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Gate by Rk Kanodia

# Gate by Rk Kanodia

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# GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION

Electronics & Communication Engineering
Fifth Edition
R. K. Kanodia
B.Tech.

NODIA & COMAPNY
JAIPUR

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

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Price 550.00

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

6 a charge of 600 C is delivered to the 100 V source in a 1 minute.gatehelp. 10 cm in diameter is deprived of 10 20 (A) 1 A (C) 3 A (B) 2 A (D) 4 A electrons by a charging scheme. The energy required to move 120 coulomb through 3 V is (A) 25 mJ (C) 40 J 5.1. If the lightning strikes an airplane flying at 2 km.1.78 mJ + + – voltage source E is 0V 2V 1V – + – E + – i 2A 3A 4V 5V 10 V Fig.33 mC (C) 1500 mC (B) 75 C (D) 1.5 (b) 4 V (D) 16 V Page 3 (C) -6 V www.1.6 (B) 120 V (D) 30 V 7. the value of the (B) 360 J (D) 2. P. P.1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.02 C 6. i = ? 1A 5A 100 V Fig.33 mA (B) 2 A (D) 0.02 C the sphere is (A) 160. A solid copper sphere.2 C (D) -16. If 120 C of charge passes through an electric conductor in 60 sec. A lightning bolt carrying 15.com . The charge on (B) -160.000 A lasts for 100 ms. the current in the conductor is (A) 0. the charge deposited on the plane is (A) 13.1.1.1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS 1. The value of v1 must be v1 2.5 C 20 W 60 V 3.7.7 4A + – (A) -16 V Fig.3 mA (A) 240 V (C) 60 V 4.2 C (C) 16.1. P. In the circuit of the fig P1. In the circuit of fig P1.5 A (C) 3.

1.1.12 Fig. Consider the circuit graph shown in fig. Each branch of circuit graph represent a circuit element.86 W (C) 25 W 15.com .18 W Fig.15 (D) 6 W (A) 320 V (C) 240 V (B) 280 V (D) 200 V Page 4 www. The value of voltage v1 is + 105 V – + 65 V 100 V – – 30 V 12. P1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 8.1.11 is always equal to 1A + vo 5V 4W 15 V 1A – Fig. Twelve 6 W resistor are used as edge to form a cube. The resistance between two diagonally opposite corner of the cube is 5 (A) W 6 (C) 5 W 6 W 5 180 W (B) Fig. P1.8 (A) -30 V (C) -20 V (B) 25 V (D) 15 V (A) -11 V (C) 8 V (B) 5 V (D) 18 V 9. P.10 (A) 25 W (C) 100 W (B) 50 W (D) 2000 W vs 180 W + 60 W 40 W 90 W 20 V – 11.1.1. P1. vs = ? (B) 10 W (D) 11.14 – (A) 11.1.1. P1. P.1.9 (A) 1 V (C) 9 V (B) 5 V (D) None of the above (A) 10 V (C) 20 V 10.1.11 Fig.1. The voltage vo in fig. For the circuit shown in fig P.9 the value of voltage vo is 5W + vo – 13. P1.8.gatehelp.1. R1 = ? 60 W (B) 15 V (D) None of the above 14. P.1. Req = ? 5W 10 W 10 W 10 W Req + R1 100 V R2 + 20 V – 70 V 10 W 10 W 10 W up to ¥ Fig.1. P.1. v1 = ? + v1 – 1 kW 7V 2 kW – 15 V + – 10 V + + 55 V + 35 V – + 30 V – 8V 5V + v1 – – 3 kW 4 kW 6V + Fig.1.

1.1.1.31 dependent source 0.1. P.1. The power being absorbed by the network element at t = 5 ms is i + v – N 28.1.3i1 W 0.25 bulb A uses 36 W when lit. P.1.1.1.24 (A) 18.1.6 V Fig.2i1 A 2 W Fig.1.28 (B) 2. P.30 (B) delivers 40 W (D) absorbs 80 W 31.1.24. In the circuit of fig.1.4 W when lit.26 (A) 2 W (C) 6 W 27.3v1 – (B) 4 W (D) 8 W (A) delivers 80 W (C) absorbs 40 W Fig.6 V (D) 15.1.1. P.1. P.1.gatehelp.1.1.3 mW (A) 15.1. P. In the circuit of fig. In the circuit of fig. The additional A bulbs in parallel to this circuit.6 mW (B) 9.1. P.1. the power absorbed by the load RL is i1 1V 1W 2i1 RL = 2 W 6 W 20 V v1 5W v1 5 Fig. that would be required to blow the fuse is 20 A 29. bulb B uses 24 W when lit.1.1. and bulb C uses 14.25 (A) dependent source of 192 W (B) dependent source of 368 W (C) independent source of 16 W (D) independent source of 40 W 30.29 Fig.1.2 mW (D) 8.4 mW (C) 16.t) e -100 t V for the network of fig.30 5W (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 7 26. P. P.29 power is delivered by 500 W ix 40 V 2ix 200 W 400 W 12 V A B C Fig.31 (B) absorbs 16 W (D) absorbs 32 W Page 6 . P.01 . vab = ? a 2 R 2 8 A i1 b 0.com Fig.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 24. P.1. The dependent source in fig.6(0.27 4A 2ix (A) 6 V (C) -12 V (B) -6 V (D) 12 V (A) supplies 16 W (C) supplies 32 W www. vo = ? + v1 0. Let i( t) = 3te-100 t A and v( t) = 0.26.4 V 25.4 V (C) -2. P. P.2 A 5W 8W + v2 – 5v2 18 W + vo – ix + 8V – Fig.1.1. In the circuit of fig. P.

for t ³ 0.1. The waveform for the current in a 200 mF capacitor is shown in fig. The waveform for the current in the capacitor is v 6 t(ms) (A) 3.2 mF (D) 2. 1.1. Ceq = ? 2.1 32. The value of capacitance is (A) 0. 1. P.5 mF 2 v 0. then the waveform for the voltage across it is i(mA) v 250m 4 t(ms) 4 t(ms) (A) v 50m (B) 4 t(ms) 4 t(ms) 2 t(ms) (C) (D) Fig. The energy required to charge a 10 mF capacitor to 100 V is (A) 0.1.1.75 mF (C) 0.6 mF (B) 1.33 mF (D) 1.1. In the circuit shown in fig.35 i(mA) 6 t(ms) i(mA) 600 iin 1 2 3 1 2 3 t(ms) (A) i(mA) 6 2 1 3 t(ms) i(mA) 600 (B) Fig. P. The current in a 100 mF capacitor is shown in fig. P.05 J J (D) 10 ´ 10 -9 v v 50m J 5 34. C2 + vin C1 – C1 C1 C1 60 mF C2 C2 C2 Fig.38 1 2 3 iin ( t) = 300 sin 20 t mA.6 mF 38.2 4 t(ms) 1.com . The vin ( t) would be (A) -0.Basic Concepts GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.34 v 10 10 v 37.37 35. The voltage across a 100 mF capacitor is shown in fig.5 mF Ceq 1 mF 2 mF (A) t(ms) (B) t(ms) 4 2 4 (C) (D) Fig.25cos 20t V (C) -36cos 20t mV (B) 0. If capacitor is initially uncharged. A capacitor is charged by a constant current of 2 mA and results in a voltage increase of 12 V in a 10 sec interval.35.36 (B) 0. P.1.gatehelp.1.10 J (C) 5 ´ 10 -9 4 t(ms) Fig. All capacitors are initially uncharged.4 mF (B) 1. P.2 2 4 t(ms) 2 v 0. P.67 mF 36.38 2 1 3 t(ms) Let C1 = 40 mF and C2 = 30 mF.1.1.1.1.1.34.1.25cos 20t V (D) 36cos 20t mV Page 7 (C) (D) www.36 The waveform for the capacitor voltage is i(mA) 5 33. 1.1.1. P. P. P.5 mF (C) 2.

(D) Req = 5 + 10 ( Req + 5) 10 + 5 + Req 5W 5W Fig. 2. (A) 1A 5A i=1A 2A 3A 1A 2A a i i 3 i 3 i 3 4A 6A Fig. (C) Voltage across 60 W resistor = 30 V 30 Current = = 0.30 = v2 Þ v3 = 65 V v4 = 25 V 105 + v4 . (B) W = Qv = 360 J 6. Page 9 www. dQ 600 i= = = 10 A dt 60 Applying KVL we get v1 + 60 .8 Þ Req = 125 = 1118 W . (A) In order for 600 C charge to be delivered to the 100 V source.65 = 0 Þ v4 + 15 . 3 6 3 v Req = ab = 5 W i 2V 1V 12. 1. we get v1 = 7 + 6 .Basic Concepts GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. 3. S 1.55 + v1 = 0 Þ v1 = 15 V 9. (D) 100 = 65 + v2 Þ + 65 V 100 V – + v2 – + 105 V – v2 = 35 V + v4 – – 15 V + – 10 V + + 55 V Req 10 W Req + v3 – – V 30 + v1 – – + 30 V – + Fig. (D) DQ = i ´ D t = 15000 ´ 100m = 15 C .1.11 vab = 6i 6i 6i + + = 5 i.5 = 8 V – – + – 4V + + – E 5V 10 V 13. (C) If we go from +side of 1 kW through 7 V. S.02 C Charge on sphere will be positive.1.5 A 60 Voltage across R1 is = 70 . (B) i = dQ 120 = =2 A dt 60 v3 .20 = 50 V 50 = 100 W R1 = 0. the current must be anticlockwise. (B) Voltage is constant because of 15 V source. (C) n = 10 20 . S 1.com . 14. (A) Going from 10 V to 0 V 0V + + i 3 i b Fig.gatehelp. S 1.1. 6 V and 5 V. (D) It is not possible to determine the voltage across 1 A source.14 2 Þ Req + 15 Req = 5 Req + 75 + 10 Req + 50 Fig. (C) The current i will be distributed in the cube branches symmetrically 4.5 i 6 6.1 SOLUTIONS 1.1.7 10 + 5 + E + 1 = 0 or E = -16 V 8. S 1. Q = ne = e10 20 = 16.5 11.100 = 10 ´ 20 or v1 = 240 V 7.1.v3 . 10.

05 J 2 1 34.5 V 4 è ø æ 0 . Then current is zero. (C) iC1 = iin C1 = 0.2)m dt 36. P = 32 W (absorb) 32. (D) i = C dv dt dv 6 -0 = 100 ´ 10 -6 ´ = 600 mA dt 10 -3 .6 sin 4 t A dt For 0 < t < 1 .0 43.100 ö vL = (0. For 4 < t £ 8. (A) 2 mF is in parallel with 1 mF and this combination is in series with 1.5 mF C1 = 15 + 2 + 1 .2 V 0 -3 42.75 mA 12 = 1 2m ( t2 .2. iC1 = 0. = 1mF. 15 (2 + 1) .1 F V Þ L = 2 mH t1 ò idt Þ Þ 12 C = 2m ´ 10 C = 1. (D) vt 2 .2. (D) Power P = vi = 2 ix ´ ix = 2 ix ix = 4 A.0 ö vL = (0. For 8 < t £ 10. C = di Þ dt 200m 4m 1 33. Ceq = 20 + 40 = 60 mF 1 1 æ 300 ö cos 20 t ÷ ´ 10 -3 = .600 mA ( 3 .0. 47. (B) vL = L For 2 < t £ 4.8 sin 600 t mA C1 + C2 2 31.5 V 2 è ø Thus (B) is correct option.2 V.com Page 11 . vC = 1 1 ò idt = 200 ´ 10 -6 C ò 4m tdt = 3125 t 5m iC = 3 LC diL dt 2 At t = 4 ms. Ceq = 1 + 2.2 V increases linearly from 0 to 0.gatehelp.05)ç ÷ = . (B) vC1 = 4 vin vin C2 = C1 + C2 6 + 4 Þ vc1 = 0. (C) Algebraic sum of the current entering or leaving a cutset is equal to 0. 37. (B) E = Cv 2 = 5 ´ 10 -6 ´ 100 2 = 0.4 vin Q = 0.9.1.54 cos 377 t V 1 1 12000 120 cos 3t dt = vdt = sin 377 t 0. iC = C C dt dt d 2 iL = . (B) vL = L di = 0. C For 1 ms < t < 2 ms.01 ´ 2( 377 cos 377 t) V dt = 7. (D) vL = L vC = 3vL Þ diL dv . (B) For 0 £ t £ 4.t1 ) C 40. vc = 0.5 = 35 mF 30 ´ 60 30(20 + 40) 38. 35. (D) V = 2 + 3 + 5 = 10. Cb = = 20 mF 30 + 60 30 + 20 + 0 Cd + iin vin – C1 C1 C1 C1 60 mF C2 Cc C2 Cb C2 Ca C2 46.38 ********* www.21 V Fig.20 vo 20 + = 5 5 5 Power is P = vo ´ Þ vo = 20 V 20 v1 = 20 ´ = 80 W 5 5 We can say Cd = 20 mF.Basic Concepts GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. v3 = . .67 mF 41. at t = 0 t-axis will be tangent. So capacitor hold this voltage.25 cos 20 t V vC = ò idt= ç60m è 20 C ø 39. (D) vc = c 2m 10 ´ 10 -3 ò idt = 100 ´ 10 -6 (2 ´ 10 ) = 0.7 ´ 3 = . æ -100 .7 A. 6 16 i2 + i4 + i3 = 0 Þ + + i3 = 0 2 4 i3 = .05)ç ÷ = . (A) Ca = = 20 mF. Q = 1 C.vt1 = Þ 1 C t2 At t = 2 ms.5 V 2 è ø æ 100 + 100 ö vL = (0. dv 0-6 C = 100 ´ 10 -6 ´ = . C1 is in parallel with 2.05 V It will be parabolic path.1 vo . (A) i = = 1910 sin 754 t W 45.05)ç ÷ = 2.5 mF. (A) vL = L 100m = L This 0.01 ò Lò 377 12000 ´ 120 P = vi = (sin 377 t)(cos 377 t) 377 44. S 1.

2.4 correct set is (3) (4) Fig.1. Consider the following graphs (C) (D) Node 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 5 Branch Twigs 4 3 4 4 Link 2 3 2 1 5. would be (A) 2 (C) 4 (B) 3 (D) 5 4. Consider the following circuits : Non-planner graphs are (A) 1 and 3 (C) 3 only (B) 4 only (D) 3 and 4 3.1. with respect to the (1) (2) chosen tree.1.com .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.5 is c a b d 2 e f g (1) (2) 1 3 4 h 5 Fig.gatehelp.4 The planner circuits are (A) 1 and 2 (C) 3 and 4 (B) 2 and 3 (D) 4 and 1 (A) (B) 2. P.2. The number of links l. P. P.5 (A) a d e h (3) Page 12 (4) (B) a c f h (D) a e f g (C) a f h g www.2 GRAPH THEORY 1.1.1. A tree of the graph shown in fig.1. For the graph shown in fig. A graph of an electrical network has 4 nodes and 7 branches. P.

1. The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below é-1 1 1 0 0 0 ù ê 0 0 -1 1 1 0 ú ú A =ê ê 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 ú ê 1 0 0 0 -1 -1ú ë û The graph is 4 1 3 1 4 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 (A) 2 (B) 2 4 4 (A) 4 1 3 1 4 3 (B) 1 2 3 1 2 3 (C) (D) 14.com (A) Page 14 (B) .1 1 0 0 ù ê 0 0 0 1 0 1 1ú ê ú A =ê 0 0 1 0 0 0 -1ú ê 0 1 0 0 -1 -1 0 ú ê ú ú ê ë 1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 û The graph is 2 2 4 4 (C) (D) 16.16. The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below é-1 1 1 0 0 0 ù ê 0 0 -1 1 1 0 ú ú A =ê ê 0 -1 0 -1 0 -1ú ê 1 0 0 0 -1 -1ú ë û The graph is 2 2 5 5 (C) (D) 15.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks é 1 -1 0 ù (A) ê-1 0 1ú ê ú 1 -1û ê ú ë 0 é-1 -1 0 ù (C) ê 0 1 1ú ê ú ê ú ë 1 0 -1û é 1 0 -1ù (B) ê-1 -1 0 ú ê ú 1 1û ê ú ë 0 1ù é-1 0 (D) ê 0 1 -1ú ê ú ê ú ë 1 -1 0 û 2 2 1 4 3 1 4 3 13.1. The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below é.16 (A) 8 5 5 (B) 12 (D) 20 (C) 16 www. P.1. The number of possible tree are 1 4 3 1 4 3 Fig. P. The graph of a network is shown in fig.gatehelp.1 0 0 .1.

P.1. 1 4 5 3 2 6 (A) (B) www.1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 22. The fundamental cut-set matrix of a graph is é1 -1 0 0 0 ê0 -1 1 0 1 QF = ê 0 0 0 0 -1 ê ê0 0 0 1 -1 ë 0ù 0ú ú 1ú 0ú û (C) 2 3 5 6 4 6 5 The oriented graph of the network is (D) 1 3 4 2 1 24.2.com Fig.24 (C) (D) The oriented graph will be 23.1.23 (C) (D) The oriented graph will be 25. P. é 1 1 BF = ê 0 -1 ê ê ë 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 4 0 1 1 1 0 1 0ù 0ú ú 1û ú (A) (B) 1 5 6 Fig.24 in which twigs are solid line and links are dotted line.23 in which twigs are solid line and links are dotted line. For this tree fundamental loop matrix is given as below é1 1 1 0 ù BF = ê ú ë1 0 1 1û 1 (A) (B) 1 3 4 6 2 1 3 5 4 6 2 3 2 4 5 Fig.2.2. A graph is shown in fig.gatehelp.2. P. 1.25 Page 16 . P.2.2.25 in which twigs are solid line and links are dotted line. For this chosen tree fundamental set matrix is given below. A graph is shown in fig. P.1. Consider the graph shown in fig. 1. P.

2 A fundamental loop matrix for this tree is given as below é 1 BF = ê 0 ê ê 0 ë 0 1 0 1ù 0 -1 -1 0 ú ú 1 0 1 -1ú û 0 1 0 é 1 ê 0 (D) ê ê 0 ê-1 ë 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 -1 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û 27.gatehelp. 29. The number of independent node equation are (A) 4 (C) 6 (C) (D) (B) 5 (D) 7 28.26 é 1 ê 0 (A) ê ê 0 ê-1 ë 1 0 0 0 1 -1 -1 0 0 0 1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û é-1 1 0 0 ê 0 -1 -1 -1 (B) ê ê 0 0 0 -1 ê 1 0 1 0 ë é ê (C) ê ê ê ë 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 -1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 1 0 0 0 0 0 www.26 solid lines are twigs and dotted line are link.1.2.29–30: h b d f Branch current and loop current relation are expressed in matrix form as 1 0ù é i1 ù é 0 0 êi ú ê-1 -1 -1 0 ú ê 2ú ê ú 1 0 0 ú é I1 ù ê i3 ú ê 0 êi ú ê 1 0 0 0 ú ê I ú ê 4ú = ê ú ê 2ú i5 ú ê 0 0 -1 -1ú ê I 3 ú ê ê i ú ê 1 1 0 -1ú êI ú ë 4û 6 ê ú ê ú ê i7 ú ê 1 0 0 0 ú ê i8 ú ê 0 0 0 1ú û ë û ë where i j represent branch current and I k loop current. If the number of branch in a network is b.n + 1 Statement for Q.1 (B) b . the number of nodes is n and the number of dependent loop is l.Graph Theory GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.2.com Page 17 . Branch current and loop current relation are expressed in matrix form as é i1 ù é 0 êi ú ê 0 ê 2ú ê ê i3 ú ê 1 êi ú ê-1 ê 4ú = ê ê i5 ú ê 1 êi ú ê 0 6 ê ú ê i7 ú ê 0 ê ê i8 ú ê 0 ë û ë 1 -1 0 -1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0ù 1ú ú -1ú é I1 ù 0 ú êI 2 ú úê ú 0 ú êI 3 ú 0 ú êI 4 ú ë û ú 0ú 1ú û The oriented graph will be (A) (B) where i j represent branch current and I k loop current. The rank of incidence matrix is (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 8 g Fig. The fundamental loop matrix is i a c e (C) b .1 26.1. then the number of independent node equations will be (A) n + l . P. In the graph shown in fig.1 (D) n . P.

