Mechanical Seal Training Course



Bronze Award
Mechanical Seal Training Course
Contents Page
Section Description Page Number
Introduction to AESSEAL® ................................................................4 The Market: ......................................................................................6 Mechanical Seal History: ..................................................................9 What is a Pump?: ............................................................................10 What is a Mechanical Seal?: ..........................................................14 Types of Mechanical Seals: ............................................................16 Seal Balance: ..................................................................................22 Primary Seal Face Flatness: ..........................................................26 Shaft Fretting: ..................................................................................27 The AESSEAL® Modular Sealing System: ......................................28 The Cartridge Seal Range:..............................................................34 Elementary Environmental Controls: ..............................................39 Choosing the Correct Materials: ......................................................42 Seal Application Form: ....................................................................46 Glossary of Seal Terms: ..................................................................49



ISSUE 06 - 01/2002


All seal sales are made in accordance with AESSEAL plc standard conditions of sale 2969L.ame Issue 5 dated 6th June 2000 Document Ref (IN 4506). In particular we would like to emphasise clause 9.2, which follows: The sole obligation of AESSEAL plc under this Limited Warranty shall be to repair or replace or have its Authorised Distributor repair or replace any defective products within forty-five business days of a complaint communicated in writing to AESSEAL plc.

© Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.


Introduction to AESSEAL®
The Company, originally called Aurora Packings & Seals Limited, was formed in 1974 to sell Mechanical seals, Compression packings, Hydraulic seals, Sheet jointing and Maintenance products. In 1979, the Company was purchased by the present Managing Director and re-named A.E.S. Engineering Ltd., since when considerable expansion plus further acquisitions have taken place. The Head Office and main manufacturing centre (center) of AESSEAL® is at the Global Technology Centre, Mill Close, where the design, testing, assembly and distribution of seals also takes place. Other units are at: • Mangham Road, Rotherham, South Yorkshire, where specialist machining and the production of the metal bellows range takes place. • Bradford, where large diameter mechanical seals are manufactured. • Derby, a Mechanical Seal Service Centre (center) and regional sales office. • Derby, Component seal division. • Peterborough, a regional sales office, Mechanical Seal Service Centre and Pump Refurbishment Centre (center). • Middlesbrough, regional sales office. • Scotland, regional sales office. • AESSEAL SE plc, Essex, regional sales office. • AESSEAL SE plc, Pontypridd, regional sales office. • AESSEAL (MCK) Ltd. Lisburn, Engineered Systems Division. • AESSEAL (MCK) Ltd. Co. Cork, regional sales office. • Knoxville Tennessee, Seal Refurbishing and Assembly Plant for the North American market. • Seneca Falls, New York, USA, regional sales office. • AESSEAL Eastman Site, Kingsport, Tennessee, regional sales and service office. • AESSEAL ESP LLC, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, • AESSEAL Deutschland AG. Germany, regional sales office. • AESSEAL Italia, Italy, regional sales office. • AESSEAL Pty Ltd, South Africa, regional sales office. • AESSEAL Pty Ltd, Confluid Branch, South Africa, regional sales office. • AESSEAL Malaysia SDN. BHD. regional sales office. • AESSEAL Nederland, regional sales office. • AESSEAL (Iberica S.L.) regional sales office. • AESSEAL Danmark, regional sales office. • AESSEAL France s.a.r.l., regional sales office. • AESSEAL Turkiye, Istanbul, Turkey, regional sales office. • AESSEAL Canada Inc., regional sales office. • AESSEAL China Ltd, with branches in Ningbo, Shanghai and Nanjing.


ISSUE 06 - 01/2002


© Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.



There is a fast growing distributor network covering the rest of the world. Current production of mechanical seals is the AESSEAL® range of cartridge mechanical seals, plus internally and externally mounted seal ranges. There are also ranges of large and high pressure ‘special’ mechanical seals designed and built to meet specific customer or market requirements. AESSEAL® provides a full ‘customized’ mechanical seal Design and Manufacturing service to meet any market needs. AESSEAL® takes pride in it’s Design and Technical Resource capability, backed by complete Dynamic and Static Test facilities, including Finite Element Analysis and Volatile Organic Emission testing. Great emphasis is placed on ensuring that all products of AESSEAL® reflect the latest technology available, both in Design and Production, with Quality and Customer Service second to none in the Industry. The Company has patents on products unique to itself and is Quality Assured to ISO 9001 (BS 5750, Pt 1). Certified by LRQA (Lloyds Register Quality Assurance) In 1994 the company gained the Investors in People award in addition to the Rotherham Winners in Business Award, for its commitment to training. The professionalism of AESSEAL® has been recognized nationally four times within twelve years by being awarded the most coveted Queens Award. 1988: 1993: 1995: 2000: The Queens Award for Technological Achievement. The Queens Award for Export Achievement. The Queens Award for Export Achievement. The Queens Awards for Enterprise, International Trade.

ISSUE 06 - 01/2002

In addition to the Queens Award won in 2000, the company was the winner of the prestigious NatWest Sunday Times “Company of Tomorrow” Award and the IMECHE MX 2001 award for customer focus from the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. AESSEAL® is totally committed to customer service with the key objective being to provide a 24 hour delivery lead time on standard seals. As part of this commitment, the company provides a comprehensive technical support service, including a CD-ROM seal selection and site survey database, and a range of training courses available to employees and customers. The company operates globally in such growth areas as: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry Pulp and Paper Industry Oil and Petrochemicals Steel Manufacturing Defence Mining Water and Waste Treatment Electricity Generation Shipping In January 2002 the company name was changed to AESSEAL plc in the UK and AESSEAL Inc. in the US to make brand and company name the same.


© Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.


The Market
The mechanical motion that drives today’s industry is a rotary one, although not to the total exclusion of the reciprocating action. Some claims are made that ‘special’ mechanical seals exist for sealing the reciprocating motion. This is not true. The ‘primary seal’ in a mechanical seal is a rotating one. The mechanical seal can only be used on rotating machinery. Probably the claims made are referring to mechanically-aided compression packings or Chevron rings. Several such arrangements exist, but they are not what is known as a mechanical or rotating seal face. So the mechanical seal is only used in rotating machinery. Excluding the electric motor, the rotating pump, in all its design variations, is the most common piece of machinery used in industry today. Pumps have to be sealed. Add to this other pieces of rotating machinery that need to be sealed, such as Mixers (top, side and bottom entry), Compressors and all the rest of the rotating equipment in industrial use and one immediately realizes that there is a large market. An estimate of the existing U.K. market for mechanical seals in 2000 was US $110m. The worldwide market size is around US $2.3billion dollars. Wherever there is industry, production or service, there is rotating machinery. Wherever there is rotating machinery there are requirements for mechanical seals. This market in simple categorization can be split into two sectors: • O.E.M. (Original Equipment Manufacturer) • End-User The O.E.M. refers to the manufacturers of rotating equipment requiring sealing. The End-User is where the rotating equipment is installed. Both market sectors must be the object of any mechanical seal manufacturers sales force. MARKET CHARACTERISTICS There are a number of characteristics unique to the mechanical seal market that make it particularly attractive. Let us consider some of these: • Cushioned against economic trends. As it has been said that mechanical seals are used in all industrial sectors, then if one or more sectors is depressed the other less affected sectors provide a considerable market. • Affected by weather. Perhaps not so obvious but if there are any doubts, ask a long-time Plant Engineer. Rotating equipment, unless specially designed, does not like cold weather. Cold weather causes breakdowns (for a number of reasons) and breakdowns often provide opportunity for mechanical seal replacement or conversion. In fact, it can be said that the whole of the industrial sealing market benefits from hard winters. • Good replacement or after market. Although very reliable, if correctly selected and installed, no mechanical seal will last for ever. Also, if there is any problem with any other component of the machine, e.g. impeller nut loosens, bearing breakdown, etc., this will damage the mechanical seal. In fact, in many instances mechanical seal failure often indicates that there is a more major problem and many times it gives warning before more costly damage occurs. The big seal companies claim that when a mechanical seal comes to the end of its useful life, the spares it has used will be six times the value of its original cost. Recently, the advent of readily-available, more robust materials, primarily Silicon Carbide, have reduced this figure but it must still be four times or more.

ISSUE 06 - 01/2002

© Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.


have application limitations and are very costly to repair. but in a finite manner and the overall situation will still be as a rising curve. so let us consider one against the other. but with modern materials. • High power consumption . Many of the products in the industrial sealing market are ‘me too’. Agreed.M. but less than for a mechanical seal. which becomes more apparent as the application becomes more complicated. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. e. ‘O’ rings etc. The better these understandings. which can lead to wear of pump components. Agreed. but enough. but gland has to be pulled back and removing packing rings from within the stuffing box can be difficult. albeit not as significant as previous. equipment knowledge and application knowledge. the more successful will be the product in the market place. Identical products are available from a number of different manufacturers. more complete seal arrangements. • Adjustable in operation. • Understanding. and one hopes that sufficient has been said to indicate the attractiveness of the mechanical seal market. A mechanical seal provides a service. mainly for reasons that could be categorized under the headings of Efficiency. Jointings. • Wide range of proven materials for multiple applications. Agreed. It is a piece of auxiliary equipment in a piece of capital equipment. so. • Adjustment not precise.g. although some of the modern materials of construction have reduced this noticeably. Compression packing has to leak for lubrication. Compression packings.. of course. correct installation and attention this can be quite minimal. • Not a ‘me too’ product. but various designs and types have advantages one over the other. The biggest competitor to the mechanical seal is still Compression packing. All these are achievable only by more effective. yes they will affect the overall market. but these are expensive. Against: • Requires copious lubrication so obvious leakage. More reliable and effective seal performances are required by established industry. Some. • Constant monitoring and adjustment cost of driver. Yes. Yes. otherwize it will burn out. • Maintainable without dismantling the pump.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD THETITLE SEALING MARKET TITLE 7 • Market still rising. Mechanical seals do not come into this category. To market this piece of auxiliary equipment one must have product knowledge.01/2002 PACKING For: • Inexpensive. but often was dangerous practice and no longer allowed under ISO 9000 Code of Practice. ISSUE 06 . Yes.E. The world is becoming even more industrialized. There is still a lot of machinery sealed with Compression packing for no other reason than it was originally supplied by the O. Health and Safety etc. The Glandless pump and the Magnetically Driven pump will. One might continue on this theme. . Gaskets. are similar and indeed some international standards encourage this. Yes but can be overstated. of course. have an effect on reducing the total mechanical seal market.

run out. Against: • Sensitive to mishandling during fitting. seal gland plate etc. However. In recent years several changes in industrial attitudes. • Economies . small. Can be overstated. True. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . So.01/2002 Added Advantages of a Cartridge Seal It must be said that cartridge seal assemblies have been around for many years. and alignment problems can be catered for by using a self-aligning seat. • Ease of removal for off-site refurbishment. Some of these being: • Health and Safety Legislation.large. • Factory pre-set.practically zero. • Shortage of trained installers. vibration and end float tolerances are small. the cartridge seal became an increasingly preferred arrangement as a way to meet what is required. • Ease of conversion from compression packings or shaft mounted seals. but all seals leak something or the faces will burn out. The object was for a module design that could be removed as a unit and taken away for repair. IN CONCLUSION The mechanical seal market is a good one to be in and currently there seems no change in industrial attitude that will hinder the growth of the cartridge seal sector within it. located on the existing gland follower arrangements.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® MECHANICAL SEALS For: • Reduced leakage . Yes. this is often considerable. BRONZE AWARD THETITLE SEALING MARKET TITLE ISSUE 06 . depends upon type of seal. no adjustment needed.minimum skills only. • Reduced power consumption. brought about by legislation or situation. • Alignment is critical. not if normal care is taken. They varied . environmental equipment and bearing modules. True. • No wear of pump components. • Its gland plate bolting design is such that it will fit onto the majority of stuffing boxes. if sleevemounted. • Move away from packed stuffing boxes . • Easier installation in less accessible locations.people . not always so if mounted direct on shaft. quite the contrary. • Designed to fit into most stuffing box dimensions. but what does it offer: • A ready to install module containing all parts of a total sealing assembly.from mere gland plate and sleeve assemblies to giant total seal. this is extremely slight and usually is in vapour form. but these were usually specially made to order.wasted product . have brought the cartridge seal into much greater focus.cost money. in fact. complex. simple . • Greater use of off-site Maintenance Contractors. Into the future one only sees hardening of the all powerful rulings that will only bring more sophistication and continued overall growth. 8 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. shaft sleeve. • Ease of fitting .no continuous leakage.

