Clothing Comfort Testing Equipments

Dr Muhammad Mushtaq Mangat

Clothing comfort testing machines
  Testing of:   Heat transfer
  Moisture transfer   Rigidity   Surface smoothness

Heat transfer
  Thermal conductivity   Thermal resistance   Thermal absorbtivity   Maximum heat flux

Machines used to test thermal properties

  Developed by YONEDA and KAWABATA in 1983.   They have introduced the maximum level of the

contact heat flow qmax [W/m2K] as a measure of this transient thermal commercialised

  Their instrument, called THERMO-LABO, was   This instrument includes a BT box as a heat source

and a water bath maintained at room temperature as a heat sink

  Using 6gf/cm2, the fabric specimen is held between

the heat source and heat sink having a 10°C temperature difference between the plate and sink
  At steady state, power required is measured and

thermal conductance is calculated as heat flow per temperature difference per unit area. Overall thermal conductivity is calculated as the product of the thermal conductance and fabric thickness (Conductivity = Conductance * Thickness [1]

Sweat Guarded Hotplate

Sweating Guarded Hotplate [2]
  The Sweating Guarded Hotplate, also called "skin

model", used for accurate, repeatable measurements of the thermal resistance and vapor permeability of textiles in accordance with:

  ISO 11092   ASTM F1868   NFPA 1971   EN 31092   GB/T 11048-2008 [

Dry Guarded Hotplate

Thermal manikin system perfect for a broad range of clothing and environmental testing The Newton system is available in standard 20, 26, or 34-zone configurations The Newton body form is available as either a 50th percentile Western or Asian Male, in either dry or sweating formats.

Manikin PC2 Human Comfort Software

The ManikinPC2 thermoregulatory model allows users to control Newton at variable activity levels that simulate the human metabolism while sleeping, resting, working, or exercising.[2]

STAN- Seat Test Automotive Manikin

The Seat Test Automotive Manikin (STAN) was developed to evaluate the thermal comfort and moisture management of automobile seating. [2]

Thermal Hand Test System
The Thermal Hand Test Manikin was developed to provide accurate measurements for all types of hand wear [2].

Thermal Head Test System
The Thermal Head manikin can be used to generate accurate test measurements for all types of helmets and headwear. Can work under environmental conditions ranging from -20°C to +50°C.[2]

Thermal Foot Test System
The Thermal Foot Test System is a sophisticated research tool that provides accurate test measurements for all types of footwear.[2]

ST-2XL - Comfort Test System
The innovative ST-2XL Comfort Test System is a device developed to support and simplify in-house testing procedures and to help evaluate the need for more advanced thermal instrumentation tests.[2]

Integrated Chamber for the SGHP-8.2 and SGHP-10.5

  ALAMBETA calculates all the statistic parameters of

the measurement and exhibits the instrument autodiagnostics, which avoids faulty instrument operation.
  The whole measurement procedure, including the

measurement of thermal conductivity ,thermal resistance R, qmax, sample thickness and the results evaluation, lasts less than 3 -5 min.
  As the objective measure of warm-cool feeling of

fabrics, so called thermal absorptivity b [Ws1/2/m2K] was introduced.

Heat flow between a skin and a fabric

Alambeta principle

Contact between fabric and skin is created for a short time It is presumed that fabric is semi-infinite body of thermal capacity C [J/m3] To simulate the real conditions of warm-cool feeling evaluation, the instrument measuring head is heated to 32ºC, which correspond to the average human skin temperature, while the fabric is kept at the room temperature 22ºC. Similarly, the time constant of the heat flow sensor, which measures directly the heat flow between the automatically moved measuring head and the fabrics, exhibit similar value (0,07 sec), as the human skin. Thus, the full signal response is achieved within 0,2 sec.

Alambeta measures
  Thickness   Thermal conductivity   Thermal absorbtivity   Thermal resistance   Maximum heat flux

Permetest [Sensora]
A new fast response measuring instrument (Skin Model) for the nondestructive determination of water-vapor and thermal resistance or permeability of textile fabrics, nonwovens, foils and paper sheets

KES-F contains four machines

: *    Tensile & Shear Tester: This instrument measures tensile properties by pulling the fabric in the direction of the warp and weft yarn. It also measures shear properties by pulling on the fabric at various angles to the direction of the yarn, causing the individual yarns to pull against one another as they would under normal use of the finished garments. *    Pure Bending Tester: In the bending test, a fabric sample is mounted through a narrow slit and then the sample is bent, with which we can have precise values of bending rigidity and bending moment. *    Compression Tester: In this instrument, a probe exerts force on a fabric sample to determine its compression properties. *    Surface Friction Tester: In this instrument, the co-efficient of friction is determined by passing a metal probe over a mounted swatch of fabric. The second probe measures geometrical roughness.

Qmax Warm / Cool Touch Test [1]
This evaluation is used to assess the surface warm / cool sensations of a garment fabric and indicates the instantaneous thermal feeling sensed when there is initial contact of the material with the skin surface.

Moisture Vapor Transm ission Rate [1]
The rate of moisture vapor diffusion through the material is determined according to the Simple Dish Method, similar to ASTM E96-80.

Gravimetric Absorbency Testing System (GATS) his test indicates the lateral wicking ability of a fabric, or the ability of the material to take-up liquid spontaneously in the direction perpendicular to its plane. [1]

Moisture Management Tester (MMT) [1]
The Moisture Management Tester (MMT) measures, evaluates and classifies liquid management properties of fabrics per AATCC Test Method 195.

Drying Time
To determine the drying rate, or time until dry, of a saturated fabric, the dry weight of the sample specimen is first recorded. The average maximum absorption capacity value (C) obtained during the demand wettability test (GATS) is used as the amount of water added to the test specimen [1].

Comfort wear test

Physiological Wear Test [1] 

Thermal image [1]

Hohenstein Institute Germany

Images from Hohenstein Institute Germany

  From the beginning of 20th century people

are striving to develop testing equipment as replacement of subjective evaluation is going on

  Number of equipment were made and still it   Nevertheless, no replacement of subjective

evaluation, which is final authority

  [1] guarded-hotplates/sweating