The independent loops are (A) 3 (C) 5 Statement for Q. The number of branches in the network is (A) 11 (C) 8 (B) 12 (D) 6 32.com (B) 4 (D) 6 Page 18 . The directed graph will be 8 5 6 5 8 6 33.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 30. A network has 8 nodes and 5 independent loops. 33. The oriented graph for this network is 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 1 4 3 7 2 1 4 3 7 5 5 1 8 5 6 5 8 6 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 5 (C) 2 1 4 3 7 2 1 4 3 7 (D) (C) (D) ************ 31.33–34: For a network branch voltage and node voltage relation are expressed in matrix form as follows: 1ù é v1 ù é 1 0 0 êv ú ê 0 1 0 0ú ê 2ú ê ú 1 0 ú é V1 ù ê v3 ú ê 0 0 êv ú ê 0 0 0 1ú êV2 ú ê 4ú = ê úê ú ê v5 ú ê 1 -1 0 0 ú ê V3 ú êv ú ê 0 1 -1 0 ú êV4 ú ë û 6 ê ú ê ú 1 -1ú ê v7 ú ê 0 0 ê v8 ú ê 1 0 -1 0 ú û ë û ë where vi is the branch voltage and Vk is the node voltage with respect to datum node. The independent mesh equation for this network are (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D 7 www.gatehelp. A branch has 6 node and 9 branch.

(D) it is obvious from the following figure that 1. S. 1.( n . (A) The circuit 1 and 2 are redrawn as below. 3. (C) From fig.2. S . t = n . S.1) = 4. (B) There are 4 node and 6 branches. (C) l = b . 3 and 4 can not be redrawn on a plane without crossing other branch.2 SOLUTIONS 1.8 www.Graph Theory GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.1. it can be seen that a d f is a tree.6 Fig.2.com Page 19 . 1. l=b-n+1=3 (1) 2 a f (2) 2 5. (B) From fig. S 1.7 (D) 8. (B) Other three circuits can be drawn on plane without crossing (C) (1) (2) Fig.gatehelp. (D) D is not a tree (A) (1) Fig.1 a 1 3. 7.2. and 4 are tree 2 2 b c d e f 4 4 3 1 d a c e f b 3 (3) Fig. S1. it can be seen that a f h g is a tree of given graph a b d e c b c d e f 3 1 a c d e b 3 1 g f 4 h 4 Fig.1 (B) (2) 2.5 (3) 2 a b c d e f 4 3 (4) 6. 4. c b e 1 f a d (5) Fig.2. S1.2.1 = 3.2.

(A) There are 8 branches and 4 + 1 = 5 node Number of link = 8 .gatehelp. This in similar to matrix in (A).26 At node-1. 28. 34.com . 7) and direction of branch–2 is opposite to other (B only). 4. (A) Number of branch b = 8 Number of link l = 4 Number of twigs t = b .1.4 = 4 Number of twigs =number of independent node equation.1) = 4 33.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks i a c l2 h b l3 d l4 f l1 e So independent mesh equation =Number of link.5 + 1 = 4 Page 22 www.( n . (A) Number of branch =8 Number of link =4 Number of twigs =8 . 6. (B) Independent loop =link l = b .l = 4 rank of matrix = n . Only place of rows has been changed. (D) We know that [ vb ] = ArT [ Vn ] So reduced é1 0 ê0 1 Ar = ê ê0 0 ê0 0 ë incidence matrix is 0 0 1 0 0 1ù 0 0 -1 1 0 0 ú ú 1 0 0 -1 1 -1ú 0 1 0 0 -1 0 ú û g Fig. S 1. 27.1 = t = 4 30. 29. (B) Independent loops =link l = b . (D) The number of independent node equation are n .2. b = 12 *********** 32.1) Þ 5 = b . (B) We know the branch current and loop current are related as [ ib ] = [ B T ] [ I L ] So fundamental loop matrix is 1 1 0ù é0 -1 0 1 0 ê0 -1 1 0 0 1 0 0ú ú Bf = ê ê1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 ú ê0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 1ú û ë f-loop 1 include branch (2. three branch leaves so the only option is (D). 31.7.( n .

3.4vs (C) 0.4 (A) 4.6 Fig.0 V (D) 2.3 (A) 0. va = ? 3A (B) 1. P1.4 A www.3. P1. v2 = ? + 30 W 20 W v2 – 60 W 0.5 A (D) 0.com (B) 0.3 A Page 23 . v1 = ? (A) 120 V (C) 90 V vs 6R 3R (B) -120 V (D) -90 V 10 W 4W va 1W 4A 2W 4vs 6R + v1 – 4.1 (A) 0.09 V (D) 8.6 A (C) 0.3.5 (B) 1.3.67 V 2W 3W va 1A (B) 4.0 V 64 W ib 10 V 36 W 37 W 0. v1 = ? 10 W 30 V 20 W (B) 11 V (D) -3 V (A) 0.5 V 6. ib = ? 3A 30 W Fig.5vs Fig.gatehelp. P1. P1. P1.5 A 10 V 30 W Fig.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.2 (A) -11 V (C) 3 V 3.3 METHODS OF ANALYSIS 1.18 V 5.5 V (C) 1.5vs (D) 2. P1.33 V (C) 8.3.67vs 2.5 A 69 W + 60 W v1 – 9A 6A 60 W Fig. va = ? 12 V 10 V Fig.3.

01 A (D) 0.1 A 0.02 A 12.12 4A 3W 2W i1 (A) 2 A 3 5 A 6 (B) (D) 5 A 3 2 A 9 Fig.9 (C) - (A) 4 A (C) 6 A 10.1 A Fig.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 7.12 is 2A (A) 1 mA (C) 2 mA 9.11 (A) 0. i1 = ? 200 W 40 mA 100 W i1 50 W 10 mA 45 V i1 500 W 15 mA Fig. P1.7 A 8. The value of the current measured by the ammeter Fig. P1.5 mA (D) 2.8 in Fig.01 A (C) 0. P1. P1. i1 = ? 2 kW (B) 3 A (D) 5 A 13.4 mA (C) 0.6 V i1 40 W 60W 0. P1.06 A 0. P1.3.1A 90 kW 7.3.3 A (C) 1.5mA 10 kW i1 90 kW i2 75 V 10 kW Fig.3. i1 = ? 2A (B) 1. 1.3.3.3.3.1 A (D) 1.4 mA www.com Page 24 . i1 = ? (B) 2.3.13 (A) 10 mA Fig.gatehelp. i1 = ? 6A (A) 20 mA (C) 10 mA 11.5 mA 7W 4W Ammeter 3A 4W 3V 6W 5W 2W Fig.7 (A) 3. i1 = ? 10 W (B) 15 mA (D) 5 mA 8W i1 2W 50 W 75 V 4W 3W 5W 100 W 6.03 A (B) -0. P1.10 (B) -10 mA (D) -0.

P1. and 4 A (C) 1 A.3. and 8 A 6V i1 i2 5 mA 6 kW Fig.16 (A) (C) 6 V 5 6 V 7 (B) (D) 8 V 5 5 V 7 17.3. P1.3 4W 8W 5W 14. 2 A. vb = 9.6 W 3W i1 9W 15 V i2 6W i3 21 V 18.3 W (D) 54. 1. i3 = ? 2W (B) 27. and 8 A (D) 1 A. 1.3.88 V and vc = 5.15 6 kW i3 6 kW (A) 3 A. The mesh current equation for the circuit in Fig.29 V.3. The power supplied by the voltage source is 6W 12 V i1 2W i2 8V 2W i3 20 V va 4W vb 3W vc Fig. 2 A. and 4 A 16.3.Methods of Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.17 12 V 1A 2W 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é 4 -2 (A) ê-2 8 -2 ú êi2 ú = ê-8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 5 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê 0 -2 ë ûë û ë û -2 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é6 (B) ê2 -12 2 ú êi2 ú = ê 8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 2 -7 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê0 ë ûë û ë û 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é 6 -2 (C) ê-2 12 -2 ú êi2 ú = ê 8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 7 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê 0 -2 ë ûë û ë û 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é 4 -2 ê 2 -8 (D) 2 ú êi2 ú = ê 8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 2 -5 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê 0 ë ûë û ë û Fig. The values of node voltage are va = 12 V. 3 A.3. 3 A. P1.com Page 25 .gatehelp.18 the mesh equation are 6 kW Fig.14 (A) 19.18 4 mA 1 kW 2 kW 1 kW + 1 kW 1 mA 2 kW vo – 2 mA é 6 k -12 k -12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù ê-6 k ú êi ú = ê 0 ú (A) 6 k -18 k 2 ê úê ú ê ú -1k 0 k û ëi3 û ê úê ú ê ú ë -1k ë 5û é 6 k 12 k -12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù (B) ê-6 k -6 k 18 k ú êi2 ú = ê 0 ú ê úê ú ê ú 1k 0 k ú êi3 ú ê -1k ê 5ú ë ûë û ë û é-6 k -12 k 12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù (C) ê 6 k -6 k 18 k ú êi2 ú = ê 0 ú ê úê ú ê ú 1k 0 k ú êi3 ú ê 1k ê 5ú ë ûë û ë û é-6 k 12 k -12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù (D) ê-6 k 6 k -18 k ú êi2 ú = ê 0 ú ê úê ú ê ú 1k 0 k ú êi3 ú ê -1k ê 5ú ë ûë û ë û Fig. P1. For the circuit shown in Fig.17 are www. vo = ? (B) 3 A.3. i2 . i1 .8 W (C) 46. 1.9 W 15.

i1 = ? 300 W (B) -60 V (D) -30 V (A) 5 V (C) 3 V 32.3.3.3 R1 (A) 66.3.24 mA (D) 33. P1.26 2V 75 W 4V 50 W 8V (A) 26 V (C) 13 V 27. v2 = ? 50 W – v2 + 4A 10 V 100 W 0.31 (A) 60 V (C) 30 V 28. P1. va = ? 2. v = ? 2A (B) 19 V (D) 18 V (A) 14 mA (C) 7 mA 20 W Fig.12 mA R3 (B) 46.32 www.25 10 A The value of R4 is (A) 40 (C) 5 26.04v2 15 W 5W Fig.5i1 4W 40 V i1 500 W 0.5 kW 10 kW 10 kW va 200 W 5A 100 W 20 W 20 A (B) 15 (D) 20 (A) 342 V (C) 198 V 30.3.gatehelp.3.30 (B) -6.com Page 27 .4i1 8V i1 4A 6V Fig. ia = ? 50 W 150 W Fig.28 Fig.3.1.5 mA (D) -21 mA 10 W v 31.29 (B) 171 V (D) 396 V 20 V 10 kW 5 kW 4 mA 225 W ia 100 W 200 W Fig.Methods of Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. P1. va = ? R4 25i2 i2 v2 10 W 4A 50 W va 40 W Fig. i1 = ? 2W (B) 75 V (D) 10 V 0.3.67 mA (C) 23. P1.33 mA R2 i3 i1 v1 29. P1.27 Fig. P1. P.3. P1.

vx = ? (B) 1.35 A 50 W iy + Fig.628 A 37.8va 16 A va 2W + 1.6 A.1v1 6V 2 kW 4va 10 W + vs 40 W v1 – 20 W 48 V Fig. v1 = ? 3W + vy – 14 V + v1 – 2A 100 W 25iy 50 W vx – 0. P1. For the circuit of Fig.3.314 A 33.39 (B) 2.3.02vx 50 W vx – 2. i1 .37 Fig. P1. P1.38 (B) -28 V (D) -14 V 2ix ix 2W 15 V i1 6W i2 18 V Fig.636 A (C) -2. P1.3.6 A. va = ? 0.38 the value of vs . P1.35 (A) 1 V (C) 4 V 36.5 V (D) 6 V (A) 2. P1.82 V (B) -25.35 A 40.36 7A 2W 2vy (A) -3 V (C) 10 V Page 28 (B) 3 V (D) -10 V www.40 .gatehelp.4 A (D) 1. P1.34 (A) 4 mA (C) 12 mA 35. that will result in v1 = 0. -1. 1.33 (A) 32 V (C) 12 V 34. vx = ? (B) -3.4 A (C) 1.3. ib = ? 1 kW va (B) -32 V (D) -12 V (A) 25.91 V (D) -51.273 A (D) -4.6 A.2 A. i2 = ? 4W 2V 2 kW 5ia Fig.3.3.82 V 38. P1. vb = ? ia 4 kW vb (B) -4 mA (D) -12 mA (A) 28 V (C) 14 V 39.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks (A) -1.3.5 W 5W 10 A Fig.com Fig. P1.3.3. is 3 kW ib 3A 2A 0.91 V (C) 51. -1.6 A 100 W 0.2vx 3W 6W 2A Fig. 1.

S.5vx 500 W 500 W 0.12 A (C) 0. P1. (B) Using Thevenin equivalent and source transform 8W 3 i1 2W va 10 W 60 V 3W 25 V 3W 5W Fig.10 va + =4 4 2 v2 v2 + 10 + = 0.42 Fig.5m) 150 = 100 ki1 Þ i1 = 15 mA .1) i1 = 0. 1 1 1 + + 6 R 3R 6 R 2.6 A 64 + 36 100 W 8.6 (A) 76.gatehelp.24 A (D) 0.4) Fig.3 A Fig.1.67 V 42.3. (C) va = 2( 3 + 1) + 3 (1) = 11 V 3.005vy 9.5 20 30 va = 8.23 V 3 1 1 + + 14 3 15 25 . (D) v1 -v + 1 + 6 =9 60 60 Þ Þ v1 = .4 W (C) 52.6 = 50 i1 + 100( i1 + 0.com ***************** Page 29 .5 = 0. vx = ? – vx + (B) -10 V (D) -7 V SOLUTIONS 1.Methods of Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.6 W (D) 210.1) + 40( i1 . (B) 45 = 2 ki1 + 500 ( i1 + 15m) (A) 0. (D) Þ v2 = 2 V 6. (C) va .36 A (B) 0. i1 = ? 500 W + vx – 100 W (B) 305.23 = 2. (B) Applying the nodal analysis v 4 vs + s 6 R 3R v1 = = 15 vs .5 A 4W 6ia 30 V 5.7.06) + 60( i1 .3.001vy 10 + 0.6 A 600 W 900 W 0.42 is 5W ia 2W 2A 2. (B) 3 = 2 i1 + 3( i1 .3. The power being dissipated in the 2 W resistor in the circuit of Fig.3. Þ i1 = 3 A 0.02 A www. P1.0 W 25 60 + + 2 15 va = = 15. (B) 75 = 90 ki1 + 10 k( i1 .15.3 (A) 10 V (C) 7 V 41.48 A Þ i1 = 15 mA 11.0.90 V 0. (D) 6. P1.3.6 A 180 V 400 W + vy – 7.0. P1.43 10. (A) ib = 0.41 (A) 9 V (C) 10 V (B) -9 V (D) -10 V 4.09 A i1 = 14 3 8 3 0.5 W 43.

40 41.3.38 ************ 39.i2 15 = 4 i1 .7) + 2 v y + 2( i1 .i2 ) Þ Þ 8 i1 .14 V 10 20 3A 2A ia = v1 = 0 30 + 7. (C) 30 = 5 ia + 3( ia .2) + 2(5 . P= (10. (B) 14 = 3i1 + v y + 6( i1 . (D) Let i1 and i2 be two loop current 0.7) v y = 3( i1 .4 i2 = 15 3i1 .9 i1 = 20 mA.0.2 i2 = 0 K(i) K(ii) 500( i2 . (D) ix = i1 . (D) If v1 = 0.i2 ).0.3 Þ 40 10 20 48 v .2) 14 = 3i1 + 9( i1 .19.60 + 100 ´ 0.6) + 200 i1 + 100( i1 + 0.0.005 ´ 200 i1 i1 = 0.7) 14 = 20 i1 .5 i1 ) = 200 i1 180 = 500 i1 + 100( i1 . 12 Þ 6 ia = 19.3.s = .12 A Fig.i2 ) + 6( i1 .005 v y) 180 = 900 i1 .4 i2 = 9 K(i) K(ii) -18 = 2 i2 + 6( i2 .14 3W + vy – 14 V + v1 – 7A 2vy Þ i1 = 5 A v1 = 6(5 .6) = 0 -5 i1 + 20 i2 = 0.2) + 6( i1 .i1 ) + 900( i2 + 0.2 .2 . S1. the dependent source is a short circuit v1 v .5 + 2) Page 32 www.0.25 V.vs v1 . vx = -500 ´ 20m = -10 V 42.5 vx = 500 i1 + 500( i1 .5 + 2 = 329 A .5) + 4( ia . vx = -500 i1 Þ 5 i1 .7) + 2 ´ 3(5 .2. i2 = -1.7) = -10 V 3W 6W 2A i1 2W Fig.25) 2 = 52.48 + 1 + =2 .75 = 10.com . S1. i1 = 12 A.2.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 38.001vx ) = 400 ( i1 .i1 ) .3) + 600( i2 .35 A 40.54 .9) + 2( i1 .53 W 2 43.2( i1 .75 V voltage across 2 W resistor 30 .gatehelp.1 Þ vs = . (A) vx = 500 i1 10 W vs 40 W + v1 – 20 W 48 V v y = 400( i1 .18 .

R N = ? 2W (B) 4 V.1 i v (A) 2 V. i N .5 A.1. 9 W www. RTH = ? 4. 10 W 3 (B) 10 A.4 R R v 15 V 4W iN. 5 W 2W Fig. P.4 is R 3W 2W 6V 6W vTH.4. 3 W (C) 2 A. P.5 5 (C) 1 V.4.4. 4 W (C) 4 V.1. RTH = ? (C) (D) 5. vTH . RTH 6A 4W 2W 2A 3W 3W iN RN Fig. R N = ? 1W vTH. 6 W 3. W 5 (A) 4 A. i N .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.gatehelp. vTH . 6 W 5 (B) 2 V. 4 W 2W (C) 1. A simple equivalent circuit of the 2 terminal network shown in fig. P. 5 W 2. 5 W 6 Fig. 4 W (D) 2 V. RTH Fig. 4 W (D) 1.com (B) 2 A. P1.1.2 R R i i (A) 3 A. 6 W (D) 4 A.4 NETWORKS THEOREM 1. W 6 6 (D) -1 V.1.1.3 (A) -2 V.5 A. RN (A) (B) Fig. P. 2 W Page 33 . P.4.4.4.