truly an extremely important and sophisticated piece of machinery equipment. were: • Human Direct (rotary or reciprocating) Treadmills Direct rotation Treadmills Water wheels Windmills MECHANICAL SEAL TITLE • Beast • Water • Wind HISTORY TITLE The piece of machinery that drove the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine and the basic motion a reciprocating one. The 1940s and 50s saw great strides being made in the Oil. Gradually however. but this development is more the story of the materials of construction than design. Chemical and Petrochemical industries and demands on machinery increased accordingly. apart from lack of natural locations. The materials used were all natural. Materials were either bronze or brass. Where required. cotton.01/2002 9 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Pump manufacturers were first thought to have developed a practical mechanical seal and certainly Pulsometer Pumps of Reading were using their own developed one prior to the 1939-45 war. then a rotary motion. However. hemp. So the mechanical seal was developed to keep pace. The earliest form of fluid transportation in quantity was by gravitational force and many early post industrial revolution plants were still built on natural inclines to provide this and if a waterway existed at the bottom of this incline as a means of transportation so much the better. . nor probably ever will or can be. The original form of rotary pump packing was compression packing. for a number of reasons. These did not give way to any great degree until the advent of the electric motor when gradually the rotating motion took over. by the 1930s pump manufacturers and compression packing manufacturers had started to experiment with the idea that a fluid seal could be created by a rotating disc being moved against a stationary one and eventually the mechanical seal was born. which is still with us today. So we have the mechanical seal of today. the pump came into prominence as a means of fluid transportation first with reciprocating. such as leather. ISSUE 06 . etc. What is left of the reciprocating motion is still sealed in very much the same manner. with its function growing ever more essential particularly due to environmental considerations. sealing of reciprocating machinery and mechanisms. was and still is accomplished by means of compression packing or improvements upon the compression theme such as chevron rings. The basic principle and component parts being functionally similar. with sealing ever more a consideration. although synthetic materials have now superseded the natural ones.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD Mechanical Seal History A true history of the mechanical seal has never been documented. Although visually appearing crude the design of the earliest mechanical seal is immediately recognizable in its sophisticated successor today. Prior to the industrial revolution the ‘power’ sources which drove industry such as it was. but some facts give us indication.

Mixed Flow.01/2002 Not suited to Mechanical Sealing Rotary: Gear. Nevertheless for certain specific duties this is still the most effective design. by far the most common being either: • A mechanical seal • Compression packing The use of reciprocating pumps these days is relatively uncommon compared to the other two. Axial Flow. Plunger. Lobe. Diaphragm. combustion engine. Screw. Progressive cavity. etc. c. The most accepted definition of what type a pump is. centrifugal being by far the most versatile and therefore most common.) and converts it into energy contained within the media being pumped. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . Designation by design of impeller All these designs of pumps and variations on them have a shaft sealing device. is by its motion and basically these are: • Reciprocating • Rotary • Centrifugal If we extend these types of motion to their individual types by design we will find a classification as follows: Reciprocating: Piston. such as chevron rings and for these reasons centrifugal and rotary will only be considered. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. that in the main is unnecessary and confusing.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD WHAT IS TITLE A TITLE PUMP? 10 What is a Pump? A pump is a machine that takes the energy of the prime mover (electric motor. This energy can be: a. Vane. A velocity energy A pressure energy A combination of (a) and (b) There are a number of basic designs of pumps. Centrifugal: Radial Flow. but there are also many variations on these designs resulting in a long classification. ISSUE 06 . b. Shaft sealing is usually effected by compression packings or a sophistication of this.

01/2002 11 BTC Fig 5.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS There are quite a number of ways to illustrate the effect of centrifugal force as applied to pumping.1 Now if we were to put a belt around this shaft and so rotate the pan. It is centrifugal force that lifted the liquid to a height of ‘H’. Once whirling has started no fluid will be lost out of the top of the bucket but the water will be thrown out of the hole for a distance all around. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD WHAT IS TITLE A TITLE PUMP? ISSUE 06 . Example B A bucket with a hole in its bottom is filled with fluid and a rope attached to its handle. Again in crude terms the faster the rotation the more fluid is ‘pumped’ to a greater distance or ‘head’. We will stay with the two most usually quoted. The difference between the liquid level and edge of pan we will call ‘H’. In crude terms this can be called ‘pumped’. Example A A pan mounted on a centrally located vertical shaft. the straight line level of the fluid would become dished and eventually slop over the edges of the pan. as shown is partly filled with liquid. . L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. The faster the rotation the further the distance and the sooner the bucket will be emptied. The bucket is then whirled around via the rope over one’s head.

so simple is their operation. Operating in a close fitting casing it is a positive displacement machine. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Centrifugal force then throws the fluid from the center of the impeller to its periphery with considerable velocity and pressure. The drawings and attached brief notes should indicate clearly how these pumps work. A rotary pump comprizes gears. vanes. The sketch below should help in understanding this explanation.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD WHAT IS TITLE A TITLE PUMP? CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS A simple horizontal centrifugal pump comprizes a rotating element. The volute shaped passage finishes at the discharge port flange (7).2 ROTARY PUMPS Compared to the centrifugal pump the principle of the rotary pump is simple. lobes. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . Fluid enters the center or ‘eye’ (4) of the impeller and is rotated by means of the impeller vanes (5). single/double/triple screws. There follows three drawings illustrating the principle of operation of a rotary lobe pump and a rotary vane pump. Instead of spinning the fluid as it enters the casing as the centrifugal pump does the rotary traps the liquid in its rotating elements and forces it around the inside of the casing and expels it through the discharge. etc. called an impeller (1) contained in a casing (2). 1 7 6 2 3 ISSUE 06 . Inside the casing is a volute shaped passage (6) of increasing cross sectional area.01/2002 4 5 MOTOR 12 BTC Fig 5. These are among the most common rotary pump designs in use today. The impeller is mounted on to the end of a rotating shaft (3). this collects the fluid and converts some of its velocity into more pressure energy.

(Figure 5.1) an expanding cavity is formed creating a partial vacuum at the inlet port which draws product into the pumping chamber.2) and positively displaced. The rotor is an interference fit inside the stator and as it rotates forms a continuously moving cavity pushing fluid towards the discharge.3) BRONZE AWARD WHAT IS TITLE A TITLE PUMP? BTC Fig 5. This creates a partial vacuum at pump inlet. Finally.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® THE ROTARY LOBE PUMP Principle of Operation As the rotors start to rotate (Figure 5. OUTLET INLET DIRECTION OF DIRECTION OF ROTATION ROTATION 13 CASING (a) CASING (a) BTC Fig 5.3 ISSUE 06 .3.4 PROGRESSIVE CAVITY Principle of Operation A metallic helical rotor revolves inside a rubber stator which also has a helical form inside it.4).2 BTC Fig 5. As fluid is carried round by vanes it is compressed and pressurized and exits at the pump outlet.1 BTC Fig 5. thereby sealing itself against the internal faces of the casing. BTC Fig 5.01/2002 VANE PUMP Principle of Operation The shaft rotates and the vanes are thrown out on to the inner surface of the casing (a) (Figure 5.5 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.3.3. Each rotor well is consequently filled (Figure 5. . the product is forced out of the discharge port.3. drawing fluid into pump chamber and filling voids between individual vanes.3.3.

2): 1. The seal between the rotating member and shaft or shaft sleeve(4).2 OHP Ref: Slide 10 A mechanical seal has four main sealing points: 1. a ‘wedge’ or any similar sealing ring. The seal between the rotating (3) and stationary faces (1). 2. This is known as the secondary seal and may be an ‘O’-Ring as shown. WHAT IS A TITLE AXIAL FORCE MECHANICAL SEAL? TITLE LEAK PATH DESIGN The simplest practical design of a mechanical seal has seven components (Figure 6. a ‘V’-Ring. 5. This is known as the primary seal. one stationary. 4. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. 3. The seal between the stationary member (1) and stuffing box face. ie: Gasket (2). 4.01/2002 14 5 3 2 7 6 4 1 BTC Fig 6. Rotating component. 7. 3. The seal between the gland plate and stuffing box.1). L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . BTC Fig 6. Stationary component sealing member. Clamp Ring. Gland Plate. 2. Stationary component. commonly called ‘the seat’.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® What is a Mechanical Seal? THE BASICS ROTATING STATIONARY BRONZE AWARD A mechanical seal consists of two components. this is usually a gasket (2) or ‘O’-Ring. 6. Rotating component sealing member. Spring.1 ISSUE 06 . to achieve a seal with minimal leakage (Figure 6. the other rotating against it.

.3 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL SEALING POINTS Three of the four main sealing points of a mechanical seal need little explanation. but number one. they are usually lapped within two light bands (an optical method of measuring flatness). RETURNING TO DESIGN The rotating component rotates with the shaft and is usually driven by a spring. and rotating member and spring. The stationary component is held firmly in the gland plate and is usually slotted or bored to take an anti-rotation pin fitted into the gland plate . if the seal is to give satisfactory service. If vaporization occurs and there is no stable fluid film between the faces. Spring compression. So lubrication is required and at this stage of our considerations this is supplied by the liquid being sealed. In fact. Product being pumped forms a stable fluid film across the two mating faces. Fluid film has been and still is the subject of much deliberation and research and becomes more interesting as one progresses in the subject of mechanical seals but for now assume a situation exists as in the following sketch. This pressure is maintained when the seal is at rest via the springs thus preventing leakage between the mating faces. provides initial face pressure usually 1 to 2 barg. The surfaces of both rotating and stationary components that ‘rub’ together are extremely flat. This is known as the fluid film and maintaining its stability is of prime importance. between the rotating and stationary members needs a little more consideration. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD WHAT IS A TITLE MECHANICAL SEAL? TITLE ISSUE 06 . This flatness minimizes leakage to a degree where to all intents and purposes it is important requirement on larger sizes. there is leakage between these faces but it is minute and (for immediate consideration) appears as a vapor. This ’primary’ seal is the basis of all mechanical seal design and is what makes it work. Various spring drive arrangements exist between both shaft and spring. Frictional heat can increase product temperature causing a vaporization of the liquid between the faces. FLUID FILM AND VAPORIZATION If the rotating components of a mechanical seal rotated against each other without some form of lubrication they would soon wear out due to face friction and the heat it generates.01/2002 15 SPRING PIN ROTATING COMPONENT STATIONARY COMPONENT BTC Fig 6. in fact. rapid wear takes place and the seal fails.

