DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL

BY JIMIT VYAS AND MAHAVIR SOLANKI

GUIDED BY : MR BHAVESH PATEL

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

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  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Certainly, help and encouragement from others are always appreciated, but in different times, such magnanimity is valued even more. This said, this Dissertation would never have been completed without the generous help and support that I received from numerous people along the way.

I wish to express my deepest thanks and gratitude to my elite guide Mr Bhavesh P Patel, Mechanical Engineering Dept., U.V. Patel College of Engg., Mehsana, for his invaluable guidance and advice, without that the Dissertation would not have appear in present shape. He also motivated me at every moment during entire dissertation.

I also hearty thankful and express deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Bhavesh Prajapati, senior manager at GMM Pflauder, for giving opportunity to undertake a dissertation in the industry and furnishing the details and help. Special thanks to Mr. Ankit Prajapati, Design Engineer, at GMM Pflauder, for his keen interest and guidance in carrying out the work. I wish to thank the principal Dr. J. L. Juneja and all the staff members of Mechatronics & Mechanical Dept., U. V. Patel College of Engg., especially to , Prof. J. M. Prajapati, Prof. J. P. Patel, Prof. V. B. Patel, for their co-operation, guidance and support during the work.

Jimit Vyas & Mahavir Solanki

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

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ASTRACT
The significance of the title of the project comes to front with designing structure of the pressure vessel for static loading and its assessment by Ansys , is basically a project concerned with design of different pressure vessel elements such as shell, Dish end ,operating manhole ,support leg based on standards and codes ; and evolution of shell and dish end analysed by means of ansys .The key feature included in the project is to check the behaviour of pressure vessel in case of fluctuating load .The [procedural step includes various aspects such as selecting the material based on ASME codes ,and then designing on the standards procedures with referring standard manuals based on ASME .Further we have included the different manufacturing methods practice by the industries and different aspects of it . And step by step approaches to the NTD method practice by the industries followed with standards and also included within the report work. This will be making a clear picture f this method among the reader . conclusively, this modus operandi of design based on technical standard and codes ., can be employed on practical design of pressure vessel as per required by the industry or the problem statement given associated to the field of pressure vessel.

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The fluid being stored may undergo a change of state inside the pressure vessel as in case of steam boilers or it may combine with other reagents as in a chemical plant. r.  INTRODUTION: The pressure vessels (i.. to wall thickness. gun barrels.. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 4  .g. the thin wall pressure vessel can be used. Two types of analysis are commonly applied to pressure vessels. Both types of analysis are discussed here. The material of pressure vessels may be brittle such that cast iron or ductile such as mild steel. open ended cylinder. Cylindrical or spherical pressure vessels (e. The second method is based on elasticity solution and is always applicable regardless of the r/t ratio and can be referred to as the solution for “thick wall” pressure vessels. the material comprising the vessel is subjected to pressure loading. The pressure vessels are designed with great care because rupture of pressure vessels means an explosion which may cause loss of life and property. When the pressure vessel is exposed to this pressure.e.e. t. of r/t≥10. boilers and tanks) are commonly used in industry to carry both liquids and gases under pressure. or sphere) as well as the applied pressure. from all directions. although for most engineering applications. hydraulic cylinders. The normal stresses resulting from this pressure are functions of the radius of the element under consideration. closed end cylinder. cylinder or tanks) are used to store fluids under pressure. and hence stresses. the shape of the pressure vessel (i. pipes. The most common method is based on a simple mechanics approach and is applicable to “thin wall” pressure vessels which by definition have a ratio of inner radius.

b) Class 2: vessels which do not fall in the scope of clas1 and class 3 are to be termed as class2 vessels. The maximum thickness of shell is limited to 38 mm. and they are built for working pressures at temperatures not exceeding 250 c and unfired . Vessels designed for the operation below -20 C and Vessels intended for any other operation not stipulated in the code. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 5  . c) class 3: there are vessels for relatively light duties having plate thickness not in excess of 16 mm. class3 vessels are not recommended for services at temperatutre below 0c.  Classification of Pressure Vessels Unfired Cylindrical Pressure Vessels (Classification Based on IS 2825-1969) a) Class 1 : Vessels that are to contain lethal or toxic substances.

  Categories Of Welded Joints The term categories specifies the location of the joint in a vessels. to nozzles or to communicating chambers and any welded joints connecting one side plate to another side plate of a flat sided vessel. These categories are intended for specifying the special requirements regarding the joint type and degree of inspection. c) Category c: welded joints connecting flanges. to formed heads . d) Category d: welded joints connecting communicating chambers or nozzles to main sheels . IS-2825 specifies 4 categories of welds. (Refer fig.) a) category A: longitudinal welded joints within the main sheet. but not the type of joint. nozzles and transitions in diameter including joints between the transtations and a cylinder at either the large of small end.to heads and to flat sided vessels and those joints connecting nozzles to communicating chambers. circumferential welded joints connecting from heads to main shells to nozzles and to communicating chambers. b) Category B: circumferential welded joints with in the main shell. tubes sheets and flat heads to main shells . communicating chambers . U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 6  .nozzles and any welded joints within a formed or flat head. communicating chambers.

F Definition and Examples PRIMARY GENERAL STRESS: These stress act over a full cross section of the vessel. PL Secondary stress: Secondary membrane stress. Qm Secondary bending stress Qb Peak stress. Primary general stress are divided into membrane and U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 7  . Primary stress are generally due to internal or external pressure or produced by sustained external forces and moments.  STRESS Types of Stresses Tensile Compressive Bending Axial Membrane Principal Tangential Strain induced Longitudinal Normal Shear Bearing Discontinuity Tensile Thermal Load induced Circumferential Radial Classes of stress Primary Stress General: Primary general membrane stress Pm Primary general bending stress Pb Primary local stress.

Pm Circumferential and longitudinal stress due to pressure. LOCAL PRIMARY MEMBRANE STESS. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 8  . Compressive and tensile axial stresses due to wind. Pb Bending stress in the centre of a flat head or crown of a dished head. Membrane stress in the nozzle wall within the area of reinforcement due to pressure or external loads. Bending stress in a shallow conical head. Primary general membrane stress. Longitudinal stress due to the bending of the horizontal vessel over the saddles. Calculated value of a primary bending stress may be allowed to go higher than that of a primary membrane stress. PL Pm+ membrane stress at local discontinuities: Head-shell juncture Cone-cylinder juncture Nozzle-shell juncture Shell-flange juncture Head-skirt juncture Shell-stiffening ring juncture Pm+ membrane stresses from local sustained loads: Support legs Nozzle loads Beam supports Major attachments SECONDARY STRESS Secondary membrane stress Qm Axial stress at the juncture of a flange and the hub of the flange Thermal stresses.  bending stresses. Membrane stress in the centre of the flat head. Bending stress in the ligaments of closely spaced openings. Primary general bending stress. Axial compression due to weight.

LOADINGS Loadings or forces are the “causes” of stress in pressure vessels. the stresses from the inward radial load could be either a primary local stress or secondary stress.  Membrane stress in the knuckle area of the head. The nonuniform portion of the stress distribution in a thick-walled vessels due to internal pressure. Thermal stresses in cladding or weld overlay. (stress concentration). The stresses due to pressure and wind are primary membrane stresses. Thermal stress in a wall caused by a sudden change in the surface temperature. Loadings may be applied over a large portion (general area) of the vessel or over a local area of the vessel. Membrane stress due to local relenting loads. It is primary local stress if it is produced from an unrelenting load or a secondary stress if produced by a relenting load. Peak Stress F Stress at the corner of discontinuity. Stress due to notch effect. etc. Secondary bending stress. Qb Bending stress at the gross structural discontinuity: nozzle. (relenting loadings only).. General and local loads can produce membrane and bending stresses. lugs. O the other hand. Discontinuity stresses at stiffening or support ring. The stress variation of the radial stress due to internal pressure in thick-walled vessels. The stresses applied more or less continuously and uniformly across an entire section of the vessel are primary stresses. These stresses are additive and define the overall state of stress in the vessel or component. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 9  .

Local loads—Due to reactions from supports. Torsional load. if it is a secondary stress. internal. platforms. Thermal load.  If it is a primary stress. Primary stress: Pm < SE Primary membrane local (PL): PL=Pm+ PL <1. d. a. the stress will be redistributed. operating. etc. b.. Compressive/tensile loads—Due to dead weight. Tangential load. ladders. erection. Moment load—Longitudinal or circumferential. Shear load—Longitudinal or circumferential. Moment loads—Due to wind. the load will relax once slight deformation occurs. attached Piping.. platforms.5 SE PL=Pm+Qm< 1. seismic. piping and vessel contents. Basically each combination of stresses ( stress categories will have different allowables.5SE Primary membrane + secondary (Q): Pm+Q< 3SE Loading can be outlined as follows: Categories of loadings General loads—Applied more or less continuously across a vessel section. Radial load—Inward or Outward. Pressure loads—Internal or external pressure (design. transportation. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 10  . hydrotest. attached equipment. i. f. mixers.e. and hydrostatic head of liquid). Thermal loads—Hot box design of skirt-head attachment.e. e. installed equipment. c. i.

Thermal loads. f. c.  Types of Loadings 1) Steady loads—Long-term duration. g. inaccurate or incorrect design methods. shut down FAILURE IN PRESSURE VESSELS Categories of Failures: Material--Improper Selection of materials. Fabrication – Poor quality control. b. Wind Loads Types of Loadings 1) Non-steady loads. Shop and field hydro-test Earthquake Erection Transportation Upset. Variable. emergency Thermal Loads Startup. a. Internal/external pressure. Loadings to and from vessel supports. continuous. e. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 11  . improper or insufficient fabrication procedures including welding. d. inadequate shop testing.Short-term duration. defects in material. Dead weight. Vessel contents. heat treatment or forming methods. Design—Incorrect design data. Loading due to attached piping and equipment.

are intended to prevent excessive plastic deformation and incremental collapse.e. i. upset conditions. whereas fatigue is a cyclic-dependent phenomenon o TYPES OF FAILURES o Plastic instability—Incremental collapse. Brittle fracture—Can occur at low or intermediate temperature. Some types of services which requires special attention both for selection of materials. progressive fracture. Excessive plastic deformation—The primary and secondary stress limits as outlined in ASME Section VIII. Creep is a time-dependent phenomenon.  Service—Change of service condition by the user. and fabrication methods are as follows: Lethal Fatigue (cyclic) Brittle (low temperature) High Temperature High shock or vibration Vessel contents Hydrogen Ammonia Compressed air Caustic Chlorides TYPES OF FAILURES Elastic deformation—Elastic instability or elastic buckling. design details. vessel geometry. and stiffness as well as properties of materials are protecting against buckling. Cumulative damage leads to instability of vessel by plastic deformation. Division 2. Stress rupture—Creep deformation as a result of fatigue or cyclic loading. Brittle fractures have occurred in vessels made of low carbon steel in the 40-50 F range during hydrotest where minor flaws exist. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 12  .. incremental collapse is cyclic strain accumulation or cumulative cyclic deformation. inexperienced operations or maintenance personnel.