8 is a 3W 4 kW 3 kW 24 V Fig. P. For In the the circuit shown in fig. P.1.1. RTH RTH 2 W 2 W 1. i1 = ? 4 kW i1 4 kW 20 V 6 kW (A) 3 W (C) 6 W (B) 12 W (D) ¥ 12 V 8. P. P.com .75 mA (C) 2 mA Statement for Q.16 W (B) 6 W 4 (D) W 3 5V 40 W 8W 1A 9.6 10. RTH = ? 6W (B) 155 V.4.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 6. P. P. 6 W (C) 5 V.12–13. 75 W (C) 155 V. P. 37 W 7. P.gatehelp.1..12–13 12.1.1.4. The Thevenin impedance across the terminals ab of the network shown in fig.4.1.75 mA (D) 1. v1 = ? (A) -100 V. P.4.9 Page 34 www. P. As viewed from terminal x and x¢ is (A) 8 V.9 a network and its Thevenin and Norton equivalent are given 2W 3W RTH 4V 2A vTH iN RN x’ y’ Fig.4. vTH .1. 10 W x 16 W y (A) 2 W (C) 6.2 W 5 W iN 2 A 2 A 30 3 8 5 RN 2 W 3 W 1. RTH = ? 30 W 20 W 5V 5A 25 W The value of the parameter are vTH (A) vTH. 55 W (D) 145 V.10 (A) 6 V (C) 8 V Fig.2 W 5 W 4 V 4 V 8 V 8 V (B) (C) (D) A A Fig.4.4.4.1. Find the Thevenin equivalent as given in question.4.4.12–13: Fig.1.1.7 (B) 7 V (D) 10 V 11. 32 W (B) 5 V.8 A circuit is given in fig. 32 W Fig. 75 W 8V 2W 1W 1W 3W 2W 6W + v1 – 6W 18 V 2A 6W RTH 5V Fig.11 (A) 3 A 2A 6W 8W b 2V 8W (B) 0. 6 W (D) 8 V.

Network Theorems

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.4

13. As viewed from terminal y and y¢ is (A) 8 V, 32 W (C) 5 V, 6 W (B) 4 V, 32 W (D) 7 V, 6 W

19. vTH , RTH = ?
6W i1

14. A practical DC current source provide 20 kW to a 50 W load and 20 kW to a 200 W load. The maximum power, that can drawn from it, is (A) 22.5 kW (C) 30.3 kW Statement for Q.15–16: In the circuit of fig. P.1.4.15–16 when R = 0 W , the current iR equals 10 A.
4W 2W 2W

3i1

4W

iN,

RN

Fig. P1.4.19

(B) 45 kW (D) 40 kW (A) 0 W (C) 2.4 W 20. vTH , RTH = ?
4V + 0.1v1 5W v1 – vTH RTH

(B) 1.2 W (D) 3.6 W

E

4W

R iR

2W

4A

Fig. P.1.4.15–16.

Fig. P.1.4.20

15. The value of R, for which it absorbs maximum power, is (A) 4 W (C) 2 W (B) 3 W (D) None of the above

(A) 8 V, 5 W (C) 4 V, 5 W 21. RTH = ?
2W

(B) 8 V, 10 W (D) 4 V, 10 W

3W + vx 4 vx – RTH

16. The maximum power will be (A) 50 W (C) 200 W (B) 100 W (D) value of E is required
4V

17. Consider a 24 V battery of internal resistance r = 4 W connected to a variable resistance RL . The rate of heat dissipated in the resistor is maximum when the current drawn from the battery is i . The current drawn form the battery will be i 2 when RL is equal to (A) 2 W (C) 8 W 18. i N , R N = ?
10 W i1 20i1 30 W iN, RN

Fig. P.1.4.21

(A) 3 W (C) 5 W

(B) 1.2 W (D) 10 W

(B) 4 W (D) 12 W
5W

22. In the circuit shown in fig. P.1.4.22 the effective resistance faced by the voltage source is
4W

vs

i 4

i

Fig. P.1.4.22 Fig. P.1.4.18

(A) 2 A, 20 W (C) 0 A, 20 W

(B) 2 A, -20 W (D) 0 A, -20 W

(A) 4 W (C) 2 W
www.gatehelp.com

(B) 3 W (D) 1 W
Page 35

UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Networks

23. In the circuit of fig. P1.4.23 the value of RTH at terminal ab is
0.75va

26. The value of RL will be
ix

16 V

0.9 A 2W

3W

RL

8W a – 9V 4W va + b

Fig. P.1.4.26–27

(A) 2 W (C) 1 W 27. The maximum power is (A) 0.75 W (C) 2.25 W 28. RTH = ?

(B) 3 W (D) None of the above

Fig. P.1.4.23

(A) -3 W (C) 8 W 3

(B)

9 W 8

(B) 1.5 W (D) 1.125 W

(D) None of the above

24. RTH = ?
200 W

-2ix

va 100

va +

(A) ¥ (C) 3 W 125

25. In the circuit of fig. P.1.4.25, the RL will absorb maximum power if RL is equal to
40 W i 6V 200 W 3i 100 W

(A) (C)

400 W 3 800 W 3

Statement for Q.26–27: In the circuit shown in fig. P1.4.26–27 the maximum power transfer condition is met for the load RL .
Page 36
www.gatehelp.com

– 100 W 50 W

RTH

0.01vx 100 W

100 W 300 W ix 800 W

+ vx – RTH

Fig. P.1.4.24

(B) 0 (D) 125 W 3 (A) 100 W (C) 200 W

Fig. P.1.4.28

(B) 136.4 W (D) 272.8 W

29. Consider the circuits shown in fig. P.1.4.29
ia 2W 6W 2W 6W 2W 12 V 12 V 8V 6W

RL

Fig. P.1.4.25

(B) (D)

2 kW 9 4 kW 9
2W

ib

2W 6W 6W 2W

18 V

6W

3A

12 V

Fig. P.1.4.29a & b

Network Theorems

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.4

The relation between ia and ib is (A) ib = ia + 6 (C) ib = 15 ia . 30. Req = ?
12 W 4W

33. If vs1 = 6 V and vs 2 = - 6 V then the value of va is (A) 4 V (C) 6 V (B) -4 V (D) -6 V

(B) ib = ia + 2 (D) ib = ia

34. A network N feeds a resistance R as shown in fig. P1.4.34. Let the power consumed by R be P. If an identical network is added as shown in figure, the
Req 6W 18 W 9W
N

2W 6W

power consumed by R will be

R

N

R

N

Fig. P.1.4.30 Fig. P.1.4.34

(A) 18 W 36 (C) W 13

72 (B) W 13 (D) 9 W

(A) equal to P (C) between P and 4P

(B) less than P (D) more than 4P

31. In the lattice network the value of RL for the maximum power transfer to it is
7W
6 W

35. A certain network consists of a large number of ideal linear resistors, one of which is R and two constant ideal source. The power consumed by R is P1 when only the first source is active, and P2 when only the second source is active. If both sources are active

RL
W 5

simultaneously, then the power consumed by R is (A) P1 ± P2 (B) P1 ± P2

9W

(C) ( P1 ± P2 ) 2 (B) 9 W (D) 8 W

(D) ( P1 ± P2 ) 2

Fig. P.1.4.31

(A) 6.67 W (C) 6.52 W Statement for Q.32–33:

36. A battery has a short-circuit current of 30 A and an open circuit voltage of 24 V. If the battery is connected to an electric bulb of resistance 2 W, the power dissipated by the bulb is (A) 80 W (C) 112.5 W (B) 1800 W (D) 228 W results were obtained from

A circuit is shown in fig. P.1.4.32–33.
12 W 1W 3W 3W + vs1 1W va – vs2 1W

37.

The

following

measurements taken between the two terminal of a resistive network Terminal voltage Terminal current 32. If vs1 = vs 2 = 6 V then the value of va is (A) 3 V (C) 6 V (B) 4 V (D) 5 V (C) 0 12 V 0A 0V 1.5 A

Fig. P.1.4.32–33

The Thevenin resistance of the network is (A) 16 W
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(B) 8 W (D) ¥
Page 37

UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Networks

38. A DC voltmeter with a sensitivity of 20 kW/V is used to find the Thevenin equivalent of a linear network. Reading on two scales are as follows (a) 0 - 10 V scale : 4 V (b) 0 -15 V scale : 5 V The Thevenin voltage and the Thevenin resistance of the network is 16 200 (A) V, kW 3 3 (C) 18 V, 2 MW 15 32 V, 3 1 MW 15 200 kW 3

SOLUTIONS
1. (B) vTH = ( 6)( 6) = 4 V, 3+ 6 | RTH = ( 3| 6) + 2 = 4 W 2. (A)
2W 2W isc 15 V 4W

v1

(B)

(D) 36 V,

39. Consider the network shown in fig. P.1.4.39. RN = 2 | 4 + 2 = |
+ Linear Network RL vab –

Fig. S.1.4.2

10 W, 3

Fig. P.1.4.39

15 2 v1 = =6 V 1 1 1 + + 2 2 4 v isc = i N = 1 = 3 A 2 3. (C) vTH = (2)( 3)(1) = 1 V, 3+ 3 5 = 1| 5 = W | 6

The power absorbed by load resistance RL is shown in table : RL P 10 kW 3.6 MW 30 kW 4.8 MW 4. (B) After killing all source equivalent resistance is R The value of RL , that would absorb maximum power, is (A) 60 kW (C) 300 W (B) 100 W (D) 30 kW
6A 4W

RTH

Open circuit voltage = v1 5. (D) The short circuit current across the terminal is
2W isc

40. Measurement made on terminal ab of a circuit of fig.P.1.4.40 yield the current-voltage characteristics shown in fig. P.1.4.40. The Thevenin resistance is
i(mA)

3W

Fig. S1.4.5
+ Resistive Network v a

30 20 10
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

vab – b

isc =

6´ 4 = 4 A = iN , 4+2

| RN = 6 | 3 = 2 W 6. (B) For the calculation of RTH if we kill the sources then 20 W resistance is inactive because 5 A source will be open circuit RTH = 30 + 25 = 55 W, vTH = 5 + 5 ´ 30 = 155 V

Fig. P.1.4.40

(A) 300 W (C) 100 W

(B) -300 W (D) -100 W

***********

Page 38

www.gatehelp.com

Network Theorems

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.4

7. (C) After killing the source, RTH = 6 W
6W

12. (B) We Thevenized the left side of xx¢ and source transformed right side of yy¢
8W x 16 W y 8W

6W RTH
4V 8V

Fig. S.1.4.7

x’

y’

Fig. S1.4.12

8. (B) After killing all source, | | RTH = 3| 6 + 8 | 8 = 6 W 9. (D) voc = 2 ´ 2 + 4 = 8 V = vTH RTH = 2 + 3 = 5 W = R N , iN = vTH 8 = A RTH 5 vxx ¢ = vTH

4 8 + = 8 24 = 5 V, 1 1 + 8 24

RTH = 8 | 16 + 8) = 6 W |( 13. (D) Thevenin equivalent seen from terminal yy¢ is v yy¢ = vTH 4 8 + 24 8 = 7 V, = 1 1 + 24 8

10. (A) If we solve this circuit direct, we have to deal with three variable. But by simple manipulation variable can be reduced to one. By changing the LHS and RHS in Thevenin equivalent
1W 1W 1W 2W

| RTH = ( 8 + 16)| 8 = 6 W 14. (A)
12 V
i r RL

+ 4V 6W v1 –

Fig. S1.4.10

4 12 + v1 = 1 + 1 1 + 2 = 6 V 1 1 1 + + 1+1 6 1+2 11. (B) If we solve this circuit direct, we have to deal with three variable. But by simple manipulation variable can be reduced to one. By changing the LHS and RHS in Thevenin equivalent
2 kW i1 4 kW 20 V 2 kW

Fig. S1.4.14

æ ir ö ç ÷ 50 = 20 k, è r + 50 ø Þ r = 100 W Pmax =

2

æ ir ö ç ÷ 200 = 20 k è r + 200 ø

2

( r + 200) 2 = 4( r + 50) 2 i = 30 A, ( 30) 2 ´ 100 = 22.5 kW 4

15. (C) Thevenized the circuit across R, RTH = 2 W
4W 2W 2W

6V

8V

4W

2W

Fig. S1.4.15 Fig. S1.4.11

i1 =

20 - 6 - 8 = 0.75 mA 2k + 4k + 2k

16. (A) isc = 10 A, RTH = 2 W, æ 10 ö Pmax = ç ÷ ´ 2 = 50 W è 2 ø
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2

Page 39

UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Networks

Now in this circuit all straight-through connection have been cut as shown in fig. S1.4.32b
6W 1W 3W 2W + va – 6V

i 2 R = ( P1 ± P2 ) 2 36. (C) r = P= voc = 1. 2 W isc

24 2 ´ 2 = 112.5 W (1. 2 + 2) 2 voc 12 = =8W isc 15 .

37. (B) RTH =

Fig. S.1.4.32b

va =

6 ´ (2 + 3) =5 V 2 + 3+1

38. (A) Let

1 1 = = 50 mA sensitivity 20 k

33. (B) Since both source have opposite polarity, hence short circuit the all straight-through connection as shown in fig. S.1.4.33
6W 1W 3W 2W + va – 6V

For 0 -10 V scale Rm = 10 ´ 20 k = 200 kW For 0 -50 V scale Rm = 50 ´ 20 k = 1 MW 4 For 4 V reading i = ´ 50 = 20 mA 10 vTH = 20mRTH + 20m ´ 200 k = 4 + 20mRTH 5 For 5 V reading i = ´ 50m = 5 mA 50 vTH = 5m ´ RTH + 5m ´ 1M = 5 + 5mRTH Solving (i) and (ii) 16 200 V, RTH = vTH = kW 3 3 39. (D) v10 k = 10 k ´ 3.6m = 6 v30 k = 30 k ´ 4.8m = 12 V 6 = 12 = 10 vTH 10 + RTH 30 vTH 30 + RTH Þ Þ 10 vTH = 6 RTH + 60 ...(i)

...(ii)

Fig. S1.4.33

6 ´ ( 6 | 3) | va = = -4 V 2 +1 34. (C) Let Thevenin equivalent of both network
RTH RTH RTH

5 vTH = 2 RTH + 60

vTH

R

vTH

R

vTH

RTH = 30 kW 40. (D) At v = 0 , isc = 30 mA

Fig. S1.4.34

æ VTH ö P =ç ÷ ç R + R÷ R ø è TH æ ç V TH P¢ = ç ç R + RTH ç 2 è ö ÷ æ VTH ÷ R = 4ç ç2R + R ÷ TH è ÷ ø
2

2

At i = 0, voc = - 3 V v -3 RTH = oc = = - 100 W isc 30m
2

ö ÷ R ÷ ø

************

Thus P < P ¢ < 4 P 35. (C) i1 = P1 P2 and i2 = R R P1 ± R P2 R
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using superposition i = i1 + i2 =

Page 42

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

1.6
THE RLC CIRCUITS
1. The natural response of an RLC circuit is described by the differential equation d 2v dv dv(0) +2 + v = 0, v(0) = 10, = 0. dt 2 dt dt The v( t) is (A) 10(1 + t) e - t V (C) 10e - t V (B) 10(1 - t) e - t V (D) 10te - t V ¢¢ (A) iL ( t) + 1100 i¢¢ ( t) + 11 ´ 108 iL ( t) = 108 is ( t) L (B) i¢¢ ( t) + 1100 i¢¢ ( t) + 11 ´ 108 iL ( t) = 108 is ( t) L L (C) (D) ¢¢ . L iL ( t) 11i¢¢ ( t) . + + 11iL ( t) = is ( t) 108 10 4 i¢¢ ( t) 11i¢ ( t) L L + + 11iL ( t) = is ( t) 108 10 4

4. In the circuit of fig. P.1.6.4 vs = 0 for t > 0. The initial condition are v(0) = 6 V and dv(0) dt = -3000 V s. The v( t) for t > 0 is
1H

2. The differential equation for the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.2. is
2W 1 mH v

vs

100 W

10 mF

vs

80 W

25 mF

+ vC –

Fig. P1.6.2

(A) v¢¢( t) + 3000 v¢( t) + 102 ´ 108 v( t) = 108 vs ( t) . (B) v¢¢( t) + 1000 v¢ ( t) + 102 ´ 10 v( t) = 10 vs ( t) .
8 8

Fig. P1.6.4

(C) (D)

2 v¢ ( t) v¢¢( t) . + + 102 v( t) = vs ( t) 108 10 5 2 v¢ ( t) v¢¢( t) . + + 198 v( t) = vs ( t) 8 10 10 5

(A) -2 e -100 t + 8 e -400 t V (C) 6 e -100 t - 8 e -400 t V

(B) 6 e -100 t + 8 e -400 t V (D) None of the above

5. The circuit shown in fig. P1.6.5 has been open for a long time before closing at t = 0. The initial condition is v(0) = 2 V. The v( t) for t > is
t=0

3. The differential equation for the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.3 is
10 W is 100 W 10 mF

1H

3 4W

1 3F

+ vC –

Fig. P.1.6.5
iL

(A) 5 e - 7 e
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-t

-3t

V

(B) 7 e - t - 5 e -3t V (D) 3e - t - e -3t V

Fig. P.1.6.3

(C) - e - t + 3e -3t V

Page 54

The RLC Circuits

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.6

Statement for Q.6–7: Circuit is shown in fig. P.1.6. Initial conditions are i1 (0) = i2 (0) = 11 A
i1 2H i2

10. The switch of the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.10 is opened at t = 0 after long time. The v( t) , for t > 0 is
3W t=0

6V

1W

1 2H

1 4F

+ vC –

1W

3H

2W

Fig. P1.6.10 Fig. P1.6.6–7

(A) 4 e -2 t sin 2 t V (C) 4 e -2 t cos 2 t V

(B) -4 e -2 t sin 2 t V (D) -4 e -2 t cos 2 t V

6. i1 (1 s) = ? (A) 0.78 A (C) 2.56 A 7. i2 (1 s) = ? (A) 0.78 A (C) 2.56 A 8. vC ( t) = ? for t > 0
25 mH

(B) 1.46 A (D) 3.62 A

11. In the circuit of fig. P1.6.23 the switch is opened at t = 0 after long time. The current iL ( t) for t > 0 is
iL 4H

(B) 1.46 A (D) 3.62 A
2W 1 4F

t=0 8W 4W 7A

Fig. P1.6.11

(A) e -2 t (2 cos t + 4 sin t) A
30u(-t) mA 100 W 10 mF + vC –

(B) e -2 t ( 3 sin t - 4 cos t) A (D)e -2 t (2 sin t - 4 cos t) A

(C) e -2 t ( -4 sin t + 2 cos t) A Statement for Q.12–14:

Fig. P1.6.8

In the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.12–14 all initial condition are zero.
iL isu(t) A 100 W 65 1 mF 10 mH + vL –

(A) 4 e -1000 t - e -2000 t V (C) 2 e -1000 t + e -2000 t V

(B) ( 3 + 6000 t) e -2000 t V (D) ( 3 - 6000 t) e -2000 t V

9. The circuit shown in fig. P1.6.9 is in steady state with switch open. At t = 0 the switch is closed. The output voltage vC ( t) for t > 0 is

Fig. P1.5.12-14

12. If is ( t) = 1 A, then the inductor current iL ( t) is (A) 1 A (B) t A (D) 0 A then iL ( t) is A A (B) 2 t - 3250 A (D) 2 t + 3250 A (C) t + 1 A 13. If is ( t) = 0.5 t A, (A) 0.5 t + 3. 25 ´ 10 (C) 0.5 t - 0. 25 ´ 10
-3 -3

0.8 H + vC –

250 W t=0

500 W

5 mF

9V

Fig. P1.6.9

(A) -9 e (B) e (C) e

-400 t

+ 12 e

-300 t

-400 t -300 t

[ 3 cos 300 t + 4 sin 300 t ] [ 3 cos 400 t + 4 sin 300 t ]

14. If is ( t) = 2 e -250 t A then iL ( t) is 4000 -250 t 4000 -250 t (A) A (B) A te e 3 3 (C) 200 -250 t A e 7 (D) 200 -250 t A te 7

(D) e -300 t [ 3 cos 400 t + 2. 25 sin 300 t ]

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Page 55

( 4 cos 2 t + 8 sin 2 t) e .( 62 cos 4 t + 46. i(0 + ) = 2. For a RLC series circuit R = 20 W . P1.19 16. P1.6.t sin 4 t A (B) 4 .t V (B) 12 .t V www.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 15. 50u(t) V Fig. The current i( t) for t > 0 is 1 16 F + vC – 20 V 5W iL 1 4H 17. The forced response for the capacitor voltage v f ( t) is 100 W – vx + 19.( 46. In the circuit of fig. 2 V .5 sin 3t + 62 cos 3t) e -4 t V (C) 50 + ( 62 cos 4 t + 46. P1. dt dt dt The i( t) is (A) 1 + e .6 H. P1.6. UD =under damped].5 sin 4 t) e -3t V (D) 50 .17 is critically damped.5.t V (C) 12 + ( 4 cos 2 t + 8 sin 2 t) e .04 F + vC – Fig.t cos 4 t A (D) 10 + e .0. CD (A) C = 6 mF (B) C = 6 mF (C) C >6 mF (D) C < 6 mF OD C >6 mF C < 6 mF C = 6 mF C =6 mF UD C <6 mF C > 6 mF C < 6 mF C > 6 mF (A) 50 .t cos 4 t A (C) 2 + e . P1. P1.( 4 cos 2 t + 2 sin 2 t) e .20 the switch is closed at t = 0 after long time.gatehelp. 2 t .15 4W 2W (A) 0.t sin 4 t A Fig.6. (D) 117 ´ 10 -3 t + 0.19 v( t) for t > 0 is 2u(-t) A iL 20 mH avx 50 W 1H 0. (C) 117 ´ 10 -3 t . The step response of an RLC series circuit is given by d 2 i( t) 2 di( t) di(0 + ) = 4.t V (D) 12 + ( 4 cos 2 t + 2 sin 2 t) e . L = 0. + + 5 i( t) = 10. The value of R is t=0 R 120 W Fig.117 ´ 10 -3 V . OD =over damped.17 V to 12 V at t = 0.5 sin 4 t) e -3t V 20.6.21 (A) 12 . In the circuit of fig. P1. 2 t + 117 ´ 10 -3 V . the value of C will be [CD =critically damped. In the circuit shown in fig.6.5 sin 3t + 62 cos 3t) e -4 t V (B) 50 + ( 46.6. 2 V . P 1.2 e .6. The circuit shown in fig. (B) 0.20 10 mF 4H (A) -10 sin 8 t A (C) -10 cos 8 t A (B) 10 sin 8 t A (D) 10 cos 8 t A 21. P1.com Page 56 .6.21 switch is moved from 8 Fig. The voltage v( t) for t > 0 is 2W t=0 8V 12 V 1H 1 F 6 + vC – (A) 40 W (C) 120 W (B) 60 W (D) 180 W 18.

89 e -2 t sin 6.(20 cos 0.26 (A) -8 + 6 e -3t sin 4 t V (B) -12 + 4 e -3t cos 4 t V (C) -12 + ( 4 cos 4 t + 3 sin 4 t) e -3t V (D) -12 + ( 4 cos 4 t + 6 sin 4 t) e -3t V 27.6 t + 20 sin 0.431 t .24 (A) ( 4 .6.27 (A) 6 .8 t) e -5t A Page 57 . P1.6 t) e -4 t A (D) ( 3 .5.25 a steady state has been established before switch closed.8 t -0 .8 t V (B) 35 + (15 cos 0.6 22.25 V V (A) 0.38 t A 26. The iL ( t) for t > 0 is 0.6. 869t A (B) -e -2 .com Fig.73e -2 t sin 4.26.58 t A (D) 0.(15 cos 0.6.6 t + 20 sin 0.431 t + e -0 .The RLC Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.9 t) e -5t A (B) ( 3 . P1. The i( t) for t > 0 is 5W 20 W t=0 100 V 5W 1H i 1 F 25 3u(t) A 5W 20 V 0.( 8 cos 500 t + 0. In the circuit shown in fig.38 t A (C) 0.6 t e -0 . P1. The current i( t) for t > 0 is 2A 3 4H 1 3F 5W 10 W t=0 1W 6W 10 W 1H 4V t=0 1 25 F + vC – Fig. In the circuit of fig.( 6 cos 500 t + 6 sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA 4A (B) 8 .58 t A (B) 0.306 t + e-0 .903t A 24.2 F 2W + vC – Fig. In the circuit of fig.6 t) e 4 t A (C) ( 3 .gatehelp.89 e -4 t sin 6.( 6 cos 5000 t + 0.24 switch is moved from position a to b at t = 0.6.15 cos 0.8 t Fig. P1. P1.903t A (D) 2 e -4 .6 t) e -0 .73e -4 t sin 4.02 F b 2 H t=0 2W a iL 6W 12 V 14 W Fig.23 the switch is opened at t = 0 after long time.6. 869t A (C) e -4 .6 t) e V 23.06 sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA (C) 6 .23 (A) e-2 .6 t) e (D) 35 .8 t -0 .6. P1.e -0 . P1.6. P1. P1. P1. P1.06 sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA (D) 6 e -50 t sin 5000 t mA www. i( t) = ? 2 kW i 12u(t) V 5 mF 8 mH Fig.6. In the circuit of fig. The v( t) for t > 0 is 2A (C) 35 .306 t + 2 e -0 .6.6. The switch is closed after long time in the circuit of fig.22 (A) 40 .6 t + 15 sin 0.22 the voltage v( t) is 5H 1W 25.

400. (A) Þ 31. (C) is = = 0.6.6. P1. The vo( t) for t > 0 is 10 W vs 100 W 10 mF t=0 3A 5W 10 mF 1H + vo – Fig.5t A -2 .6.5t A (C) 4 + ( 3 cos 1. Þ B = 8. The current i( t) for t > 0 is i 4u(t) A 1H 2W 0.6.30 a steady state has been established before switch closed.t) e -2 t A 4.t) e A (D) 2(1 . -100 A . In the circuit of fig.1.5t A . www.31 A + B = 6.32 t) e -0 .5t A *************** s2 + 4 s + 3 = 0 Page 58 . 29.6. P1.28 (A) 4 + 6. A = -2 1 s + =0 RC LC s 2 + 500 s + 40000 = 0 v( t) = Ae -100 t + Be -400 t Fig.1 A1 + A2 dt A1 = A2 = 10 2.6. P1. P1.8 e A + 2e -2 .vs ) dt = 0 80 dt ò 30. + iL ( t) + 11iL ( t) = is ( t) 108 10 4 v dv + 25m + ( v .6.28 i(0) = 1 A and v(0) = 0.29 a steady state has been established before switch closed. (C) The characteristic equation is s 2 + After putting the values. In the circuit of fig.1iL + 10 -5 Þ diL di d 2 iL + iL + 10 -4 L + 10 -8 dt dt dt 2 . v( t) = ( A1 + A2 t) e dv(0) v(0) = 10 V. In the circuit of fig. (A) s 2 + 2 s + 1 = 0 -t Þ s = -1. (A) iL = v dv + 10 ´ 10 -6 100 dt iL 2W 1 mH v Fig.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 28.5t A . . In the circuit of fig. v( t) = Ae .t ç 100 dt + 10 ´ 10 dt 2 ÷ + v dt ø è 100 è ø 108 vs ( t) = v¢¢( t) + 3000 v¢( t) + 102 v( t) .5t A (B) 4 . P1.5t (B) 9 .31 a steady state has been established. S1. P1.t + Be -3t . P1. i¢¢ ( t) 11 L ¢ .5t A 5.( 3 cos 1. The i( t) for i 1H 1 4F 1W t=0 2W 6V Fig. .29 (A) 100 te -10 t V (C) 400 te -50 t V (B) 200 te -10 t V (D) 800 te -50 t V 2 æ 1 dv ö dv ö æ v -6 d v ÷ ÷ + 10 -3 ç = 2ç + 10 -6 ´ 10 . = 0 = . t > 0 is vC dvC + iL + 10m 100 dt diL vC = 10 iL + 10 -3 dt diL d di is = 0.5 F SOLUTIONS 1.6.38 e -0 .400 B = -3000 10 t (A) 9 + 2 e -10 t .38 e -0 .32 t + 113 sin 1.32 t + 113 sin 1.8e -2 .1iL + 10 -5 + iL + 10 -5 (10 iL + 10 -3 L ) dt dt dt 3.32 t) e -0 .com (C) 9 + (2 cos 10 t + sin 10 t) e (D) 9 + (cos 10 t + 2 sin 10 t) e -2 .6. P1. The i( t) for t > 0 is i 3A 10 W 6u(t) A 10 mF 40 W 4H d 2v dv + 500 + 40000 = 0 2 dt dt Þ s = -100.30 (A) 2 e -2 t sin 2 t A -2 t (B) -e -2 t sin 2 t A (C) -2(1 . (D) 4 .gatehelp.2 vs = 2 iL + 10 -3 diL +v dt Fig.6.

i(0) = A + B = 11 In differential equation putting t = 0 and solving di1 (0 + ) 33 di2 (0 + ) 143 ==. iL = 1 A 13. B = 1. 0 + 650 A + ( At + B)10 5 = 10 5(0. -2000 vC ( t) = ( A1 + A2 t) e -2000 t dvC ( t) = A2 e -2000 t + ( A1 + A2 t) e -2000 t ( -2000) dt dvC (0) = A2 . dt 2 dt 6 A 33 . -3si1 + (2 + 3s) i2 = 0 ( 3s)( 3s) i1 (1 + 5 s) i1 =0 2 + 3s Þ Þ 6 s 2 + 13s + 2 = 0 1 s = . iL (0 + ) = -12 mA vC dvC + iL + 5 ´ 10 -6 =0 250 dt dvC (0 + ) 3 dvC (0 + ) .gatehelp. s = -2 ± j - A. C = -1 i2 = . s = . (A) Trying iL ( t) = At + B. (D) iL (0 + ) = -4. A2 = 4 dt 10. dvC (0 + ) = -8 = -2 (0 + 0) + (0 + 2 A2 ).( -4) ´ 8 Þ = 10 dt dt 1 s vC + vC + iL = 0. diL (0 + ) = 10 = -2 ( A1 + 0) + A2 . 6 2 i1 = 3e t 6 11. A = 0. dt 9. Þ A = 3.3 1 =0 dt dt 6. i2 (1 s) = e + 12 e -2 = 0. v = 10 ´ 10 -3 L 100 65 dt dt 8.6. B = 3. dt dt 3di2 di 2 i2 + ..) = 0 = iL (0 + ) = C dt dt 100 1 s2 + s+ 25 ´ 10 -3 25 ´ 10 -3 ´ 10 ´ 10 -6 C Þ s = -2000. (D) i1 + 5 (1 + 5 s) i1 .) dvC (0 + ) = iL (0 .8 ´ 5 ´ 10 -6 Þ Þ s 2 + 800 s + 25 ´ 10 4 = 0 s = -400 ± j 300 iR (0) = Þ dv(0 + ) 8 = dt 3 . 34 3 dv(0 + ) = . A2 = 2 dt v dv di + 10 -3 + iL . (B) v(0 + ) = 0.11 7.12m + 5 ´ 10 -6 =0 Þ =0 dt 250 dt 1 s + =0 s2 + -6 250 ´ 5 ´ 10 0.5 www. (B) vC (0 + ) = 3 V . dt Þ A2 = 6000 12.. (A) is = is = di d 2 iL 65 (10 ´ 10 -3) L + 10 -3(10 ´ 10 -3) + iL = 0 dt dt 100 d 2 iL di + 650 L + 10 5 iL = 10 5 is dt dt Trying iL ( t) = B 0 + 0 + 10 5 B = 10 5.8.2 B = .e t 6 di2 (0) -143 C = = . = -400 A1 + 300 A2 .t 6 vC ( t) = e-400 t ( A1 cos 300 t + A2 sin 300 t) dvC (0) A1 = 3. (B) vC (0 + ) = 30m ´ 100 = 3 V dvC (0 .A .2D dt 6 6 1 6 diL (0 + ) diL (0 + ) = 8 .3 2 = 0.The RLC Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.com Page 59 . A = -1 di1 di . (A) i2 = Ce + De -2 t 4 i2 (0) = 11 = C + D. A2 = -4 dt vC (0 + ) = 8 V iL 4H i1 = A e + Be -2 t .6 v(0 + ) = 2 V iL (0 + ) = 0Þ -C Þ A + B =2 2 8 = . vC = 4 siL + 8 iL 4 2 and D = 12 + 12 e -2 t s 2 iL + 4 siL + 5 = 0.2 ± j2 1 dvC (0 + ) = -2 4 xdt Þ vC ( t) = e ( A1 cos 2 t + A2 sin 2 t) A1 = 0.3B = -8. S1.2000 ´ 3 = 0 vC (0 + ) = A1 = 3..78 A iL ( t) = e-2 t ( A1 cos t + A2 sin t) A1 = -4.5 t). s2 + 4 s + 8 = 0 -2 t iL (0 + ) = 2 A. 2W 1 4F + 8e .3si2 = 0. 1 6 -2 t + vC – 8W i1 (1 s) = 3e + 8 e -2 = 3. -2 6 1 .62 A t 6 Fig. B = 8.

(A) i(0 + ) = 3 A. Þ B = -2 31. Wo = =2 2 RC 2 ´ 1 ´ 0. B = 1 4´ 6 =3 6 +2 dvC (0) dv (0) = 150 0.25 = -3 ± j 4 v1 ( t) = -12 + ( A cos 4 t + B sin 4 t) e -3t + i(0) = 1 = 3 + A vo = LdiL ( t) = 200 te -10 t dt di(0 + ) -6 vc (0 + ) = 2 ´ 1 = 2 = = -2 A.25 LC 30.5 ± 0. -2.02 C = iL (0) = 3 Þ dt dt 6 + 14 1 a= = 5.32 t + B sin 1.12) e iL ( t) = 0.25 2 .903B dt 3 A = 1.25 = -2 ± j 4. v(0 + ) = a= 1 = 0.com vL (0) = -8 = 12 + A.5 Ldi(0 + ) dt Wo = 1 1 .5t 3 = 9 + A + B. -5t 150 = -5 A + B -5t -5t B = 90 -5t v( t) = 12 + (90 t . Þ B=3 dt 27.(2 + 20 t) e -10 t .The RLC Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. -5t 28.5 ± j1. B = -8 ************ www.25 2 RC 2 ´ 8 ´ 0.02(90) e 100 ´ 5 50 .5000 2 = -50 ± j5000 i( t) = 6 + ( A cos 5000 t + B sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA i(0) = 6 = 6 + A. (B) Vo(0 + ) = 0 . di( t) = ( -2 + Bt) e 2 t ( -2) + (0 + B) e -2 t dt At t = 0. so overdamped response s = -6. 0 = -10 A . 29. Wo = =5 2 1 ´ 1 / 25 b = -3 ± 9 .323 i( t) = 4 + ( A cos 1. (A) v(0 ) = = 5 + 5 + 20 3 + = ( 3 . 2 ´ 2 ´ 0. wo = =5 2´1 1 1´ 25 s = -2 ± 4 . vC (0 + ) = 0 V = is = 9 A. wo = =5 2´2 2 ´ 0.02 24. Þ A =4 dvL (0) = 0 = -3 A + 4 B.0. Þ A = -3 di(0) = 0 = 0.10 i( t) = 3( A + Bt) e -10 t .58 t) e -2 t 26.5 B On solving. -2 A = -2 i( t) = ( A + Bt) e -2 t . dt B = -113 . (C) vC (0) = 0. 25.01 = 10 a = Wo.32 t) e -0 .01 s = -10. + Wo = 1 1 ´ 0. B = -0.5 A + 1. A = 2.58 t + B sin 4.01 1 1 Wo = = =5 LC 4 ´ 0. so critically damped response iL (0 ) = 0 + if = 0 A diL (0 + ) 50 10 = 20 = dt 3 3 4 1 a= = 2. .(D) i(0 + ) = 1 A.2. vL (0 + ) = 4 .0.01 a > Wo. 2 ´ 5 ´ 0.25 = -10.5 2 . s = -50 ± 50 2 .32 B. iL (0) = a = wo critically damped v( t) = 12 + ( A + Bt) e 0 = 12 + A.5.5t 1 = 4 + A. (C) i(0 + ) = a = Wo. R = 10| 40 = 8 W | 1 1 a= = = 6.2 = 0. (C) a = Wo = 1 1 = = 50 2 RC 2 ´ 2 k ´ 54 1 1 = = 5000 LC 8 m ´ 5m 4 di(0 + ) dt a < Wo.02( -5) e (90 t .(A) iL (0 + ) = 0. Þ A = -6 di(0) = -50 A + 5000 B = 0.9 t) e diL (0 + ) = v1 (0) = 0 dt 1 a= = 10.58 i( t) = ( A cos 4.5 i( t) = 9 + Ae -10 t + Be -2 . dt 1+2 1 1 1 a= = = 2.gatehelp.6 di(0 + ) -16 = = -4.431 A . critically damped response s = -2 .12) + 0. underdamped response.06 dt Page 61 .25 ± 6.12 = -8 1 dvL (0 ) = iL (0 + ) = 0 25 dt 6 1 a = = 3.iL (0 + ) = 1 A Þ A = -12.5 = 2 s = -0. di(0 ) = -10 A + B dt iL ( t) = 3 .