1) the unit or seal is located on to the shaft. the unit or seal and the seat. as shown below.m). Of course it can be made complicated but this is totally unnecessary. five basic ways but a definition may contain two. This is by far the most common of these two arrangements. its greater weight than that of the seat accentuates any shaft movements or distortion. This face rotates with the shaft or sleeve In a stationary seal the springs are behind the stationary face.1 OHP Ref: Slide 22 In the arrangement shown (Fig 7. thus it rotates with the shaft and is called a rotating seal (the rotary member contains the springs). (See BTC Figure 7. At such speeds.01/2002 SPRINGS 16 Rotary Member BTC Fig 7. if the unit were rotating. MECHANICAL SEALS TITLE ISSUE 06 .TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® Types of Mechanical Seals Defining mechanical seals by type initially may seem somewhat complex but in reality is quite simple and soon becomes so with a little experience. We will define mechanical seals. At these speeds.p. dynamic forces exceed the limitations of a rotary unit with springs. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . three.2) When do we move from rotating to stationary unit location? Primarily when rotating speeds are approaching or above 25m/sec (5000 f. (The springs do not rotate) BTC Fig 7. A stationary seal prevents excessive secondary seal movement. Similarly if the positions of the two components are reversed and the unit or seal (which contains the springs) is held stationary in the gland plate it is called a stationary seal.2 OHP Ref: Slide 22 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. four or even five in combination. • Rotating or stationary • Balanced or unbalanced • Horizontally or vertically mounted • Design feature • Arrangement BRONZE AWARD TYPES OF TITLE ROTATING OR STATIONARY As we know a mechanical seal has two basic components. maintains satisfactory primary seal component tracking and handles the high torques involved.

Let us consider the following diagram which represents in simplest form a rotating unit mechanical seal with stationary seat. S’BOX PRESSURE MECHANICAL SEALS TITLE ISSUE 06 .01/2002 Atmospheric Pressure BTC Fig 7. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. face materials and nature of fluid being sealed. which is subject to a hydraulic pressure gradient between stuffing box pressure and atmosheric pressure. More correctly. The faces destroy each other and the primary seal has failed. but is always less than that for a balanced seal. This in fact creates a wedge shaped force attempting to push the faces apart as shown below: 17 PRESSURE GRADIENT PRESSURE GRADIENT BTC Fig 7.3 The stuffing box pressure (plus spring pressure) tends to push the faces of the unit and seat together. the resulting pressure acting over the sealing area of the faces increases. However. speed. The maximum pressure an unbalanced seal can withstand is dependent upon shaft diameter. Having considered the unbalanced seal. . the wedge becomes less effective until eventually the wedge fluid film breaks down and there is no lubrication. this should be hydraulically balanced or hydraulically unbalanced. The pressure gradient is assumed to be linear therefore the net average pressure within the film is 50% of the stuffing box pressure.4 As the stuffing box pressure increases. Stuffing box pressure remains the same and we will use it to reduce face pressure. we will now consider the same seal in a balanced configuration.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD TYPES OF TITLE BALANCED OR UNBALANCED Mechanical seals are referred to as either balanced or unbalanced. there is a fluid film between these faces.

g. • Removal of the metallic section of the seal from the product. e. The difference is that the rotating unit is subject to equalising pressure beyond diameter ‘D’ and there is hydraulic balance in this area. UNIT MECHANICAL SEALS TITLE SHAFT B D ISSUE 06 . • A combination of the first three.5 18 In the above figure we have provided the shaft with a reducing diameter step. horizontal (shaft side entry).01/2002 BTC Fig 7. In mixing or agitating machinery. Stuffing box pressure now acts on area ‘A’ of the seal between the shaft ‘B’ and diameter ‘D’. if the pump is a horizontal one it has a horizontal shaft and therefore the seal is described as horizontally mounted. the seal is described as vertically mounted. the more common arrangements are vertical (shaft top entry).TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD TYPES OF TITLE BALANCED OR UNBALANCED STUFFING BOX PRESSURE SEAT A a I. DESIGN FEATURE This usually either relates to: • Whether the primary seal stationary force is either by single spring. Similarly if the pump is a vertical one. the face load is reduced. multi-spring or bellows. HORIZONTALLY OR VERTICALLY MOUNTED Simply this relates to the working position of the mechanical seal in the piece of rotating equipment it is part of. • Whether the secondary seal is a ‘wedge’ or similar or an ‘O’ ring. Since the face area remains the same. The third mounting in this type of machinery is another vertical one (shaft bottom entry). © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.D. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . All hydraulic conditions remain as for the unbalanced consideration.

especially in the smaller sizes and relatively easy to fit (not always the case). Gives even face loading. the cartridge but strictly speaking this is a self contained unit and can contain seals in single. giving UNEVEN face wear. Developed for the Oil and the Oil-related industries. Can sometimes only be rotated in one direction. Usually easier to balance hydraulically. dependent on design. double (even triple) and tandem arrangement. BTC Fig 7.01/2002 NON-METALLIC SEAL Designed so as to remove any metallic component from the fluid and prevent chemical attack.6 OHP Ref: Slide 10 TYPES OF TITLE MUL TIPLE SPRINGS Can take higher shaft speeds and greater pressures than the single spring version. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Can be more costly to buy. BTC Fig 7. also known as the Chemical or external seal. maximum and at low shaft surface speed when in its usual unbalanced design. Usually Carbon or Teflon-faced. If used at high temperature.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL SINGLE SPRINGS Usually cheap to buy. Can only be used on low pressure up to 80 p. Will rotate in either direction.7 OHP Ref: Slide 11 MECHANICAL SEALS TITLE ISSUE 06 . Limitations temperature limits of the elastomer. then large product loss occurs.8 OHP Ref: Slide 8 19 ALL-METAL SEAL Usually of Metal Bellows design. Commonly found with ‘O’ rings to seal and therefore replaceable with ‘O’ ring pusher-type seals. Whatever is the opinion. There are basically three seal arrangements that comprize double seals: • Double back to back • Double face to face • Tandem seals BTC Fig 7. For now let us consider arrangements comprising more than one seal.i. ARRANGEMENT So far we have only considered single seals but health and safety and the considerations of the environment increasingly demand that measures be taken to ensure that seal leakage does not escape into the atmosphere or is suitably contained or diluted To accomplish this there are various additions to a single seal arrangement that will suit and these will be discussed later. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD BTC Fig 7. . The single spring has a high and low pressure area bearing on the face. May clog easily and if the Bellows splits.s. can be “as stated” all metal as the elastomer may be replaced with a mechanical clamp to the shaft. AESSEAL® is a volume supplier of this product and as such it forms the major part of our seal range.9 OHP Ref: Slide 9 It is arguable that there is a fourth arrangement.

Barrier fluid pressure is lower than sealed pressure and the outboard seal again acts as a single seal to seal the barrier fluid pressure. so the duty must be suitable for a single seal. It eliminates icing of fluids when applicable (the buffer fluid is an anti-freeze). BTC Fig 7. Should the inboard seal fail the outboard seal takes over until the piece of rotating equipment can be shut down for maintenance. carcinogenic and similar hazardous media. . As its name implies in this arrangement two seals are mounted back to back in the stuffing box.11. PRODUCT FLUID INBOARD PUMPED PRODUCT OUTBOARD MECHANICAL SEALS TITLE DOUBLE FACE TO FACE BTC Fig 7.01/2002 (Separate unit seals) This arrangement is typically as shown in Fig 7.10.12 Arrangement as shown in Fig 7. Pressure alarm systems can be incorporated in the auxiliary sealant system to give warning of inboard seal failure. volatile.12. Like most double seal arrangements the tandem seal is usually a safety one and is used to seal toxic.11 In this arrangement the inner seal acts exactly as a single seal. The double face to face seal arrangement is not very common and is primarily an alternative to the back to back arrangement where stuffing box depth is too shallow to accommodate it. It also is a 100% back up seal. The seal design requires a large installation length and this may cause radial run-out problems due to large overhang from bearings. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.10 ISSUE 06 . 20 TANDEM BTC Fig 7.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD TYPES OF TITLE DOUBLE BACK TO BACK A typical outline sketch of this arrangement is shown in Fig 7.

13 OHP Ref: Slide 25 The industries specifying such seal assemblies were basically the process ones and usually they were individually designed to meet the special requirements of a user or contractor engineer. • Growth of off-site sub-contractors. What does a cartridge seal offer? • A ready to install module containing all parts of a total sealing continuous leaks. shaft sleeve. ISSUE 06 . • Easier installation in less accessible locations. seal and endplate. Nevertheless. quite the contrary. in fact. • Move away from packed stuffing boxes . Arguably the only disadvantages are those of cost but even then when one considers the benefits bought by these. So the cartridge seal became increasingly a preferred arrangement and manufacturers produced ranges of standard designs to suit and meet the market demand. even bearings. the cartridge seal is initially more expensive than a basic seal comprising seal unit and seat. seal and gland plate. replaced by a similar one or taken away for workshop repair. • It is easy to fit . BRONZE AWARD TYPES OF TITLE MECHANICAL SEALS TITLE In more recent years several changes in industrial attitude brought about by legislation or situation have brought the cartridge seal into much greater focus.minimum skills only required. etc. but the difference is not as high as perhaps one imagines as it may be assumed that the seal unit and seal comprize some 60% of the total cost. Some of these being: • Health and Safety legislation. minimum down-time and so on are all considerations gaining momentum. sub-contractors. Currently there seems no change in industrial attitude that will hinder the growth of the cartridge seal market. the true disadvantage is questionable. • Design also allows fitting into existing stuffing box dimensions. The objective whether large or small. • Reduction in plant maintenance personnel. • Wasted product cost money. ease of replacement. was for a module design that could be removed as a unit. located on the existing gland-follower arrangements. simple or complex. Beyond this any marginal price considerations are really not worth mentioning. • Ease of conversion from packed glands. . • Economy.01/2002 21 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. to very large complex ones including everything. Off-site maintenance. BTC Fig 7. not slackening. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES COMPARED WITH A BASIC MECHANICAL SEAL The advantages have been sufficiently dealt with under ‘Concepts’.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® THE CARTRIDGE MECHANICAL SEAL Concepts Cartridge mechanical seal assemblies have been around for many years. • Ease of removal for workshop off-site refurbishment. • Its gland plate bolting design is such that it will fit onto the majority of stuffing boxes. These vary from simple small diameter combinations of shaft sleeve.

RAPID WEAR & OVERHEATING DUE TO HIGH FRICTION. although a minute amount of product crosses the faces to lubricate and cool them. It is known that on the stuffing box side of the seal faces. If this did not happen.1 22 Fc Fv Wp Wo Ws Wf From Figure 8. BTC Fig 8. The effect of balance is to reduce the effect of the pressure in the stuffing box by reducing the area of the seal it acts upon.01/2002 BTC Fig 8. and on the atmospheric side of the seal faces 0% of the pressure is seen. It is unknown however. WF is representing a fluid film.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD TITLE SEAL Seal Balance It is important to fit balanced mechanical seals to pumps. ROTARY FACE STAT FACE FLUID ROTARY FACE STAT FACE STABLE FLUID FILM NECESSARY FOR SEAL FACE LUBRICATION. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . then excessive heat would build up due to friction and seal failure would result. Let us look at the main forces acting on a mechanical seal: Static Wp=Force due to product pressure Ws=Force due to springs Wf=Force within fluid film Wo=Opening force Dynamic Fv = Viscous Forces Fc = Centrifugal Forces BALANCE TITLE ISSUE 06 . © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.1. 100% of the pressure in the stuffing box is seen. what happens in-between.2 FLUID NO FLUID FILM-RESULT DRY FACE CONTACT.

2 sq. in. 200 Ibf Circular section. Then put her in high heel shoes and her weight is then loaded onto a tiny area. therefore the resulting pressure is: The pressure is increased! 200 2 = 100lbf/in2. A { A { REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM ISSUE 06 . the resulting pressure is still a load of 200lbf. BTC Fig 8. putting a higher force onto the ground (dinting cork tiles and putting holes in your lawn). in. 4 sq. Imagine a lady in no shoes. Let us apply the same load-spreading principles to physics. Pressure acts on the rear area of the seal down to the sliding diameter and to the outside of the face line. Her weight is spread over the area of the sole of her feet.4 OHP Ref: Slide 17 2 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.4) is that of a cone. If we load the top surface with 200 lbf on the given area of 4 square inches.3 OHP Ref: Slide 16 The diagram below (Figure 8. . which is reduced in area.see Figure 8. in. The reversing pressure will be: 200 4 = 50lbf/in2. When this is transmitted to the bottom surface. 4 sq.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD TITLE SEAL BALANCE TITLE We also know from our physics that pressure acts equally in all directions .01/2002 A { A { 23 BTC Fig 8. Pressure on top surface = 50 Ibf / in 2 Pressure on bottom surface = 100 Ibf / in Circular section. 2 sq. Put the same lady in snow shoes and her weight is distributed over a large area and she would be able to walk on very soft snow without sinking in. Other forces above that are cancelled out by opposite forces. Circular section. but acting on only 2 square inches. Circular section. in.3.

