did you do the homework yourself? 8) They looked at each other and smiled. 9) They often write e-mails to each other because they're best friends. I don't know yet. 3. Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? No. What are you doing at the weekend? 2. He plays the piano wonderfully. There is a bridge across the river. The town lies 530 meters above sea level. My neighbour is a careless driver. We could go there together in the afternoon. He shouts loudly. 1. 10) She only thinks of herself. We are going on holiday next week. This is the most interesting magazine I have ever read. This exercise is simple. I haven't been to the cinema for so many years.5) People often give each other presents at Christmas. Who is the richest man on earth? The weather is even worse than last summer. Maybe I'll go to the cinema on Saturday. This girl is very quiet.2. She is a good dancer. We live in London. Our mum was angry. She often sneaks out of the house quietly. The flight from Bucharest to Lecce was via Berlin. He was the cleverest student of all. She spoke to us angrily . Jim is a wonderful piano player. Which is the most dangerous insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is better than a holiday in the mountains. I was at the cinema yesterday. The painter is awful. 4. Adjectivul My house is bigger than yours. On my wall.

5. That would be great. But I would prefer to go there in the evening. I am visiting my grandma on Saturday. 6. That's okay. The film starts at eight o'clock. 7. I can pick you up at half past seven. How long does the film last? 8. It lasts for two hours and forty-five minutes. 9. From eight till a quarter to eleven. 10.That's right. But I must hurry home after the film. I have to be home by eleven o'clock. Conjuncţia EX.1. 1. Daniel was cold, so he put on a coat. 2. Maria tried to translate the text, but it was too difficult. 3. To get from Piteşti to Bucharest, you can take a bus, or you can go by car. 4. I bought a bottle of wine, and we drank it together. 5. The teacher was not very nice, but the mark was good. 6. I went to buy my favorite CD, but the shop didn't have it. 7. Irina needed some money, so she took a part-time job. 8. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new familz who has just moved in ,or maybe it's just coincidence. 9. Julie has a guitar, and she plays it really well. 10. The concert was cancelled, so we went to a disco instead. EX.2. Daniel couldn't buy any presents because he didn't have any money. I don't drink coffee as it makes me nervous. Although it was snowing, I wasn’t cold. Since she doesn't speak English, she can't translate that text. Daniel passed the exam first time while his brother had to retake it four times. Paula got the job she wanted even though she had no experience. I will be late today because my car has broken down. Whereas my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. Interjecţia 1. " AH , that feels good" 2. " ALAS, she's dead now" 3. " Oh DEAR ! Does it hurt ?" 4. "What do you think of that, EH ?" 5. "Lima is the capital of.... ER....Peru" 6. " HELLO John, How are you today ?" 7. " HMM, I'm not so sure" 8. " OH , please say 'yes' !" 9. " WELL, what did he say " 10. " 85 divided by 5 is... UM...17" 11. "Shall we go ? " " UH-HUH " 12. " OUCH ! That hurts !" Subiectul şi predicatul EX.1. 1. Yesterday, (Ross and Monica )took their children to the zoo. 2. (The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals) were outside. 88

3. (The president of the bank )looked everywhere for the papers . 4. (They) listened quietly. 5. (The yellow race car with red stripes) finished the first in the race. 6. After his speech,( the president of the meeting) shook hands with all members of the crowd . EX.2. 1. The dirty yellow cat prowled through the dark alley/ lived in the attic last winter. 2. We stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday. 3. Tom and his brother stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday./ sold used cars. 4. The taxi driver stood outside the hotel all night./ was from the Middle East. 5. Anna's elderly mother baked delicious apple pies./ was from the Middle East. 6. The green tree snake was from the Middle East. 7. The detective in the gray raincoat stood outside the hotel all night./ waited patiently for his victim. 8. Seven rats lived in the attic last winter. Complementul direct 1. The computer programmer is testing his new software. Programatorul îşi testează noul soft. 2. We suddenly realized that someone was listening. Deodată ne-am dat seama că cineva asculta. 3. Amy has decided to go to university. Amy s-a hotărât să meargă la facultate. 4. They can't read what you've just written. Ei nu pot citi ceea ce tocmai ai scris. 5.This exercise involves clicking on the screen. Acest exerciţiu implică a da click pe ecran. Complementul indirect 1. Indirect object: you. Direct object: some money 2. Direct object: English writers (no indirect object) 3. Indirect object: them. Direct object: news 4. Indirect object: Mary. Direct object: candy 5. Indirect object: students. Direct object: homework 6. Direct object: boys (no indirect object) 7. Direct object: them (no indirect object) 8. Indirect object: us. Direct object: speech 9. Direct object: letters (no indirect object) 10. Indirect object: son. Direct object: keys 11. Direct object: rain (no indirect object) 12. Direct object: traffic (or air traffic)

