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Chapter 6 7

Chapter 6 7

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Chapter 6 & 7

Atomic Structure and Periodicity

Amplitude

Speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s = c

Light is an electromagnetic wave.

l

l = c / n - This is the relationship between the wavelength and frequency

The distance between the peaks is called the wavelength (l) lambda. The amount of peaks per second is called the frequency (n) nu.

Higher Energy Lower Energy .

Wavelength of Visible Light in nanometers .

. then why aren’t the electrons pulled into the nucleus of the atom? Rutherford and Bohr came up with the idea that electrons orbit the nucleus similar to the way that the earth orbits the sun.The Rutherford-Bohr Atom If the nucleus of the atom is positively charged. The Rutherford-Bohr model of the atom is therefore called the planetary atomic model.

But the Orbits Are Quantized
Planck said that the orbitals were quantized

In order for an electron to move between quantized energy levels (ns), a quantized amount of energy must be added to an atom or given off. This quantized energy is equal to the difference between the energies of the final (nf) and initial levels (ni): DE = Ef - Ei

Quantized energy levels in hydrogen

Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
We know that in order for an electron to jump between each “ring” level atoms must be supplied the quantized amount of energy that is equal to the differences in the energy levels (DE= Efinal – Einitial), but how do we calculate the amount of energy that each “ring” energy level (ns) is equal to in order to plug them into the above equation? Using Bohr’s Equation below, we can calculate the energy values associated with each ring level (known as n) in a hydrogen atom:

En = (-RH) (1/n2)
Where RH = the Rydberg constant = 2.18 x 10-18J. n = the principle quantum # / energy shell level/ “ring level”
(This equation will be given to you on a test or on the AP exam) On the AP Exam they combine it together and the equation looks like:

En = -2.178 x 10-18 J / n2

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Einstein used the Photoelectric Effect to show us that the “quantized” amount of energy that is given off or absorbed by an atom (to move an electron between energy levels n or to completely eject an electron from an atom) is called a photon which are particles of light that move in wavelike functions. Einstein deduced that each photon possess a quantum of Energy, given by the equation:

Ephoton = hn
h= planck’s constant=6.6251 x 10-34 J x sec
The energy of a photon of light is directly proportional to it’s frequency!

You get the following equation: DE = RH (1/ni2 . Therefore. is equal to the energy of a specific photon of light! DE = Ephoton = hv.1/nf2) . to calculate the energy of a photon emitted/absorbed as the electron undergoes a transition from the ni level to the nf level we combine the above two equations to get: DE = hv = RH (1/ni2 .The Energy of a Photon of light emitted/absorbed as the electron undergoes a transition: You can now plug Bohr’s Equation En = (-RH) (1/n2) into DE= Efinal – Einitial to get the quantized amount of energy necessary to move the electron between specific energy levels ns. ns.1/nf2) The change in the energy from different energy levels.

Atomic Excitation and De-excitation Excitation by absorption of light and de-excitation by emission of light .

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Light also acts like a particle in that it can be quantized. . Light acts like waves in that it is part of the electromagnetic energy spectrum and behaves like a wave. A specific amount of light is considered to be a photon. A specific example of this is light. which will excite an electron inside of an atom into a higher state.de Broglie’s Wave-Particle Duality of Nature de Broglie said that all waves act like particles and all particles act like waves. This is all proved in the emission spectrum of atoms.

You can not have half of an electron. Electrons act like particles and they also act like waves. these areas are called orbitals. They act like particles because they are quantized and there is always a certain specific number of electrons that exist. They also act like waves because they exist as wavelike patterns around the nucleus of an atom.Electron Behavior Electrons also follow de Broglie’s Wave-Particle Duality of Nature. just like light does. . therefore they are quantized and they act like particles. There are specified areas that the wave of an electron can exist in.

3…integer number(s) of wavelengths. Nonallowed Orbit . Allowed Orbit Therefore the size of the orbit. l = the wavelength of the electron wave and n = 1. or r.The relationship between the circumference of an allowed orbital (2pr) and the wavelength of the electron is given by: 2pr = nl Where r = the radius of the orbit from the nucleus. must be quantized and only specific orbitals for electrons can exist. 2.

we simply say that there is a probability that the electron can be found in a certain region in space around the nucleus of an atom. (Calculated by the Schrodinger equation where the probability is proportional to the wave function squared y2 (psi) of the electron). . This is an impossible thing to do with an electron because once an electron is hit with a photon of energy. a photon of energy must hit the electron in order for us to visualize the light.The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Heisenberg stated that it is impossible to know the exact position and momentum of an object at the same time. This is because in order for us to locate the exact position of an electron. This is known as Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics. Instead. then it will have a different amount of energy and it’s velocity and momentum will change.