Circular section. 4 sq.8 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL®plc All Rights Reserved. 8 BRONZE AWARD The pressure is reduced! TITLE SEAL 200 Ibf Circular section. 8 sq. Again. All Rights Reserved. the area seeing the stuffing box pressure (area A) is much larger than that of the seal faces (area B).7 OHP Ref: Slide 20 BTC Fig 8. the resulting pressure spike could well cause the seal to fail due to excess pressure.6 OHP Ref: Slide 19 As you see.5 illustrates a pyramid. therefore the resulting pressure is 200 = 25 lbf/in2. Figures 8.5 OHP Ref: Slide 18 Let us put these principles into mechanical seals. but an area of 8 square inch. BTC Fig 8. in. therefore the load on the seal by the fluid is increasing the pressure on the seal faces. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . If we load the top surface with 200lbf on the given area of 4 square inches. 2 BALANCE TITLE Pressure on top surface = 50 Ibf / in ISSUE 06 . A { SLIDING DIAMETER } SLIDING DIAMETER B BTC Fig 8. Transmitting the load in this solid to the bottom face we have the same 200 lbf. If a discharge valve in the pump pipework was to be closed in this instance. 4 sq. Circular section.7 & 8. 24 BTC Fig 8.01/2002 Pressure on bottom surface = 25 Ibf / in 2 Circular 8section. in.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® Figure 8. in.8 show ways in which area A is reduced thereby decreasing the seal interface force. sq. the pressure on that surface will be 200 4 = 50lbf/in2. in.

TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD At this basic level the only really important things to remember are the advantages of balanced seals compared to unbalanced seals. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL® . ADVANTAGES OF BALANCED SEALS General • Can operate in higher pressures • Less heat generated • Reduced face wear • Higher shaft speeds • Less face distortion • Less torque • Less power consumption • Wider range of face materials • Less need for internal / external controls • Versatility • Allows for Overloads / System malfunctions • Vacuum sealing TITLE SEAL BALANCE TITLE ISSUE 06 .01/2002 25 AESSEAL Seals • No additional sleeves required • No damage to shafts or sleeves L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.

) are lapped to two light bands or less.00002") hitting the optical flat (A) it then passes through the optical flat. The additional sheet shows how face patterns are interpreted. the better.025/0. There are 85 light bands to one thousandth (0.0006mm/0. which provides one or a number of rotating ‘plates’ on to which the face or seat of a mechanical seal is placed.01/2002 1 LIGHT BAND FACE WIDTH BTC Fig 9. from this a pattern of fringe interference is produced. larger (> 4” Diameter.) faces less than five light bands. This pattern is then translated into a measurement of flatness by comparison of the pattern obtained with various patterns (usually in chart form) which indicate the flatness accuracy.000001/0. a series of straight. the process is similar to reading the contours on a map. Figure 9. The process of achieving face flatness adopted by the mechanical seal industry is called lapping. Figure 9. As we know this seal consists of two flat faces. It therefore follows that the flatter these surfaces are within practical manufacturing constraints.0003mm. with surface/s finished to within 0.2 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. The surface to be finished is in contact with the lapping plate. some is reflected (Point B) and the rest reflects from the specimen (Point C).125 microns) is placed over the lapped and polished face and placed under a helium light source. parallel equi-shaped lines shows that a face is flat to within one light band. one rotating. When the light hits the optical flat again (Point D) it passes back through the optical flat. one fixed.001") of an inch. one light band = 0. Small diameter seal faces (< 4” Diameter. When it reaches the other side. The degree of face flatness is checked by what is known as the optical interference fringe method. In this process a lapping machine is used. Flatness is measured in light bands. The two reflections (E and F) can then be observed from above the optical flat. the closer these are together. Here an optical flat (a quartz or pyrex disc. sufficient for its flatness to be checked. running against each other. Final surface finish must be polished to a degree of light reflection.1 BTC Fig 9. ISSUE 06 . The width or thickness of the lubricating film is dependent upon a number of variables but the distance between the two faces is constant in that this has the greatest influence. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . the thinner the fluid film and the least likelihood of leakage across the faces.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD PRIMARY SEAL TITLE FACE TITLE FLATNESS 26 Primary Seal Face Flatness The primary seal is the basis of all mechanical seal design.2 shows a typically flat surface.1 shows a helium light source (wave length approximately 0.000005"0.000011 or 0. Following lapping the workpiece surface is then polished to a reflective finish. with a liquid film between them providing lubrication.

It is caused by excessive shaft axial movement beyond that specified by the seal manufacturer.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD SHAFT TITLE FRETTING TITLE Shaft Fretting This phenomena is also known as shaft corrosion or shaft erosion and occurs in the area of secondary seal and shaft (or sleeve) contact. The situation can also be aggravated where the primary seal wear debris can migrate under the secondary seal.01/2002 27 All multi-spring AESSEAL® mechanical seals are guaranteed not to fret shafts or sleeves MOVEMENT Secondary Seal BTC Fig 10.F.T. appearing pitted or shiny. ‘The better long term solution is to replace the ‘shaft fretting’ type seal with a different design’. so providing a very efficient grinding media.F. Primary seal wear can no longer be taken up and leakage occurs.T. The softer elastomer will also absorb certain amounts of primary seal debris better than P. or similar semi-rigid materials rather than an elastomer. usually meaning sleeve replacement or shaft coating in area of secondary seal slide with a hard material such as chrome or aluminium oxide. SHAFT FRETTING The movement of the secondary seal on the shaft or sleeve eventually removes the oxide coating providing protection from corrosion. A resultant ‘groove’ is worn around the shaft diameter in the secondary seal contact area.1 OHP Ref: Slide 12 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Eventually the secondary seal locates itself in this groove beyond the capability of the primary seal closing force. shaft run out or deflection are also contributing factors. An even more expensive solution is of course to eliminate the causes of the excessive movement.E. ISSUE 06 . It is more prevalent when the secondary seal is manufactured from P.E. Machinery vibration. . as the more flexible elastomer is better able to accept the shaft displacements. Shaft fretting remedial actions are expensive.

3) A stationary or self aligning stationary. See BTC Fig 11.P. The AESSEAL® Modular System is so designed as to make maximum use of the minimum number of components throughout the entire ranges of seals.A.R. 2) A cast gland plate. with an elastomer seal on the shaft and grubscrew (set-screw) located.ST as standard. lip seal or secondary seal. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 .. 6) An external seal when required. Aflas®. 5) External restrictor bushing. 1 4 3 2 7 5 &6 (Secondary seal shown) AESSEAL® MODULAR TITLE SEALING SYSTEM TITLE BTC Fig 11. Sealing elastomers. The ‘T’ stationary. drilled and tapped for flush and quench connections as required.01/2002 The basic components in the ranges of cartridge seals are: 28 1) A sleeve. or an asbestos free alternative.5 / OHP Slide 14 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. as required. The secondary seal .3 / OHP Slide 22 See BTC Fig 11. This results in minimum production and storage costs. 7) Sealing elastomers and clamp gland gasket. Sleeves are manufactured in 316L ST. The internal seal . See BTC Fig 11.discussed separately. The ‘L’ stationary. 4) An internal seal.2 / OHP Slide 61 See BTC Fig 11. that are eventually reflected in improved final price and lead times.. Zalek ®. although other materials may be available. All standard bushings are carbon.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD The AESSEAL® Modular Sealing System Minimum component parts mean maximum production efficiency and minimum inventory holdings. Gland plate gasket material is either C.1 OHP Ref: Slide 54 ISSUE 06 .discussed separately. mounted into the gland plate. yet still maintaining availability of all materials and elastomers. throttle bushing. Stationary and self aligning stationary discussed separately. outside the stuffing box. STATIONARY SEATS There are four basic designs of stationary seat: The DIN stationary. although E. standard materials are Viton ®.F. and Kalrez® are available.4 / OHP Slide 32 The ‘R’ or boot mount stationary. Gland plates are cast 316 Stainless Steel and with flush and quench connections drilled NPT.

.3 OHP Ref: Slide 22 THE ‘T’ STATIONARY Clamp mounted. Materials: 99. Materials: 99.4 OHP Ref: Slide 32 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. BTC Fig 11. pin located.5% alumina ceramic.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL THE DIN STATIONARY Designed to fit stuffing boxes to DIN EN 12756 standard. this is designated CDG/SDG. BTC Fig 11. Both faces are lapped for reversal when the duty face wears (theoretically).2 OHP Ref: Slide 61 29 THE ‘L’ STATIONARY Clamp mounted. Materials: 99. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD DIN STATIONARY AESSEAL® MODULAR TITLE SEALING SYSTEM TITLE ISSUE 06 .5% aluminium oxide ceramic.5% alumina ceramic.01/2002 BTC Fig 11. solid silicon carbide. ‘O’ Ring mounted. Both faces lapped for differing installation lengths. The DIN stationary is also supplied complete with gland plate.

damage is also caused to other seal unit components. 3) The motor is misaligned to the pump body. twice for each revolution of the shaft. 5) Corrosion or dirt in the stuffing box face. this can be a accomodated by the use of the AESSEAL® PATENTED UNIVERSAL SELF ALIGNER.000 spring deflections during a 24 hour operation. ‘T’ and ‘R’ seat are available in ceramic as the standard material. Because the ‘L’ and ‘T’ seats are both clamped in position they will not rotate. drive pins. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . Misalignment between the rotating and stationary faces can be caused by a number of reasons: 1) The shaft is misaligned because the bearing housings have been machined out of true with the center line of the shaft. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Whatever the reason angular misalignment of the primary seal faces is a problem.000.g. but can easily be distorted due to excessive clamping. e. ‘O’ rings.m. BTC Fig 11.01/2002 Although ‘L’. 30 SELF ALIGNING SEATS AESSEAL® have developed two designs of self aligning seats. 2) The pump is distorted by the way it is clamped to the pump bed.5 OHP Ref: Slide 14 BRONZE AWARD AESSEAL® MODULAR TITLE SEALING SYSTEM TITLE ISSUE 06 . primary seal. and is ‘O’ ring mounted. 7) Coupling mis-alignment will cause many shaft mis-alignment problems due to the gyroscopic effect of the coupling when rotated at speed. The number of times misalignment occurs in machinery suffering this problem is often not fully appreciated but at a synchronized driver speed of 1500 r. other materials can be supplied as specials. 6) Pipe strain: During its working life the pipework ‘relaxes’ when valves or pumps etcflanges and pump flanges are no longer at the same attitude to each other and by forcing Each rotation of the shaft will generate spring movement. However. etc. In this design the flexibility of the ‘O’ ring is utilized to reduce shock transfer and the distortion associated with clamped types. In addition to excessive wear of the rotating face occuring. it will cause almost instantaneous leakage. this is over 4. but this also allows a simple square section shape to be utilized for cost considerations.p. the USL and the USI but why and what are the advantages of this design over other seat designs? Self aligning seats will take up angular misalignment at the primary seal. Materials: 95% Alumina Ceramic The ‘DIN’ seat is pin located as an anti rotation device. them together can cause pipe strain causing mis-alignment. It is considerable. Gaskets are in CAF or an asbestos free alternative. 4) The face of the stuffing box and the gland follower are not at 90˚ to each other. This may not be obvious but using highly sophisticated viewing instruments the pump can be seen to be under stress and actually looks as if it is bent. The ‘R’ seat is cup mounted giving a degree of flexibility. severe fretting of component ultimately resulting in severe catastrophic failure due to component fatigue.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® THE ‘R’ OR BOOT MOUNT STATIONARY Cup mounted.