Stress corrosion—It is well know that chlorides cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. likewise caustic service can cause stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel. thick. The process of compressing layers is called auto-frettage from the French word meaning “selfhooping. thick and successive layers are applied. This creates compressive stress in the core. The core is stressed into plastic range but below ultimate strength. Multi-wall—Begins with a core about ½ in. Materials selection is critical in these services. SPECIAL PROBLEMS Thick Walled Pressure Vessels Mono-bloc. Outer layers about the same thickness are successive “ shrunk fit” over the core. Corrosion can reduce fatigue life by pitting the surface and propagating cracks. Bands or forged rings are slipped outside and then the core is expanded hydraulically. Each layer is vented (except the core) and welded individually with no overlapping welds. Multilayer—Begins with a core about ½ in.” Multilayer auto-frettage—Begins with a core about ½ in. The outer rings are maintained at a margin below yield strength. which is relaxed during pressurization. to 2 in. The elastic deformation residual in U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 13  . o Corrosion fatigue—Occurs when corrosive and fatigue effects occur simultaneously. thick. Material selection and fatigue properties are the major considerations.Solid vessel wall.  o o High Strain—Low cyclic fatigue is strain-governed and occurs mainly in lowerstrength/high-ductile materials.

THERMAL STRESS Whenever the expansion or contraction that would occur normally as a result of heating or cooling an object is prevented. Only two longitudinal welds are used.  the outer bands induces compressive stress in the core. Vessels 5 to 6 ft in diameter for pressure up to 5000psi have been made in this manner. Fatigue analysis can also be a result of thermal vibrations as well as other loadings. They can however. diameter and change in directions would all have different displacements if allowed to expand freely. The stresses in the respective parts at or near the juncture are called discontinuity stresses. However. which is relaxed during pressurization. one attaching the sheet to the core and the final closures weld. Discontinuity stresses do become an important factor in fatigue design where cyclic loading is a consideration. Discontinuity stresses are “ secondary stresses” and are self-limiting. Thermal stresses are “secondary stresses” because they are self-limiting. DISCONTINUITY STRESSES Vessel sections of different thickness. Core is wrapped with steel cables in tension until the desired autofrettage is achieved. cause failure due to excessive deformations. Coil wrapped vessels: Begin with a core that is subsequently wrapped or coiled with a thin steel sheet until the desired thickness is obtained. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 14  . material. the vessel is in cyclic service. Wire wrapped vessels: Begin with inner core of thickness less than required for pressure. they must deflect and rotate together. FATIGUE ANALYSIS When a vessel is subject to repeated loading that could cause failure by the development of a progressive fracture. The stress is always caused by some form of mechanical restrain. thermal stresses are developed. Thermal stresses will not cause failure by rupture. since they are connected in a continuous structure.

Normal reinforcement methods apply to Page 15  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  .  In fatigue service the localized stresses at abrupt changes in section. a. b. and thermal gradients are the significant stresses. pipe size and smaller in vessel walls greater than 3/8 in. No reinforcement other than that inherent in the construction is required for nozzles. such as at a head junction or nozzle opening. defects in construction. misalignment. NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT Fig : nozzle reinforcement Limits. and less. pipe size and smaller in vessel walls 3/8 in. 3-in. 2-in.

Openings < ½ head diameter. 8. 2. 5. 4. Thickness It is recommended that pad be not less then 75% nor more than 150% of the part to which they are attached.414 b. re-pads can also be put inside providing they do not interfere with the vessel’s operation.5(tr). U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 16  . either in the pad or in the nozzle neck.  Vessels 60-in. Vessels greater than 60-in. While normally put on the outside of the vessel. 1b. a.75 Increasing head thickness by 1.in a. Openings>1/2 head diameter –shall be designed as a bolted flange connection. no additional credit may be taken for the higher strength. diameter and less-1/2 the vessel diameter but not to exceed 20 in. 3. Strength It is advisable but not mandatory for reinforcing pad material to be the same as the vessel material. Forming: Reinforcing pads should be formed as closely to the contour of the vessel as possible. diameter-1/3 the vessel diameter but not to exceed 40. If a higher strength material is used. Openings in flat heads: Reinforcements for the openings in the flats heads and blind flanges shall be as follows a. reinforcement shall be in accordance with para. or thickness of head or flange may be increased by: Doubling C value Using C=0.area to be replaced equals 0. 1-7 of ASME Code. Openings in torispherical heads. Width While no minimum is stated. 9. it is recommended that re-pads be atleast 2in wide.

General Reinforcement should be calculated in the corroded condition assuming maximum tolerance (minimum t) 12. 11. a. Reinforcement required for openings subject to external pressure only or when longitudinal compression governs shall only be 50 % of that required for internal pressure and tr.8 D of an elliptical head. division 1. the construction efficiency of the ligaments between the holes is acceptable. When unavoidable. 17. Openings through seams. Multiple openings: is acceptable. the seam should be ground flush before attaching the pad. Re-pads over seams If at all possible. External pressures. to the edge of a main seam. the required thickness of the head for reinforcement purpose shall be equal to the thickness required for a seamless sphere of radius K(D). the required thickness of head for reinforcement purpose shall be computed using M=1 10. is thickness required for external pressure 16. Openings near seams Small nozzles ( for which the code does not require. Openings that have been reinforcement may located in a welded joint. pads should not cover weld seams. 15. does not allow a welded joint to have two different weld joint efficiencies 13. 14.  When a nozzle openings and all its reinforcement fall within the dished portion. provided the U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 17  . the reinforcement to be checked) shall not be located closer than ½ in. Openings in elliptical heads When a nozzle openings and all its reinforcement fall within 0. ASME code. Ligaments When there is a series of closely spaced openings in a vessel shell and it is impractical to reinforce each opening.

required for the two openings. 2. 18. 1. circle circumscribing the multiple openings.0 for the longitudinal axis to 0. When more than two openings are to be provided with combined reinforcement: The minimum distance between the two centers is 1 1/3 the average diameters. the area between the openings shall meet the following 1. 3. The area of reinforcement between the two nozzle shall be atleast 50% of the area Multiple openings may be reinforced s an opening equal in diameter to that of a Plane of reinforcement. Any overlap area shall be proportional between the two openings by the ratio of the diameters.  a. Must have a combined area equal to the sum of the two areas 2.5 for circumferential. A correction factor f may be used for “ integrally reinforced” nozzle to compensate for differences in stress from longitudinal to circumferential axis of the vessel. For two openings closer than 2 times the average diameters and where limits of reinforcement overlap. No portion of the cross-section shall apply to more than one openings. When more than two openings are to be provided with combined reinforcement: 17 b. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 18  . c. Value of f vary from 1. b.

  CHAPTER 2 ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 19  .

0 SCOPE This specification covers the design basis for following equipment: .Storage Tanks .Steel silos.2 For Pressure vessels (Selectively for high pressure / high thickness / critical service) ASME SEC.1 / IS: 2825 ASME SEC.0 CODES AND STANDARDS The following codes and standards shall be followed unless otherwise specified: ASME SEC.2 ASME SEC. VIII DIV. VIII DIV.Reactors .Columns .Steel Flare Stacks 2. VIII DIV. For Low Pressure Storage Tanks. Hoppers . VIII DIV.Vessels . Page 20  For Pressure vessels U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  .  Engineering Design Guidelines For Pressure Vessels 1.3 API 650 / IS: 803 API 620 For Storage Spheres For Pressure vessels (Selectively for high pressure) For Storage Tanks. Bins.Spheres .

condensate flash drums and similar vessels IS: 9178 / DIN 1055 BS: 4994 / ASME SEC X ASME: B 96.II ASTM / IS IS: 875 / SITE DATA IS: 1893 / SITE DATA ASME SEC. and applicable standards/ Specifications. IX WRC BULLETIN# 107.` Welded Aluminium Alloy Storage Tanks.1 Cryogenic Storage Tanks (Double Wall) For workmanship of Vessels not categorized under any other code. 3. VIIIDIV.0 DESIGN CRITERIA Equipment shall be designed in compliance with the latest design code requirements. For material specification For material specification (Tanks) For wind load consideration For seismic design consideration For welding. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 21  . 297 / PD 5500 For Local load / stress analysis For Silos Hoppers and Bins FRP vessels / tanks.1 ASME SEC. steam storage catch water vessels. ISO R831/ IBR For Steam producing.  API 620 / BS 7777 ASME SEC.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 22  . but not less than that calculated as per following for diameter more than 1500mm. Wall thickness (mm) = Dia/1000 + 2. d) For carbon and low alloy steel columns / towers -8mm (including corrosion allowance not exceeding 3. b) For stainless steel vessel and high alloy vessels -3 mm.0mm).5 + Corrosion Allowance All dimension are in mm.0 MINIMUM SHELL/HEAD THICKNESS Minimum thickness shall be as given below a) For carbon and low alloy steel vessels.6mm (Including corrosion allowance not exceeding 3. shall be added to minimum thickness.0mm. if any shall be added to minimum thickness. Corrosion allowance. e) For stainless steel and high alloy columns / towers -5mm.  4.5 Corrosion Allowance. if any.5 + Corrosion Allowance FOR DIAMETERS 2400mm AND ABOVE Wall thickness = Dia/1000 +2. but not less than that calculated as per following: FOR DIAMETERS LESS THAN 2400mm Wall thickness = Dia/1000 +1. c) Tangent to Tangent height (H) to Diameter (D) ratio (H/D) greater than 5 shall be considered as column and designed accordingly.

 
5.0 5.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Vessel sizing
All Columns All Clad/Lined Vessels All Other Vessels Tanks & Spheres Based on inside diameter Based on inside diameter Based on outside diameter Based on inside diameter

Vessels (Thickness>50mm) Based on inside diameter

5.2

Vessel End Closures :

- Unless otherwise specified Deep Torispherical Dished End or 2:1 Ellipsoidal Dished End as per IS - 4049 shall be used for pressure vessels. Seamless dished end shall be used for specific services whenever specified by process licensor. - Hemispherical Ends shall be considered when the thickness of shell exceeds 70mm. - Flat Covers may be used for atmospheric vessels - Pipe Caps may be used for vessels diameter < 600mm having no internals. - Flanged Covers shall be used for Vessels /Columns of Diameter < 900mm having internals. - All columns below 900mm shall be provided with intermediate body flanges. Numbers of Intermediate flanges shall be decided based on column height and type of internals

5.3

Pressure

Pressure for each vessel shall be specified in the following manner:

5.3.1 Operating Pressure
Maximum pressure likely to occur any time during the lifetime of the vessel

5.3.2 Design Pressure
a) When operating pressure is up to 70 Kg./cm2 g , Design pressure shall be equal to operating pressure plus 10% ( minimum 1Kg./cm2 g ). U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 23 

 
b) When operating pressure is over 70 Kg./cm2 g , Design pressure shall be equal to operating pressure plus 5% ( minimum 7 Kg./cm2g). c) Design pressure calculated above shall be at the top of vertical vessel or at the highest point of horizontal vessel. d) The design pressure at any lower point is to be determined by adding the maximum operating liquid head and any pressure gradient within the vessel. e) Vessels operating under vacuum / partial vacuum shall be designed for an external pressure of 1.055 Kg./cm2 g. f) Vessels shall be designed for steam out conditions if specified on process data sheet.