89

Complementul prepoziţional He reminds me of your brother in some ways. You have similar temperaments. The „must not” message is designed to prevent people from entering. The judge banned him from driving for six months. This new software enables the user to get lots of reports for the management. I don't smoke at home; I don't want to encourage the children to smoke. The team manager wouldn't allow the press to interview his players. The police wouldn't provide the press with any details about the crime. The salesman failed to interest me in any of his products. Construcţii complexe: EX.1. a. nominativul absolut b. nominativul absolut 3- N+ infinitiv 4- Ac + infinitive 5- N absolut + part. prezent EX.2. 1. The manager was expected to speak first. 2. He was thought to be gifted in singing. 3. He was heard walking slowly in the dark. 4. He was advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. We were told not to worry. 6. He was asked him by the manager to explain the semester report. 7. He was seen stealing the money. 8. His thoughts are considered to be very weird. Complementul circumstanţial de loc,timp, mod They were in Paris. (last week) → They were in Paris last week.- adverbial of time She walks his dog. (rarely) → She rarely walks his dog. - adverbial of manner She waited. (patiently) → She waited patiently. - adverbial of manner My father goes fishing. (always) → My father always goes fishing. - adverbial of time Your bedroom is. (upstairs) → Your bedroom is upstairs. - adverbial of place We don't go skiing. (in summer) → We don't go skiing in summer. - adverbial of time Cats can hear. (well) → Cats can hear well. - adverbial of manner I saw him. (there) → I saw him there.- adverbial of place The boy speaks English. (fluently) → The boy speaks English fluently. - adverbial of manner I have seen that movie. (never) / (before) → I have never seen that movie before. - adverbial of time Atributul 1. Those are probably the fanciest boys in the school. 2. Uncle Daniel is really a sweet old man. 3. Dacia used to be a fine Romanian car. 4. All the family was home for the holidays. What could make for a merrier Christmas? 5. They were raised in a comfortable little house in Bucharest. 6. Four weddings and a funeral is the most exciting movie I've ever seen. 7. She wanted to take a course with that interesting new Japanese economics professor. 8. Of all the mechanics in the shop, he is surely the least competent . 9. In the fall, the valleys tend to be foggier than the hilltops. 10. My cold is definitely worse this morning. 90

as 60. shouldn't 65. isn't 8. did he arrive 11. in 75. isn't 26. on 76. Does she often telephone 32.. already 47. Yet 54. went 7. drove 20. rode 30. seeing 52. loves 15. Do you always finish 29. Have you got 21. likes 43. are they doing 12. Have they got 33. is going 9. did she study 22. are going 74. some 49. are you doing 2. out of 91 . is going to visit 28. are you doing 31. in – on 77. gone 53. was watching 46. about 78. did you go 13. stay out 48.. took 25. said 61. Have you got 14. is watching 24. did they go 42. had to 70. at – during 79. among 58. doesn't like 23. took 10. isn't going to be 39. have been made 72. up 80. had finished 51.TEST FINAL 1. have been working 71. interested in 55. giving 59. look after 69.. Do you always get up 3. are you doing 27. taught 35. were photographed 56. did she do 40.. Have . 's fine 63. is coming 16. are reading 34. as . loves 6. is 17. flew 38. whose 68. arrives 57. in front of 64. do you have to do 62. is having 5. taught 18. Has John got 4. interested in 66. Does he always play 45. Few 50. is going to have 37. explain 73. might have been 67. is listening 44. Has Thomas got 41. Does he always have 19. loves 36.

some 123. has recorded 140. in – in 92. bought 106. moved – lived 132. did you read 143. Has the newspaper arrived 144. in 82. have just had 138. some 114. ago 124. for – against 85. some 122. has worked 101. has written 137. learned . within 96. has believed 135. went . on 86. is 105. bought 131.Have you been 149. works 113. Did you smoke 146. to – at 89. 108. Excuse me 118. to 104. until 84. have already eaten 129.were . until 99. by – by 94. by 90. at – on 83. do you do 112. him 109.81. have you found . didn't get 92 . have never been 125. on 120. next to 121. Italy 119.didn't know . have you read 142. recorded 141. by 95. into 117. left 147. has begun 139. 127. have worked – began 128. has lived 100.have found 145. played – was 126. since 98. to 87. much 107.has played 130. hasn't left 148. in 97. listening to 111. in the 116. haven't thought 134. did you live 136. in – on 91. an 103. Have you seen 150. any 102. at 110. on 93. _ 88.has been 133. can 115.

