WH - Hydro Unit 12 | Landscape Architecture | Soil

Microcatchment : Negarim

Negarim
• small infiltration area • surrounding bunds • runoff captured at lowest point = 3 - 250 m² = 1 - 10 m² = 3 : 1 to 25 : 1 = 150-600 mm/yr =1-5%
Productive trees (almond, apricot, peach, carob, pistachio, olive, pomegranates, vine, citrus) or bushes Reforestation

Negarims Unit 12

Negarim Negarims Unit 12 Negarim with bushes. Photo: Oweis .

Negarim Negarims Unit 12 Aerial view of a negarim system. Photo: Lövenstein .

Negarim CONSTRUCTION : • Negarims Unit 12 Manual LABOUR DEMAND : • High (construction + maintenance) MAINTENANCE : • • • • • • • Weed catchment Loosen soil in cropping area Negarim system. Source: Rocheleau 1988 Mulch cropping area after receipt of water Insert infiltration tube (optional) Keep grazing animals away Apply fertilizer (optional) Repair bunds immediately after damage LIMITATIONS: • Mechanization impossible .

30 m Variation of negarim: planting pit in centre • Plan and crosssection of negarim microcatchments.1.Negarim DIMENSIONS: • • Negarims Unit 12 height of bund: ³ 25 cm depth of planting pit: 40 cm .5 m cross-section: 5 . redrawn . usual layout Source: Barrow 1987.

Source: Critchley & Siegert 1991 .Negarim Negarims Unit 12 x (varies) Slope Infiltration pit Detailed plan view and crosssection of negarim.

6 x 1. units per ha 1110 625 400 275 155 100 70 45 Quantities of earthworks for negarims.00 2.50 2.4 up to l% 2.0 x 3.50 3.4 x 1.4 up to l% No.4 up to 2% 2.6 x 0.0 x 0.8 x 0.9 x 0.2 x 0.4 up to 4% 1.25 1.25 3.50 Earthworks m³ / ha 835 625 500 415 310 250 230 160 Size Infiltration Suitable Pit (m) ground slopes 1.8 x 0.9 x 1.75 1.5 x 0.00 1.Negarim Size (m²) 3x3 4x4 5x5 6x6 8x8 10 x 12 12 x 12 15 x 15 Size Unit (m²) 3 m x 3 m = 9 m² 4 m x 4 m = 16 m² 5 m x 5 m = 25 m² 6 m x 6 m = 36 m² 8 m x 8 m = 64 m² 10 m x 10 m =100 m² 12 m x 12 m =144 m² 15 m x 15 m =225 m² Negarims Unit 12 Slope 2% 25 25 25 25 25 30 35 45 Slope 3% 25 25 25 25 35 45 50 Slope 4% 25 25 30 35 45 55 Slope 5% 25 30 35 45 55 Height of bunds below the pit (maximum height) not recommended Earthwork per unit (m²) 0.8 x 2.2 x 2.5 x 2.4 up to 3% 2.4 up to 3% 1. Source: Critchley & Siegert 1991 .8 x 1.4 up to 5% 1.4 x 0.4 up to l% 3.

separate blocks of negarims Step Two • Mark the tips along the contour at even spacing with a tape.3 m 14. Size of microcatchment (m²) 3x3 4x4 5x5 6x6 8x8 10 x 10 Spacing of tips along contour 4.5 m 11.2 m 5.1 m Source: Critchley & Siegert 1991 .7 m 7.Layout and Construction of Negarim Step One • • • Negarims Unit 12 Stake out the contour by using a line level or a water tube level Smooth contours if required If the topography is very uneven.1 m 8.

Layout and Construction of Negarim Step Three • Hold a string from each of both tips of a microcatchment . If held tight. they will meet at the lowest point of the catchment (apex) Mark the apex with a peg Continue until all catchments in the upper row have been marked Negarims Unit 12 • • Step Four • • • Contour Lay out the next lower row : The apex of the catchment below is now a tip of the second row Repeat Step Three for all further rows .

.Layout and Construction of Negarim Step Five • Negarims Unit 12 Stake out size and excavate pit Step Six • • • • Clear the catchment of all vegetation Use the excavated soil from the pit to construct the bunds in two layers Wet and compact bund by foot or with a barrel filled with sand or water Fix a string at the beginning and end of each side of the bund and adjust it above ground at the selected bund height to ensure a uniform height Step Seven • • Plant tree seedlings of at least 30 cm height after the first rain of the season It is recommended to plant two seedlings: one in the bottom of the pit and one on a step at the back of the pit.

Summary Negarims Unit 12 • Negarims are diamond-shaped microbasins surrounded by low earth bunds The distance between the most distant points is 5-30 m They are mainly used for growing fruit trees and fodder bushes Negarims are constructed manually The labour demand is high • • • • .

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