5.3.3 Test Pressure
a) Pressure Vessels shall be hydrostatically tested in the fabricators shop to 1.5 /1.3/ 1.25 (depending on design code) times the design pressure corrected for temperature. b) In addition, all vertical vessels / columns shall be designed so as to permit site testing of the vessel at a pressure of 1.5/ 1.3 / 1.25 (depending on design code) times the design pressure measured at the top with the vessel in the vertical position and completely filled with water. The design shall be based on fully corroded condition. c) Vessels open to atmosphere shall be tested by filling with water to the top. d) 1. Pressure Chambers of combination units that have been designed to operate independently shall be hydrostatically tested to code test pressure as separate vessels i.e. each chamber shall be tested without pressure in the adjacent chamber. 2. When pressure chambers of combination units have their common elements designed for maximum differential pressure the common elements shall be subjected to 1.5/ 1.3 times the differential pressure. 3. Coils shall be tested separately to code test pressure. e) Unless otherwise specified in applicable design code allowable stress during hydro test in tension shall not exceed 90% of yield point. f) Storage tanks shall be tested as per applicable code and specifications.

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5.4 Temperature

Temperature for each vessel shall be specified in the following manner:

5.4.1 Operating Temperature
Maximum / minimum temperature likely to occur any during the lifetime of vessel.

5.4.2 Design temperature
a) For vessels operating at 0C and over: Design temperature shall be equal to maximum operating temperature plus 15 0C. b) For Vessels operating below 0C: Design temperature shall be equal to lowest operating temperature. c) Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) shall be lower of minimum atmospheric temperature and minimum operating temperature.

5.5

Corrosion allowance :

Unless otherwise specified by Process Licensor, minimum corrosion allowance shall be considered as follows : - Carbon Steel, low alloy steel column, Vessels, Spheres : 1.5 mm - Clad / Lined vessel: Nil - Storage Tank, shell and bottom : 1.5 mm - Storage tank, Fixed roof / Floating Roof : Nil For alloy lined or clad vessels, no corrosion allowance is required on the base metal. The cladding or lining material (in no case less than 1.5 mm thickness) shall be considered for corrosion allowance. Cladding or lining thickness shall not be included in strength calculations. Corrosion allowance for flange faces of Girth / Body flanges shall be considered equal to that specified for vessel.

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6 Wind Consideration Wind load shall be calculated on the basis of IS : 875 / site data. However.7 minimum.  5. 5.8.1 Tank Capacity shall be specified as Nominal capacity and stored capacity Nominal capacity for fixed roof tanks be volume of cylindrical shell. a) Drag coefficient for cylindrical vessels shall be 0.8. Stored capacity shall be 90% of Nominal capacity. Nominal capacity for floating roof tanks shall be volume of cylindrical shell minus free board volume.8 Capacity 5. < 8m Shell 1 Roof 1 Page 26  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  .7 Earthquake Consideration : Earthquake load shall be calculated in accordance with IS : 1893 / site data if specially developed and available 5. 5. if required vessels and columns with diameter 1200mm and above may be provided with 600NB manhole. 5. Vessels and columns with diameter greater than 1000mm shall be provided with 500 NB manhole. b) For storage tanks minimum number of manholes (Size 500mm) shall be as follows: Tank Diameter Dia. b) Drag coefficient for spherical vessel shall be 0.6 minimum.2 Sphere Stored capacity shall be 85% of nominal capacity.9 Manholes : a) Vessels and columns with diameter between 900 and 1000 mm shall be provided with 450 NB manhole.

Minimum Nozzle Size. > 36m 2 4 2 2 Floating roofs (pontoon or double deck type) shall be provided with manholes to inspect the entire interior of the roofs.11.Self Reinforced Nozzle Neck : Based on I. Foam seal of proven make shall be provided unless otherwise specified. 5.Safety Valve Nozzle : Based on I. .Minimum nozzle Size : 40 NB . 5.10.D. < 36 dia Dia. 5.12 Flanges U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 27  .11 Nozzle size : Unless otherwise specified . Column : 50 NB .10 Floating Roof : 5.1 a) All nozzles and man-ways including self-reinforced type shall be 'set in' type and attached to vessel with full penetration welds.2 Floating roof design shall be in fabricators scope having proven track record. Size of manhole shall be 500 mm minimum.10.D. Tank Diameter 12 M < >12 M < 60M > 60M Type of Roof Double Deck Type Pontoon Type Double Deck Type 5. 5.1 Unless otherwise specified floating roof shall be of following construction.  > 8m dia. b) Self reinforced nozzles up to 80mm NB may be 'set on' type.

0 and larger 40 40 50 80 40 50 80 100 VENT SIZE. vent/drain connection as per following : VESSEL VOLUME. only weld neck flange shall be used.13 Internals : Removable internals shall be bolted type and bolting shall be stainless steel Type 304.0 and smaller 6. caustic. m3 (mm) 6. NB U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 28  . 5.  5.5 and above 600 NB shall be as per ASME /ANSI B 16. Slip on flanges may be used for nozzles above 100NB in Class 150 rating only.12.0 to 71.15 Vent/Drain Connections: Vessel shall be provided with one number each.12. All flanges above Class 150 rating shall be weld neck type 5.12. severe cyclic service and corrosive service (where corrosion allowance is in excess of 3mm). 5.0 71.47 (SERIES 'B') 5. Hydrogen.0 to 17. 5. 10 % (Minimum two in each size) of installed fasteners. 4 sets for each installed glass.1 Unless otherwise specified nozzle flanges up to 600NB shall be as per ASME /ANSI B16. unless specified otherwise.14 Spares : Gaskets : Fasteners: Sight/Light Glass: Two sets for each installed gasket. NB (mm) DRAIN SIZE.0 17.2 For nozzles 100 NB and below.3 Slip on flanges shall not be used in Lethal.

0 PAINTING As per Standard Specification. 9. 6.I or as specified. 8.  5. PRESSURE VESSEL STEEL PLATES ARE PURCHASED TO THE REQUIREMENT OF THE STANDARD ASME SA-20.0 SPECIAL CONSIDERATION FOR TALL COLUMN DESIGN Mechanical design of self supporting Tall Column / Tower shall be carried out for various load combinations as per Annexure-II 10.16 Pipe Davit : Vertical Vessel / Column having safety valve size > 80 NB and or having internals. unless otherwise stated.0 MATERIAL SELECTION : Material of various parts of equipment shall be selected per process data sheet guidelines and proper care shall be taken for the points as given in Annexure. CARBON STEEL MATERIAL IS ORDERED TO MEET THE IMPACT REQUIREMENTS OF SUPPLEMENT OF STANDARD ASME SA 20. WHICH REQUIRES TESTING OF INDIVIDUAL PLATES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE. shall be provided with pipe davit per relevant standard. TYPICAL U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 29  . Annexure : I 1.0 INSULATION THICKNESS : As indicated on process data sheet by process licensor 7.0 STATUTORY PROVISIONS : National laws and statutory provisions together with any local byelaws for the state shall be complied with.

ATMOSPHERIC/LOW PRESSURE STORAGE TANKS. NORMALISED TO MEET IMPACT REQUIREMENTS PER SUPPLEMENT SS OF SA 20 AT-50F 2. 9. 7. ALL PERMANENT ATTACHMENTS WELDED DIRECTLY TO 9 % NICKEL STEEL SHOULD BE OF THE SAME MATERIAL OR OF AN AUSTENTIC STAINLESS STEEL TYPE WHICH CANNOT BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT. ALL PIPES SHALL BE OF SEAMLESS CONSTRUCTION. 8. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 30  . MATERIAL SHALL BE SELECTED AS PER API 650 /API 620 AS APPLICABLE. 5. NONFERROUS MATERIAL AND SUPER ALLOYS SHALL BE SELECTED BASED ON SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATION. MATERIAL FOR PRESSURE VESSELS DESIGNED ACCORDING TO ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 SHALL BE GIVEN SPECIAL CONSIDERATION AS PER CODE. CHECK FOR IMPACT TESTING REQUIREMENT AS PER UCS-66 FOR COINCIDENT TEMPERATURE AND PART THICKNESS. 6. SELECTION OF STAINLESS STEEL MATERIAL SHALL BE BASED ON PROCESS RECOMMENDATION/PROCESS LICENSOR. 4. MATERIALS FOR CAUSTIC SERVICE SOUR SERVICE OR SOUR + HIC SHALL BE SELECTED BASED ON SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATION OF PROCESS LICENSOR.  MATERIAL SPECIFICATION IS AS FOLLOWS SA 516 GR.60. 3.

The weight of attachments to be considered shall be as per Table -1 enclosed Other loading as specified in UG-22 of ASME Code Sec. trays. ladders piping and attached equipment should be given due consideration. VIII Div. Self weight of column inclusive of piping. nozzles.0 Loadings The loadings to be considered in designing a self-supporting tall column/tower shall include: 1.1. platforms. wherever applicable. welded and removable attachments.  10. insulation and operating liquid etc.3 Seismic forces and moments shall be computed in accordance with IS 1893 (latest edition).4 Basic wind pressure and wind velocity (including that due to winds of short duration as in squalls) for the computation of forces / moments and dynamic analysis respectively shall be in accordance with IS 875 (latest edition). manholes. 1. 1. Unless otherwise specified importance factor and damping coefficient shall be considered as 2 and 2% respectively. MATERIAL FOR VESSEL /COLUMN SKIRT SHALL BE THE SAME MATERIAL AS OF VESSEL/ COLUMN SHELL FOR THE UPPER PART WITH A MINIMUM OF 500MM. ladders. 1. Annexure -II DESIGN PHILOSOPHY OF TALL COLUMNS Mechanical design of self-supporting tall column and its anchorage block shall be carried out considering combination of various loads. Additional wind loading on column due to external attachments like platforms.2 Internal and or external design pressure specified on process data sheets.1 1.5 Loadings resulting in localised and gross stresses due to attachment or mounting of reflux / reboiler / condenser etc. 1. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 31  .

platforms.2 If the above step is inadequate. insulating and operating liquid etc. but with welded attachments plus full wind on column. Flaring of skirt shall be stopped if the deflection falls within limits or half angle of cone reaches maximum limit of 9 deg. platforms. trays removable internals.3 2. 3.4 Test Condition: Column (in corroded condition) under test pressure filled with water plus 33% of specified wind load on uninsulated column considered.1 If the deflection of column exceeds the above allowable limit the thickness of skirt shall be increased as first trial up to a maximum value equal to the column thickness and this exercise shall be stopped if the deflection falls within allowable limit. or earthquake force.  2. the thickness of shell courses shall be increased one starting from bottom course above skirt and proceeding upwards till the deflection falls within allowable limits. reboiler mounted on column.0 Deflection of Column Analysis shall be carries out for following conditions : Maximum allowable deflection at top of column shall be equal to height of the column divided by 200.0 2. 3. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 32  . trays etc. EARTHQUAKE AND WIND SHALL BE CONSIDERED NOT ACTING CONCURRENTLY 3. ladder. including welded items.2 Operation Condition: Column (in corroded condition) under design pressure. plus full wind on insulated column with all other projections open to wind.3 If the above two steps prove inadequate in limiting the deflection within allowable limits. 3. skirt shall be gradually flared to reduce the deflection.1 Loading Condition Erection Condition: Column (un-corroded) erected on foundation without insulation. piping. 2. 2.

