Mohamed Kheider University of Biskra__Section of English__Second Year LMD__Phonetics

Lectures 6 :

2.2 Stress-carrying suffixes: the suffixes which attract the primary stress placement to
the final syllable, they are also called stress-attracting suffixes, the most common ones are:
Rule-1: English words ending in -ade, -aire, -ain, ee, eer, ese, -ette, esque, ique, oo, oon;
the stress will be on the last/final syllable –ULT STRESS- so the stress falls on the suffix.
Suffixes Examples for Transcription
–ade Persuade /pəˈsweɪd/, Dissuade/dɪˈsweɪd/,
–aire Questionnaire /ˌkwestʃəˈneə/, Millionaire /mɪljəˈneə/,
–ain Japanese /ˌʤæpəˈniːz/, Journalese /ˌdʒɜːnəˈliːz/
–ee Coffee /ˈkɒfi/, Committee /kəˈmɪti/ (council), /ˌkɒmɪˈtiː/, Absentee , Referee,
–eer Engineer/ˌenʤɪˈnɪə/, Volunteer /ˌvɒlənˈtɪə/
–ese Vietnamese /ˌvɪetnəˈmiːz/ , Portuguese /ˌpɔːtjʊˈgiːz, -tʃʊ-/
–ette Silhouette /ˌsɪluˈet/, Marionette /ˌmarɪəˈnet/, Launderette /lɔːnˈdret/
–esque Romanesque/ˌrəʊməˈnesk/, Picturesque /ˌpɪktʃəˈresk/,Arabesque /ˌærəˈbesk/
–ique Critique /krɪˈtiːk/, Technique /tekˈniːk/, Unique /juːˈniːk/
–oo Kangaroo /ˌkæŋgəˈruː/, Shampoo /ʃæmˈpuː/ , Waterloo /ˌwɔːtətˈluː/
–oon Typhoon /taɪˈfuːn/ , Balloon /bəˈluːn/,
Exceptions: Igloo /ˈɪgluː/, Cuckoo /ˈkʊkuː/, Decade /ˈdekeɪd/, Comrade /ˈkɒmreɪd/.
2.3. Stress-shifting suffixes: the affixation of the suffix causes a change of the primary
stress from one syllable of the stem to another one, but the stress remains in the stem, it often
moves immediately to the syllable before the suffix. So the stress falls on one of the stem
syllables before the suffix added to the stem.
2.3.1. Stress-shifting suffixes causing PENULT STRESS:
Rule-2: English words ending in –ic, –sion, and –tion; the stress will be on the second
syllable from the end –PENULT STRESS– so on the syllable just before the suffix.
Suffix-ending Examples for Transcription
–ic Athletic /æθˈletɪk/, Economic /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk/ , Graphic/ˈgræfɪk/, Geographic
/ˌʤiəˈgæfɪk/, Philosophic/ˌfɪləˈsɒfɪk/, Psychologic /ˌsaɪkəˈlɒʤɪk/, Specific
/spəˈsɪfɪk/, Scientific /ˌsaɪənˈtɪfɪk/, Syntactic /sɪnˈtæktɪk/, Semiotics
/ˌsemiˈɒtɪks/ , Theoretic /θɪəˈretɪk/, Linguistics /lɪŋˈgwɪstɪks/, Semantics
/sɪˈmæntɪks/, Phonetics /fəˈnetɪks/,
–sion Television / telɪˈvɪʒṇ/, Revision /rɪˈvɪʒṇ/, Elision /ɪˈlɪʒṇ/, Erosion / ɪˈrəʊʒṇ/
–tion Relation /rɪˈleɪʃṇ/, Association /əˌsəʊsɪˈeɪʃṇ/, participation /pɑːˌtɪsɪˈpeɪʃṇ/
Most common exceptions: Arabic/ˈærəbɪk/, Arithmetic/əˈrɪθmətɪk/, Arsenic/ˈɑːsənɪk/, Heretic
/ˈherɪtɪk/, Catholic /ˈkæθəlɪk/, Lunatic /ˈluːnətɪk/, Politic/ˈpɒlɪtɪk/, Rhetoric /ˈretərɪk/.
STRESS PLACEMENT IN COMPLEX WORDS
Stress-Carrying Suffixes & Stress-Shifting Suffixes