in time the spring effectiveness will deteriorate and there is always a danger of breakage. BTC Fig 11. not in Stainless Steel carriers. This is the AESSEAL ® patented design. these have been replaced by the present range. caused by misalignment. i. 31 THE USI SELF-ALIGNING SEAT AND VARIATIONS This is a development of the USL and one piece stationary members. The spring in the spring activated design will resist the movement of the stationary member. This is of course not true. This seat is used with the SAI rotary unit. and stays there. The design not only overcomes misalignment problems but also prevents face distortion caused by clamp plate over-tightening.01/2002 THE USI SELF-ALIGNING SEAT AND VARIATIONS In this design the universal joint principle is achieved by gimble location. unrestricted and with no compensating forces acting on its movement. however. AESSEAL ® manufacture a range of cartridge mechanical seals with the USL stationary.6 OHP Ref: Slide 23 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. At start-up the self aligner adopts a set position accommodating the plane of the rotating member face. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD AESSEAL® MODULAR TITLE SEALING SYSTEM TITLE ISSUE 06 . For Silicon Carbide and Ceramic materials this was not possible and the USI design eliminates this requirement. • Universal joint activation of the stationary member. This was necessary as in the original design two pins located into the back of the stationary face.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL SELF ALIGNING SEATS There are two basic types of self aligning stationary designs available: • Spring activated. where a wave spring is utilized behind the stationary member to give flexibility. The AESSEAL® self-aligning seat designs have made a major contribution to the success of the cartridge seal range. There is often an initial misconception about self aligning seats as it is assumed they are in continuous movement when in action. This causes excessive wear of the primary seal.e. Face materials are Chrome Oxide on Stainless Steel or Solid Tungsten Carbide. although AESSEAL ® will continue to support there furbishment/replacement of them in the field. In the universal joint design the stationary moves into position freely. . Another option of USI the is available with a different body diameter designated the USL\A.

• Short length .01/2002 32 THE NCE™ AND CS™ ROTATING UNIT The standard externally mounted seals in the AESSEAL® Modular System are now the NCE™ and the CS™ range formerly the SE™. ISSUE 06 .TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD SEALING SYSTEM TITLE THE SAI ROTATING UNIT AESSEAL® MODULAR TITLE BTC Fig 11. • Springs and drive lug are positioned out of the media being sealed. The very compact dimensions of this seal. Solid Tungsten Carbide.see sketch. Face materials are Carbon. • Hydraulically balanced. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 .15/16" (33mm). • Static ‘O’ ring in contact with shaft or sleeve. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. enables it to fit the vast majority of stuffing boxes without modification and therefore makes it ideal for conversion from compression packings. the main differences being that the CS™ has none of its metal components exposed to the media being sealed while the NCE™ has metal parts in contact with the fluid. so it is not important that metal parts in the NCE™ are in contact with the barrier fluid. minimize germ traps and maximize sterilization effects on hygienic duties. Both seals are similar.7 OHP Ref: Slide 22 The standard rotary unit in the AESSEAL® modular system is the SAI™ . • Polished smooth profile inner and out barrels prevent clogging. When the NCE™ is installed in the cartridge seal design and acting as a double seal. barrier fluids are usually non-corrosive. The SAI™ is available in imperial sizes and in metric sizes conforms to BSEN 12756. • Multi spring. Solid Silicon Carbide. • Dynamic ‘O’ ring located on integral barrel and is so positioned as to minimize hang-up possibilities. • Bi-direction rotation. • Small radially. Features of the SAI™ are: • An internal seal unit.

a feature not available in the CS™.9 OHP Ref: Slide 29 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.625” (20mm . with grubscrew (set-screw) drive. with typical applications in the chemical industry.2.8 The NCE™ Seal is an external seal with its metal components in contact with the media being pumped.625” . Carbon face is standard but it is also available in P.T. BTC Fig 11. It is balanced. AESSEAL® MODULAR TITLE ISSUE 06 . non shaft fretting. . Thus the full hard face options are available when required. It is used in its own right as a single externally mounted seal. Can be used as a single externally mounted seal.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD SEALING SYSTEM TITLE 33 The CS™ Seal is a balanced seal with its metal parts not in contact with the media being sealed. It is balanced ‘O’ ring mounted. non shaft fretting. in sizes ranging from 0.F.01/2002 BTC Fig 11. This seal was designed to accommodate all the AESSEAL® range of face materials. This is the external seal unit used to create a CDSA™.E. however larger sizes are avilable. ‘O’ ring mounted. with grubscrew (set-screw) drive.65mm) as standard. Silicon Carbide and Ceramic hard faces are available in limited sizes.

) Centering Clips not shown BTC Fig 12. The basic seals in the old range being: • CSAI™ • CAPI™ • CAPO™ • CMDS™ • SCI™ Both ranges are size compatible.01/2002 34 Although the ‘old’ range has been superseded by the ‘new’. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 .I. non-shaft fretting and is positively located by centering clips.L. THE CURC Comprizes the SAI™ rotary on a sleeve. It is a balanced. self aligning seat. • The ‘new’ range utilizing the U.1 OHP Ref: AW 0003 BTC Fig 12.s. (This is due to limitations of oil seals.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD The Cartridge Seal Range Fundamentally there were two ranges of cartridge seals: THE CARTRIDGE TITLE • The ‘old’ range utilizing the U. THE CRCO Identical to the CURC™ except that the carbon restriction bush is replaced by an oil seal. These can be used to control the environment in which the seal works. ‘O’ ring seal. restriction bushing and clamp ring.i. with the USI stationary in a cast glandplate assembly. The CURC™ has multiple springs which are not in contact with the product. The basic seals in the ‘new’ range being: • CURC™ • CRCO™ • CDSA™ and Bi-Metal CDSA™ • CURE™ • SCUSI™ SEAL RANGE TITLE ISSUE 06 . The maximum barrier fluid pressure is 10 p. Flush and Drain connections are incorporated into the gland plate.S. Quench. self aligning seat. it will continue to be serviced by AESSEAL®.2 OHP Ref: Slide 28 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.S.

called the FI-CDSA™ .i.) above stuffing box pressure. (16. ‘Flush’ environmental control tapping only. No restriction bushing is included and clips set the installation position for the seal. This is possible due to the increased radial clearance in the stuffing box. Titanium and Alloy 276. ANSI ‘BIG BORE’ The CURC™ and CDSA™ cartridge seals are available suitably adapted to meet ANSI Plus Pump Specifications for large bore stuffing boxes. thus the Bimetal CDSA™ avoids the expense of total seal manufacture in high cost metals. Others can be obtained to order. patent allowed. THE CDSA™ This is a cartridge mounted double seal.5 OHP Ref: Slide 31 BTC Fig 12. A second USI™ is also mounted outboard of the first and an NCE ™ is mounted on the sleeve running against it.S. U.K. U.s. the inherent problem of oil seal failure and sleeve wear are overcome. Standard metals available are Alloy 20. Other metal parts remain as standard. By changing the oil seal for a set of low pressure seal faces.4 OHP Ref: Slide 30 AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD THE CARTRIDGE TITLE BTC Fig 12. THE SCUSI™ A short external length seal comprising of SAI™/USI™ components.6 OHP Ref: Slide 33 BTC Fig 12.i. This adaption is achieved by manufacturing all metal parts ‘wetted’ by the media being sealed in applicable corrosion resistant metals. patent pending. Again the Bi-metal version of the CDSA™ is available. THE BI CDSA™ M E TA L BTC Fig 12.3 OHP Ref: Slide 54 SEAL RANGE TITLE ISSUE 06 . .5 bar) but normally this will be 1 bar (15 p. A Flow-Inducer may be used in the CDSA™ .s. The SAI™ rotary is mounted on to the cartridge sleeve running against a USI™ self-aligning seat located into the gland plate. The maximum barrier fluid pressure is 250 p. Gland plate thickness is kept to a minimum thus achieving minimum protrusion from the stuffing box to nearest obstruction. by using a big bore gland plate. Elastomer material is selected accordingly.01/2002 This is a CDSA™ adapted for use in corrosive duties where 316 Stainless Steel is not suitable.7 OHP Ref: Slide 44 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL THE CURE™ The next development from the CRCO™.to create barrier fluid circulation. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 35 BTC Fig 12.

it is the market sector leader. Radial ‘run out’ is contained by the gland plate being pilot located into the stuffing box I. grubscrew (set-screw) located. They are equal if not better pieces of engineered sealing equipment than anything offered by competition in their respective performance class.01/2002 SAI SEAL INTERGRATING BEARING SLEEVE BTC Fig 12. A flush may also be installed. THE CSWIB™ CSWIB™ is an abbreviation for “Cartridge Seal With Internal Bearing”. is somewhat different. It is a clean profile seal. The seal unit is grubscrew (set-screw) located onto the shaft and bolted through the gland plate on to the stuffing box face.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD THE CARTRIDGE TITLE SEAL RANGE TITLE 36 Although AESSEAL® is justifiably best known for its ranges of cartridge seals. We have discussed the SAI™. with its springs sealed off from the media. although strictly speaking is included in the cartridge seal category. non-shaft fretting. The seat is mounted into a robust gland plate outboard of which is also mounted a sealed for life single deep groove ball bearing. where in the U. THE SMS™ The SMS™ is an internal. it performs the dual function of seal and support bearing and therefore. The CSWIB™ comprizes a shaft sleeve. CSWIB™. NCE™ and SE™ and must now add to these the SMS™. which when present makes acceptable seal life impossible to achieve. RDS™ and Convertor II™. ‘O’ ring seal. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . It is usually run against the ‘R’ ceramic stationary seat and is available in increments of 1/8" from 1/2" to 1” carbon faced only.D. in the latter alternative a grease connection is also provided. balanced.K. ISSUE 06 .8 ‘O’ RING MOUNTED STATIONARY © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. SAI™ seal and barrel running against an ‘O’ ring mounted stationary seat. The CSWIB™ is designed to overcome excessive shaft radial movement or ‘run out’. It was designed as a competitor to the small diameter single spring design of competition. it must not be forgotten that the internal and external mechanical seals used in the cartridge seal modular concept are complete single seals in their own right. The CSWIB™ is available with or without quench and drain tappings in the gland plate.

the rotary has lapped matching faces of its halves. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD THE CARTRIDGE TITLE SEAL RANGE TITLE ISSUE 06 . However once shaft diameters have increased to where manual effort is no longer possible and machinery such as a crane is required. nevertheless. . Other engineered design features of the RDS™ are its stationary seal unit design.01/2002 37 Lapped Rotary half BTC Fig 12. Although the stationary carbon remains a split component. split seals. It has been designed to keep its number of components to a minimum and to the very highest engineering standards. so cracking them in two halves. ‘flush’ environmental control tapping and correct installation and wear device. This might not be so relevant in small diameter shaft machinery where maintenance can be accomplished manually. The name split seal originated from the practice of breaking or splitting the two primary seal faces.9 OHP Ref: Slide 51 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. The attraction of the divided seal design is that it can be maintained without disturbing the shaft coupling or driver. It is as effective a leak free radially divided mechanical seal as is possible within acceptable commercial restraints.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL THE RDS™ Another excellent piece of engineered sealing technology designed and manufactured by AESSEAL® is the range of radially divided seals. the task of conventional mechanical seal maintenance becomes a long and expensive one. 50% of this potential leak path is eliminated. known in abbreviation as the RDS™ range. Radially divided or better known in the industry. Initially the most attractive applications for the RDS™ seal will be as a mechanical seal conversion from conventional compression packing. The RDS™ has been designed to seal cold. aqueous-based liquids. where the ease of installation reasoning in the previous paragraph is equally relevant. It must be added that the stationary is split to such a high degree of control that a better description is probably ‘fractured’. are not new in the market and in fact have been available for many years in various design forms which operated with varying and mostly unacceptable degrees of success. Even with the strictest of manufacturing procedures this cracking cannot be fully controlled and very often in practice results in the establishment of a leak path. The RDS™ seal is a unitary design and requires no adaptor plate between it and the stuffing box face. drive re-location and re-aligning is still necessary. non-shaft fretting characteristic. In the AESSEAL® approach.