I.3 x design pressure x temperature correction factor as specified in ASME Code Section VIII Div./m Weight of caged ladder: 37 Kg.0 Dynamic Analysis Dynamic analysis of each column shall be carried out for stability under transverse wind induced vibrations as per standard design practice. I (Clause UG-99) at top of column.0 Minimum Hydrotest Pressure Minimum Hydrotest Pressure (in Horizontal position) shall be equal to 1.7 Weight of trays (with liquid) to be considered. 4. Thicknesses are accordingly chosen to keep the within limits as per Table-2. 7./m Equivalent projection to be considered for wind load on caged ladder : 300 mm Distance of platform below each manhole : Approx. 5. 3. 2./m2 Weight of plain Ladder: 15 Kg. The recommended magnification amplitude shall be limited to tower diameter divided by five. 1000 mm Page 33  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  . A minimum number of 8 foundation bolts shall be provided. anchor chairs compression ring.0 Stress Limits The stresses due to pressure weight wind / seismic loads shall be combined using maximum principle stress theory for ASME Section VIII Div. Shape factor for shell (for wind force calculation) : 0. shall be designed based on overturning moment (greater of seismic or wind). foundation bolting etc. 6. : 120 Kg. TABLE-1 DETAILS AND WEIGHT OF COLUMN ATTACHMENT 1.  4. Numbers of foundation bolts shall be in multiple of four. 5 6.0 Skirt Support Base Base supporting including base plate.

PxE LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSIVE STRESS Where KxB KxSxE ERECTION TEST NEW CORRODED AMBIENT DESIGN KxSxE KxB B S = Basic allowable Tensile Stress as per Clause UG 23 (a) of ASME Code Sec./ CONDITIONS TYPE OF STRESSES OPERATING NEW OR CORRODED CORRODED TEMPERATURE AMBIENT LONGITUDINAL 0. column.90xY. E = Weld joint efficiency of circumferential weld. 8.1. 11. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 34  . 1200 mm for column dia. Maximum distance between consecutive platform : 5000 mm Projection of Platform : 900mm up to 1meter dia.> 1 meter. depending on extent of radiography. VIII Div. 9. 10. Equivalent height of platform (for wind load computation) : 1000 mm Weight of platforms : 170 Kg. B = 'B' value calculated as per Clause UG-23 (b). from column insulation surface. Platform shall be considered all around TABLE -2 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR COMBINED LOADING VESSEL CONDITION / TEMP.  7./m2.

1. b) 0. if joint is compression type.2 as per ASME Sec VIII Div 1.70S.49S. Note : Allowable stresses in skirt to shell joint shall be as per following : a) 0.  K = Factor for increasing basic allowable value when wind or seismic load is present. if joint is shear type. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 35  .

  CHAPTER 3 DESIGN PROCEDURE AND CALUCULATION U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 36  .

(Q of two section) …. In other words. l = length of cylinder. t = Thickness of the shell.. we have …. p = Intensity of internal pressure. and σ t1 = hoop stress for the material of the cylinder. Now. We know that total force on a longitudinal section of the shell = Intensity of pressure × projected Area = p × d × l and the total resisting force acting on the cylinder walls = σ t1 × 2t × l …ii From equation (i) and (ii) .  DESIGN THEORY Circumferential or Hoop Stress A tensile stress acting in a direction tangential to the circumference is called Circumferential or Hoop Stress. d = Internal diameter of the cylinder shell.i U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 37  . it is on longitudinal section(or on the cylinder walls). Let.

t = p × σt 2 = π (d) ² 4 p×d p×d or t = 4σ t 2 4t Page 38  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  .  σ t1 × 2t × l = p × d × l …. it is a tensile stress acting on the transverse or circumferential section. Fig of Longitudinal stress Let σ t 2 = Longitudinal stress.ii or σ t1 = p×d 2t or t = p×d 2σ t1 Longitudinal Stress A tensile stress acting in a direction of the axis is called longitudinal stress. we have σ t 2 × πd. the total force acting on the transverse section and total resisting force = σ t 2 × πd..t From equation (i) and (ii). = Intensity of pressure × Cross. In other words.sectional Area =p× π (d)² 4 ………i ………ii In this case.

The thickness of shell can be found by following procedure.  Design of Shell Due to Internal Pressure As discussed in article on thin vessel are cylindrical pressure vessel is subjected to tangential ( σ t ) and longitudinal ( σ L ) stresses. Considering the joint efficiency. It’s thickness can be calculated by the following equation: U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 39  . Pi × ( Di + t ) 2t η ×σ = η × σ × 2t = Pi × ( Di + t ) t= Pi × Di 2(η × σ ) − Pi Design of Elliptical Head: Elliptical heads are suitable for cylinders subjected to pressures over 1. σt = Pi × Di P × Di and σ L = i 2t 4t where D= mean diameter = Di + t Rule The design pressure is taken as 5% to 10% more than internal pressure. The shallow forming reduces manufacturing cost.5 MPa. where as the test pressure is taken as 30% more than internal pressure.

  t= where. di = Major axis of ellipse W= Stress intensification factor 1 W = (2 + k 2 ) 6 Where . Of nozzle d = d i + 2 CA where. d i = internal dia. k= Major Axis Diameter 0.5d i = Major Axis Diameter c pi diW 2σ J Rule > Generally. tn = Actual thickness of nozzle trn = Required thickness as per calculation in mm t rn = Pi × Di 2 × σ ×η − Pi U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 40  . k = 2 ( how ever k should not be greater than 2.6) 1 W = (2 + 22 ) 6 =1 t= Pi ⋅ di ⋅W 2 ⋅σ ⋅ J Design of Manhole Let. CA = corrosion Allowance in mm t = Actual thickness of shell in mm tr = require thickness as per calculation in mm.

Of Reinforcing Pad in mm d ip = inner dia.5 ( tn – CA) (whichever is smaller) (whichever is smaller) (whichever is smaller) h1 = h h2 = h centre line h1actual h 2actual X = Distance where the effect of the nozzle persists in mm on each side of the X = d.  h1actual = Height of the nozzle above the shell in mm h 2actual = Height of the nozzle below the shell in mm h1 = Height till where the effect of the nozzle persists above the shell in mm h 2 = Height till where the effect of the nozzle persists below the shell in mm To calculate h1 and h 2 consider a term ‘h’ h = 2. Of Reinforcing Pad in mm t p = Thickness of Reinforcing Pad in mm U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 41  .5 ( t – CA) or or or h = 2. or X= di + t + tn -3CA 2 (whichever is maximum) d op = outer dia.

no reinforcement is necessary as the vessel thickness self Design of Leg: A) Legs support In certain cases. Excess area in the Nozzle. P lies between 400 N/ mm2 and P2 may be upto 2000 N/ m 2 . The design for leg supports is similar to that for bracket support. the bending moment due to wind at the base will be U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 42  .707 × tW × LW × n τ W = w2 Where.d ip ) t p Ar = A – ( A1 + A2 + A3) When Ar = 0 or negative. A = d × tr A1 = (2X – d ) ( t – tr –CA) A2 = 2h1(tn – trn – CA) Excess area in the nozzle inside the shell A3 = 2 h2 (tn – 2CA) A r = ( d op .  Area Calculation Area pertaining to material removed. These types of supports are suitable only for small vessels as there is a concentrated local stress at the joint. Area Required. τW = tW = Weld Height LW = Weld Length. If the legs are welded to the shell. Excess area in the Shell. then the shear stresses in the weld will be given by: ∑W P2 = KP H 2 Do mm 2 1 0. compensates. legs can be made detachable to the vessel.707 × tW × LW × n ∑W 0. These legs can be bolted to plates. the wind pressure is higher and hence for heights above 20m. Beyond 20m. 1 Therefore. Area required. Pw 2 = KP2 H 2 Do Generally. B) Wind Load Wind load can be estimated as : Pw1 = K P H Do 1 This equation is valid for heights upto 20m.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 43  . σbw = Mw = Mw = Pw1h1 2 Pw1h1 h + Pw 2 ( h1 + 2 ) 2 2 Mw z Where Z= section Modulus The wind load would create tensile stress on the wind side and compressive on the other side.  (IF H ≤ 20 m) (IF H> 20m) Therefore. bending stress will be.

As per Equation. Joint Efficiency for shell = 1.588 (Q CA is NIL) = 1.  Design Calculation 1) Thickness of cylinder Given data Internal pressure (P) = 0. k = 2 ( how ever k should not be greater than 2. k= 0.6) 1 W = (2 + 22 ) 6 =1 t= Pi ⋅ di ⋅W 2 ⋅σ ⋅ J where.588) × (496) 2 ×137 × 1 − 0.5d i Major Axis Diameter = Major Axis Diameter c k=2 Rule > Generally.066mm 2) Elliptical Head 1 W = (2 + k 2 ) 6 where .066 ∴ t = 1. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 44  . t= t= Pi × Di + CA 2 × σ ×η − Pi (0.588 MPa Internal Diameter (Di) = 496mm Corrosion Allowance (CA) = Nil.

066 mm.27 mm. tr = require thickness = 1.588 N/ mm 2 Internal diameter (Di) = 496 mm Thickness (t) = 6 mm.51 mm d = di + CA = 254. 0.588 × 254.06 mm ∴ t = 1. tn = Actual thickness of nozzle = 9.  di = Major axis of ellipse = 496mm W = Stress intensification factor = 1 Pi ⋅ di ⋅W 2 ⋅σ ⋅ J t= t= 0. trn = Required thickness as per calculation in mm.51 2 × 137 × 1 − 0.588 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 45  .588 t 1 rn = t rn = 0.588 × 496 × 1 2 ×137 × 1 = 1.51 mm.51 Pi × Di 2 × σ ×η − Pi A = 2 ×137 ×1 − 0.588 × 254.06 mm 3) Design Of Manhole INLET NOZZLE (N1) GIVEN DATA Internal pressure (Pi) = 0. CA = NIL Joint Efficiency (η ) = 1 Internal diameter of nozzle (di) = 254.