P1. 2 ° ) A 2.3 Page 62 www. vC ( t) = ? (A) 2.77 ° ) A (C) 2 sin (2 t . 2 ° ) A (C) 2.5.140.57 ° ) V 3 (D) 0. P1.48 cos( 300 t + 68.63. 23° ) A (D) cos (2 t + 84.7. vC ( t) = ? 3H (A) 20 cos ( 300 t + 68.7.43° ) V (B) 0. 2 ° ) A (D) 2.43° ) V (C) 0. P1.2 (A) 0. 25 cos (5 t + 140. 2 ° ) A (B) 20 cos( 300 t .com .45 ° ) V sin (2 t . 23° ) A Fig. 25 cos (5 t .7 SINUSOIDAL STEADY STATE ANALYSIS 1.57 ° ) V 3 ~ Fig.gatehelp.77 ° ) A (B) cos (2 t .89 cos (10 3 t .1 4. i( t) = ? (A) (C) 25 mH 1 2 1 2 i 3W cos (2 t .48 cos( 300 t . P1.25 F 4H 3.84.89 cos (10 3 t + 63. vC ( t) = ? 5W cos 2t V ~ 0.68.1 F + vC – (A) 2 sin (2 t + 5. 25 cos (5 t .68.4 ~ 2W 1 mF + vC – (B) 2.45 cos (10 t + 26.45 ° ) V (B) (D) 1 2 1 2 cos (2 t + 45 ° ) V sin (2 t + 45 ° ) V 20cos 300t V ~ Fig.7.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.71° ) V 5. i( t) = ? 1W 4W i 10cos 2t V Fig. P1.150 ° ) V (C) 2.7.26. 25 cos (5 t + 150 ° ) V cos 10 t A 3 8cos 5t V ~ 50 mF 9W + vC – Fig.71° ) V (D) 2.5 0.45 cos (10 t .7.

4107 ° ) A .11Ð166 ° V (C) 43. (D) 43.R 4W 0.7. P1. (B) 2. 28 ° A .7.04 sin ( 4 t + 92.13° ) A 19.4107 ° ) A .36 cos ( 4 t + 4107 ° ) A .3 sin (10 3 t + 68.com ~ 6Ð30 A o 10Ð30 V o ~ -j2 W j3 W Fig. In a two element series circuit.49 ° A 20.166 ° V (D) 43. P1.11Ð . 2 cos ( t + 23° ) V (C) 315 cos ( t . P1.62 Ð97. In the bridge shown in fig. Vx = ? 20 W o (B) 4.112 ° ) V .16 Fig.j 600) W.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 13. 18.7. i2 ( t) = ? (A) 2. i( t) = 2.13° ) A (D) -2. P1.gatehelp.j900 W 14. Z 2 = ( 300 . (C) 1.7. vo( t) = ? 1H (B) 223Ð56 ° V (D) 124 Ð154 ° V 3W 10sin (t+30o) V ~ 1F + vo – ~ 20cos (t-45 ) V Fig.5Ix Ix 120Ð-15o V ~ -j30 50 W Fig. Z1 = 300 W.37 cos ( 4 t .13° ) A (B) -2.7. (C) 7.17–18 17.154 ° V 16.7.13 (A) 400 + j 300 W (C) j100 W ~ (B) 400 .56 ° V (C) 124 Ð . i1 ( t) = ? (A) 2.C (D) R . 2 cos ( t .3° ) A. The Z 4 balance is 1 3 Statement for Q. Z 3 = (200 + j 100)W.L 15.36 cos ( 4 t + 4107 ° ) A .17-18: The circuit is as shown in fig. (B) 43.19 (A) 394 Ð46.13.13° ) A (C) 2.j 300 W (D) .7.124 ° V . P1. P1.20 (A) 315 cos ( t + 112 ° ) V . (D) 2.04 cos ( 4 t + 92.36 cos ( 4 t . the applied voltage and the resulting current are v( t) = 60 + 66 sin (10 3 t) V.15 (A) 223Ð .04 sin ( 4 t + 2. 24 Ð . 24 Ð124 ° V (B) 29.38 ° A (D) 6.17-18 1H 1W 1W 1H at Z Z 5cos 4t V 2 ~ 1W i1 1F i2 ~ 10cos (4t-30 ) V o Z Z 4 Fig. P1.04 cos ( 4 t + 2. 27 ° A j10 W 4Vx 3Ð0 A o ~ 20 W + Vx – (A) 29. I x = ? Fig.C (C) R . P1.42 Ð92. Vo = ? j20 40 W Vo (B) L . The nature of the elements would be (A) R .23° ) V Page 64 www.78 Ð49.7.

7.7 VA ~ Fig.50 ° A (A) 154.59 Ð32. I rms = 8.j 68125 VA . If it has resistance of 30 W and an inductance of 0.39 ° kV (B) 42. Q = 45 VAR (inductive) (A) 39.j167.31 (leading) (C) 0. (A) 0. P1.8 pf lagging 6Ð0 A o ~ 16 kW 0.37 20 kW 0. In the circuit shown in fig.j 39. (B) 1000 + j 68125 VA .j2000 VA (A) 56.69 VA (B) 39.35 power factor is 4W -j2 -j2 j5 Fig. Vrms = 120 Ð30 ° V.j 4129.69 VA 10cos 2t V 4W + v1 – 1W 30.92 32.33 38.35 28. P = 269 W.49 Ð24.7. Vrms = 220 V. A relay coil is connected to a 210 V. 50 Hz supply. The power factor seen by the voltage source is 29.1Ð32. P1.6 VA (D) 187 VA (A) 180 W (C) 140 W Page 66 www.gatehelp.69 .j144 VA (D) 144 .9 (leading) (A) 4129. P1.6Ix 8W Fig.36 3v 4 1 1 3F (B) 0.5 H.j 89.38 (B) 90 W (D) 700 W .7. Vrms = 21Ð20 ° V. pf = 0.9 pf lagging VO – (A) 96 W (C) 92 W (B) -96 W (D) -192 W Fig.69 + j 45 VA (C) 45 + j 39. 29 ° kV (C) 38. P1. In the circuit of fig.8 (lagging) (D) 39. (B) 2000 + j 4129.31 (lagging) (D) 0.5 Ð .8 VA .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks Statement for Q. P1. S = 60 VA.3 VA (D) 61 .6 + j 89. Z = 40 + j 80 W (A) 72 + j144 VA (C) 144 + j72 VA 33.j 45 VA (D) 45 . Vo = ? + (B) 72 .9 (leading) 37. P1. |Z |= 40 W (inductive) (A) 1000 .8 W 1.7.7 VA (B) 154.6 (lagging) (C) 36.7.27–32: Determine the complex power for hte given values in question. (D) 68125 .j1000 VA .3 VA (C) 61 + j167. Vrms = 21Ð20 ° V.7. 29 ° kV 120Ð0o V 34. the apparent power is (A) 30 VA (C) 157 VA (B) 275.j269 VA (C) 269 .29 ° kV (D) 38.8 . (C) 68125 + j1000 VA .555 (leading) 36.j150 VA (B) 150 + j269 VA (D) 269 + j150 VA 35. P1.38 the maximum power absorbed by Z L is 10 W j15 (A) 7.j72 VA 2Ð90 A o ~ 4.8 (leading) 31. The average power supplied by the dependent source is Ix j1.7. P = 1 kW.8 + j2000 VA (C) 2000 . 27.555 (lagging) (B) 56. Q = 2000 VAR. Q = 150 VAR (capacitive) (A) 150 .com ~ -j10 ZL Fig.8 VA (D) 4129.6 .49 Ð32.

9.140. I 2 = 540 Ð100 ° mA I = I1 + I 2 = 744 Ð .68.90 ° ) 5 2 Ð . (C) Vs = 7.118 ° + 540.7.63.45 ° ) V -j = 9 + j11 (50m) (5) 4.164 ° i( t) = 460 cos ( 3t .j5 = 5 5 Ð .08 Ð68.84.51Ð35° V1 = Vs .5 + j = 112 Ð63.j 36 ´ 106 22 w22 æ 106 wç 27m ç 22 w2 è ö ÷ =0 ÷ ø Þ w = 1278 1278 w Hz = = 203 Hz f = 2p 2p 8. S1.5 Ð100 ° = 460 Ð . (C) Z = ç ç w(22m ) ÷| 6 + j(27m) w) ÷ |( è ø 27 ´ 10 3 j 6 ´ 106 .90 ° ) VC = = 2. I= V V = Ð-q Z |Z | i( t) = cos (2 t . 13. (B) Va = V = 1 1 1 105 + j0.89 Ð .43° ) V -j 3. S1.118 ° mA.21Ð50. 21Ð50.gatehelp.23° ) A 6.j 4)(10 + j5) = VC (10 + j5 . V2 = 7. 25 Ð140. (C) I1 = 744 Ð . 23 A 4 + j 8 1 + j10 1W Va 4W I 10Ð0 V o Ö2Ð45 A o ~ + -j4 VC – ~ 20Ð0 V o Fig.7. 2 ° I= 20 Ð0 = 2. (A) R .48 Ð . 2.j106 ( 6 + j27 ´ 10 -3 w) 22 22 w = 22 w = 6 10 æ 106 ö 6 + j(27mw ) ÷ 6 + jwç 27m ç 22 w 22 w2 ÷ ø è j27 ´ 10 3 .68 Ð47° . 2 ° ) A 1 + j(1m)(10 3) = 0.68 Ð47° V.6 Ð . (D) X = X L + X C = 0 Fig. -90 ° < q < 0 .71° V 14.51Ð35° = 159 Ð125° .0366 S 1 Z= = 1316 + j17.5 W = 8.11 (1 + j)( . (D) w = 2 p ´ 10 ´ 10 3 = 2 p ´ 10 4 -j 1 Y = j(1m )(2 p ´ 10 4 ) + + 4 (160m )(2 p ´ 10 ) 36 = 0.1)(2) VC = (1Ð0) (5 Ð . 2 (1Ð0) VC = = 0.89 cos (10 3 t .45 ° (0.64.45 ° 1 2 = 1 2 Ð .j100 = VC (10 + j) VC = 11.63.164 ° ) mA 11.V2 = 7.5 So reactive power drawn from the source is zero. 25 cos (5 t .43° . (A) Y = vC ( t) = 0.4 .j 300 14. (A) 2 Ð45° = VC V .j 4) + j 8 Þ Þ 60 .43° V 112 Ð63.j2 4 + j 8 I= Va 10 Ð0 = = 1Ð .84. 2 ° i( t) = 2.0278 . 2 ° A 8.j4 j5 + 10 j50 10 W vC ( t) = cos (2 t . (B) vin = 32 + (14 . + + 1 . (A) Z = 5 + = 5 . (B) Z1 Z 4 = Z 3Z 2 300 Z 4 = ( 300 .43° .08 Ð68.com .33 W .71° ) V 10 Ð0 10 Ð0 1 5.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks SOLUTIONS 1.C causes a positive phase shift in voltage Z =|Z |Ðq . Y Page 68 www.7° ~ -j2 j8 12.j 600)(200 + j100) Þ Z 4 = 400 .45 ° V æ -j ö 7.71° W ( 8 Ð0)( 4 Ð .71° vC ( t) = 2.20 Ð0 + C .68. (D) Z = 3 + j(25m)( 300) = 3 + j7. (D) Z = 9 + j( 3)(5) + Þ Z = 14.7.48 cos ( 300 t .j0.10) 2 = 5 10.

13° 15Ð90o V ~ ~ 2W -j4 I2 j2 ~ 3Ð0o A 19.166 ° -5 .30 ° 2 j4 Þ Vo = 5.20 Ð0 ° .j0.64 ..j2 ÷I x è3 ø Ix 3 Þ Ix = 10 Ð30 ° 2.1Ð90 ° )(0. I 3 = 2 Ð0 ° -j3 j4 5Ð0 V o ~ 1W I1 I2 -j0.3Vo + = 4 Ð . (B) I 2 = 4-j = -0.j 3 + 2 + 2) + 8 Ð90 °-4 Ð0 ° Þ .) 4 4 ( 4 .64 Þ .04 Ð92.82 ° V 24.( 40 Ð .17 2W 2W Þ ( 8 + j15) I1 .0.(20 + j 40) Vx = j 600 Vo(20) V Vx = Þ Vo = x (2 + j) 20 + j10 2 æ (2 + j)(20 + j10) ö Vx = ç . (A) I1 = V3ç ÷ + 3 = j0.j 30 50 16. S.6 ° Vo Vo .) .j) ] = (20 Ð0)( 8 + j15) . I1 = 352 + j0.37 Ð .5) = 3.Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.÷ 4ø 4ø è è j4 1W 1W j4 Vo(0. .4 Vx Vo .gatehelp.60 ° 20 Ð .j) I1 ( -176 + j248) = 41. I1 = æ4 ö 10 Ð30 ° = ç .j0. Vo = 315 Ð .1. 22 Ð .1.04 Þ I 2 = 2.65 Ð52. S.17 Ð .7 ° ) + (0.24 I 3(1) + ( I 3 .I 3 = 6 Ð0 ° A Io I1 [( 8 + j15) .30 ° = I 2 (1 + j 4 + 1 .16 jö jö æ æ 17.( 4 .4 V3 j10 è2 ø 10Ð-60 V o ~ + -j1 W Vo – ~ = (0.Vx + =3 20 j10 Vo(20 + j10) .j) I1 .4 Ð90 ° )(0.I 2 ç 1 .606 Ð .0.j2) I x = ( I1 . (C) 10 sin ( t + 30 ° ) = 10 cos ( t .45 ° ..076 + j2. (C) Vo = = 124 Ð .25 W ~ 10Ð-30 V o 12Ð0 V o ~ + I1 2W Vo – I2 ~ 4Ð90 V o Fig.46 ..7.7. (D) I 2 = 4 Ð90 ° .1.69. Vo = 2( 352 + j0.5 .20(1 + j2) ÷ = j 600 2 è ø j 600 Vx = = 29.(i) 2Ð0o A Fig.5 I x + ( . I1 = 103 .60 ° ) 10 Ð .7 120 Ð15 ° .9) .( 4 .4107 ( 8 + j15)(103 .V2 21.( 8 + j15) I 2 = 40 Ð . (A) Fig.67. (B) 10 Ð30 ° = 4 I1 .j) I 2 = 20 Ð0 j j -10 Ð .I o)( .112 ° V j1 3W 20.30 ° 2 2 .64 + j 4) = 11.38 ° www.j 4) + ( I 4 + I 2 )( j2) + I 4 = 0 Page 69 .196 Ð35.7.45 ° + j 3 Vo = 1 1 1 + + j -j 3 = 30 Ð .30 ° )( 4 .j20 æ j ö V .757 Ð66. P1.j2 23.6 Ð30 ° 40 + j20 15.÷ .7. (B) Let Vo be the voltage across current source Vo . S.com 1W I3 ~ 6Ð0 A I4 o 1W Fig. (C) 5 Ð0 ° = I1 ç j 4 + 1 + 1 . I 4 .j2) I x ( .43 + j 414.8 ° ) 20Ð-45 V o Þ I1 = 0.75 ° 22.154 ° 1 1 1 + + 40 + j20 .23 Þ .I1 (1 .5 + j0.1V2 + j0. (D) I 2 = 3Ð0 ° A .I x ) j 3.150 °+20 Ð .9 = 1. 18..65 Ð .(ii) 12 Ð0 ° = I1 ( .

16 ° W I sc 15 Ð0 °´10 -3 27.com = 61 + j167.6Ix (2Ð90o)4. S = 4129.j15 .8 leading 37. (A) Z TH VTH = 34. S = 39.16 ° -2 V1 . 1W + V1 – 28.37 I x = 5 Ð0 °.j2 = 4 .j) Þ I3 = Io + 3 . (D) Z = 4 + Solving (i) and (ii) I 2 = 12. Ix j1. (A) S1 = 16 + j S2 = 20 + j 16 sin (cos -1 (0.555 leading 36.jQ = 269 . (C) S = P . V Z TH = oc = = 247 Ð .j5 15 Ð90 ° = ( I o + 3Ð0 ° )(2) + ( I o .j 3( I1 .29 ° S = S1 + S2 = 36 + j2.69. pf = cos 56.I x ( 4.6 VA sin q sin 25. 8 + j10 .7. (A) 10 . * 31.4 8 + j10 .8 W 1.6 ´ 5 = 96 2 www.8 V 8W P 1000 cos q = = = 0. (C) S = Vrms I rms = (21Ð20 ° )( 8.1. Va = 0..90 ° ) 4.j157 ( 32 Ð0 ° )( j10) = 339 Ð58 ° V .5 Q 2000 = = 4588. 1 Pave = ´ 24 ´ 1..5)(2 p)(50) = 30 + j157.6 ´ 5 ´ 8 = 24 Ð0 °.6 VA .31° = 0. (B) S = rms = = 1210 |Z | 40 4.9 20 sin (cos -1 (0.75 0.29 ° S = VoI * = 6 Vo 25. 4W I1 10Ð0 V o Þ V1 = 4 Ð36.j5) = = 9 + j 4.6 I x ( 8) . S. S = 1000 + j 68125 VA . V1 = ( .3 .j 300) I1 + j 300 I 2 = 9 300 I 2 = 3V1 .(i) 26 (D) ( 600 .V1 = 0 Þ V1 = 0 9 Ð0 ° Þ I sc = = 15 Ð0 ° mA 600 311Ð .5 Ð50 ° ) ~ Fig. (B) Z = 30 + j(0.1Ð32.j2)( j5 .9 ° 2 pf = cos 36.9 Q = S sin q Þ S= Þ q = 25.j150 VA ( . S 1210 Q = S sin q = 68125.j 4) + ( I 3 + 6 Ð0 °+3Ð0 ° )( j2) + I 3 + 60 ° = 0 I 3(2 .9 °.26 °.j 80 33.84 ° ~ 3V 4 1 -j1.j5 . (A) S = 2 |V | (120) 2 = = 72 + j144 VA Z* 40 .I 2 ) Þ 3I1 = ( 3 + j) I 2 Apparent power =|S |= (210) 2 30 2 + 152 2 = 275.69 + j 45 VA 2 |V | (220 2 ) 30.75 = 42.36.j 300)( I1 . S.(ii) 35.59 °.I 2 ) Þ I 2 = .21Ð .I 3)( .j 6 = 7.8 = .59 Ð32.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks I 3 + ( I 3 .j6 j15 = 2 I o + 6 + ( j 4)( 3 .7.36 P = S cos q = 4129.j 6) ( j10)( 8 .9 ° = 0.gatehelp.j 4) Þ 32.9 ° (1Ð36.31°.j2000 29.16 ° .8 Þ Vo = 7..9)) = 16 + j7.j2 + j5 . (A) Q = S sin q Þ q = 48.j2) + I o( j 4) = -18 j .8.9 ° )(10 Ð0 ° ) S= = 5 Ð .16 ° mA .7 VA Page 70 .1. Þ sin q = Q 45 or = S 60 I1 = 1Ð36.V1 V1 3 + V1 = 4 4 1 . (A) (2 Ð .8264 or q = 34. .92 Va P = S cos q = 39.. S= 2 |V | (210) 2 = * Z 30 .j2) .9 j I3 = o (1 .I o)( .36 Ð .8)) = 20 + j15 0. Voc = 300 I 2 = 371Ð .84 ° Fig.8 + j192) + 0.6 -I ( j2) .56. (D) pf = cos q = 0.8 .