It is balanced.Carbon/Ceramic as standard or any of the face materials held in stock. Rotary seal. Viton® is standard.Finite Element assisted. Factory repair and replacement spares kits available. Face materials . (20 m/s) -40˚ C (-40˚F) to 200˚ C (400˚F) temperature rating. ISSUE 06 . designed and tested.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD THE CARTRIDGE TITLE SEAL RANGE TITLE 38 THE CONVERTOR II The Convertor II is intended as a low cost cartridge seal directly to replace compression packings or single component mechanical seals.000" to 4. Non-asbestos gasket. 20 bar pressure rating.01/2002 BTC Fig 12. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . ‘O’ ring mounted seat. Manufactured from AESSEAL® standard seal components. Sizes from 1.10 OHP Ref: Slide 57 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL®plc All Rights Reserved.000" (24mm to 100mm) diameter. Glandplate thickness . raised flange located. 4000 feet per minute speed limit. All Rights Reserved. dependent upon elastomers used.

CONTROLS TITLE ISSUE 06 . It’s main functions being:- a.. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL® . To prevent deposits at the seal faces. If an external flush is introduced. b.01/2002 The diagram below shows a typical flush arrangement. temperature control can be achieved by the introduction of coolers or heaters into the flush line. To cool. it must be at least one bar higher than the pressure being sealed. if so required. As well as cooling the seal area and preventing deposit build-up in the seal chamber. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. By these means the correct “environment” for the seal’s successful operation is established and maintained. Separators or strainers can be fitted to remove solids etc. c. it is common practice to take the flush from this.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD ENVIRONMENTAL TITLE Elementary Environmental Controls THE FLUSH CONNECTION Flush is the term given for the arrangement in a mechanical seal assembly that allows the media being sealed (or an external one compatible with it) to be introduced into the area of the mating faces. To exclude abrasive media from seal face area.1 OHP Ref: AW 0003 As pump discharge pressure is usually higher than that in the stuffing box. Flush Fluid: (Pressure must be higher than the product pressure) 39 Product Pressure BTC Fig 13.

• Stabilization of the fluid film between the primary seal faces. Since the quenching media is usually required to flow through the atmospheric side of a seal assembly. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Vacuum or close to vaporization applications. such as a throttle bush. • Heating. The diagram below shows a typical Quench & Drain arrangement. • Protection against dry running. Vapor and gas quenching will be discussed later. steam or any other acceptable media. other fluids. ISSUE 06 . which for any reason this might occur. The quench is retained within the mechanical seal by some form of outboard auxiliary seal. • Exclusion of air.D. Another definition of a quench is to say that it supplies an external sourced fluid. When sealed media leakage reacts unfavourably when coming into contact with the atmosphere. • Cooling.01/2002 40 In this arrangement some leakage of the quench fluid would occur at this point BTC Fig 13. selection of which is dependent upon the nature and required pressure of the quenching media. hence quench and drain.2 OHP Ref: Slide 26 Some of the services provided by the quench arrangement are: • Removal of leakage across the primary seal of the mechanical seal • Lubrication of the primary seal via its I. vapor or gas to a mechanical seal’s primary seal on the atmospheric side.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD ENVIRONMENTAL TITLE CONTROLS TITLE THE QUENCH AND DRAIN FUNCTION The term quenching in mechanical seal terminology means immersing the atmospheric side of a seal assembly in water. A mechanical seal with quenching facilities can often be considered as a partway arrangement between a single and full double installation. it is said to drain away. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . lip seal or another mechanical seal.

A High Pressure Barrier also means that the internal face film is barrier fluid rather than product.3 OHP Ref: Slide 30 LOW PRESSURE BARRIER When used at a lower pressure than the stuffing box condition.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL BARRIER FLUID The diagram below is that of a fully operating double seal. provide lubrication for dry running conditions or help to prevent the build up of crystallized particles at the internal seal faces. prevents the pumped product from entering the barrier fluid system and ultimately leaking to atmosphere. An external liquid is provided between the inboard and outboard seal faces. HIGH PRESSURE BARRIER A barrier fluid pressure which is higher than the stuffing box pressure. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.01/2002 41 BTC Fig 13. the barrier fluid can serve as a coolant. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD ENVIRONMENTAL TITLE Barrier Fluid Entry CONTROLS TITLE ISSUE 06 . .

If 316L Stainless Steel is not suitable. • Temperature rises drastically increase the corrosion rates of acids. 50% to 85% at 60˚ C (140˚F) will destroy 316L Stainless Steel. but check with Rotherham • Chlorine Dioxide. Iron. • Sulphuric acid. if the pipework on the installation is of Steel.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD CHOOSING THE TITLE 42 Choosing the Correct Materials METALLURGY Along with the rest of the Mechanical Seal Industry. Brass. but check with Rotherham. The CS™ seal is designed as an external seal and is so designed that none of its metal parts are in contact with the media being sealed. • Hydrochloric acid. • Hydrofluoric acid is totally unacceptable. Alloy 276 is a nickel-based alloy with Molybdenum. Manganese. Also. Springs in the AESSEAL® range of seals have been tested by an independent test facility for 10 million deflections with no breakages. Alloy 20. then it will be compatible. The flange gasket can be of P. It is resistant to such aggressive media as Nitric acid and Chlorine Dioxide. Alloy 276 and Titanium wetted inboard seal components are inventoried in popular sizes. check with Rotherham. Titanium is one of the best corrosion-resistance materials commercially available. Alloy 276 is the material used by AESSEAL® for its springs. Bronze or Stainless Steel. For the Bi-metal exotic alloy seal. .F. above ambient temperature. check with Rotherham. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 CORRECT MATERIALS TITLE ISSUE 06 . it does not suffer from Chloride stress corrosion as Stainless Steel might do when exposed to Chloride containing media. then the Bi-metal exotic alloy seal or the SE seal should be considered. use Alloy 276. Chrome. • Fuming Nitric acid.T. use Alloy 20. but check with Rotherham. and the secondary seal would be an elastomeric ‘O’ ring. Alloy 20 is a grade of Stainless Steel having greater corrosion resistance than 316L Stainless Steel.01/2002 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. both of which have extreme corrosion resistance qualities. AESSEAL® has standardized on 316L Stainless Steel for its metal parts. Copper and Iron added. Some media that will attack 316L Stainless Steel include: • 98% Sulphuric acid. as in addition to its corrosion properties its ‘spring force’ is 25% more than for a Stainless Steel spring material such as 302.E. use Titanium. especially in thin section forms such as springs. Its corrosion resistance is amongst the highest of all metals. As a guide to the suitability of 316 Stainless Steel to the media being sealed. which can be corrosion resistant to virtually all aggressive media and gases. Wetted components are of Ceramic (seat) and Carbon (face). • Caution with Acetic acid as in certain conditions it will attack Molybdenum.

F. Particularly relevant in the Pulp and Paper Industry on liqueur (liquor) duties.R. the standard Carbon used by AESSEAL® as with the rest of the mechanical seal industry. has the best resistance to radioactive environments. Carbon is compatible with a very extensive range of chemicals -see Appendix ‘Compatibility Sheet Number D. Kalrez® . its maximum being 200˚ C (400˚F). composition and grain of its base materials and the binder used.P. F. Pitch or Synthetic Resin.P. rings. Carbon has excellent sliding characteristics. Although available from inventory AES never recommend the use of F. The Shore Hardness is 75. ‘O’ rings in their range of mechanical seals. . Carbon is porous (about 8%) hence the need for vacuum impregnation to seal this porosity. used by DuPont Dow Elastomers.E. Viton® is a Fluorocarbon Rubber (FPM) and Viton® is the trade name for FPM.E.E. 43 L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Aflas® . Its maximum operating temperature is 200˚ C (400˚F). has a Shore Hardness of 75 and has better recovery but less stable compression set characteristics than Viton®. The AESSEAL® grade of Carbon is described as triple-resin impregnated.E. In particular make sure that any burrs or sharp edges are rounded off and smoothed. to 150˚ C (300˚F). Temperature range is typically .P. which gives good wear characteristics. E.P. Graphite. Carbon black and Anthracite in combination with binding agents such as Coal Tar. In addition to its chemical compatibility qualities. above which the resin boils out of the Carbon.R.40˚ C (-40˚F).Grade 4079 is the AESSEAL® standard grade.Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene. which in addition to being the best grade to resist compression set also has good chemical resistance. Grade 3018 should be used.220/1’.P. Typical temperature range is . over a core of rubber. and is the preferred material for the rotating member of the primary seal. . E.60˚ C (-75˚F). Good Carbon performance is determined by the type. the one selected by AESSEAL® for its standard is E60C. It is normally used only in hot water and caustic/alkali solutions. Phenolic resin is usually the material used for this purpose. Maximum temperature in high pressure hot water applications is 80˚ C (180˚F).P.E. The core is usually Silicone rubber although Viton® is also available. with a typical minimum of -20˚ C (-4˚F). Viton® is not really a low temperature elastomer.thermally stable up to 200˚ C (400˚F). A number of grades of viton are available. has excellent resilience and recovery characteristics.01/2002 ‘O’ RING MATERIALS Viton® is the most widely used ‘O’ ring material in the Mechanical Seal Industry.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL CARBON To be more accurate.P. ‘O’ rings are constructed by placing a heat sealed tube of F. It has almost the same chemical resistance as Teflon. For extreme hot water and steam applications. also in high temperature hot water and caustic applications.Ethylene Propylene Rubber.R. excellent heat dissipation and hard-wearing properties. is an artificial one produced from Coke. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD CHOOSING THE TITLE CORRECT MATERIALS TITLE ISSUE 06 . to 205˚ C (400˚F). This gives a chemical resistance similar to Teflon and is thermally stable up to 316˚ C (600˚F). More qualities of Carbon are its lubricity.P. Impregnation exerts a secondary influence. Great care should be taken when handling and fitting F. It will then fall out of its 316L Stainless Steel carrier and eventually disintegrate. E. .

Carbon/Chrome Oxide • Chrome Oxide has much better heat dissipation qualities than Ceramic. Carbon/Silicon Carbide • Very good chemical compatibility. • Very hard. mechanically good. • Metal to metal drive can also extend seal life. •Very brittle. • Ceramic is hard (2500 Vickers Hardness). Solid Tungsten Carbide/Solid Tungsten Carbide • Not as hard as Ceramic (~75 Rockwell C). is also brittle and suffers from a phenomena known as heat checking.5. but has better ‘sliding’ properties. or superfine grade. • It has the chemical resistance of 316 Stainless Steel. • Good in alkali environments.01/2002 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.5%. • Good shock characteristics. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . • Excellent general purpose face material for aqueous-based media. • Not as good on abrasive application. The higher the percentage. • It is chemical resistant. • Extremely good heat dissipation qualities. CORRECT MATERIALS TITLE ISSUE 06 . Solid Tungsten Carbide/Silicon Carbide • Generally the preferred combination for abrasive duties or certain high pressure applications. • A tough material. • Generally as for STC/STC. • Cannot be used in dry running situations under any circumstances. Carbon/Solid Tungsten Carbide • Good high temperature hot water combination or any similar ‘close to vaporization’ applications. • Not to be used at pH < 2. The grade used by AESSEAL® is 99.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD CHOOSING THE TITLE 44 PRIMARY SEAL MATERIAL COMBINATIONS Carbon/Ceramic • Widely used combination. • Not suitable for extreme acid or alkaline applications which may attack the stainless steel and cause detachment of the Chrome Oxide layer. • The higher the Alumina content. the greater its resistance to heat check. • Ceramic has extremely poor heat dissipation qualities. • Very good heat dissipation qualities. Silicon Carbide/Silicon Carbide • Should only ever be used in extreme acid duties (where Solid Tungsten Carbide would be attacked). the better the quality.