A2 = 2h1(tn – trn – CA) h = 2.51 × 1.69 mm 2 Excess area in the nozzle inside the shell A3 = 2 h2 (tn – 2CA) = 2 × 15 ( 9.547 – 0) = 261.27 – 0.51)(6-1. A = (2 × 254.  = 0. ( Take X whichever maximum) Therefore.3 mm2 Excess area in the shell.51 + 6 +9. A = d × tr = 254.27-0) U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 46  or h = 2. Therefore. X = di + t + tn -3CA 2 = 254.51-254.066 = 271.5 (9.51 mm.5 ( t – CA) = 2. Area Calculation Area Pertaining to material removed.175 mm ( Take X whichever smaller) . A2 = 2 × 15 ( 9.547 mm. A1 = (2X – d ) ( t – tr –CA) Generally.75 mm2 Excess area in the nozzle. X = d = 254.066-0) = 1255.27) = 23.27 – 0 2 = 142.52 mm. t rn = 0.5 × 6 = 15mm h1 = h2 = h = 15 mm.5 ( tn – CA) = 2.547 mm.

1 mm 2 Area required Ar = A – ( A1 + A2 + A3) = -1524.47 = 755.  = 278.508 = 626.38 N (IF H ≤ 20 m) (IF H> 20m) Here we use .38 × 1206. K = Coefficient depending on shape factor = 0.7 P = Wind pressure = 730 N/ mm 2 1 H = Height of the vessel above foundation =2413 mm Do = Outer Diameter Of Vessels Wind load can be estimated as : Pw1 = K P H Do 1 = 0. Therefore.m Here we use I.Section.41 N. Z = section Modulus Z= 3 bh 3 − b1h1 6h U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 47  .7×730×2.24 As Ar is –ve or zero reinforcement is not necessary. 4) Design of leg Wind load Here .413×0. Mw = Pw1h1 2 Mw = Mw = Pw1h1 2 Pw1h1 h + Pw 2 ( h1 + 2 ) 2 2 = 626.

Bending Stress will be .96t 3 (as σ bw = 350 N/mm²) 350× 106 = t = 5.96 t 3 Therefore.  = 4t(5t)3 − 3t(3t)3 6(5t) = 13.41 13.36 × 10−3 m ∴ L= 123 123 + + 1834 3 3 = 1916 mm U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 48  . σbw = Mw z 755.

36mm                                    U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 49  .51  9.27                                  5 .  SUMMARY    SHELL     HEAD      MAN HOLE     REINFORCEMENT  PAD     LEG       INTERNAL DIAMETER (Di)  LENGTH (L)  THICKNESS (t)  THICKNESS (t)  HEIGHT (h)  DIAMETER OF OPENING (di)  THICKNESS OF NOZZLE (tn)  AS AREA CALCULATED IS   ‐ve      RF PAD IS NOT REQUIRED        THICKNESS OF LEGS      496mm  1734mm   6mm                                   6mm                              173mm  254.

  DESIGN CODES APPROCH 2 BY ASME U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 50  .

8 2.50 TORISPHERICAL HEAD: t= 0.64 1.07 1.2P) + CA =CONSTANT BASED ON THE MINOR AXIS (D/2H) RATIO OF “VALUES OF FACTOR K” D/2H 3.0 K 0.Di/ (2SE-0.71 0.4 2.87 0.5 1.0.Di / (2SE.E.5 2.8 1.2P) + CA OTHERS.6 1.00 D/2H 1. r = 6% OF CROWN RADIUS (L) t =PLM/ (2S.46 1.29 1.1P) + CA FOR KNUCKLE RADIUS.76 0.2 2.2 1.37 1.1 2.885 PL/ (SE-0.4 1.57 0.2P) + CA where L=CROWN RADIUS M=CONSTANT BASED ON RATIO OF RADIUS(L/r) CROWN AND KNUCLE U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 51  .83 1.0 K 1.0.  DESIGN THEORY PRESSURE VESSEL HEAD DESIGN UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE THICKNESS OF HEADS/ CLOSURES: ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD: t t K MAJOR & = P.14 1.0 2.66 0. = P.6 2.K.

0 1.0 M 1.18 1.06 1.75 1. dependent on joint geometry of head cover to shell (range 0.50 1.0 7.0 M 1. KNUCKLE RADIUS.65 1.0 10.36 1.00 3. r SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 3t.1 – 0.10 1.50 2.67 M 1.0 14.0 9.33) OBROUND/ NON-CIRCULAR HEADS (INCLUDING SQUARE/ RECTANGULAR) U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 52  .0 L/r 5.2P) + CA FLAT HEADS & COVERS (UG.0 16.31 1.50 3.25 11.0 13.41 1.77 (USE NEAREST VALUE OF L/r.0 15.Ri/ (2SE.72 1.54 L/r 12.50 4.58 1.46 1. CONICAL HEAD: t = PDi/ 2 COS α (SE-0.00 1.0 8.0.22 6.00 2.34) CIRCULAR COVER/ HEADS t = Di * SQRT(CP/SE) + CA Where C = Factor.6P) + CA α = half apex angle HEMISPHERICAL HEAD: t = P.0 16. INTERPOLATION UNNECESSARY) NOTE: – MAXIMUM RATIO ALLOWED BY UG-32 (j) WHEN L EQUALS THE OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF THE SKIRT OF THE HEAD.62 1.0 1.69 1.  “VALUES OF FACTOR M” L/r 1.15 1.

  t = Di * SQRT(Z*CP/SE) where Z = 3. Guidelines.4 .(2. Suggested Good Practices Inclusions: – Unfired Steam Boilers/ Generators Evaporators Heat Exchangers – Direct Fired Vessels Gas Fired Jacketed Steam Kettles(Jacket Pressure less than 50 PSI) Additional Interpretation: U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 53  .4 d / D) + CA PRESSURE VESSEL SHELL COMPONENT DESIGN UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE Pressure Vessel Definition: – Containers of Pressure Internal External – Pressure Source External Application of Heat Code Coverage: – Subsections Rule. Specifications – Mandatory Appendices Specific Important Subjects to Supplement Subsections – Non-Mandatory Appendices Additional Information.

CYLINDRICAL SHELL: Circumferential stress: t = P.) – The above will not apply to heat transfer surface – (1/4)” min.Ri / (2SE. Such additional design & construction procedure may be adopted which are safe and acceptable.Ri / (2SE+0.Ri / (SE.  – The code rules may not cover all designs & constructions procedures.6P) + CA Stress Calculation UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE.0.0. – Other standards for components are acceptable Guidelines for Designed Thickness (To be adopted): – (1/16)” excluding corrosion allowance for shell & head (Min.Di/ 2COSα(SE. for unfired steam boiler shell – (3/32)” min. excluding corrosion allowance for compressed air/ steam/ water service(for CS/AS) – Corrosion allowance shall be based on experience/ field data(No value/ code recommended). CYLINDRICAL SHELL: Circumferential stress: U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 54  . THICKNESS CALCULATIONS UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE.0. – Field fabrication are acceptable.4P) + CA SPHERICAL SHELL: t = P.2P) + CA CONICAL SECTION: (INTERNAL PRESSURE) t =P.6P) + CA Longitudinal stress: t = P.

6t)/ Et Longitudinal stress: Sl = P (Ri .8tCOSα)/4Et COSα U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 55  .4t)/ 2Et SPHERICAL SHELL: Sc = P (Ri + 0.  Sc = P (Ri + 0.0.2t)/ 2Et CONICAL SHELL SECTION: Sc =P (Di + 1.2 tCOSα)/2Et COSα Sl =P (Di – 0.

2008 at 10:04:27 PM U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 56  . May 25. 2008 at 10:04:27 PM Project Last Modified Sunday.  ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL Project Author jimit and mahavir Subject shell analysis Prepared For project report Project Created Sunday. May 25.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 57  . A quality approach to engineering design usually mandates physical testing as the final means of validating structural integrity to a measured precision. N. Convergence and alert criteria may be defined for any of the results and can serve as guides for evaluating the quality of calculated results and the acceptability of values in the context of known design requirements. A result meeting this criteria is said to be "converged". Alert ranges typically represent known aspects of the design specification. Notice Do not accept or reject a design based solely on the data presented in this report. Multiple scenarios allow comparison of results given different loading conditions. Convergence criteria sets a specific limit on the allowable change in a result between iterations. All values are presented in the "SI Metric (m. V.  1 Introduction The ANSYS CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) software program was used in conjunction with 3D CAD (Computer-Aided Design) solid geometry to simulate the behavior of mechanical bodies under thermal/structural loading conditions. °C. The definition of a simulation includes known factors about a design such as material properties per body. contact behavior between bodies (in an assembly). and types and magnitudes of loading conditions. A)" unit system. The results of a simulation provide insight into how the bodies may perform and how the design might be improved. materials or geometric configurations. Alert criteria define "allowable" ranges for result values. kg. s. Each scenario presented below represents one complete engineering simulation. Solution history provides a means of assessing the quality of results by examining how values change during successive iterations of solution refinement. ANSYS automated FEA (Finite Element Analysis) technologies from ANSYS. to generate the results listed in this report. Inc. Evaluate designs by considering this information in conjunction with experimental test data and the practical experience of design engineers and analysts.

part "H:\shaell and The bounding box for the model measures 1.52.1. respectively.52 m along the global x. The model has a total mass of 109.PRT. 0. 1.16×10-7 N y.69 1.73.71×10-3 N x. Table 2.06×10-7 N·m z] [-1. y and z axes.2.4×10-2 4968 684 "SHEEL" "Structural Steel" Yes 2.2.2.67×10-9 N z] U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 58  .52 109. 1.69 kg.1. Structural Loads Name Type Magnitude Vector Reaction Force N/A Reaction Vector N/A Force Reaction Moment N/A Reaction Vector N/A Moment "Pressure" Pressure 600.1.2.1. 3. Mesh "Mesh". associated with "Model" has an overall relevance of 0.81×10-5 N·m 3. "Mesh" contains 4968 nodes and 684 elements. No mesh controls specified.73 by 0.000. 2. 0. Bodies Name Material Nonlinear Material Effects Bounding Box(m) Mass (kg) Volume (m³) Nodes Elements 1.16×10-9 N·m y.81×10-5 N·m x.  2.1.1.1.2".4×10-2 m³. The model has a total volume of 1.0 Pa N/A 2.71×10-3 N Reaction Force Vector Reaction Moment Reaction Moment Vector [1. Structural Supports Table 3. "Environment" Simulation Type is set to Static Analysis Type is set to Static Structural "Environment" contains all loading conditions defined for "Model" in this scenario.1. Scenario 1 2.52 by 0.2. Structural Supports Name "Fixed Support" Type Fixed Surface Reaction Force 1.2. 2. 1. Structural Loading Table 3. "Model" "Model" obtains geometry from the Pro/ENGINEER® cylinder\SHEEL.2.1.

