Marines from BIT3/9came ashore on 8 March 1965 at RED

Beach 2, northwest 0/ Da Nang. The heavy surfdelayed the
landing/or an hour. (USMC PhotoA183676)




















































































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34 THE LANDING AND THE BUILDUP
USMC Photo A184276
Brigadier General Karch (center, 1st row) poses with members ofhis 9th MEB staffat Da Nang. The 9th MEB
was shortly afterwards deactivated and replaced by the newlyformed III MAP.
in the area and report its physical properties so a decision
could be made whether to put rubber tired or tracked
equipment in the area. The report indicated rubber tired
equipment, therefore the "Snafu." I never did find out
whether they gave a wrong analysis or took the samples
from the wrong site. 46·
A tempor,;lry impasse occurred on 9 May when the
attempt was made to unload the airfield matting. The
• Colonel Graham was of the opinion that the markers that
the Carl party found during their 3 April reconnaissance of Chu
Lai may have been left by the civilian soil party, but General
Wallace M. Greene, Jr., suggested that the markers may have
been placed there during a reconnaissance of the beach area by
the Marine 1st Force Reconnaissance Company. Col William
M. Graham, Jr., Comments on draft MS, dtd 18Nov76
(Vietnam Comment File); Gen Wallace M. Greene, Jr.,
Comments on draft MS, dtd lAug77 (Vietnam Comment File).
See Chapter 11, Reconnaissance Section, for an account of the
1st Force Reconnaissance Company's beach surveys of the Chu
Lai area.
first lift, 68 tons, was placed on flatbed trailers and
brought ashore by an LCU. The entire unloading
came to a complete standstill; the heavily laden
trucks could not move in the deep sand without
assistance. The movement of the matting to the
airfield site took five and a half hours. To try to
expedite the process, the Navy beach group decided
to break up the causeway installed on the south end
of the beach and use the floating sections as makeshift
barges. Approximately 200 bundles of matting could
be loaded on one "barge" which could then be
floated to a point directly opposite the proposed
airfield site, thereby reducing the movement
distance. Although this eased the situation, the
problem of movement on the beach remained.
Finally, on 10 May, the 3d Marine Division provided
an additional 2,500 feet of badly needed beach
matting which somewhat alleviated the situation.
At noon on 12 May, the amphibious operation

















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46
USMC Photo A184799
Mannes from the 2d Battalion, 4th Mannes cross a
stream in the northern sector of the Chu!Ai TAOR.
The Marine in the foreground appears to be able to
smile despite acigarette in his mouth and water up to
his neck.
had established their command posts in Vietnam.
Elements of the 12th Marines, the division artillery
regiment, were located at all three enclaves. The 1st
Battalion, 12th Marines under Major Gilbert W.
Ferguson supported both Da Nang and Phu Bai,
while Lieutenant Colonel Arthur B. Slack, Jr. 's 3d
Battalion, 12th Marines provided artillery support
for the 4th Marines at Chu Lai. Other supporting
units, spread throughout the three enclaves, included
major elements of the 3d Motor Transport Battalion,
the 3d Engineer Battalion, and the 3d Recon-
naissance Battalion. The wing consisted of two
aircraft groups, MAGs-12 and -16 with five
helicopter squadrons, an equal number of fixed-wing
squadrons, and ancillary ground components.
Upon taking command, General Walt had toured
the three base areas and familiarized himself with
each. Based upon his own observations, supported by
available intelligence, he concluded that the VC were
building up their forces in the areas contiguous to the
THE LANDING AND THE BUILDUP
Marine enclaves. Walt decided that the Marines had
to extend their TAORs and at the same time conduct
deeper and more aggressive patrolling. Colonel
Hardy Hay, the mMAF G-3, recalled that shortly
after Walt's arrival:
He asked me one night, 'What is our major G-3
problem?' My answer- We have got to convince Saigon
that by trying to establish a ring around Chu Lai, Da
Nang, and Phu Bai-we will never have enough men and
material to adequately do it.
Yet as Hay observed, the Marines were unable to
undertake offensive operations because their' 'hands
were tied by ComUSMACV directives.' '3'
On 15 June a significant change in the role for the
Marines took place when General Westmoreland
permitted General Walt to begin search and destroy
operations in the general area of his enclaves,
provided that these operations contributed to the
defense of the bases. The MACV commander further
directed that the Marines at Chu Lai conduct
operations to the west of their TAOR into the
suspected Do Xa VC supply complex.
With this new authority and with the concurrence
of General Thi, the I Corps commander, General
Walt enlarged the TAORs at all three enclaves. The
enlargements gave the units of the division more
room for offensive operations and provided
distinguishable lines of demarcation on the ground
since the trace of the new TAORs followed natural
terrain features. At Da Nang, the area occupied by
the 3d Marines consisted of 172 square miles and
contained a civilian population of over 50,000 per-
sons, but the populated region directly to the south
and east of the base still remained the responsibility
of General Thi's forces. Within the new Chu Lai
TAOR of 104 square miles, there were 11 villages,
containing 68 hamlets, and a civilian population of
over 50,000. The area of responsibility for the 3d
Battalion, 4th Marines at Phu Bai was much smaller,
consisting of 61 square miles, but within that area
civilian population numbered almost 18,000.
The Seeds of Pacification
Shortly after General Walt assumed command of
III MAF he had a survey made which revealed that
over 150,000 civilians were living within 81mm
mortar range of the airfield, and consequently, the
"Marines were into the pacification business. "36 In
fact, General Greene later observed:
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