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Quantum Mechanics In quantum mechanics. 3… that correspond to the energy of an orbital. the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. The larger n is. For example: if n=4 then 2(4)2 = 32 electrons can be in the 4 principal quantum number. • It also relates to the distance of the electron from the nucleus. . 2. (1) The Principal Quantum Number (n) – • They are integral values: 1. four quantum numbers are required to describe the distribution of electrons in the atom. • Also. the greatest number of electrons possible in any one level of n is equal to 2n2.

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n. The values of (l) depend on the value of the principal quantum number. l has possible integral values from 0 to (n-1). l = 0 to (n-1) Example: If n = 1. For a given value of n. then l = 0 to (n-1) = 0 = l .The Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l) (2) The angular momentum quantum number (l) – • • • • • Tells us the “shape” of the orbital. If n = 2. then l = 0 to (n-1) = 0 to (2-1) = 0 and 1 = l The value of l is designated by the following letters: l 0 1 2 3 4 5 Name of Orbital s p d f g h .

or f.Shells and Subshells • A collection of orbitals with the same value of n = the principal energy level is frequently called a shell. y and z axis in 3D . • Subshells have different “shapes” and are referred to by the letters s. • The subscripts for subshells tell you where the orbitals lie on the x. p. d. • The subshells of the 2 shell are therefore called the 2s and 2p subshells.

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… (+ l – 1). such as: 2px. 2py. (. …0. -1. • The value of ml depends on the value of the l. y and z in the subscript.l. there are (2 l + 1) integral values of ml as follows (.The Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) (3) The Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) – • Describes the orientation of the orbital in space within a subshell. . + l • Example: if l = 2 then ml = -2. 1. (This is the denotation of x. 2. 0. 2pz).l to + l ): . • For every value of l.l + 1).

½ ( ) • Each orbital can hold two electrons in it of opposite spins. . • The value of ms = either + ½ ( ) or . which can hold a + ½ and a – ½ electron. • This also holds true for any other orbital such as the 3px orbital. for a total of 2 electrons in the 3px orbital.The Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms) (4) The Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms) – • Describes the spin of the electron. • An example of this would be that the 1s orbital can hold a + ½ and a – ½ electron for a total of 2 electrons in the 1s orbital.

½ = Down = Counterclockwise Because of the spin of an electron. .+ ½ = Up = Clockwise . there are 2 electrons in every orbital with different spins on them +½ -½= = Up Down Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms) is the fourth quantum number and has a value of + ½ or – ½.

+ l (magnetic) • ms = either + ½ or . f=3. g=4. h=5 (angular momentum) •ml = -l. … (+ l – 1). p=1.Relationships between Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals • n = the principal quantum number • l = 0 to (n-1) and s=0.½ (electron spin) n 1 2 l 0 ml 0 Number of Orbitals 1 Atomic Orbital Designations 1s 3 . …0.l + 1). (. d=2.

SUMMARY: In a many-electron atom.In a many-electron atom. This is calculated with the following: Zeff = Z – S (Where Z = # protons & S = the avg # electrons between nucleus and electron in ?). We can estimate the energy of each electron by considering how it interacts with the average environment created by the nucleus and the other electrons in the atom. as shown to the left. the more unstable and higher energy the electrons are. the positive charge experienced by outer-shell electrons is always less than the full nuclear charge because inner-shell electrons partly offset the positive charge of the nucleus. Decreasing Zeff Therefore. The net positive charge attracting the electron is called the Effective Nuclear Charge. Zeff. The inner electrons are said to shield the electrons from the full charge of the nucleus. The electronelectron repulsion causes different subshells to be at different energies. This allows us to treat each electron individually: The electron density between the nucleus and the electron of interest will reduce the nuclear charge acting on that electron. This effect is called the shielding-effect. each electron is simultaneously attracted to the nucleus and repelled by the other electrons. the energy of electrons increase as the Zeff decreases because the positive charge is not pulling the electrons close to the atom and therefore the further the electron is from the center of the atom. Increasing .

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The Pauli Exclusion Principle Remember how I said that there are 2 electrons in each orbital? And remember how each electron will have an opposite spin from one another (a + or . then they must have different ms values. Therefore a filled Helium 1s orbital looks like: ____ . Only two electrons may therefore occupy the same atomic orbital. If 2 electrons have the same n. and these two electrons have opposite spins. therefore they will have different ms values. The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. l and ml values.½ ). (this means these two electrons are in the same atomic orbital).

Hund’s Rule Hund’s Rule states that the most stable arrangement of electrons in subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins. Example: Nitrogen has the atomic number 7. Let’s fill the subshells. therefore it has 7 electrons. . Nitrogen: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz Now try Oxygen: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz Writing the Electron Configuration for an atom is a way of condensing what we have just done.