1. Structural Results Table 3.6×106 Pa 3.3.  2.3.3. Shear Stress Safety Table 3. Theoretically. Definition Name Stress Limit "Stress Tool" Yield strength per material.1.96×106 Pa 1.3.2.3.2.0 °C no strain results from thermal expansion or contraction. Values Name Figure Scope Minimum Maximum Minimum Occurs Maximum Occurs Alert On On Criteria "Equivalent Stress" A1.13 Convergence tracking not enabled. 2.3. "Solution" Solver Type is set to Program Controlled Weak Springs is set to Program Controlled Large Deflection is set to Off "Solution" contains the calculated response for "Model" given loading conditions defined in "Environment".5×107 Pa SHEEL SHEEL None "Maximum Stress" Shear None "Model" 4. Results Name Scope Type Safety Factor Minimum Alert Criteria 7. at a uniform temperature of 22.3. 2.0 °C for "SHEEL".1.1. Table 3.3.2.3. Definition Name Shear Limit Shear Factor U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 59  . Thermal expansion calculations use a constant reference temperature of 22.27×10-5 m SHEEL SHEEL None Convergence tracking not enabled.13 None None "Stress Tool" "Model" "Stress Tool" "Model" Safety Margin 6.3. 2.2 "Model" 0.1 "Model" 8.1.87×107 Pa SHEEL SHEEL None "Total Deformation" A1. Equivalent Stress Safety Table 3.2.0 m 4.

2. stress Figure A1.3. 0.69 Convergence tracking not enabled.69 None None "Stress Tool 2" "Model" "Stress Tool 2" "Model" Safety Margin 5.3. "Equivalent Stress" Contours U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 60  . Results Name Scope Type Safety Factor Minimum Alert Criteria 6.  "Stress Tool 2" Yield strength per material.1.5 Table 3.

  Scenario 1 Figures deformation Figure A1. "Total Deformation" Contours U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 61  .2.

000.0 J/kg·°C 60. Alternating Stress Value 0.2.  AppendicesA1. A2.850.2×10-5 1/°C 434.6×108 Pa 2.1.0 Pa 2.0 1.5 W/m·°C 10.0 kg/m³ 0.7×10-7 Ohm·m U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 62  .5×108 Pa 7. Definition of "Structural Steel" Table A2.0×1011 Pa 1.3 2.5×108 Pa 4. "Structural Steel" Constant Properties Name Compressive Ultimate Strength Compressive Yield Strength Density Poisson's Ratio Tensile Yield Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength Young's Modulus Thermal Expansion Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Relative Permeability Resistivity Table A2.

0 1.41×108 Pa 2.000. "Strain-Life Parameters" Strength Coefficient Strength Exponent Ductility Coefficient 9.2×108 Pa -0.0 Alternating Stress 4.000.0 Table A2.3.62×108 Pa 2.0 50.0 100. Strain-Life Parameters Table A2.0×109 Pa 2.000.9×109 Pa 1.14×108 Pa 8.38×108 Pa 1.0 20.0 100. "Alternating Stress" Cycles 10.0 200.62×107 Pa Table A2.  Mean Value 0.000.21 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 63  .0 20.000.0 2.000.0 200.07×109 Pa 4.000.14×108 Pa 1.4.11 0.5.41×109 Pa 1.83×109 Pa 1.0 10.

2 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 64  .  Ductility Exponent Cyclic Strength Coefficient Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent -0.47 1.0×109 Pa 0.

May 25. May 25. 2008 Sunday.  Project Author Subject Prepared for First Saved Last Saved Product Version Jimit vyas and mahavir solanki Ellipsoidal dish end project analysis Sunday. 2008 11.0 Release U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 65  .

A) Angle Degrees Rotational Velocity rad/s Model Geometry TABLE Model > Geometry > Parts Object Name State Graphics Properties Visible Transparency Definition Suppressed Material Stiffness Behavior Nonlinear Material Effects Bounding Box Length X Length Y Length Z ELIPTICALHEAD Meshed Yes 1 No Structural Steel Flexible Yes 0. °C.508 m 0. kg.173 m 3 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 66  .508 m 0. s.  Contents • Model o Geometry ELIPTICALHEAD o Mesh CFX-Mesh Method o Static Structural Analysis Settings Loads Solution Solution Information Results Max Equivalent Stress Results Max Shear Stress Results Material Data o Structural Steel • Units TABLE 1 Unit System Metric (m. N. V.

1168e-017 m 1.7996e-002 m 0.  Properties Volume Mass Centroid X Centroid Y Centroid Z Moment of Inertia Ip1 Moment of Inertia Ip2 Moment of Inertia Ip3 Statistics Nodes Elements 1.343 kg·m² 0.9271e-003 m³ 15.6178 kg·m² 2289 6232 Mesh TABLE Model > Mesh Object Name State Defaults Physics Preference Relevance Advanced Relevance Center Element Size Shape Checking Solid Element Midside Nodes Straight Sided Elements Initial Size Seed Smoothing Transition Statistics Nodes Elements TABLE Model > Mesh > Mesh Controls Object Name State Scope Scoping Method Geometry Definition Suppressed Method Element Midside Nodes Mesh Solved CFD 0 Fine Default CFD Dropped Active Assembly Medium Slow 2289 6232 5 CFX-Mesh Method Fully Defined Geometry Selection 1 Body No CFX-Mesh Dropped 4 Static Structural U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 67  .34417 kg·m² 0.0962e-017 m -3.128 kg -8.

  TABLE Model > Analysis Object Name State Definition Physics Type Analysis Type Options Reference Temp TABLE Model > Static Structural > Loads Object Name State Scope Scoping Method Geometry Definition Define By Type Magnitude Suppressed FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Pressure Static Structural Fully Defined Structural Static Structural 22.e+005 Pa (ramped) No 1 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 68  . °C 8 Pressure Fully Defined Fixed Support 2 6 Geometry Selection 4 Faces 1 Face Normal To Pressure Fixed Support 6.

s Load Step 1 Substep 1 Iteration Number 1 FIGURE Model > Static equivalent stress 9 10 11 Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation 1.101e+006 Pa Maximum 3. m 4.6131e+006 Pa 1.  Solution TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution Object Name Solution State Solved Adaptive Mesh Refinement Max Refinement Loops 1.6963e+007 Pa 0.5 s Display Points All TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Results Object Name Equivalent Stress State Solved Scope Geometry All Bodies Definition Type Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress Display Time End Time Results Minimum 3.1032e-005 m Structural > Solution > Equivalent Stress > 2 Figure U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 69  . Refinement Depth 2.1378e+007 Pa Information Time 1. TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Solution Information Object Name Solution Information State Solved Solution Information Solution Output Solver Output Newton-Raphson Residuals 0 Update Interval 2.

  FIGURE Model > Static Structural maximum shear stress > Solution > Maximum Shear Stress > 3 Figure U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 70  .

9674 12 13 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 71  .  TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name Max Equivalent Stress State Solved Definition Theory Max Equivalent Stress Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Equivalent Stress > Results Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin State Solved Scope Geometry All Bodies Definition Type Safety Factor Safety Margin Display Time End Time Results Minimum 7.9674 6.

369 6.3 7850.e+011 Pa 0. s Load Step 1 Substep 1 Iteration Number 1 15 Material Data Structural Steel TABLE Structural Steel > Constants Structural Young's Modulus Poisson's Ratio Density Thermal Expansion Tensile Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength Compressive Ultimate Strength Thermal 16 2. Pa U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 72  .6e+008 Pa 0. s 1 1 1 14 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name Max Shear Stress State Solved Definition Theory Max Shear Stress Factor 0.5e+008 Pa 4.5 Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Shear Stress > Results Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin State Solved Scope Geometry All Bodies Definition Type Safety Factor Safety Margin Display Time End Time Results Minimum 7.369 Information Time 1.2e-005 1/°C 2.5e+008 Pa 2.  Information Time Load Step Substep Iteration Number 1. kg/m³ 1.

TABLE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress vs.5 W/m·°C 434.  Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Electromagnetics Relative Permeability Resistivity FIGURE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress 60.7e-007 Ohm·m 4 TABLE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Property Attributes Interpolation Log-Log Mean Curve Type Mean Stress TABLE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress Curve Data Mean Value Pa 0.413e+009 17 18 19 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 73  . Cycles Cycles Alternating Stress Pa 10.999e+009 20. J/kg·°C 10000 1.896e+009 100. 3. 1. 2.827e+009 50. 1.

e+005 1.e+005 2.62e+007 5 TABLE Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters > Property Attributes Display Curve Type Strain-Life TABLE Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters > Strain-Life Parameters Strength Coefficient Pa 9.62e+008 2.41e+008 2. 10000 20000 1.2 20 21 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 74  .2e+008 Strength Exponent -0.14e+008 1.106 Ductility Coefficient 0.47 Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa 1.  200.213 Ductility Exponent -0.e+009 Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent 0.38e+008 1.069e+009 4. 2000.e+006 FIGURE Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters 1.14e+008 8.

March 18. 2008 Tuesday.0 Release U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 75  . 2008 Product Version 11.  FATIGUE ANALYSIS Project Author Subject Prepared for First Saved Last Saved JIMIT AND MAHAVIR FATIGUE ANALYSIS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL Monday. March 17.

V. kg. s.  Contents • Model o Geometry Mesh Static Structural FATIGUEANALYSIS o o Loads Solution Solution Information Results Max Equivalent Stress Results Max Shear Stress Results Fatigue Tool Results Result Charts goodman stress life rl Results • o Material Data Structural Steel 2 Analysis Settings Units TABLE 1 Unit System Angle Metric (m. A) Degrees Rotational Velocity rad/s U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 76  . °C. N.

30847 m³ 2421.5 kg 0.782 m 2.PRT.762 m 0.3 ProEngineer Millimeters Geometry Fully Defined Element Control Program Controlled Display Style Bounding Box Length X Length Y Length Z Properties Volume Mass Statistics Bodies Active Bodies Nodes Elements 1 1 12181 6191 0.  Model Geometry TABLE Model > Geometry Object Name State Definition Source Type Length Unit D:\pressurevesselanalysis\fatigueanalysis\FATIGUEANALYSIS.08 m Part Color TABLE Model > Geometry > Parts Object Name State FATIGUEANALYSIS Meshed U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 77  .

 
Graphics Properties Visible Transparency Definition Suppressed Material Stiffness Behavior No Structural Steel 2 Flexible Yes 1

Nonlinear Material Effects Yes Bounding Box Length X Length Y Length Z Properties Volume Mass Centroid X Centroid Y Centroid Z Moment of Inertia Ip1 Moment of Inertia Ip2 Moment of Inertia Ip3 Statistics Nodes Elements 12181 6191 0.30847 m³ 2421.5 kg -2.3696e-003 m 2.1709e-003 m -8.3295e-004 m 522.75 kg·m² 522.8 kg·m² 80.459 kg·m² 0.762 m 0.782 m 2.08 m

Common Decisions to Both Types of Fatigue Analysis
Once the decision on which type of fatigue analysis to perform, Stress Life or Strain Life, there are 4 other topics upon which your fatigue results are dependent upon. Input decisions that are common to both types of fatigue analyses are listed below: • Loading Type • Mean Stress Effects
U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 78 

 
• Multiaxial Stress Correction • Fatigue Modification Factor Within Mean Stress Effects, the available options are quite different. In the following ections, we will explore all of these additional decisions. These input decision trees for fatigue analysis in both both Stress Life and Strain Life are outlined in Figures 1 and 2. in detail below.

predicted life and types of post processing available. We will look at each of these choices

Mesh
TABLE Model > Mesh Object Name State Defaults Physics Preference Relevance Advanced Relevance Center Element Size Shape Checking Coarse Default Standard Mechanical Mechanical 0 Mesh Solved

Solid Element Midside Nodes Program Controlled Straight Sided Elements Initial Size Seed Smoothing Transition Statistics Nodes Elements 12181 6191 No Active Assembly Low Fast

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Page 79 

 

Static Structural
TABLE Model > Analysis Object Name State Definition Physics Type Analysis Type Options Reference Temp 22. °C TABLE Model > Static Structural > Analysis Settings Object Name State Step Controls Number Of Steps 1. Analysis Settings Fully Defined Structural Static Structural Static Structural Fully Defined

Current Step Number 1. Step End Time 1. s Program Controlled TABLE Model > Static Structural > Loads Object Name State Scope Scoping Method Geometry Selection Geometry Definition Define By Type Magnitude Suppressed Normal To Pressure -6.e+005 Pa (ramped) No Fixed Support 10 Faces 2 Faces Pressure Fully Defined Fixed Support

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 80 

  FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Pressure Solution TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution Object Name State Solution Obsolete Adaptive Mesh Refinement Max Refinement Loops 1. Refinement Depth TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Solution Information Object Name State Solution Information Solution Output Solver Output Solution Information Not Solved 2. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 81  .