Brown. He doesn’t read this novel everyday.Acţiune temporară: This week. .Adevăruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. Interrogative: Did + S + V PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Be (present) + V ing: I am eating now. .Acţiune generală. (neprecizat timpul): I have eaten. Brown.Acţiune începută în trecut. you are doing the cleaning and he is going shopping. Plouă= It is raining 2. . Plouă de mult / de…= It has been rainig for… PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS (imperfect) Affirmative: S + Be (past) + V ing I was watching TV when she came. Interrogative: Do/Does + S +V Do I go to school everyday? Does she go to school everyday? Negative: S + Do/Does + Not + V I do not go to school everyday. She has met Mrs. .Acţiune terminată în perioada de timp neterminată : I have already read the newspaper today. (am mâncat) .TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE . I am doing the homework. . She drinks milk everyday. . Interrogative: Be (present) + S + V ing: Am I eating now? Negative: S + Be (present) + Not + V ing: I am not eating now .Acţiune începută în trecut care se continuă şi în prezent: DIFERENŢA DINTRE PRESENT CONTINUOUS ŞI PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: 1.Acţiuni viitoare planificate în prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Have/Has (IIIrd person sg) + V3 I have met Mr.Acţiune viitoare planificată în prezent (neoficial): We are spending the week end in the country. She hasn’t left already. PAST TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V2 You went to your friend yesterday.Acţiune începută în trecut care se continuă şi în prezent: I have met her. . Interrogative: Be (past) + S + V ing 93 . She has been waiting here for two hours.Acţiune care se petrece în momentul vorbirii: I am reading.fişă exemplu PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V (s/es for IIIrd person sg): He goes to school everyday. terminată în trecut. repetabilă: I read daily. . Interrogative: Have/Has + S + V3 Have you met my girlfriend? Has he met his cousin? Negative: S + Have/Has + Not + V3 I haven’t read his last novel. Interrogative: Have you been waiting here for two hours? Negative: S + Have/Has + not + Been + Ving You have not been waiting here for two hours. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Have/Has + Been + Ving You have been waiting here for two hours.

Were you reading when I entered the room? Negative: S + Be (past) + Not + V ing He wasn’t eating when she phoned. Acţiune trecută terminată înaintea altei acţiuni trecute:ex: I had already eaten for long when you came. Acţiune trecută începută înaintea altei acţiuni trecute şi continuându-se şi în momentul începerii celei de-a doua: I had been watching TV for 2 hours when you came. yesterday. Interrogative shall/will + S + have been + Ving Will they have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas? Negative: S + shall/will + not + have been + V-ing They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. 94 .c.m. in 2004): I met her in 1981. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + shall/will + have been + Ving They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. Acţiune trecută în desfăşurare în prezent: When you entered my room. I was watching TV. Exprimă faptul că o acţiune se va afla înca în desfăşurare la un anumit moment în viitor. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + V Shall we go to the mountains next week? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + V They will not read this novel tomorrow. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + shall/will + have + V3 They will have gone by now. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (m.Did you go to work yesterday? Negative: S + Did + Not + V They didn’t go to work yesterday? Acţiune trecută terminată în moment precizat: (ago. Interrogative: Had + S + V3 Had they watched TV for half an hour? Negative: S + Had + Not + V3 They hadn’t watched TV for half an hour. Interrogative: Had + S + Been + V ing Had she been living in that house since 1993? Negative: S + Had + Not + Been + V ing She had not been living in that house since 1993.) Affirmative: S + Had + V3 They had watched TV for half an hour.p. last. FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + V They will go to the seaside tomorrow. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Had + Been + V ing She had been living in that house since 1993. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + Be + V ing Shall we be reading this novel tomorrow? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + Be + V ing You will not be reading this poem. FUTURE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + Be + V ing They will be going to the mountains. Interrogative: Shall/will + S + have + V3 Will you have gone by now? Negative: S + shall/will+ Not + have + V3 They will not have gone by now.

Verbul TO WORK -model Indicative Present I work you work he/she/it works we work you work they work Present continuous I am working you are working he/she/it is working we are working you are working they are working Past perfect continuous I had been working you had been working he/she/it had been working we had been working you had been working they had been working Past perfect I had worked you had worked he/she/it had worked we had worked you had worked they had worked Future perfect I will have worked you will have worked he/she/it will have worked we will have worked you will have worked they will have worked Future perfect continuous I will have been working you will have been working he/she/it will have been working we will have been working you will have been working they will have been working Infinitive to work Past Tense I worked you worked he/she/it worked we worked you worked they worked Past continuous I was working you were working he/she/it was working we were working you were working they were working Present perfect I have worked you have worked he/she/it has worked we have worked you have worked they have worked Future I will work you will work he/she/it will work we will work you will work they will work Future continuous I will be working you will be working he/she/it will be working we will be working you will be working they will be working Present perfect continuous I have been working you have been working he/she/it has been working we have been working you have been working they have been working Participle Present Past working worked 95 .

Gramatica limbii engleze.1982 Catedra de limbă şi literatură engleză. Ed. Ecaterina Comişel. Universitatea din Bucureşti . Ed.Gramatica limbii engleze. din Buc. Ioana Ştefănescu ..Bibliografie: Leon Leviţchi. Georgiana Gălăţeanu.Lectures in English Morphology. 1978. pentru uz şcolar. Ştiinţifică 1967. . 1962. Ioan Preda . Alice Bădescu . Ed. 1963. Univ. 96 .Ştiinţifică. Editura didactică şi pedagogică – Bucureşti.Gramatica limbii engleze.Gramatica limbii engleze. Ştiinţifică.