(D) I AB = I aA 3 Ð( q + 30 ° ) = 16.aA Ð( q + 30 ° ) = 8.270 ° V 41. (C) For the acb sequence Vab = Va .j10)(10 + j15) = 8 .Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.VB = 480 Ð .150 ° V.34 ° A rms 120( .7 38.6 W 80 + j 60 Ð .com Page 71 .7. (B) V A = 277 Ð( 45 °-120 ° ) = 277 Ð .Vb = Vp Ð0 ° .8 . S. (C) Z A = 6 | 12 = 4.88 + j5. (B) Va = 400 3 ******** Vb = 231Ð .116.122. Vc = 231Ð .j ç 2 2 è 400 Þ Vp = Ð30 ° 3 ö ÷ = Vp 3Ð .6 ° V 10 + j5 V AB = I AB × Z D = (16.22 Ð1.gatehelp.116.1° A rms 3 www.45 ° V 43.44 I aA = 15 Ð .8 Ð40 ° Vrms 46.07 W 40.75 ° V VB = 277 Ð( 45 ° + 120 ° ) = 277 Ð165 ° V V AB = V A .30 ° = 231Ð . (B) |S |= 3VL I L ZY = 208 10 3 Þ IL = 3600 208 3 = 10 A rms 107.3Ð .j 49. | IP = 480 = 120 A rms 4 I L = 3I P = 208 A rms 44 (B) I = I aA (10 + j 4) = 10 Ð20 ° (10 + j 4) + ( 4 + j 4) a IaA Iac Ibc Iab IbB b icC c Fig.7 Ð .Vp Ð120 ° æ 1 3 400 = Vp ç 1 + . (A) Z TH = VTH = ( .116. Vb = Vp Ð120 ° = 231Ð150 ° V Vc = Vp Ð240 ° = 231Ð .3Ð . 22 Ð1.j10) = 107.j14 W 10 + j15 . (B) Z TH = ( .9 ° A rms |I | I ab = .67 Ð .30 ° ÷ ø Va = Vp Ð0 ° = 231Ð30 ° V.340 ° )(10 + j 8) = 207.27.30 ° V Ð25 ° = 12 Ð25 ° = 10.6 ° 16 1 PLmax = ( 6.j 40)( 80 + j100) = 12.1.j10 45.7) 2 ´ 8 = 180 W 2 39.6 ° IL = = 6.90 ° V 42.

1 s 2 + 15 s + 1 .8. The s-domain equivalent of the circuit of Fig.5 F Fig.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1. P1.8 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS IN THE S-DOMAIN 1. Z ( s) = ? 1F Z(s) 1W s 2 + 3s + 1 s( s + 1) 2 s 2 + 3s + 1 (D) 2 s( s + 1) (B) (A) 2 Z(s) W 1H 1W 0. Z ( s) = ? 1F 2H (A) s2 + 1 s2 + 2 s + 1 2 s2 + 1 (C) 2 s + 2s + 2 (B) 2( s 2 + 1) ( s + 1) 2 s2 + 1 (D) 3s + 2 Z(s) 1W 1W 4. P1. Z ( s) = ? 1W Fig.P1.2 t=0 2 3W s + s+1 s( s + 1) s( s + 1) (C) 2 s2 + s + 1 2 (A) (B) 2s + s + 1 s( s + 1) s( s + 1) (D) 2 s + s+1 3W 6V 3F + vC – 3. Z ( s) = ? Fig.8.8. P1. is Fig. P1.gatehelp.5 3W + 1H Z(s) 1F 2W 1 3s VC(s) 1 3s 6 V s + VC(s) - 2A - Fig.3 (A) (C) Both A and B www.8.5. P1.8.com (B) (D) None of these Page 72 .8. (A) s( s + 1) 2 s 2 + 3s + 2 (C) s( s + 1) 2.4 1W 1H 3s 2 + 8 s + 7 s(5 s + 6) 3s 2 + 7 s + 6 (C) s(5 s + 6) s(5 s + 6) 3s 2 + 8 s + 7 s(5 s + 6) (D) 3s 2 + 7 s + 6 (B) 5.

8. Solve the problem and choose correct option.10.8.8. In the circuit of fig. P1.11 the switch is in position 1 for a long time and thrown to position 2 at t = 0. The s–domain equivalent of the circuit shown in Fig.6 Fig.8.10 Fig.8.7-8: (D) None of these The circuit is as shown in fig. P1.9 (A) + 2s 12 W VL 4V - (B) + 2A s (A) (C) ( s 2 + 2) 5 s + 5 s2 + 1 4 (B) (D) s2 + 1 5 s + 5 s2 + 1 4 12 W 2s VL - ( s 2 + 2) 2 5 s4 + 5 s2 + 1 ( s 2 + 1) 2 5 s4 + 5 s2 + 1 10.6 is t=0 9.9 voltage ratio transfer function G12 is 1H 1H + 2A 12 W 2H vL – v1 1F 1F 1F + v2 - 1F 1F Fig.8.8.11 1 é ê2 + 3s + s (A) ê ê -3s ë ù .Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. + 3 W 2 i1 1W i2 + is 1W 1H io + v1 - 2F 3 2F 6 1W v2 - vs 1F 1F 1W vo – Fig. P1. For the network shown in fig.8 6. H 2 ( s) = (A) I o( s) =? Vs ( s) 2 11. P1. P1. P1. P1.gatehelp.8. P1.com Page 73 .8. the admittance transfer function is Y12 = K ( s + 1) ( s + 2)( s + 4) (C) Both A and B Statement for Q.8. For the network shown in fig.7–8.3s ú 1 ú 2+ ú s û é12 ù é I1 ( s) ù ê s ú êI ( s) ú = ê ú ë 2 û ê0 ú ë û www. The equation for the loop currents I1 ( s) and I 2 ( s) are 1 2 12 V t=0 i1 3H 2W i2 1F 1F -s ( s + 3s + 2 s + 1) 3 (B) -( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (D) ( s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (C) -s 3 2 ( s + 2 s + 3s + 1) Fig. P1. H1 ( s) = o =? Vs ( s) (A) s( s3 + 2 s2 + 3s + 1) -1 (B) ( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (C) ( s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (D) s( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s2 + 2) -1 8. P1.7–8 The value of K is (A) -3 (C) 1 3 (B) 3 (D) 1 3 V ( s) 7.

12 at terminal ab Thevenin equivalent is 1 s a + Vo(s) - Z ( s) = The steady state and initial values of the voltage developed across the source would be respectively (A) 2Vo(s) 3 4 3 4 (s+1) 4 A V.16 i(0) = 1 A.3e-2 ´10 t 4 t . The voltage vC1 ( t) is t=0 1F 1F + vC2 - [10 e-10 4 t 4 .5 mF Fig.8.8.14. I V V.14 (A) 9 t V (B) 9e . (C) b (D) 1 V.18 v(0 . 0 V (B) 2W 1 4 V.com 5V 3 4 3 4 + + - 1 é ê2 + 3s + s (B) ê ê -3s ë ù . 16.5 u( t) V V (D) e . the initial conditions are known to be vC1 (0 ) = 1 V. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 3s 4( s + 3) (2 s + 1) . vC (0) = 8 V and v1 = 2 e -2 ´10 t u( t).8.12 (A) VTH ( s) = (B) VTH ( s) = (C) VTH ( s) = -8( s + 2) -(2 s + 1) .8.5 e -t (B) 0. P1.22 e-4 ´10 t ]u( t) A 4 4 [ -10 e -10 4 + 3e -2 ´10 4 t + 22 e -4 ´10 t ]u( t) A 4 4 (C) 1 [10 e-10 3 t 4 + 3e-2 ´10 t t 4 + 22 e-4 ´10 t ]u( t) A t (D) 1 [ -10 e -10 3 + 3e -2 ´10 . The i( t) is i 50 W 1m H 4 Fig. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 6s (A) (B) 1 15 1 15 v1 2. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 3s 8( s + 2) (2 s + 1) . P1. In the circuit of Fig. Switch S1 and S2 are closed at t = 0.t V (D) 164 e -3t V 14.s ú ú êI ( s) ú = ê ë 2 û ê 0 ú ë û S1 3F Va 4F S2 V V + vC – + vC – .8. In the circuit of fig. P1. The vC ( t) for t ³ 0 is iin 50 W 20 mF Fig.8. A unit step current of 1 A is applied to a network whose driving point impedance is V ( s) ( s + 3) = I ( s) ( s + 2) 2 12.8.8. In the circuit of fig.3s ú 1 ú 2+ ú s û é 12 ù é I1 ( s) ù ê.8. In the circuit shown in Fig. The initial condition at t = 0 of a switched capacitor circuit are shown in Fig. P1.s ú = ú 1 ú êI 2 ( s) ú ê û ê 0 ú úë ë û sû ù é12 ù ú é I1 ( s) ù ê s ú = 1 ú êI 2 ( s) ú ê ú û ê0 ú úë sû ë û Fig.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 5V 1V 10 V 2F + 6V - 1 é -3s ê2 + 3s + s (C) ê 2 + 3s + ê -3s ë 1 é -3s ê2 + 3s + s (D) ê 2 + 3s + ê -3s ë é 12 ù ù ú é I1 ( s) ù ê.13 (A) u( t) V (C) 0. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 6s 13.e -3t ) V (B) 208e.gatehelp.t V - Fig. vC2 (0 ) = 0. The voltage va ( t) for t > 0 is Page 74 www. P1.t V (C) 208(1 . P1.t V (D) 0 V (C) 9 V 15.) = 8 V and + vC1 - iin ( t) = 4d( t).16 -4( s + 3) -(2 s + 1) (D) VTH ( s) = .8.22 e -4 ´10 t ]u( t) A 4 17. P1.13 just before the closing of switch at t = 0. P1. P1.17 (A) 164e. P1.

26 22.12 mA (C) 0. P1.8.t u( t) .12 mA (D) . If Z(0) = 3. P1.d( t) A 21.48 mA Fig.25 (B) K ³ 3 (D) K ³ 1 3 20.com Page 75 .19–21.e .gatehelp.26 is stable if 1W 2F + Kv2 1F 1W v2 - Fig. P1.19-21: 4( s + 3) (D) 2 s + s+2 24.8.8.8.t u( t) .4 d( t) A (D) e .18.0. P1. If iin ( t) = tu( t) then io( t) will be (A) e . The amplifier network shown in fig. The network shown in fig.8.t u( t) A (B) 4 d( t) . P1.P1.8.8.t u( t) A (C) 4 e .Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.e . The transformed (B) 0 V (D) 2 V voltage across the 60 mF -3 -1 -1 s capacitor is given by VC ( s) = 20 s + 6 (10 s + 3)( s + 4) (B) .P1.0.4 e. The current through an 4 H inductor is given by I L ( s) = 10 s( s + 2) The circuit is as shown in the fig.t ) u( t) A 26. P1.t ) u( t) A (D) (2 .8. (A) I o( s) =? I in ( s) ( s + 1) 2s (B) 2 s( s + 1) -1 (D) s( s + 1) -1 (A) K £ 3 (C) K £ 1 3 2W + + v1 Amplifier v 2 gain=K - (C) ( s + 1) s -1 Fig. The voltage across 200 mF capacitor is given by VC ( s) = 2s + 6 s( s + 3) 5 2 2 (C) K ³ 5 (A) K ³ 5 2 2 (D) K £ 5 (B) K £ www. the Z ( s) is jw 1 The steady state voltage across capacitor is (A) 6 V (C) ¥ 23. The driving point impedance Z ( s) of a network has the pole zero location as shown in Fig.25 is stable if 4W 1F 1H Fig.48 mA (A) 4( s + 3) s2 + s + 1 (B) 2( s + 3) (C) 2 s + 2s + 2 Statement for Q. If iin ( t) = 4d( t) then io( t) will be (A) 4d( t) .19–21 19.18 The initial current through capacitor is 2( s + 3) 2 s + 2s + 2 (A) 0. All initial conditions are zero.e. io The initial voltage across inductor is (A) 40 V (C) 10 V (B) 20 V (D) 5 V iin 1H 1W 1F 1W 25.8 18.t u( t) A (C) u( t) A (B) (1 .

P1. The voltage response of a network to a unit step input is Vo( s) = The response is 10 s( s 2 + 8 s + 16) Statement for Q.34 3 2 1F 4 2H and zero at -1.31-33: The circuit is shown in fig. 1 H.1 ± j 2 Z(0) = 1 the value of R. the output current io is (A) (2 e . A circuit has input vin ( t) = cos 2 t u( t) V and output io( t) = 2 sin 2 t u( t) A. 2 H. 1 F (A) Over damped (B) Under damped 30.com . If vs 2W + vo - (D) 1 W.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 27.8.÷ 4ø è (H= scale factor) aö æ (B) H ç 1 + ÷ 4ø è aö æ (D) H ç 4 + ÷ 4ø è 31. A circuit has a transfer function with a pole s = .t . The current ratio transfer function (A) s( s + 4) s + 3s + 4 2 Io is Is (B) s( s + 4) ( s + 1)( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 3) s( s + 4) (C) s 2 + 3s + 4 s( s + 4) (D) 32.3e . 3 H. The damping exhibited by the network is 29.t ) u( t) A 34. The current response of a network to a unit step input is 10( s + 2) Io = 2 s ( s + 11s + 30) The response is (A) Under damped (C) Critically damped (B) Over damped (D) None of the above (C) Critically damped (D) value of voltage is requires 35.a The response of this system to a step input has a term of form Ke -4 t .e -3t ) u( t) A (B) ( 3te . C are 1 (A) 3 W.3te -3t ) u( t) A (C) ( 3e . The K will be aö æ (A) H ç 1 . The response is (A) Over damped (C) Critically damped (B) Under damped (D) can’t be determined 28.t .8. F 2 Fig. The admittance transfer function is 2 s (A) (B) s 2 (C) s (D) 1 s 33. L.8.31-33. P1. the response would be ( 2 dvs dt ) 1F 3 (A) 5 e -2 t u( t) (C) 4 e -2 t u( t) (B) -3e -2 t u( t) (D) -4 e -2 t u( t) Fig. P1. If the signal is changed to vs + . The poles of the driving point impedance function Z of this network are at .gatehelp.t . P1. In the network of Fig. If input is is 2u( t) A.e -3t ) u( t) A (D) ( e -3t . F 3 1 (C) 1 W.8. all initial condition are zero. F 2 1 (B) 2 W. 2 H. A two terminal network consists of a coil having an inductance L and resistance R shunted by a capacitor C. The circuit had no internal stored energy at t = 0.4 and a zero which may be adjusted in position as s = . (A) under damped (C) critically damped (B) over damped (D) can’t be determined 36.34.÷ 4ø è aö æ (C) H ç 4 . The response of an initially relaxed circuit to a 1H is 4W io signal vs is e -2 t u( t).31-33 Page 76 www.

37 i 2H 4W 42. P1. The network function represents an ( s + 1)( s + 3) (A) RL admittance (C) RC admittance 41. Consider the following statements in the circuit shown in fig. P1. The network function (B) RC impedance (D) None of the above ( s + 1)( s + 4) is a s( s + 2)( s + 5) (C) (D) ************ (A) RL impedance function (B) RC impedance function (C) LC impedance function (D) Above all www. i= A vC = 3 3 2.com Page 77 . I ( s) V ( s) has two poles. A valid immittance function is ( s + 4)( s + 8) s( s + 1) (A) (B) ( s + 2)( s .Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.37 1. The network function (A) RC admittance (C) LC impedance 39. The network function 4.8 37. The network function an (A) RC impedance (C) LC impedance (B) 1 and 4 (D) 2 and 4 s 2 + 10 s + 24 represent a s 2 + 8 s + 15 (B) RL impedance (D) None of the above s( s + 4) represents ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) (B) RL impedance (D) None of these 3 1F 3W The network for this function is 1F 3 1W 3W 8F 3 1W 8 1F 1F (A) (B) 1H 3 1W 8 1F 3W 1W 8 1H 3W s( 3s + 8) 40.8.5) ( s + 2)( s + 5) (C) s( s + 2)( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 4) (D) s( s + 2)( s + 6) ( s + 1)( s + 4) Fig.gatehelp. A impedance function is given as Z ( s) = 3( s + 2)( s + 4) s( s + 3) The true statements are (A) 1 and 3 (C) 2 and 3 38. It is a first order circuit with steady state value of 10 5 . The network function V ( s) has one pole. i = 2 A 3. The network function s2 + 7 s + 6 is a s+2 (B) RL admittance (D) LC admittance (A) RL impedance function (C) LC impedance function 10 V 1W 2 1F + vC – 43. The network function (A) RLadmittance (C) LC admittance s 2 + 8 s + 15 is a s2 + 6 s + 8 (B) RC admittance (D) Above all 45.8. It is a second order circuit with steady state of vC = 2 V . I ( s) 44.