All purchasers of mechanical seals should make adequate provision to control and monitor the product being sealed.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD SEAL APPLICATION TITLE FORM TITLE 46 Seal Application Form This form (see pages 47 & 48) must be completed every time a salesman fits a mechanical seal to a pump: a) Which he / she has not fitted a seal to before. except where a mechanical seal is sold by its own direct salesforce. Should your company not want us to have this information about the customer. c) If the customer is new to your company. The next sections must be filled in full. For any specials AESSEAL® will undertake a technical and commercial appraisal. as we cannot contact the customer directly. HEAL TH & SAFETY All mechanical seals are wearing parts. Advance user planning to control the resultant product leakage. Even double seals will eventually fail. to ensure personnel safety once the effective life of the seal is over. d) If you want any technical help from AESSEAL® e) If the application is known but the size is different or the pump is different than previously used. Any further information required will have to be sought by yourselves or the salesman concerned. ISSUE 06 . That is why we pressure test every mechanical seal prior to shipping from our factory. please fill in the first section on the back page fully. All mechanical seals last longer on well maintained equipment. Looking at the sheet the top portion needs to be noted by yourselves so that you can readily identify if the customer calls whether it is a new or previously experienced application he / she is talking about. b) In which a seal meets a new application. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . Almost all mechanical seal failures are caused by factors beyond our control. all potentially hazardous products should be sealed with a full double faced mechanical seal. with a finite life expectancy. Where a distributor makes the sales profit it is their responsibility to meet any warranty claims. any gaps will be treated as unknowns and we will ask for clarification on those spaces on the form. adequate monitoring and proper product selection are essential to ensure (insure) Health and Safety at Work. A properly installed. For safety reasons. The more details you can fill in on the form the less time it will take for a reply to any queries you may make to AESSEAL® Rotherham.01/2002 REMEMBER: AESSEAL® restricts its warranty to defects in materials and workmanship. be prepared to accept that any enquiries (inquiries) are bound to be extended. careful installation. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. Incomplete or inaccurate answers will lead to more mechanical seal failures. selected and controlled double seal gives greater chances of advance warning of impending failure.

......... Abrasive Content ? YES / NO Max Particle Size............................................... Plant................... API Plan No........................................ Flush Available ? YES / NO Flush Fluid.............. DELIVERY...................... Radial Movement (max)............................................. PUMP DETAILS Manufacturer.............................. For official use only SIZE TYPE PRODUCT DETAILS Product............ Temperature °C.........................No...................................................................................................................................................... Facsimile....................................................................................................................................................... Dry Running? YES / NO SEAL APPLICATION TITLE FORM TITLE ISSUE 06 .............. Seal Application ORDER / ENQUIRY Eng................................. p.Location................................................................................................................................................... S’Box Recess Dia...................... Telephone................................................... Size / Type.... ..................................... Speed.......................................................................................... L2....................... D1 DIA.................................................... PCD 3............................... L1......................................................................................H............................ S60 1BZ.........................................................................................................Templeborough................................................ Max Gland O/D.......................................................................... BRONZE AWARD AESSEAL plc Mill Close..................................... ................... BOLT PATTERN...................... ................................ ......................... L3.............. Pressure in S’Box.....................................Contact....................... Pump Modifications................................................................................................................. Serial No................................ PRICE..... Chemical Composition / Concentration.............................. Bradmarsh Business Park....................................................... Axial Movement (max).............................. ......................................................................Code............ D4 THREAD.........01/2002 47 SEAL SUGGESTION FACE MATERIAL (S) O-RING MATERIAL (S) QUANTITY............................................................................. ....TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® Ref: IN 3992 Issue: F 01 January 2002 Date........................ Rotherham......... S’Box Outside Dia............ L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved....... Telephone: 01709 369966 Facsimile: 01709 720788 CUSTOMER Company......SLEEVE/SHAFT D2 DIA.....

..............................................................................................................................01/2002 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved...................... 6) Any additional information you feel AESSEAL®.......................................................................................................................... 2) What is the current cost to the customer of the existing sealing device? ..Date.... ii) Outboard ......TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD SEAL APPLICATION TITLE FORM TITLE 48 Ref: IN 3992 Issue: F 01 January 2002 INFORMATION FOR NON-STANDARD DESIGNS ESSENTIAL information for non-standard designs ................................ ....................................................... 1) What is the Customer currently using in the proposed application? a) Packing type :b) Seal type :c) Seal Faces :i) Inboard ......................................................... 3) Please indicate what your customer expects to pay you for the application solution? aid in a technical and commercial evaluation by AESSEAL® management..................................... .......................................g...................................................................... ii) Outboard ...............) ................Date................................................................................................... For official use only Requested............ Details of Operation Systems...... Barrier Fluid or Flush System..Enquiry No. 5) What is the total anticipated value of business after solving this problem at our price to the customer? i) Within 12 months? ......................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ISSUE 06 ................................. d) Elastomers :i) Inboard ....... (e............... etc................................ 4) How many identical units does the customer expect to seal.............. might find helpful................................................................................................................................................................................. ii) 12 to 24 months?................................. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 ...... LOGGED ON SYSTEM Signed.. .................................................................................................................................... if the first item proves successful? .........................................................................

usually of elastomeric. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved.D. oscillating. Piping plans recommended by the API for the auxiliary equipment required in a mechanical seal application. relying on absorbed fluid for lubrication. A device who’s O. Bellows component of a bellows seal.01/2002 Axial Movement: B Back to Back Seals: Balance Holes: See double seals. The area of the sealing face which is bounded by the balance diameter and the inside diameter of the sealing face and the area which is bounded by the outer and inner diameters of the sealing face. Metal bellows are constructed from a series of metal discs. Holes through the hub of an impeller. Is the ratio of two areas. It provides sealing between these two surfaces. or decimal e.g. 70/30. 70%. Minute imperfections (peaks & troughs) in either face of the primary seal which are present following normal lapping procedures. reciprocating or angular motions. with Viton® being the most popular elastomer. ISSUE 06 . It is attached to both members between which sealing is required and is therefore only capable of sealing. Elastomeric bellows are a moulded (molded) design. providing pressure equalization behind the impeller with that of the suction pressure and so reduce the stuffing box pressure.7. surface mates with a bore surface. A term used to describe damage to carbons usually caused in Hydrocarbon applications. BRONZE AWARD GLOSSARY OF TITLE SEAL TERMS TITLE Auxiliary Equipment: Additional equipment used with a mechanical seal. e. 0.D. Movement along the axis parallel to the center line of the shaft. PTFE bellows are machined. normally referred to as a percentage. Running in.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® Glossary of Seal Terms A ANSI/ASME: Anti-Rotation Device: API: API Piping Plan: Asperities: American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers. welded together alternatively at O. A seal which is designed to seal equally well in clockwise or counterclockwise rotation. A seal in which the primary member is a bellows or some other accordion shape. Metal bellows are also available constructed via hydraulic and rolled techniques.g.g. 49 Balanced Seal: Balance (Hydraulic): Bedding In: Bellows: Bi-Directional Seal: Blistering: Boot Seal: Bore Seal: Boundary Lubrication: Situation where both primary seal members are in contact. .D. A mechanical seal so designed as to reduce the effect of the fluid’s hydraulic pressure upon the primary seal face loads. A device usually a pin used to prevent the rotation of one component of the primary seal relevant to the other. American Petroleum Institute. PTFE or metal construction. or ratio e. usually to create or maintain a favourable environment around it and so ensure (insure) reliable service. and I.

By-Pass Flush: C Carbonization: Flush taken from the pump volute or H.) than that of the sealed fluid. A complete mechanical seal assembly with gland plate. the John Crane type 10 family of PTFE seals. ISSUE 06 . introduced to a mechanical seal arrangement from an external source to facilitate cooling. The annular area between a bore and a shaft.P. The materials are usually bonded together. A cool liquid. Also seal plate. A piece of ancillary equipment. into which a mechanical seal is fitted. either by shrink fit.01/2002 Cartridge Seal: Cavitation: Cavity also Chamber: Clamp Plate: Clearance Seal: Closing Force: Coking: Composite Seal: Compression Set: Controlled Leakage Seal: Coolant: Crystalliztion: Cyclone Separator: © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. usually expressed as a percentage of the total compression. the pressure of the buffer fluid is higher (1 or 2 bar) (15-30 p. the fluid introduced between the seals to isolate the arrangement from both the fluid being sealed and the atmosphere. the object is the same as for double seals. A plate bolted to the stuffing box carrying the ‘seat’.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD GLOSSARY OF TITLE SEAL TERMS TITLE 50 Bubble Point: Buffer Fluid (Barrier fluid): The temperature at constant pressure which produces a bubble in a liquid. Formation of crystals on the atmospheric side of a mechanical seal arrangement. In tandem seal arrangements. Carrier: That component of a mechanical seal which carries a face (either stationary or rotating) of the primary. Sleeve mounted. In double seal arrangements. A Hydrocyclone. Formation of carbonaceous deposits on the atmospheric side of a mechanical seal arrangement. fitted in a pumped fluid recirculation line to remove solids. A condition in which vapour (vapor) or gas bubbles occur locally in liquids (normally in an area where pressure decreases suddenly). but buffer pressure is lower than that of the sealed fluid. The subsequent collapse of the bubbles causes high local impact pressure which may result in seal wear. only needing bolting onto the stuffing box. A seal which limits the leakage between a rotating or reciprocating shaft and a stationary housing by means of a controlled annular clearance between the two.s. The thickness difference between a gasket or static seal prior and post to compression.i. side of the system. In this arrangement. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . Pressure of sealed fluid plus spring pressure. A seal which is composed of two or more materials of differing flexibility or hardness. A mechanical seal so designed to allow leakage across the primary seal. by other mechanical means or adhesive.g. A reduction of Hydrocarbons resulting in a carbonaceous residue. e.

29 microns).0000116” (0. . back to back or face to face and buffer fluid passed between them.D. Expressed in Helium light bands. also gland plate. so keeping it away from bearings. The film of sealed media separating and lubricating the primary seal. release agents and similar. of the primary seal of the mechanical seal. Disc device shaft mounted to impart radial movement to mechanical seal leakage. When a film of material off the softer of the two members of the primary seal is deposited onto the harder one. An elastic material. The feature of a mechanical seal design (special) that allows it to work under a given reverse pressure. The comparison of the flatness of a mechanical seal face or seat to a perfect plane. The displacement of a part of an ‘O’ ring or similar seal into a gap when subjected to pressure or movement.g.01/2002 E Elastomer: End Plate: Extrusion: Eye: F Face Width: Film Thickness: Film Transfer: Flash: Flashing: Flatness: The radial dimension of the narrower face of the primary seal.Differential Pressure: The difference in pressure between two points in a system. A plate which holds the non-rotating part of a mechanical seal and connects it to the seal chamber. etc. A seal arrangement where two seals are used. 51 Flinger: Fluid Film: Flush: Free Length: L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. the secondary seal of which consists of a flexible diaphragm. when it is in operation. The uncompressed axial length of a mechanical seal assembly. A condition where there is no liquid present between the faces of the primary seal. Rapid vaporization of a fluid. This term is also applicable to -springs or bellows. A seal which has rotating. Deutches Institut Für Normen E/German Engineering Standards Institute. also slinger.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL D Dead Ended: Diaphragm Seal: A stuffing box arrangement where the buffer fluid or sealing fluid does not circulate within it. A seal. The circular inlet of an impeller. The distance between the two members of the primary seal in a mechanical seal. in a mechanical seal. compounded with fillers. e. 1 light band = 0. one upstream of a mechanical seal and one downstream of it. oscillating or reciprocating motion between its sealing components. An amount of fluid introduced into the seal chamber in close proximity to the I. AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD DIN: Double Balance: Double Seal: Dry Running: Dynamic Seal: GLOSSARY OF TITLE SEAL TERMS TITLE ISSUE 06 . Extrusions on an elastomer (‘O’ ring) formed in its moulding (molding).