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2.3.2- Stress on the 2nd from the end: Penult Stress
The ‘’ LION’’ rule, English words ending in letter i , letter e or letter u followed by any
number of vowels ( V n°) , optionally followed by any number of consonants (C n°) and
optionally by silent letter e , stress the will be on the penult syllable; 2
nd
syllable from the end
Suffixes beginning with: letter i+ V n° + (C n°) + (Silent e)
–ion Generation / ˌdʒenəˈreɪʃṇ/ , Investigation Constitution /ˌkɒnstɪˈtjuːʃṇ/
–ia Columbia /kəˈlʌmbɪə/ , Media /ˈmiːdɪə/ Cafeteria /ˌkæfəˈtɪərɪə/
–ial Industrial /ɪnˈdʌstrɪəl/, Serial /ˈsɪə-,ˈsɪriəl/ Residential /ˌrezɪˈdenʃəl/
–ian Historian /hɪˈstɔːrɪən/
Algerian /ælˈdʒɪərɪən/
Librarian /laɪˈbreərɪən/
–iance Luxuriance /lʌgˈʒʊərɪəns/ Insouciance /ɪnˈsuːsɪəns/
–iar Familiar /fəˈmɪlɪə/ Peculiar/pɪˈkjuːlɪə/
–ience Experience /ɪkˈspɪərɪəns/ Impatience /ˈɪmpeɪʃəns/
–ient Proficient /prəˈfɪʃənt/, ancient /ˈeɪnʃənt/ Sufficient //səˈfɪʃənt/
–ious Ambitious /æmˈbɪʃəs/ , cautious /ˈkɔːʃəs/ Superstitious /ˌsuːpəˈstɪʃəs/
–ior Inferior /ɪnˈfɪərɪə/, Senior /ˈsiːnɪə/ Superior/suːˈpɪərɪə,/sjuːˈpɪərɪə/
–iom / –iot Idiom /ˈɪdɪəm/ Idiot/ˈɪdɪət/
–ium Gymnasium /dʒɪmˈneɪzɪəm/ ; Aluminium
/ˌælʊˈmɪnɪəm/ , Aquarium /əˈkweərɪəm/
Museum/mjuːˈziːəm/,Medium
/ˈmiːdɪəm/,Uranium/jʊˈreɪnɪəm/
Suffixes beginning with: letter e+ V nr + (C nr) + (Silent e)
–ea Area /ˈeərɪə/ Guinea /ˈgɪni/
–eal Cereal /ˈsɪərɪəl/, Lineal /ˈlɪnɪəl/ Laryngeal /ləˈrɪndʒɪəl/
–ear Linear /ˈlɪnɪə (r)/
–ean Mediterranean /ˌmedɪtəˈreɪnɪən/ Chilean /ˈtʃɪlɪən/; European /ˌjʊərəˈpiːən/;
Korean /kəˈriːən/.
–eous Courageous /kəˈreɪdʒəs/ Simultaneous /ˌsɪməlˈteɪnɪəs/
Common Exceptions: Idea /aɪˈdɪə/; Ideal /aɪˈdɪəl/; ordeal /ɔːˈdiːl/.
Suffixes beginning with: letter u+ V nr + (C nr) + (Silent e)
–ual Habitual /həˈbɪtʃuəl/ Perpetual /pəˈpetʃuəl/
–uar Jaguar /ˈdʒægjʊə(r)/
–uous Superfluous /suːˈpɜːfluəs/ Ambiguous /æmˈbɪgjuəs/
2.3 The verbal suffix –ish: Penult stress .
This is a stress-shifting suffix found only in verbs (we can find the suffix –ish with adjective,
but it is a neutral suffix like in: Child – Childish /ˈtʃaɪldɪʃ/ ) .
Rule: English verbs ending in –ish carry the stress on the penult syllable, before this suffix.
E.g: Banish /ˈbænɪʃ/, Nourish /ˈnʌrɪʃ/, Polish /ˈpɒlɪʃ/, Cherish /ˈtʃerɪʃ/, Publish /ˈpʌblɪʃ/.
Abolish /əˈbɒlɪʃ/, Distinguish/dɪˈstɪŋgwɪʃ/,Demolish/dɪˈmɒlɪʃ/,Establish/ɪˈstæblɪʃ/, Fetish /ˈfetɪʃ/
Exception: The only one exception to this rule is the verb ‘impoverish’ /ɪmˈpɒvərɪʃ/ which is
stresse on the 3
rd
syllable instead of the 2
nd
one from the end.
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Mohamed Kheider University of Biskra__Section of English__Second Year LMD__Phonetics