0. =1 C L LC Þ C = 1.iL (0 + )] dt 10 iL (0 + ) = lim sI L ( s) = =0 s ®¥ s+2 VL ( s) = 40 s 40 = s( s + 2) s + 2 s ®¥ sL Z(s) R 1 Cs vL (0 + ) = lim sVL ( s) = s 40 = 40 s+2 Fig.(1 .( -1 + j))( s . K < 2 27. (B) I in ( s) = io( t) = u( t) . thus K = 1 1 R 1 = 1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 18.vC (0 )] æ s(20 s + 6) ö -480 ´ 10 -6 (10 s + 3) = 60 ´ 10 -6 ç ç (10 s + 3)( s + 4) .2 K > 0. (D) vC (0 + ) = lim sVC ( s)= s ®¥ s(20 s + 6) =2 V (10 s + 3)( s + 4) + CdvC iC = dt Þ I C ( s) = C[ sVC ( s) . (B) Z ( s) = 3K Z (0) = =3 2 K ( s + 3) K ( s + 3) = 2 ( s .4 e .j)) s + 2 s + 2 Þ K =2 s s+1 26.e . (D) vC ( ¥) = lim sVC ( s) = lim s ®0 s ®0 aö æ Hç 1 .2 K ) s + 1 = 0.e .2 K ) s + 1 = 0 Þ K <3 (6 . Being real and unequal. (B) The characteristic equation is s 2 ( s 2 + 11s + 30) = 0 Þ s 2 ( s + 6) ( s + 5) =0 s = -6. (A) vL = L d iL Þ VL ( s) = L [ sI L ( s) .48 mA s ®¥ Rö 1æ 1 çs + ÷ Cè Lø sC = 29. (B) Let v1 be the node voltage of middle node V1 ( s) = KV2 ( s) + 2 sV2 ( s) 1 + 2s + s I ( s) 19. (D) o = I in ( s) s 1 + s+1 s+1 = s s+1 Þ ( 3s + 1) V1 ( s) = (2 s + K ) V2 ( s) 2 sV1 ( s) Þ V2 ( s) = 2s + 1 Þ (2 s + 1) V2 ( s) = 2 sV1 ( s) Þ ( 3s + 1)(2 s + 1) = 2 s(2 s + K ) 2 s 2 + (5 . (A) H ( s) = H ( s + a) s+4 20.29 25. it is overdamped.5.com . S1.gatehelp. (A) Vin ( s) = 23. R = 1 30. (B) I in ( s) = 4 I o( s) = 4s 4 =4s+1 s+1 Þ io( t) = 4 d( t) . Page 80 www.8. 5 5 .t ) u( t) 22.480 ´ 10 -6 = . (A) V2 ( s) = KV1 ( s) V1 ( s) V1 ( s) . L = 1. = s2 + 1 s + 1 Vin ( s) s 2s + 6 =2 V s+3 28.t u( t) 1 .j ÷ ç 2 2 ÷ç 2 2 ÷ è øè ø ( sL + R) 24.t u( t) = (1 .÷e .2 ÷ = 10 s 2 + 43s + 12 ÷ è ø iC (0 + ) = lim sI C ( s) = .÷ H ( s + a) Ha 4ø R( s) = = + è s( s + 4) 4s s+4 r ( t) = Ha aö æ u( t) + H ç 1 . .4 t 4 4ø è I o( s) 2 s 2 . s2 1 1 1 I o( s) = = s( s + 1) s s + 1 21. = 1. (D) Z ( s) = R 1 1 s2 + sL + R + + L LC sC K ( s + 1) K ( s + 1) Z ( s) = = 2 ( s + s + 1) æ 1 3 öæ 1 3ö çs + + j ÷ç s + .KV1 ( s) + =0 1 2 4+s+ s 1 4 + s + + 2 .2K = 0 s Þ Þ s2 + ( 6 . I o( s) = 2 .2K ) > 0 Since Z (0) = 1.

it is critically damped. (C) poles and zero does not interlace on axis. (D) is a valid immittance function. (A) s 2 + 8 s + 15 ( s + 3) ( s + 5) = s 2 + 6 s + 8 ( s + 2) ( s + 4) Vs¢( s) = (1 + 2 s) Vs ( s) Vo¢( s) = H ( s) Vs¢( s) = (1 + 2 s) Vs ( s) H ( s) Vo¢( s) = 1 + 2s 3 =2 s+2 s+2 Þ v¢ = 2 d( s) . ( s + 4) 2 = 0. The poles and zeros interlace along the negative real axis. (D) (A) pole lie on positive real axis (B) poles and zero does not interlace on axis. 35. s 41.3e -2 t u( t) o The singularity nearest to origin is a pole. s = -4.com Page 81 . 33. 43.Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. (B) o = = 2 4 Vs ( s) + 2s + 2 s + s + 2 s The roots are imaginary so network is underdamped. 36. So this is RC impedance function. (B) Io s+4 s( s + 4) = = 3 ( s + 1)( s + 3) Is s + 4 + s 39. (A) s 2 + 7 s + 6 ( s + 1)( s + 6) = s+2 ( s + 2) 32. (B) vo = e -2 t u( t) v¢ = vs + s 2 dvs dt Þ Þ Vo( s) = H ( s) Vs ( s) = 1 s+2 The singularity nearest to origin is at zero.gatehelp.4 Being real and repeated root. 40. So it may be RC impedance or RL admittance function. (A) The characteristic equation is ( s + 1) ( s + 3) = 0. Because of (D) option it is required to check that it is a admittance function. . (A) The singularity nearest to origin is a pole. So it may be a RL admittance or RC impedance function. In steady state i= 10 =2 A . (D) Poles and zero does not interlace on negative real axis so it is not a immittance function. (B) The singularity nearest to origin is a pole.e-3t ) u( t) A V ( s) 2 1 34. Being real and unequal root. The residues of YRC ( s) are real and positive. 44. So it may be RL impedance or RC valid RC admittance function. (C) The characteristic equation is s( s 2 + 8 s + 16) = 0. (C) The singularity nearest to origin is a zero. www. v =2 ´ 1 =2 V 4+1 10 2s + 4 + 1 1 1+ s 2 = 5( s + 2) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 I ( s) = V ( s) = 10 1 1+ s 2 1 (2 s + 4) + 1 1+ s 2 = 10 ( s + 2) 2 + 1 V ( s) 2 . (D) s 2 + 10 s + 24 ( s + 4)( s + 6) = s 2 + 8 s + 15 ( s + 3)( s + 5) The singularity near to origin is pole. So it may be RC impedance or RL admittance function.t . 8 1 8 13 Z ( s) = 3 + + =3+ + s s+3 s 1+ s 3 ************** 37. (C) is = 2 u( t) I o ( s) = Þ 2 I s ( s) = s 2( s + 4) 3 1 = ( s + 1)( s + 3) s+1 s+ 3 io = ( 3e.8 31. (C) It is a second order circuit. So it may be RC admittance or RL impedance function. It has one pole at s = -2 = I ( s) s + 2 38. it is overdamped response. 45. 42.

3-4: Consider the circuit shown in Fig. v1 = ? (A) -16 cos 2 t V (C) 4 cos 2 t V 2. then voltage v1 and (B) -2 cos 2 t V (D) -8 cos 2 t V v2 are (A) v1 = -24 sin 4 t V. (C) v1 = 15 sin 4 t V. v2 = ? (A) 2 cos 2 t V (C) 8 cos 2 t V Statement for Q. (C) v1 = -24 cos 3t V. then voltage v1 and v2 are (A) v1 = 24 cos 3t V. P1. the voltage v1 is (A) 24 cos 4 t V (C) 15 cos 4 t V . P19. the voltage v2 is (A) -6 e -2 t V (C) 15 e -2 t V . (B) v1 = 24 sin 4 t V.9 MAGNETICALLY COUPLED CIRCUITS Statement for Q. P1. Fig.5-6 3.5-6: Consider the circuit shown in fig. .9.5-6 i1 2H i2 + 3H v2 - (B) 6 e -2 t V (D) -15 e -2 t V . (B) v1 = 24 cos 3t V. If i1 = e -2 t V and i2 = 0.9.9.1-2 v1 2H 1.gatehelp.5-6 5. If current i1 = 3 cos 4 t A and i2 = 0.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1. v2 = -24 sin 4 t V v2 = -36 sin 4 t V v2 = sin 4 t V v2 = -sin 4 t V 6. P1. www.9. P1. and i2 = 0.9.1-2 i1 = 4 sin 2 t A.3-4 i1 + v1 3H 3H i2 + 4H v2 - (B) 16 cos 2 t V (D) -4 cos 2 t V - Fig. P1. If current i1 = 0 and i2 = 4 sin 3t A. .com v2 = 36 cos 3t V v2 = -36 cos 3t V v2 = 36 cos 3t V v2 = -36 cos 3t V Fig. i1 + v1 2H 1H i2 + 1H v2 + 4.1-2: In the circuit of fig. Page 82 (B) -24 cos 4 t V (D) -15 cos 4 t V . (D) v1 = -24 cos 3t V. If i1 = 0 and i2 = 2 sin 4 t A. . Statement for Q. (D) v1 = -15 sin 4 t V.

9.20 ° ) mA and i2 = 20 cos (500 t . P1.5 cos 3t) V (D) 9( 4 sin 3t + 5 cos 3t) V (B) 9(5 cos 3t .6 Fig. v1 =? (A) 9(5 cos 3t + 3 sin 3t) V (C) 9( 4 cos 3t + 5 sin 3t) V 10.9.3 sin t) V (C) 3( 8 cos 3t + 3 sin 3t) V Statement for Q.3 sin t) V (A) 2 H (C) 6 H 14.3 sin 3t) V (A) 8 H (C) 4 H 15.9. v1 = ? (A) 6( -2 cos t + 3 sin t) V (C) -6(2 cos t + 3 sin t) V 8.gatehelp. P1.9-10: In the circuit shown in fig. the total energy stored in system at t = 0 is i1 + v1 2.20 ° ) mA.5 H k=0.14 9.4 H (C) 1.6 H Leq 1H 1.9.7-8: In the circuit shown in fig.11 if current i1 = 5 cos (500 t . www.14 mJ (C) 249.9 Statement for Q.8 H after series opposing connection (c) 0.9-10 Fig.13 (B) 4 H (D) 8 H 4H v2 - 4H 6H Fig.5 cos 3t) V (B) 9( 4 sin 3t .9.2 H (B) 2 H (D) 6 H i2 + 16. P1.4 H v2 - inductor in various configuration are (a) 7 H after series adding connection (b) 1.44 mJ (B) 45.12 (A) 4 H (C) 7 H (B) 6 H (D) 0 H Fig.9. i1 = 3 cos 3t A and i2 = 4 sin 3t A.Magnetically Coupled Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. P1. Leq = ? 3.11 (A) 151.24 mJ (D) 143.com Fig.3 sin 3t) V (D) 9(5 cos 3t . Leq = ? 4H Leq Fig.15 (A) 0. The equivalent inductance of a pair of a coupled 0. v2 = ? (A) 3( 8 cos 3t . In the circuit shown in fig. P1.7-8 7. P1.46 mJ Page 83 .9.9. i1 + v1 2H 1H i2 + 2H v2 - 12. v2 = ? (A) 9( -4 sin 3t + 5 cos 3t) V (C) 9( -4 sin 3t . P1.5 H after parallel connection with dotted terminal connected together. P1. i1 = 5 sin 3t A and i2 = 3 cos 3t A i1 + v1 3H 3H i2 + (B) 6( 2 cos t + 3 sin t) V (D) 6(2 cos t . P1. Leq = ? (B) 6 H (D) 2 H 2H Leq 4H 2H 11. P1.9.9-10.9.3 sin t) V 13.7-8.4 H Fig. Leq = ? 4H Leq 2H 2H (B) 6(2 cos t + 3 sin t) V (D) 6(2 cos t .

6 H.875 H 7.4375 H 2.75 H 0.6 H 0.17 (B) 2 H (D) 4 H (C) 3 H 21.9.9.20 (A) 1 H Fig. Leq = ? (A) 0. 0.4 H 18. P1. The voltage vCG of terminal CD is (A) 30 V (C) -36 V (B) 0 V (D) 36 V Page 84 www.9. 1.9.2 H (C) 3. P1.22-24: 19. P1. P1. Leq = ? 1H 1H Leq 2H 2H 3H (B) 1.9. The voltage V AG of terminal AD is (A) 60 V (C) 180 V (B) -60 V (D) 240 V Fig.22–24. 3 H.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks The value of L1 .75 H 2.7 H.375 H 7. P1.4 H (D) 2 H.6 H (iv) 0. 1.6 H 6.375 H (iii) 0. In the network of fig. 1.9.7 H.6 H 6. Leq = ? 3H Leq (B) 1 H (D) 2 H 4H Leq 3H 2H 3H 2H 5H 3H Fig. 1.19 The correct match for equivalent induction seen at terminal a . 3 H.21 Fig.gatehelp.19 following terminal are connected together (i) none (iii) B to C a 2H 3H 5H 1H b C Consider the circuit shown in fig.4375 H 23.18 41 (A) H 5 (C) 51 H 5 (B) (D) 49 H 5 39 H 5 (A) 1 H (C) 3 H (B) 2 H (D) 4 H Statement for Q.6 H.22–24 22. P1.9.3 H 17. 3 H Leq 4H 2H Fig.com .2 H (C) 0. P1. P1. A (ii) A to B (iv) A to C 2H A 6t A 20 H 5H 4H B 3H 15t A B 4H 6H C D Fig.9. L2 and M are (A) 3 H.875 H 0. Leq = ? 2H 20.b is (i) (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 H 13 H 13 H 1 H (ii) 0. The voltage vBG of terminal BD is (A) 45 V (C) 69 V (B) 33 V (D) 105 V 24.

5 40.89. P1.33 rad s.38 (A) 100 mF (C) 50 mF (B) 75 mF (D) 25 mF (A) 8 W (C) 625 kW (B) 1. The Thevenin equivalent at terminal ab for the network shown in fig. P1.09 H 40 W 38.9.33 (A) 1 F (C) 1 3 (B) (D) 1 2 1 6 F F (A) 250 W (C) 150 W (B) 200 W (D) 100 W F 34.65 A rms (C) 0. P1.33 mF (D) 33. 10 W (A) 1.33 mF (C) 0. I 2 = ? 25 W 3 : 1 (B) 5. 0. The value of C is C 20 W k=0.9.37 the maximum power delivered to RL is 10 W 1 : 4 2H 2H 100 Vrms ~ Fig. P1.36 (A) 6 V.5 39.47 (A) 3. 6 36.33 the w = 2 rad s.04V2 V1 - Fig.38 is 300 W I1 + 50 Vrms 5 : 1 I2 + 8W V2 - vin ~ 0.33 mF (B) 33. the voltage gain is zero at w = 333.35 at w = 333. P1.39 the ideal source supplies 1000 W.gatehelp. P1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 33.18 A rms (D) 5. P1. The value of C is 20 W 0.9. P1.35 (A) 6.25 kW (D) 2.27 H 2F C + vout - ~ -0. In the circuit of fig. In the circuit of fig. 4 W (B) 6 V.89 (D) 0. P1. P1. half of which is delivered to the 100 W load.27 H 20 W vout - 25 W 1 : b vin ~ 100 Vrms ~ Fig.66 A rms (B) 0.9.9.36 is a 1 : 4 I2 2W 4 : 3 60 W 50 Vrms ~ Fig. P1. P1. P1.9.9. The average power delivered to the 8 W load in the circuit of fig.39 100 W Fig.12 H 0.90 A rms Page 86 www.40 3W 20 W Ix b 20Ix Fig.9.9. 4 W (D) 0 V.33 mF (C) 3. In the circuit of fig.50 kW 35.9. the voltage gain vout vin is zero. The resonance occurs when C is C 2H Zin 4W 37.47.34 Fig.9. In the circuit of fig. 10 W (C) 0 V. P1.com .33 rad s.9.9. The value of a and b are 4W 1 : a 40 W + 0. P1.34.9. 0.9.37 RL Fig.12 H 0. In the circuit of fig.

31 V (C) -9.8) 2 + 0.9. The power being dissipated in 400 W resistor is 1W 1 : 2 4W 1 : 5 10 Vrms ~ 48 W 400 W di1 di di .2 2 = . M = 0.31 V (D) 9. (A) v2 = 2 j6 100Ð0 V o ~ Ix di2 di +1 1 dt dt -j4 = 24 cos 3t .4 ° A (D) 179 Ð43. i1 = 4 cos ( -20 ° ) = 4.44 (A) 46. (A) v1 = 2 di1 di +1 2 dt dt Fig. (B) v1 = 2 + 10 W V2 - di1 di di + 1 2 = 2 1 = 16 cos 2 t V dt dt dt di2 di di + (1) 1 = 1 = 8 cos 2 t V dt dt dt 80 Vrms ~ Fig.6 W = 1 1 (2.3 mJ 12. Z in = ? j16 6W 1 : 5 (B) 2.9 41. = 45 cos 3t + 27 sin 3t = 9 (5 cos 3t + 3 sin 3t) V 10.1 + j0. (A) v1 = 3 di1 di -3 2 dt dt Fig.68 Ð43.38 W ******************** = 151.3 1 = . P1.96 W (D) 615.7)(18.3 2 = .6 W (B) 432.3 2 = .Magnetically Coupled Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.9.3 + j 6. (D) v2 = -4 di2 di +3 1 dt dt 24 W 4 : 1 6W = 36 sin 3t + 45 cos 3t = 9 ( 4 sin 3t + 5 cos 3t) V 11. (D) v1 = 2 7.42 (A) 3 W (C) 9 W 43.7) 2 + (0. I x = ? 8W (B) 6 W (D) 12 W 10 W 2 : 1 = -18 sin t + 12 cos t = 6 (2 cos t .7 mA i2 = 20 cos ( -20 ° ) = 18.3 1 = 6 e -2 t V dt dt dt 42. (B) v1 = 3 (A) -12.24 cos 3t V dt dt dt di di di v2 = 3 2 + 2 1 = -3 2 = -36 cos 3t V dt dt dt 6. (C) Leq = L1 + L2 + 2 M = 7 H www.4)(18.2 2 = 2 1 = -24 sin 4 t V dt dt dt di2 di1 di1 v2 = -3 +2 =2 = -24 sin 4 t V dt dt dt 5.3 sin t) V 8.4 = 0.9.8 mA .8 W (C) 10. P1.8) 2 2 Fig. (A) W = -j10 Zin 1 1 2 L1 i12 + L2 i2 + Mi1 i2 2 2 At t = 0.3 sin 3t) V 9.com Page 87 .6( 4. V2 = ? 50 W 40 W 5 : 2 SOLUTIONS 1.24 cos 4 t V dt dt dt di di2 di .6 2. (C) v2 = (1) 3. P1. (C) 1.43 (A) 1921Ð57.4 ° A .5)( 4. (C) v2 = 4 di1 di di .2 2 = . P1.4 + j0.231 V (B) 12.9 sin 3t = 3 ( 8 cos 3t .9.gatehelp. (A) v1 = 2 di1 di di .6 ° A 44.931Ð59.6 ° A .231 V 4.8 + j9.5 ´ 0.41 2.

26. (A) Leq = L1 + L2 .j0.0064.064 = 4 Ð . Vx = -2 I1 = 2.5.56.9 Ð37.Vx + 3Ð-90o A 2W 21.179. (B) 30 Ð30 ° = I ( .16 = =4 H L1 + L2 . (A) [ j(100 p) (2) + 10 ]I 2 + j(100 p)(0.19 20. M = 1.6 = 26. S. (B) vBG = 3 d(15 t) d 6( t) d ( 6 t) +4 -6 = 33 V dt dt dt d( 6 t) = -36 V dt w2 M 2 Z 22 2 15.j 4 + 10) Fig.4. (A) Þ 2H -1 H 3H 5H 2H I 2 = -0. S1. L1 = 37.9. (B) Leq = L1 19. Page 88 www.9 + j112 = 311Ð2112 ° V .9.j0. (C) L1 + L2 + 2 M = 7.8 Þ L1 + L2 = 4.=2 H L2 2 M 9 =5 .45 .gatehelp.2)(10)(2 Ð0) . V2 = V3 3sI 2 + 3sI1 = 2 sI 3 + 2 sI1 Þ Þ Þ 3I 2 + I1 = 2 I 3 4 I1 I 2 = . (B) Let I1 be the current through 4 H inductor and I 2 and I 3 be the current through 3 H.59.2 M 6 + 4 .j 4 + 10) = (2.1.j0.8 L1 + L2 . (D) VL1 = 1sI + 1sI = 2 sI VL 2 = 2 sI + 1sI .29 V = 4 sI1 + 3sI 2 + 2 sI 3 + 3sI 2 + 3s I1 6s 2 ´ 4s = 7 sI1 + I1 + I3 5 5 49 49 H V = sI1 .59 = 9 . L2 = 0.4 .4 2 . (A) Leq = 24. .2 M L1 L2 = 2. (D) Leq = L1 M 4 = 4 .7 ° V 29.77 + j 115 W . = 9.4 H L1 + L2 + 2 M 6 + 4 22.14 = 32.179.j 4 + j12 .8)10(12 Ð0) .1° ) V 28.M 2 = 0.6 + j21. VL 3 = 3sI .8 L1 L2 .com .5 ´ 1.57 .L2 ) 2 = 4. (C) Leq = L1 L2 .64 Ð66.043 (10 + j 6) Vo = I ( j12 .j 3 ( j 4 + 2) I 2 .7 17.j 6 + j 8 . L1 .jI1 = -12 Ð30 ° V I1 = -1. L1 L2 .2 ´ 2 = 2 H 14.2 M = 1. (B) Z = Z11 + æ1ö (50) 2 ç ÷ æ 1 ö è5 ø = 4 + j (50) ç ÷+ è 10 ø 5 + j (50) 1 2 = 4. (C) v AG = 20 d( 6 t) d(15 t) +4 = 180 V dt dt 23. L1 + L2 . Vo = 10 I 2 = -4 .4 ´ 2. (A) -j 2W .j + 2 + j 4) I1 .32 = 0. (C) vCG = -6 16.2 sI = sI VL = VL1 + VL 2 + VL 3 = 4 sI Þ Leq = 4 H Þ I= 30 Ð30 ° = 2.57 .=2 H L2 3 2 2 25. (B) Vs = j (0. +[ 3 + j(0.3 L1 L2 . Leq = 5 5 ( .L2 = 3.2 M = 4 + 2 .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 13.M 2 8 -4 = = 0.5)(10)] (12 Ð0 + 2 Ð0) .1° Þ vo = 4 cos (100 pt .j0.j (0. .2 sI = sI . and 2 H inductor respectively I1 = I 2 + I 3 .1.jI 2 = .067 + j20.M 2 24 .4) (2 Ð0) = 0 18.043)(10 + 8 j) = 26.04 ° V 27.j0. I 3 = I1 5 5 4I2 = I3 ~ I1 j4 j j4 I2 ~ 12Ð30 V o Fig. ( L1 .