ISSUE 06 . Leakage Rate: M Magnetic Seal: Mechanical Load: A seal which uses magnetic material instead of springs or bellows to provide the closing force. The load applied to a seal to ensure (insure) contact between the mating faces. cold quenching. Also applicable to pneumatic load. A rigid ring used to prevent axial movement of a seal(s) within a gland. The term also applies to the dimensional range within which a bellows can be safely operated. O Operating Length. Also applicable to springs and bellows. The axial load resulting from fluid pressures only. restricting flow of sealed fluid into seal chamber. N Neck Bush: Close clearance bushing at bottom of stuffing box. Formation of ice on the atmospheric side of mechanical seal arrangement. in the harder of the two primary seal numbers. The axially moveable part of a stuffing box which is forced against the sealing members by means of manual adjustment. Dry running. The quantity of fluid passing through a seal in a given length of time. Stationary part of a mechanical seal often fixed to the pump/mixer. See flush and quench. There are many designs of labyrinth used in this type of seal. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. H Hang-Up: Header: Heat Check: Housing: Hydraulic Load: A condition where the secondary seal in a mechanical seal arrangement does not take up primary seal wear. caused by thermal stress.01/2002 I Icing: Injection: Interface: L Labyrinth Seal: A clearance type of seal where the fluid being sealed must traverse a tortuous path in order to escape. Minimum Compressed Length: The length of a mechanical seal assembly which has been loaded to its solid length. resulting in an increase in radial sealing force. Fine radial cracks. The axial distance of a mechanical seal from the primary seal location to a reference point or plane. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . excluding fluid pressure. Region between the two faces of the primary seal. A rigid structure which supports and locates the seal assembly with respect to the shaft.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD GLOSSARY OF TITLE SEAL TERMS TITLE 52 G Gasket: Gland: Gland Follower: A device used between two static (usually) surfaces to prevent leakage.

GLOSSARY OF TITLE SEAL TERMS TITLE ISSUE 06 .D. etc. It is used to measure flatness in conjunction with a Monochromatic Light Source. or to exclude contaminates. The term is considered to provide some sort of measure as to the severity of service and thus is relative to seal life. 53 R Running Torque: S Scuffing: A mild degree of galling which results from the welding of asperities due to frictional heat. The part of the rotating member of the primary seal coming in closest proximity to the face of the mating member. The seal between the rotating and stationary members of a mechanical seal.01/2002 Q Quench: A neutral fluid which is introduced into the atmospheric side of a seal assembly. . A mechanical seal in which the secondary seal is pushed along the shaft or sleeve to take up face wear of the primary seal. The torque required to sustain a shaft in rotary motion. The bushing O. lapped and polished to within 0. A device. An arbitrary term which is the product of face pressure and relative sliding velocity. The welded asperities break causing surface degradation. Seal: Seal Assembly: Seal Bushing: Seal Cavity Pressure: Seal Envelope: Seal Head: Seal Housing: Seal Nose: Seal Unit: Secondary Seal: L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. which allows axial movement of the primary seal of a mechanical seal without leakage. A simplified impeller within a chamber which circulates fluid through a closed loop for cooling purposes. The external dimensions of a mechanical seal. Also called the unit. The assembly of parts comprising the complete functional unit of the axially moveable part of a mechanical seal. A device designed to prevent the movement of fluid (or other media) from one area to another. That part of a two piece mechanical seal assembly containing secondary seal. The pressure on the product side of a mechanical seal assembly. usually of fused quartz. A seal type consisting of a close fitting sleeve within which the shaft rotates. A mechanical seal with its unit/head mounted outside the container holding the fluid to be sealed. A structure which supports and locates the primary seal. such as ‘O’ ring or bellows.TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL Optical Flat: A transparent disc. A total two-part seal. Leakage is controlled by the clearance between the shaft and the bushing. chemical corrosion or cavitation.1 light band flatness on one or both faces. is usually press fitted and locked into a housing. AESSEAL® Outside Mounted Seal: BRONZE AWARD P Pitting: Primary Seal: Pumping Ring: Pusher-Type Seal: PV Factor: Voids in surfaces of the primary seal faces usually caused by mechanical erosion. springs.

The stationary part of a two piece mechanical seal. etc. independent of initial tension.TRAINING MANUAL AESSEAL® BRONZE AWARD GLOSSARY OF TITLE SEAL TERMS TITLE 54 Shaft Eccentricity: Shaft Runout: Slinger: The radial distance which the geometric center of a shaft is displaced from the axis of its rotation. cartridge seal. The force. e. shafts. A vibration having a circumferential or angular sense such as is generated by stick-slip action of the primary seal. It is usually ‘V’ shaped and seals statically. sleeves. A machine element capable of storing energy and releasing it as required. A cylindrical cavity and the enclosing stationary parts surrounding a shaft. A disc-like device which is mounted close to the gland plate and imparts radial movement to a liquid in order to prevent it entering an area where it will cause damage. L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 . A resistance to shaft rotation caused by the frictional drag of the primary seal in a mechanical seal. with units and seats orientated in the same direction. A seal assembly in which all the components are retained in a single package. Insufficient or total lack of lubrication. A device formed by winding a metal and suitable filler layer into a spiral. A friction phenomenon which perhaps is best described as a ‘jerky’ motion usually resulting when one surface is being dragged over another as in non or boundary lubricated primary seal conditions. A seal which has its primary sealing members split in a plane parallel to the axis of a shaft. Other seal members may be divided according to individual designs. which is required to extend the working length of a spring/ unit distance. thus they are each two semi-circles. also tracking pattern.g.g. The mark made by a seal on the surface with which it mates. Twice the distance which the center of a shaft is displaced from its axis of rotation.01/2002 Spring Force: Spring Pressure: Spring Rate: Starting Torque: Starved Lubrication: Stator: Stick-Slip: Stuffing Box: Surface Finish: T Tandem Seal: Torque: Torsion Vibration: Track: A two seal arrangement. twice the eccentricity. designed to accept a packing for the purpose of preventing leakage along the shaft. © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. U Unbalanced Seal: Unitized Seal: A mechanical seal so designed that 100-150% of the hydraulic pressure of the sealed fluid acts to close the primary seal. The face pressure between the members of the primary seal of a mechanical seal resulting from its spring load only. The axial force exerted by a spring to overcome dynamic force and any secondary seal friction force. The torque required to initiate rotary motion. i. (As applied to mechanical sealing). e. Spiral Wound Gasket: Split Seal: Spring: ISSUE 06 . In mechanical seal engineering springs are primarily used to maintain pressure on the primary seal when there is no hydraulic closing force present. one mounted after the other. The smoothness of a metallic surface.e.

There is no definition of ‘minute’ but it is often considered as less than one drop per minute. A mechanical seal where the secondary seal is of wedge shape cross section. Also Helix seal. A disc type of spring. SEAL TERMS TITLE Wear Rate: Wedge Type Seal: Weepage: ISSUE 06 . when a flowing liquid is suddenly stopped. deformed to have a multiple wave pattern in a place perpendicular to its axis. A helically grooved liner. A connection in the gland plate outboard of the seal through which leakage may be vented or fluid passed. at a given temperature. BRONZE AWARD GLOSSARY OF TITLE The sound of concussion. Excessive radial movement of the primary seal faces across each other. John Crane type 109. The amount of seal surface wear worn in a given amount of time.01/2002 55 Wildback Seal: Wipe: L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL plc All Rights Reserved. AESSEAL® Vapour (Vapor) Pressure: Vent Connection: Volute: W Water Hammer: Wave Spring: The pressure below which a liquid becomes a vapour or gas. e. The part of a centrifugal pump within which the impeller operates.g. usually installed on a shaft which operates through a clearance and lowers leakage by means of its pumping action resulting from the transfer or momentum to the fluid. It utilizes little axial space and is therefore used in seal designs requiring minimum length. Viscoseal. .TRAINING MANUAL TRAINING MANUAL V Vaporization: When a liquid changes state to a vapour or gas. Screw seal. A minute amount of liquid leakage across the primary seal.

Gauteng. U. AESSEAL plc. committed to the Investor in People standard. Confluid Branch. USA. Iowa.K. AESSEAL plc. Co. we need employees who are totally equipped to handle every aspect of our business. New York. BHD. AESSEAL plc... The Company is. To achieve customer satisfaction. AESSEAL ESP LLC.. for demanding customers across the world.aesseal. Turkey.. AESSEAL plc. Denmark. . AESSEAL Turkiye. to train and develop all employees to the standard necessary to achieve company objectives. USA. therefore. Cedar Rapids. AESSEAL Inc. Amanzimtoti.K. AESSEAL Malaysia SDN. AESSEAL Inc. U.. South Africa. U. Ireland. Pontypridd.K. AESSEAL Danmark. U. AESSEAL (MCK) Ltd. Derby. Peterborough. Istanbul. Telephone: +44 (0) 1709 369966 Telephone: +44 (0) 1332 366738 Telephone: +44 (0) 1733 230787 Telephone: +44 (0) 1698 849808 Telephone +44 (0) 1642 245744 Telephone: +44 (0) 1708 256600 Telephone: +44 (0) 1443 844330 Telephone: +44 (0) 28 9266 9966 Telephone: +353 (0) 214 633477 Telephone: +1 865 531 0192 Telephone: +1 315 568 4706 Telephone: +1 423 224 7573 Telephone: +1 319 393 4310 Telephone: +49 (0) 60 74 881293 Telephone: +39 (0) 33 197 0556 Telephone: +27 (0) 11 466 6500 Telephone: +27 (0) 31 903 5438 Telephone: +603 8062 1233 Telephone: +31 (0) 76 564 9292 Telephone: +34 977 55 43 30 Telephone: +45 56 64 14 00 Telephone: +33 (0) 3 2017 2850 Telephone: +90 (0) 212 237 40 47 Telephone: +1 807 624 2727 Telephone: +86 574 8770 1888 AES/DOC/IN 4123 01/02 AESSEAL® is a Registered Trademark of AESSEAL plc © Copyright 2002 AESSEAL® Ref: L-UK/US-AWARD-B-06 web: http://www. AESSEAL plc. AESSEAL (MCK) Ltd. We have undertaken.K. AESSEAL Pty Ltd. South Africa. Middlesbrough. Tennessee. USA. Essex. upon which the future of AESSEAL® depends. U. USA.A. Scotland.K. AESSEAL Italia SRL. AESSEAL Deutschland AG. U. AESSEAL Ibérica S.AESSEAL® produces components of the highest quality.L. as part of this initiative. Knoxville. AESSEAL China Ltd. U. AESSEAL Nederland. Kingsport. AESSEAL Canada Inc. Cork. AESSEAL Pty Ltd. U.K.. Lisburn. Køge. AESSEAL France S.K. Tennessee. AESSEAL plc.L..K. The AESSEAL® Group of Companies AESSEAL email: seals@aesseal. Seneca Falls.R. AESSEAL Inc.

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