5 s All Iteration Number 1 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name State Definition Theory Max Equivalent Stress Max Equivalent Stress Solved Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Equivalent Stress > Results Object Name State Scope Safety Factor Safety Margin Solved U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 82  .4722e+007 Pa 2. s 1 1 4. m 4.757 Pa 3.4133e-004 m Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation End Time All Bodies Equivalent Stress Solved Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation 2.  Newton-Raphson Residuals 0 Update Interval Display Points TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Results Object Name State Scope Geometry Definition Type Display Time Results Minimum Maximum Information Time Load Step Substep 1.7782 Pa 6.5341e+007 Pa 0.

537 2.5 Max Shear Stress Solved Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Shear Stress > Results Object Name State Scope Geometry Definition Type Display Time Results Minimum Information Time 1.8627 Safety Factor Safety Margin End Time All Bodies Iteration Number 1 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name State Definition Theory Factor Max Shear Stress 0. s 3.  Geometry Definition Type Display Time Results Minimum Information Time Load Step Substep 1.537 Safety Factor Safety Margin End Time All Bodies Safety Factor Safety Margin Solved U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 83  .8627 2. s 1 1 3.

e-003 Mean Stress Theory Goodman Stress Component Bin Size Use Quick Rainflow Counting Infinite Life Maximum Points To Plot Life Units Units Name 1 block is equal to cycles 1. Fatigue Tool Solved us\EngineeringData\Load Histories\sampleHistory2.e+006 cycles Data Equivalent (Von Mises) 32 Yes 1.dat 5. Proportional Loading U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 84  .e+009 cycles 5000.  Load Step Substep 1 1 Iteration Number 1 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tools Object Name State Materials Fatigue Factor (Kf) Loading Type History Location Scale Factor Definition Display Time Options Analysis Type Stress Life End Time History Data Data C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v110\AISOL\CommonFiles\Language\enStrength 1. Non-constant amplitude.

data is not sorted into bins until after partial damages are found. For Stress Life. In quick counting. Strictly speaking. To help control this. But instead of using a single load ratio to calculate alternating and mean values. cumulative damage calculations (including cycle counting such as Rainflow and damage summation such as Miner’s rule) need to be done to determine the total amount of fatigue damage and which cycle combinations cause thatdamage. proportional loading within the ANSYS Fatigue Module uses a “quick counting” technique to substantially reduce runtime and memory. Without quick counting. The Rainflow and damage U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 85  . proportional loading also needs only one set of FE results. meaning that the Rainflow Matrix is 32 x 32 in dimension. if the alternating stress is lower than the lowest alternating stress on the fatigue curve. Cycle counting is a means to reduce a complex load history into a number of events. The accuracy of quick counting is usually very good if a proper number of bins are used when counting. the user can set the infinite life value that will be used if the alternating stress is beyond the limit of the SN curve. alternating andmean stresses are sorted into bins before partial damage is calculated. A larger bin size has greater precision but will take longer to solve and use more memory. Setting a higher value will make small stress cycles less damaging if they occur many times. The bin size defines how many divisions the cycle counting history should be organized into for the history data loading type. This provides for an added level of safety because many materials do not exhibit an endurance limit. another available option when conducting a variable amplitude fatigue analysis is the ability to set the value used for infinite life. In constant amplitude loading. Thus. the load ratio varies over time. bin size specifies the number of divisions of the rainflow matrix. in non-constant amplitude loading. Think of this as coupling an FE analysis with strain-gauge results collected over a given time interval. Non-constantAmplitude. which can be compared to the available constant amplitude test data. the fatigue tool will use the life at the last point. the fatigue loading which causes the maximum damage cannot easily be seen. However. the critical fatigue location can be found by looking at a single set of FE results.  Non-constant amplitude. However. cycles with very small alternating stresses may be present and may incorrectly predict too much damage if the number of the small stress cycles is high enough. Since loading is proportional. Bin size defaults to 32.

FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 86  .  matrix results can be helpful in determining the effects of small stress cycles in your loading history.

e+009 cycles Minimum Maximum TABLE 2. 50.  TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Results Object Name Life State Scope Safety Factor Damage Solved Geometry Definition All Bodies Type Design Life Results Life Safety Factor Damage 1.e+007 cycles 0. Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Result Charts U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 87  .

the user can see that most of the alternating stresses have a positive mean stress and that in this case the majority of alternating stresses are quite low. alternating and mean stress is divided into bins and plotted.e+009 cycles FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Rainflow Matrix Rainflow Matrix Chart Rainflow Matrix Chart is a plot of the rainflow matrix at the critical location.) From the rainflow matrix figure.1628e+007 Pa Design Life 1. In this 3-D histogram. The Z-axis corresponds to the number of counts for a given alternating and mean stress bin. This result may be scoped. This result gives the user a measure of the composition of a loading history. Pa 1. This result is onlyapplicable for non-constant amplitude loading where rainflow counting is needed. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 88  . (Such as if most of the alternating stress cycles occur at a negative mean stress.9246e+008 Pa -3.2328e+008 Pa 6.  Object Name State Scope Rainflow Matrix Damage Matrix Solved Geometry Options All Bodies Chart Viewing Style Three Dimensional Results Minimum Range Maximum Range Minimum Mean Maximum Mean Definition 0.

most of the damage occurs at the higher stress amplitudes. This result is similar to the rainflow matrix except that the percent damage that each of the Rainflow bin cause is plotted as the Z-axis. This result is only applicable for non-constant amplitude loading where rainflow counting is needed. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 89  . in this particular case although most of the counts occur at the lower stress amplitudes.  FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Damage Matrix Damage Matrix Chart Damage Matrix Chart is a plot of the damage matrix at the critical location on the model. As can be seen from the \corresponding damage matrix for the above rainflow matrix. This result may be scoped.

  TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tools Object Name State Materials goodman stress life rl Solved Fatigue Strength Factor (Kf) 1. Loading Type Scale Factor Definition Fully Reversed 1. Display Time Options End Time Analysis Type Mean Stress Theory U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Stress Life Goodman Page 90  .

Is the loading a variant of a sine wave with a single load ratio or does the loading vary perhaps erratically. Loading is of constant amplitude because only one set of FE stress results along with a loading ratio is required to calculate the alternating and mean values. proportional loading is the classic. describes whether the changing load causes the principal stress axes to change. “back of the envelope” calculation describing whether the load has a constant maximum value or continually varies with time. proportionality. which is analyzed with calculations for a single stress state.e+006 cycles Types of Cyclic Loading Unlike static stress. with the ANSYS Fatigue Module currently supporting the first three: • Constant amplitude. fatigue damage occurs when stress at a point changes over time. There are essentially four classes of fatigue loading. non-proportional loading In the above descriptions. Proportional Loading Constant amplitude. Constant amplitude. axes do change. proportional loading • Constant amplitude. then it is proportional loading. with the load ratio changing with time? The second identifier. If the principal stress cycles counted simply and it is non-proportional loading. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 91  . non-proportional loading • Non-constant amplitude.  Stress Component Life Units Equivalent (Von Mises) Units Name 1 cycle is equal to cycles 1. the amplitude identifier is readily understood. then the If the principal stress cannot be axes do not change. proportional loading • Non-constant amplitude.

a load ratio of -1) and zero-based (apply a load then remove it. Likewise.  The loading ratio is defined as the ratio of the second load to the first load (LR = L2/L1). Since loading is proportional. looking at a single set of FE results can identify critical fatigue locations. if the alternating stress is lower than the lowest alternating stress on the fatigue curve. Common types of constant amplitude loading are fully reversed (apply a load. In constant amplitude loading. the U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 92  . Loading is proportional since only one set of FE results are needed (principal stress axes do not change over time). FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl Value of Infinite Life Another available option when conducting a variable amplitude fatigue analysis is the ability to set the value used for infinite life. since there are only two loadings. no cycle counting or cumulative damage calculations need to be done. then apply an equal and opposite load. a load ratio of 0).

The rainflow and damage matrices shown in Figure 13 illustrates the possible effects of infinite life. However.  fatigue tool will use the life at the last point. in non-constant amplitude loading. the user can set the infinite life value that will be used if the alternating stress is beyond the limit of the SN curve. FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl > Results Object Name Life State Scope Damage Safety Factor Equivalent Alternating Stress Solved Geometry Definition All Bodies Type Design Life Life Damage Safety Factor Equivalent Alternating Stress 1. The rainflow and damage matrix results can be helpful in determining the effects of small stress cycles in your loading history. To help control this. cycles with very small alternating stresses may be present and may incorrectly predict too much damage if the number of the small stress cycles is high enough. Setting a higher value will make small stress cycles less damaging if they occur many times. Both damage matrices came from the same loading (and thus same rainflow matrix).e+009 cycles U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 93  . but the first damage matrix was calculated with an infinite life if 1e6 cycles and the second was calculated with an infinite life of 1e9 cycles. This provides for an added level of safety because many materials do not exhibit an endurance limit.

5 W/m·°C 434.e+012 cycles 1.5e+008 Pa 2.7e-007 Ohm·m U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 94  .895 4.3 7850. Pa Thermal Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Electromagnetics 60.e-003 8.5e+008 Pa 4. kg/m³ 1.e+011 Pa 0.7782 Pa 6.4722e+007 Pa Structural Steel 2 TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Constants Structural Young's Modulus Poisson's Ratio Density Thermal Expansion Tensile Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength 2.6e+008 Pa Compressive Ultimate Strength 0. J/kg·°C Relative Permeability Resistivity 10000 1.2e-005 1/°C 2.  Results Minimum Maximum Material Data 1.

  FIGURE Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress > Property Attributes Interpolation Log-Log Mean Curve Type Mean Stress U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 95  .