If an atom has unpaired electrons inside it.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. then it is attracted to a magnetic field and called Paramagnetic. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Atoms with paired electrons are called Diamagnetic.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Valence Electrons – the electrons that include all of the electrons in subshells which are past the last filled noble gas and have the same highest principle quantum #. The Noble Gases / The Octet Rule / Valence Electrons • The Octet Rule – all atoms want to have their outermost orbital full. Exceptions: 1) Hydrogen and Helium – which only have a 1s orbital and can therefore only have 2 electrons in their outermost orbital. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2) Lithium and Beryllium – which has only three electrons and it is therefore easier to get rid of one electron to have the full 1s orbital. • The Noble Gases – the VIII column has their outermost orbital full and therefore they are happy atoms because they follow the octet rule. This generally means that they have 8 electrons in their outermost orbital. . • Transition Metals have valence electrons inside the d orbitals as well.

.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Noble Gases are happy atoms because their outermost orbital is full and they follow the octet rule. Inc.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. The Shorthand way to do electron configurations is to use the last noble gas filled in square brackets and then add on these configurations shown here . Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

actually They are: Cr: [Ar] 4s1 3d5 Cu: [Ar] 4s1 3d10 . Cu. Ag. • What would expect the electron configuration and orbital diagram for Cr and Cu to be? Cr: Cu: But. Mo.Exceptions to the electron configurations and orbital diagrams • Some atoms: Cr. Au are exceptions to the filling order rules.

Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. This is an example of the scientist John Dalton’s chart of the elements in which he labeled the elements based on the atomic weight of the element. This was done in the early 1800’s before the atomic number (or number of protons) was even understood.

Around 1865.The next logical step after atomic mass was to figure out a logical arrangement of the elements according to atomic mass. But this law turned out stop working after Calcium. periodic recurrence of properties. In 1864. Development of the Periodic Table . every eighth element had similar properties. English Chemist John Newlands noticed that when the elements were arranged in order of atomic mass. the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev created a much more extensive arrangement of the elements based upon the regular. Newlands referred to this peculiar relationship as the law of octaves.

94 g/ml later discovered after four years and proved his periodic arrangement of the elements to be a success! Eka-Al Mass M. before it was discovered.15 under aluminum for the word eka-aluminum. He made the first two periods shorter than the rest and realized from the properties of the elements.9 g/ml . that some elements had not yet been discovered.From 1834 – 1907 Dmitri Mendeleev copied down the 63 existing elements on individual cards and then arranged them in order of atomic mass. 68 u Low D 5. Eka means first and symbolized the first element oC 30.P. 69. He played with these cards until he successfully came up with the first attempt at the periodic table of the elements. Gallium was 5. For example: Mendeleev proposed the existence of an unknown element that he called eka-aluminum and predicted Ga its properties (shown on the left).9 u based solely on the trends of the rest of the periodic table he had created.

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In the table. Group 8A elements are called Noble Gases. Group 1A elements are called Alkali Metals. A nonmetal is usually a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Group 2A elements are called Alkaline Earth Metals. . A metalloid has properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals. the horizontal rows are called periods and the vertical columns are called groups or families.The Periodic Table of the Elements A metal is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Group 7A elements are called Halogens.

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

. Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

. Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .

. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

X-rays are passed through a crystal (made with the elemental atom) and a diffraction pattern that is unique to the element will emerge and can be measured for the radius of the atom. Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. . To find the radius of atoms.

due to increasing the shell level of the atom. going down the periodic table increases the radii dramatically. When comparing two different radii: • Remember. Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Permission required for reproduction or display. • Transition metals have similar sizes of radii.

. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

E. The factors that effect I. are: • Nuclear Charge / Radius • Shielding effect of the electrons • Valence electrons • Sublevels (1/2 and full filled sublevels) .Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the amount of energy needed to pull off an electron from a gaseous monatomic atom.

Low Ionization Energy High Ionization Energy Ionization Energy High Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the energy of losing an electron From a gaseous atom Low Ionization Energy .

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600 kJ/mol .I2 = 1815 kJ/mol The Third Ionization Energy: Al2+(g)  Al3+(g) + e.Multiple Ionization Energies Let’s look at Aluminum.I3 = 2740 kJ/mol The Fourth Ionization Energy: Al3+(g)  Al4+(g) + e.I1 = 580 kJ/mol The Second Ionization Energy: Al+(g)  Al2+(g) + e.I4 = 11. What is it’s electron configuration? [Ne]3s2 3p1 The First Ionization Energy: Al(g)  Al+(g) + e.

Remember exothermic reaction. • You need to look at the atoms electron configuration in order to determine the electron affinity of the atom. • Most atoms do not require energy in order to add an electron. instead they release energy because it usually makes the atom more stable. . • This is the reason why electron affinity energies have negative values associated with them.Electron Affinity • Electron Affinity is the amount of energy that is required to add an electron to an atom. energy leaves and the value is a negative number.

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4 4 = high desire for negative charge 0 = low desire for negative charge Low Electronegativity Electronegativity is the ability of an atom. within a molecule. EN Low Electronegativity High Electronegativity High Electronegativity Notice EN is a scale between 0 . to attract shared electrons towards itself .Electronegativity.

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