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Gas Turbines

Gas Turbines

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Published by Faisal Khan
This presentation is about Gas Turbine of Combined Cycle Power Plant.
This presentation is about Gas Turbine of Combined Cycle Power Plant.

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Published by: Faisal Khan on Feb 10, 2013
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Gas Turbine ! ! ! !

Group Members
1. M Imran 2. Mubasshar Bashir 3. S M Ash-had 4. Faisal Kareem 5. Hassan Farooq (2009-EE-42) (2009-EE-54) (2009-EE-32) (2009-EE-02) (2009-EE-24)

What is Turbine ?

It is a Machine in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid, such as water, steam, or gas, is converted to rotary motion and that rotary motion is further used by different techniques.

What is Gas Turbine ? • Turbine which converts Kinetic energy of Gas into rotary motion is called Gas Turbine. .

where both the compression and expansion processes take place in rotating machinery.Brayton Cycle • • The Brayton cycle was first proposed by George Brayton for use in the reciprocating oil-burning engine. it is used for gas turbines only. . Today.

Brayton Cycle • Following four processes takes place in Brayton Cycle for Open Cycle conditions. 1-2: Compression 2-3: Combustion 3-4: Expansion through Turbine and Exhaust Nozzle (4-1: Atmospheric Pressure) .

Brayton Cycle • For Closed Cycle these processes are as following. 1-2: Compression 2-3: Heat Addition 3-4: Expansion through Turbine and Exhaust Nozzle 4-1: Cooling .

.Open Cycle & Closed Cycle “ Block Diagram ” Following diagram shows that how the process happens and the direction of Fluid.

Schematic Diagram The full path of air & fuel is shown in this Diagram. .

Basic Components .

Basic Components • Compressor • Draws in air & compresses it Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air Hot gases converted to work Can drive compressor & external load • Combustion Chamber • • Turbine • • .

Basic Components • Compressor • Draws in air & compresses it Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air Hot gases converted to work Can drive compressor & external load • Combustion Chamber • • Turbine • • .

Basic Components • Compressor • Draws in air & compresses it Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air Hot gases converted to work Can drive compressor & external load • Combustion Chamber • • Turbine • • .

Compressor • • Supplies high pressure air for combustion process Compressor types • • Radial/centrifugal flow compressor Axial flow compressor .

good for low compression ratios (5:1) Disadv: Difficult to stage.Compressor • Radial/centrifugal flow • • Adv: simple design. less efficient • Axial flow • • Good for high compression ratios (20:1) Most commonly used .

Compressor • Controlling Load on Compressor • • To ensure maximum efficiency and allow for flexibility. compressor can be split into HP & LP sections Vane control: inlet vanes/nozzle angles can be varied to control air flow and to maintain the pressure of burnt gasses over Turbine blades. .

Use of Compressed Air • Primary Air (30%) • Passes directly to combustor for combustion process Passes through holes in perforated inner shell & mixes with combustion gases Insulates/cools turbine blades • Secondary Air (65%) • • Film Cooling Air (5%) • .

Due to burning the temperature of that mixture increases and then it directed to the Turbine. Now spark plugs are used to ignite the fuel and it causes burned the fuel.Combustion Chambers • • • Here the Fuel is sprayed by the nozzles and these small drops of fuel mixed up with compressed air. .

Turbines • • • Consists of one or more stages designed to develop rotational energy Uses sets of nozzles & blades Single shaft • • Power coupling on same shaft as turbine Same shaft drives rotor of compressor and power components .

Turbines • Split Shaft • • • • Gas generator turbine drives compressor Power turbine separate from gas generator turbine Power turbine driven by exhaust from gas generator turbine Power turbine drives power coupling .

Dual Shaft. Split Shaft .

Gas Turbine Systems • Air System • • Air intakes are located high up & multiple filters Exhaust discharged out stacks Uses either any kind of fuel for ignition process Supply oil to the bearings and gears • Fuel System • • Lubrication System • .

HP air used (can use electrical also) Once at certain RPM. turbines can run @ different speeds • Power Transmission System • • .Gas Turbine Accessory Systems • Starting System • • To get compressor initially rotated. fuel injected and spark ignited Reduction gears used to transfer torque With split shaft.

This cooling is done by the help of Heatexchangers. .Closed Cycle • • In closed cycle system the hot gasses are not directed to Atmosphere but we supply these gasses to Compressor back after Cooling.

Inner Tubes If we want to provide cooling through it then hot gases will be at shell side and the cold water will flow through tubes. Shell 2. It is a device which is used to exchange heat.Heat-Exchanger • • As it is suggested by the name. . It have two major part 1.

A typical heat-exchanger is shown in figure below .Heat-Exchanger • And by this way the cooling happens.

fewer components) Reduced manning – automated control Quicker response time Modular replacement .GTG vs Steam • For the same hP. • • • • • Weight reduction of 70% Simpler (less maintenance.

• .Applications • • Widely uses for Electrical Power Generation. Uses in Turbo-Jets/Turbo-fans In Sub-Marines & Ships.

Concepts to Remember! • • • • Brayton Cycle Block Diagram of Open/Close cycle system To differentiate between different parts of Gas Turbine System and their working Types of Compression and it’s characteristics .

Thank You Questions ? .

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