Cycles Cycles 10.62e+007 FIGURE Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 96  . 2000.62e+008 2.41e+008 2. 20.38e+008 2. 100.e+005 1.413e+009 1.e+005 1.999e+009 2.14e+008 1.  TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress vs.069e+009 4.e+006 8.14e+008 1. 200.827e+009 1. 10000 20000 Alternating Stress Pa 3. 50.896e+009 1.

2e+008 -0.213 -0.47 1.  TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters > Property Attributes Display Curve Type Strain-Life TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters > Strain-Life Parameters Strength Coefficient Pa Strength Exponent Ductility Coefficient Ductility Exponent Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa 9.e+009 Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent 0.106 0.2 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 97  .

  Wind analysis Contents 1. File Table 2. Mesh Table 3. Solution Table 5. Physics Table Table 4. User Figure Figure Figure 4 1 File 2 Mesh 3 Domain 4 Boundary 5 Boundary Information Information Physics Physics Flows for for for for for Report windanalysiscfx11_001 Report windanalysiscfx11_001 Report windanalysiscfx11_001 windanalysiscfx11_001 Report windanalysiscfx11_001 Data 2 3 Fig: Wind analysis U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 98  .

0 Figure 2.res 15 March 2008 03:46:08 PM CFX5 Air at 25 C None None File Version 11.  1. File Information for windanalysiscfx11_001 Case File Path File Date File Time File Type Fluids Solids Particles windanalysiscfx11_001 D:/pressurevesselanalysis/windanalysiscfx11_001. File Report Table 1. pressure distributation on face of vessel U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 99  .

streamline and pressure representation U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 100  . Mesh Information for windanalysiscfx11_001 Domain pressurevessel Nodes 7338 Elements 28308 Figure 3. Mesh Report Table 2.  2.

  3. Boundary Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001 Domain Name Location Type Settings Flow Regime = Subsonic Normal Speed = 47 [m s^-1] Mass And Momentum = Normal Speed Eddy Length Scale = 0.4 Outlet Symmetry Wall Wall Wall U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 101  .4. F45.1 [m] Fractional Intensity = 0. Domain Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001 Name Location Type Materials Models pressurevessel B4 Heat Transfer Model = Isothermal Turbulence Model = SST Fluid Air at 25 C Turbulent Wall Functions = Automatic Buoyancy Model = Non Buoyant Domain Motion = Stationary Table 4. Physics Report Table 3.05 Turbulence = Intensity and Length Scale Flow Regime = Subsonic Mass And Momentum = Static Pressure Relative Pressure = 0 [Pa] Wall Influence On Flow = No Slip Wall Influence On Flow = Free Slip Wall Influence On Flow = No Slip pressurevessel inlet inlet Inlet pressurevessel outlet pressurevessel symp pressurevessel body pressurevessel freewalls pressurevessel pressurevessel Default outlet symp body freewalls F41.

4447e+01 1.8922e+03 Boundary -1.  4.0000e+00 By interpolation we get: for 41 m/s of wind speed the wind pressure is 730 N/ m2 and from the standard wind load table we compare the result which is very accurate.0000e+00 -1.0000e+00 pressurevessel Default Boundary 0.7605e+02 -1. Solution Report Table 5.0000e+00 Boundary 1.0000e+00 8.3776e+01 0.5579e-06 -1.0000e+00 -2.7561e+03 2.5229e+03 1. Boundary Flows for windanalysiscfx11_001 Location body freewalls inlet outlet symp Type Mass Flow Momentum X Y Z -8.3129e+01 Boundary 0.7405e+02 1.3151e+00 8.4953e+02 0.1929e+03 0.7405e+02 -5.5967e+01 0.9325e-02 5.0000e+00 Boundary 0. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 102  .1811e-07 -8.0000e+00 Boundary 0.

  INTRODUCTION TO GLASS LINING Introduction of Glass lining (Glasteel) In recent years. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 103  . Pfaudler began investigating new approaches in glass development that would lead to a glass composition that could be made available to all users of glass-lined equipment. because of the expansion of the chemical process and pharmaceutical industries world-wide and increased concerns for safety and quality control.

glass. these are very recipe sensitive and general statements cannot usually be made. A formulation that could be easily produced by all Pfaudler manufacturing plants. However. High resistance to thermally induced stresses. Now GMM Pfaudler customers. An exception to this are chemistries that involve the element silicon (Si). thereby greatly extending its usage range. e.  Together with the chemical process industry and with the co-operation of Pfaudler divisions around the world. Si. can purchase a single glass system and be assured of getting the same high quality worldwide. especially when ionised.g. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 104  . nonadherence and heat transfer efficiency. Relatively small amounts of dissolved SiO can be highly effective in reducing the corrosion rate of the Glasteel 9100 system. offering an unmatched combination of corrosion resistance. SiO. It has also been shown that colloidal silica additions to recipes containing the highly corrosive fluorine ion (F-) can drastically reduce the corrosive rate. regardless of where their processing operations are located. Increased resistance to acid and alkali corrosion. Pfaudler's first "international glass". GMM Pfaudler sets a standard the world can depend on. thermal shock resistance. Pfaudler established the criteria for a new composition: A non-crystalline structure. The result is Glasteel 9100®. High resistance to impact. impact strength. With Glasteel 9100 ®.

the temperature gradient for alkaline glass corrosion. At 170°C.g. The corrosion rate of concentrated alkaline solutions cannot be expressed by the pH value alone. a corrosion rate of 0. pH-unstable system. It is also highly recommended that the unjacketed top head be insulated or heat traced to reduce condensation formation.1 mm/year can be expected. hydrochloric or acetic acid. tap water. For aqueous solutions of alkaline materials with a pH value of 14. Alkalis As alkali concentration rises. corrosion rate increases. the influence of the nature and amount of other dissolved substances and agitation. Also. Other factors affecting alkaline corrosion are the specific reaction and the dissolving ability of the chemical.g. Its behaviour resembles highly diluted acid and corrodes only the surface layer of the glass ("ion exchange process"). Carbonates and phosphates usually increase the rate while alcohols and some ionic species.  Water Pure Water Pure water in the liquid phase is not very aggressive. to counter the possible danger of the condensate shifting to an alkaline pH. is steeper. The result is that concentrated alkalis require a more definite setting of the temperature limits. e. e. the isocorrosion curves for diluted alkaline solutions have to be consulted for orientation purposes. corrosion rate depends greatly on the type and quantity of the dissolved substance. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 105  .g. Agueous Neutral pHMedia With these type media. may reduce it. e. salt solutions. Glasteel 9100 ® is highly resistant to condensing water vapour. Zn2+ Ca2+. A13+. the particular concentration must also be considered to establish appropriate operating temperatures. But because this water is an unbuffered. However. it is recommended that the vessel contents be slightly acidified with a volatile acid. If there is a shift toward higher pH values. even a slight alkalization can change the situation.

even very slight contamination (tap water in sodium hydroxide. Under actual operating conditions. 2. for example) can cause major changes in the rate of corrosion. Provides increased operating safety margin through its enhanced thermal protection. 5. Allows safe and easy handling of high temperature processes never before approved for Glasteel equipment. meaningful testing is strongly advised. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 106  . 3. 4. autoclaves with PTFE inserts were used. For solutions above the boiling point. the volume/ surface area ratio. such as product velocity and splash zone. sodium carbonate and ammonia take into account technically relevant parameters influencing the rate of corrosion. By comparing the results with control experiments.  Isocorrosion curves for sodium hydroxide. Is ideal for the higher temperatures required by today's chemical process applications. Provides potential for reduced cycle time compared to conventional vessel glass. Provides extended thermal shock protection for faster heating and cooling. 6. it is proven that the testing equipment does not have an inhibiting effect. for example. procedures are carried out in polypropylene bottles. inhibition effects by calcium ions. potassium hydroxide. Due to these interactive complexities. Pfaudler Ultra-Glas 6500 ® 1 . alkaline concentration and temperature. Other factors. Extends the range of Glasteel® applications. can affect the corrosion rate as well. To eliminate the influence of the testing equipment on the rate of corrosion.

Where in practical. altered applications and firing procedures. GMM Pfaudler Type 4300 ® glass is still an acidic type of glass. Introduction of media into a jacket. Technical details of corrosion rates in common chemicals and thermal operation limits are available on request. CAUTION: "Safe" operating temperatures vary with conditions. operation below the maximum and above the minimum is recommended. B. temperature ranges are given only as a guide. Because so many variables are involved. Contact Pfaudler for details.  The features of GMM Pfaudler Ultra-Glas 6500 ® are the result of changes in glass composition and material preparation. Temperature Limits Although Ultra-Glas 6500 ® has a high degree of helpful compressive stress in the glass layer there are definite limits to the level of thermal stress which the glass can withstand without incurring damage: Only two thermal conditions must be considered when determining the temperature limits: A. Introduction of media into a vessel. Type 4300 glass coatings are advisable wherever alkaline conditions prevail during the U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 107  . Type 4300 Glass Coatings Type 4300 ® glass coatings represent a new aspect of this tradition and are designed to bridge a perceived gap in the application range. as well as changes in equipment design and materials of construction. but its primary application is based on improved alkali resistance. These changes permit trouble-free application of the required high-stress coating and provide the highly corrosive-resistant glass-lined surface for which Pfaudler has been respected for years.

Type 4300 ® has three times better alkali resistance. dissolved substances or gases which may have positive or negative effects on resistance. Inadequate redox stability of the vessel material in the alkaline range. or as a result of concentration and temperature. The Type 4300 ® glass does make a slight concession in the area of acid resistance. and temperature) are considered. concentration. technically relevant parameters influencing the rate of corrosion (for example. Compared to our world renowned standard glass. the volume/surface area ratio. Stabilization of high-molecular alkalis sensitive to metal contact. or where concentration and/or temperature conditions exceed permissible limits for conventional glass. This means that higher process temperatures can be used. or that. Corrosion Resistance For pure acids and bases most commonly used in the chemical industry . In practical operation these materials are always encountered with liquid additives. The Need For PPG U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 108  . it is not recommended for aggressive acid conditions. Although it is adequate for mild service. under otherwise equal conditions. Danger of discoloration of alkaline products due to incorporation of metals.  cycle. We therefore recommend performing corrosion tests or contacting a Pfaudler consultant to assure material suitability for individual processes. In addition. these glass coatings will have three times the life expectations. inhibition effects. Type 4300 ® glass coatings are advisable where any of the following conditions exist: Protection of alkaline products against metal contamination.

  When the requirements of the Bulk Drug industry were studied recently. Pfaudler's response was a novel glass tailored to the needs of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. In light of the survey. vitamins and fine chemicals.especially in terms of glasslined reactors and components. The process equipment of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries has so far been very similar . the need for a different glass was evident. Two of the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry are increased purity in order to comply with the FDA and GMP requirements and alternating alkali/acid operation. in context of the stringent requirements of GMP and FDA. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 109  .

  Appendix U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 110  .

  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 111  .

  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 112  .

  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 113  .

S Sharma Somnath chatopadhay For Ansys : Tutorials of cfx 11.  BIBLOGRAPHY Dennis Moss Hiadri Farzdak C.0 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 114  .

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