2.4. Stress on the ante-penultimate syllable: (ante-penultimate = third from the end)
Rule 3: English words ending in –acy, –al, –ity, –ety , –itude and ending in –try; the
stress will be on the third syllable from the end –ANTEPENULT STRESS–
Examples:
–acy
Aristocracy /¡æii'slnLiosI /, democracy / dɪˈmɒk.rə.si /, Pharmacy
/ '!u:mosI /, Prophecy / ˈprɒfəsi/ , Supremacy / suːˈpreməsi /
–al
Critical /ˈkrɪtɪkəl/, Geological /ˌdʒiəˈlɒdʒɪkəl/, Environmental, Political
–ity, –ety
Ambiguity, Creativity, Humanity, credibility /ˌkredɪˈbɪlɪti/, dependability
/dɪ¡pendɪˈbɪlɪti/, necessity /nəˈsesɪti/, Opportunity, purity, Reality,
University /ˌjuːnɪˈvɜːsɪti/, society, propriety /pro'piaiolI/, variety /vo'iaiolI/.
–itude
Attitude /'ælilju:d/, Aptitude /'æp.li.lju:d/, Gratitude, Latitude, Magnitude.
–try
Geometry /d¸I'nmiliI/, Infantry /'in!onliI/, Poetry, Peasantry /'pczonliI/.
2.4.2. Stress on the ante-penultimate syllable: (ante-penultimate = 3
rd
from the end)
Rule 4: English words ending in –graphy, –logy, and –meter, will receive the primary
stress on the antepenultimate syllable ( 3
rd
syllable from the end).
Examples:
–graphy
Bibliography /ˌbɪblɪˈɒgrəfi/, Demography /dɪˈmɒg.rə.fi/, Geology
/ʤɪˈɒləʤi/, Geography /dʒɪˈɒgrəfi/, Orthography /ɔːˈθɒgrəfi/, Photography
/fəˈtɒg.rə.fi/, Xerography /zɪəˈrɒgrəfi/
–logy Apology /o'pnIod¸I/, Archeology /¡u:LI'nIod¸I/, Anthology /æn'0nIod¸I/,
Geology /ʤɪˈɒləʤi/, Methodology /¡mc0o'dnIod¸I/, Psychology
/saɪˈkɒlədʒi/, Phonology /fəʊˈnɒlədʒi/, Sociology /¡səʊjiˈɒlədʒi, si-/
–meter
Barometer /bo'inmilo/, Parameter /po'iæmilo/, Thermometer /0o'mnmilo/
2.4.3. Verbal endings causing Antepenult stress: ( 3
rd
from the end)
Rule 5: English verbs of three syllable or more ending in –ate, –ize (ise) or –fy, will
have the primary stress on the antepenultimate syllable ( 3
rd
from the end).
Examples:
–ate
Calculate /'LæILjoIcil/, Discriminate /dɪˈskrɪmɪneɪt/, Evaluate /ɪˈvæljueɪt/,
Generate /'d¸cnoicil/, Hibernate /'haiboncil/, Investigate /ɪnˈvestɪgeɪt/,
Legitimate /ləˈdʒɪtɪmeɪt/, Participate /pɑːˈtɪsɪpeɪt/, separate /ˈsepəreɪt/.
–ize (ise)
Analyse /ˈænəlaɪz/, Civilize /'sivoIaiz/, Democratize /di'mnLiolaiz/,
organize /'¬:gonaiz/, Paralyse /ˈpærəlaɪz/, publicise, utilise /ˈjuːtɪlaɪz/
–fy Clarify, dignify, identify /aɪˈdentɪfaɪ/, electrify, exemplify, nullify /ˈnʌlɪfaɪ/
purify /'pjuoii!ai/, qualify /ˈkwɒlɪfaɪ/, signify, simplify, solidify /so'Iidi!ai/
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Time for practice:
Exercise 1: Transcribe the following words (stress-carrying suffixes) and marks the stress
Examples Transcription Examples Transcription
Limonade
Canonnade
……………………
……………………
Barricade
Cascade
………………………..
………………………..
Millionnaire …………………… Questionnaire ………………………..
Refugee
Detainee
Devotee
……………………
……………………
……………………
Trainee
Employee
Interviewee
………………………..
……………………….
……………………….
Velveteen
Careen
……………………
……………………
Seventeen
Halloween
………………………
………………………
Mountaineer …………………… Pioneer ………………………
Journalese …………………… Japanese ………………………
Grotesque …………………… Evacuee ………………………
Tattoo …………………… Taboo ………………………
Cigarette …………………… Cassette ………………………
Antique …………………… Boutique ………………………
Cartoon …………………… Ascertain ………………………

Exercise 2: Transcribe the following words (stress-shifting suffixes) and marks the stress
Examples Transcription Examples Transcription
Problematic
Gigantic
Electric
…………………….
…………………….
…………………….
Poetic
Magnetic
Basic
………….…………….
…………….………….
……………….……….
Occasion ……………….…… Illusion ……………………….
Communication
Fiction
……………….……
……………….……
Publication
Civilisation
……………………….
…………….…….……

Further practice
Consider the following examples then state the rules of stress placement:
Educate – educating – education /ˌedjʊˈkeɪʃṇ/
Adapt – adapted – adaptation /ˌædəpˈteɪʃṇ/
Diagnose – diagnoses – diagnostic /ˌdaɪəgˈnɒstɪk/
Interrogate – Interrogated– Interrogation
Standardize – standardization
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