36 V1 = - jI1 + j 4 I1 + j2 2 I 2 2C . S.27 (10.gatehelp.25 A 1 RTH = =4W . V1 = 5 V2 8 5 40 Page 89 .j 2C 2C Þ 1 6 3j = 0.M 2 L1 .j 6)(0. S.k2 ) 0.5 2 ) .j2 C = 0 C= I in = I x + I1 = I x + 4 I 2 = 0.05 A.30 Fig.18 H + 2F Vout - j18 j20 j10 ~ 0.j .j 6)| Z o) |( (12) 2 Z o = j20 + = 0.j 6) = 10 + j 8 + j14 + j10 + 2 .35 32.09 H -j3 1000C j30 Fig. P1.9.9.M L2 .Magnetically Coupled Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. (D) M = k L1 L2 .M Fig.34 Z eq ( j14) ( j10 + 2 .05 2 V1 .35 M L1L2 .9. (B) I 2 = www.1. VTH = 0 I in 37. (C) Applying 1 V test source at ab terminal. S1.52 + j15. (A) j 30 - V2 I V . V2 = 4 V . 31. S1. Z o = 10 W æ 100 ö PLmax = ç ÷ ´ 10 = 250 W è 10 + 10 ø 38.M 2 = 112 + j112 W . 60 W 1 : 4 ~ I1 j4 j4 I2 4W 1V 20 W Ix 20Ix Fig.7 ( j 30 + j5 .9.7) = 0.27 w2 36. = = 0.33 Fig.20 .52 + j15.27 0. I1 = 2 = 2 . (D) -j 2C j2 2 V1 1 = 33. (C) Z in = ( .27 w Output is zero if (250 ´ 10 3)2 ´ 160 ´ 10 -12 2 + j10 + j ´ 250 ´ 10 3 ´ 80 ´ 10 -6 = j250 ´ 10 3 ´ 2 ´ 10 -6 + C= Z in = 0.com 2 Im ( Z in ) = 0 Þ 34.1. .03 H Vin 0. (D) j10 j8 j10 0. 20 Þ I 2 = 0.17 W 33.52 + j15.05 A 4 = 60 I 2 + 20 ´ 0. Z in = jwL1 + w2 M 2 Z L + jwL2 L1 L2 . S1.7) M 2 = 160 ´ 10 -12 L 1L2 . C = 100 mF 1000 C . (D) The p equivalent circuit of coupled coil is shown in fig. I x = 1 = 0.12 ´ 0.j + j8C + 2C .j + j 8 C + 2 C .j2 + 4) Z in = ( . (A) Impedance seen by RL = 10 ´ 4 2 = 160 W For maximum power RL = 160 W.j9.7 W ( .M M L2 2 L1 L1L2 .j 2 I1 2 (1 + j) 0 = ( 4 + 4 j) I 2 + j2 2 I1 Þ I2 = Vab = 1 V.j 6 + 0.9.02 + j0.j + j 8 C .9 20 W 40 W 30.9.5 k -j + jCw = 0 0.M 2 = M L1 L2 (1 .33 mF 0.j 6 35.j2 C = + j4 + = 1+ j I1 2 C 2C Z in = .

ú 2 ú 3ú 2û é ê (A) ê ê ë 21 16 1 8 1 ù 8 ú ú 7 ú 12 û 1ù 8ú ú 7 ú 12 û é ê (B) ê ê ë é ê (D) ê ê ë 7 9 1 6 7 9 1 3 1ù 6ú ú 7ú 4û 1ù 3ú ú 7ú 4û Page 91 é 21 ê (C) ê 16 ê.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.1 ë 3 é8 ê (D) ê 3 ê1 ë3 1ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û 1ù .1-4: The circuit is given in fig. [ T ] = ? é17 ù 8ú (A) ê 3 ê ú 3 û ë2 é 17 ù . [ y ] = ? 1ù é3 ê8 8ú (A) ê ú 1 17 ú ê ë8 24 û é17 ê (C) ê 6 ê1 ë2 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û 2W 3W V2 - é 3 ê (B) ê 8 ê.ú 3 ú 2ú 3û Fig.10.1 ë 8 é 17 ê (D) ê 6 ê. P.1.com .1–4 I1 + V1 1W 3W 2W 2W I2 + V2 - 3.10.17 ë 6 é 17 ê(C) ê 6 ê-1 ë 6 - 3ù 2ú ú 1ú 2û 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û é1 ê (B) ê 2 ê17 ë6 é17 ê (D) ê 6 ê1 ë6 3ù 2ú ú 1ú 2û 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û 4.gatehelp.10. P.8ú ú . [ z ] = ? é 1 ê(A) ê 2 ê.5 1ù .1 ë 8 - 1ù 8ú ú 17 ú 24 û - Fig.1.1 ë 8 www.1.1–4 1.8ú ú 3û ù .10 TWO PORT NETWORK Statement for Q.8ú (C) ê 3 ê ú ë 2 . [ z ] = ? I1 + V1 1W é 17 (B) ê 3 ê ë-2 é17 (D) ê 3 ê ë 2 ù . P.3û - 2W 2W I2 + 2. [ h] = ? 3ù é6 ê17 17 ú (A) ê ú 24 ú ê3 ë17 17 û é 6 ê (C) ê 17 ê.3û 5.3 ë 17 3ù 17 ú ú 24 ú 17 û é 8 ê (B) ê 3 ê.

[ T ] = ? é 2. [ z ] = ? I1 é 1 ê(D) ê 4 ê 1 ë 2 3ù 4ú ú 1ú 2û Statement for Q.6 Fig. P.4 ù (C) ê ú ë 4 -2 û 9.13 7 4 1 2 10 19 6 19 1ù . 2 (A) ê ë 0. + V1 1W 2W I 2 = .7-10: 2W 2V1 I2 + A two port is described by V1 = I1 + 2 V2 .1.4ú û 2ù 0.4 ú û é 11 5 ù (B) ê ú ë 5 2. 2 .5 û é-2 4.com 2W 2V1 1W V2 - Fig. [ h] = ? é3 (A) ê ë4 é 1 (C) ê ë-2 10.0.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 6.1. [ y ] = ? I1 + V1 2W 1W I1 1W I2 + V2 - Fig.2 ë 41 é 19 ê (D) ê 41 ê.4 ú û Fig. P.4 û .5 ú û -2ù 0.5 -2 ù 4.5 û -2 ù é 1 (D) ê ú ë-2 .ú 2 ú 1ú û ù 1ú é 1 (B) ê ë-2 é 11 (D) ê ë. P. [ y ] = ? I1 + V1 2W 1W 1W 2W 3W I2 + V2 - 11.2 I1 + 0.5 û é 1 (D) ê ë-2 2ù 0. [ y ] = ? I1 + V1 - 2ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û 2ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û é ê (B) ê ê ë é ê (D) ê ê ë 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1ù .ú 4 ú 5ú 4û 2 ù 19 ú ú 14 ú 19 û é ê (B) ê ê ë é ê (D) ê ê ë 7 4 3 4 6 19 10 19 - 1ù 4ú ú 5ú 4û 14 ù 19 ú ú 2 ú 19 û 0.10.5 ù (B) ê ú ë 0.1.4 V2 7.1 ë 4 12.10.0.4 ú û é 4 (B) ê ë-2 é 11 (D) ê ë 5 -2 ù 4. [ z ] = ? é 11 (A) ê ë-5 é1 (C) ê ë5 8. P. 2 é 1 (C) ê ë-2 Page 92 - V2 - -5 ù 2.5 ù 0.1. 2 .2 ë 3 é 2 ê(C) ê 3 ê 4 ë 3 13.0.6ù .12 é 4 ê (A) ê 3 ê.4 ú û 5ù 2.11 é 11 ê (A) ê 41 ê2 ë 41 é19 ê (C) ê 41 ê2 ë 41 2 ù 41 ú ú 19 ú 41 û 2 ù 41 ú ú 11 ú 41 û é 11 ê (B) ê 41 ê.10. [ y ] = ? é11 5 ù (A) ê ú ë 5 2.4 ú û -5 ù 2.2 ë 41 2 ù 41 ú ú 19 ú 41 û 2 ù 41 ú ú 11 ú 41 û é ê (A) ê ê ë 1 2 3 2 ù 1ú ú -1ú û 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 4û é ê (B) ê ê ë 3 2 1 2 ù -1ú ú 1ú û é 1 ê (C) ê 2 ê.5 ú û ú 1 .4 ú û é 2.ú 2û 2W 2W I2 + .5 ú û é ê (A) ê ê ë é ê (C) ê ê ë www.10.5 ú û 2ù 0.gatehelp.

2ú (C) ê ú 1ú ê2 ë 2û www.35 -1 ú ë û é 0.2 û 1ù é 2 ê.16 1ù é-1 (A) ê ú ë-1 .1.gatehelp.19 Fig.3. [ z ] = ? I1 + V1 - 3ù 3ú û 3ù 2ú û é-3 (B) ê ë 3 é 3 (D) ê ë-3 .1 ù (A) ê ú ë 2 .10.1 ú ë 3 3û é 1 .ú 2û 3ù é ê 4 .Two Port Networks GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.2ù 3ú û 3ù -2ú û é3 (A) ê ê6 ë é ê (C) ê ê ë I2 + 2ù 1ú ú 7û ù 1ú ú 3ú û é 6 (B) ê ê ë3 é ê (D) ê ê ë 1 2 7 4 1ù 7ú ú 2û ù 3ú ú 1ú û 7 4 1 2 2W 2V1 18.15 é2 (A) ê 3 ê ë2 é 2 (C) ê ê ë2 2ù ú 2ú û 3ù 2ú ú 2û é -2 (B) ê ê ë 2 3ù 2ú ú -2 û Fig.1ú ë 3 3û é ê 4 (A) ê ê-2 ë 3ù 2ú ú 1ú 2û é ê-2 (B) ê ê 4 ë é ê2 (D) ê ê4 ë 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û 1ù 2ú ú 3 .1.3 .14 é2 (A) ê ë3 é3 (C) ê ë3 15.33û é 2 (C) ê ë0.35 19.10. [ T ] = ? I1 + V1 1V 10 2 4W 4W 1V 5 1 I2 + V2 - 2W 3V 2 2 2W 3 V2 - Fig.2û 1ù é 2 ê.35 .18 é 0.10 14.33ù é 2 (B) ê 0.1.1.1.1ù (B) ê ú ë 1 . [ z ] = ? 4V3 17.3 3ú (C) ê ú ê. P.35 (D) ê ë 2 1 ù 3. P.10.17 Fig. P. P. P. [ z ] = ? I1 + I1 I2 2W 2I2 1W + V3 1W + V2 V1 2W 2W V2 2W I1 2W I2 + + V1 Fig.3 ú (D) ê ú ê 1 .3. [ y ] = ? I1 + 3W V1 V2 V2 2W 1W I2 + I1 + V1 - V2 2W I2 + 1 2 I2 4W V2 - Fig.33ú û é 2 -2 ù ú (D) ê 3 ê2ú ë 2 û 16.1.33ù 1 ú û . P. [ h] = ? 3.1.1 .com Page 93 .10.10.

1.ú é 2 .gatehelp.10. P. [ ya ] = ê ú mS ë0 10 û 60 W 32.Two Port Networks GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.Yab ú û z –parameter for the cascaded network is 1ù é 5 .Yab éY .2 8. [ y ] = ? Yab éZ .10. [ y ] = ? I1(s) + 2F I2(s) + 1W 3 2F 2V1(s) 1W 4 V2(s) - [ ya] Vs 100 W + Vo 300 W V1(s) 2F Fig.28 é6 (A) ê ë2 é5 (C) ê ë2 4ù S 3ú û 4ù S 2ú û é6 (B) ê ë0 é4 (D) ê ë2 2ù S 3ú û 4ù S 1ú û é 19 ê (A) ê 10 ê.1.31 Fig.10 Z ab ù éZ + Z ab (A) ê a Z b + Z ab ú ë Z ab û éZ + Z ab (C) ê a ë .1.2ù ê 3 3 ú (A) ê 1 (B) ê ú 1 2ú ê1ú êë 2 û ë 3 3û é ê (C) ê ê ë 5 3 1 3 1ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û é2 (D) ê 1 ê ë2 2ù ú 1ú û 28.10.Yab ú û .27 éY + Yab (A) ê a ë .Zb ú û (A) (C) The value of 3 32 2 33 Vo is Vs (B) (D) 1 16 1 17 ù Z b + Z ab ú û .com Page 95 .Z a (D) ê ab ë Z ab ù Z b .10.7 ë 10 é ê (D) ê ê ë 19 10 7 10 -7 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û 7 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û é2 0 ù 29.Ya ú û éY .Z ab (B) ê a ë Z ab éZ . the Fig.9 ë 10 é ê (C) ê ê ë 19 10 9 10 -9 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û 9 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û é 19 ê (B) ê 10 ê. The y-parameters of a 2-port network are é5 [ y] = ê ë1 3ù S 2ú û 31.1. P. [ y ] = ? 2W 1W A resistor of 1 ohm is connected across as shown in fig. For the 2-port of fig. P.Z ab 30. P.Ya (C) ê ab ë Yab .1.Yab (D) ê a ë . The new y –parameter would be 1W 1W 2W 1W 1W 2 [ y] = 5 3 1 2 Fig. 1ú û If such two 2-port network are cascaded.1. The T-parameters of a 2-port network are Yb Ya é2 [T ] = ê ë1 1ù . P.Yab ù Yb + Yab ú û Yab ù Yab .10.1.29.Z ab ú û Z ab Z ab Z ab ù .Yab (B) ê a ë Yab éY .Yab ù Yb .32 Fig. P.10.10.Yab Yab ù Yb . P.29 www.Z ab 27.

The impedance parameters are é 20 [z ] = ê ë 40 25 W resistor is (A) 80 V.39 35.4 W (B) 160 V. V1 .10. 114.2 sù (C) ê ú ë-2 s .2 s ù (D) ê ú ë.com . P.gatehelp.2 .2s ù 4s + 4ú û 37.1.34 + 100 V V1 [ y] = 10 -5 mS 50 20 + V2 100 W (A) 0. P.10.10. 6. 68. In the circuit shown in fig. P.10. if transmission parameters A = 3 and B = 1 W.6 V. h21 = ? I1 + V1 R R é 3s + 3 .10.6 V 40. the value of parameter C is (A) 3 (C) 8 W (B) 8 S (D) 9 (A) -68. the short circuit current flowing through at port 1 will be Vs V1 - Fig.1.3 V.68. Z in = ? Zin 1 kW + I1 I2 + [ y] = 4 -0. P.3 W (C) 153. A 2-port resistive network satisfy the condition 3 4 A = D = B = C.6 V. The z11 of the network is 2 3 4 3 (A) (B) 3 4 2 (C) 3 3 (D) 2 The Thevenin equivalent circuit presented to the Page 96 www. P.3 V (D) -114. when the voltage V1 is 10 V. . For a 2-port symmetrical bilateral network.33 (A) (C) - 3 2 1 2 (B) (D) 1 2 3 2 38. If the applied voltage at port-2 is 100 V.1 A (C) 10 A (B) 1 A (D) 100 A Fig.3 V.8 W 39.1. the current I is 1 A.8 W (C) 100 V.3 W (D) 94.3 V .10.1.37 (A) 2 (C) 1 (B) -2 (D) -1 Fig.8 W (D) 120 V.2 4 s + 4 û R I2 + V2 - - Fig.1 mS 50 1 V2 1 kW 34. V2 = ? 25 W V1 Fig. 6.1.114. The circuit shown in fig.2 s . P.10.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks és+3 (A) ê ë2 s + 2 2 sù 4 ú û é s+3 (B) ê ë-2 s .34.37 is reciprocal if a is I1 + 2W V1 V2 aI1 0. 2.38 (A) 86. and terminated in a 25 W resistor.5V1 1W I2 + é s + 3 . (C) 114. A 2-port network is driven by a source Vs = 100 V in series with 5 W. P.4 W 2ù W 10 ú û 36.6 V (B) 68.1. 2.4 W Linear Resistive Network I (B) 64.2 4 û 33.1.

(ii) V2 = 3sI 2 + 2 sI1 25..(ii) .23b I1 = 0. I1 = 3V2 . S1.(ii) .10 é ê [z ] = ê ê ë 7 4 1 2 ù 1ú ú 3ú û Z ¢ = n2 4 = 36 R I1=0 + + V1 4W V’2 1 : 3 Z’R I2 + V’1 9W V2 18.. V2 = 100 I1 + 200 I 2 Vs = 60 I1 + V1 = 660 I1 + 100 I 2 .I 2 V2 = ( 36 | 9) I 2 = 7.(i) .(i) Fig..(ii) V2 = ( Z a + Z ab ) I 2 + Z ab I1 = Z ab I1 + ( Z a + Z ab ) I 2 27.(i) ... 10 V2 = 4( I 2 + I 3) Þ I 3 = 0..3.2 I 2 | z12 = z 21 = 2.25 V2 .V2 Yab . 3ú û V2 = 2 I 2 + 2 s I 2 + sI1 23.V2 I V V = -I1 + 2 + 1 . I1 æ4 ö V2 = V2¢ = nV1¢ = 3ç I1 ÷ è5 ø 1ù 1ú û é2 ê1 ë 1ù é5 = 1 ú ê3 û ë 3ù 2ú û V1 = 5 V2 . (A) I1 = ( V1 .2 I 2 Page 99 .3I 2 . (A) V2 = 4ç I 2 + I1 ..1ù 1ú û 3ù é 1 .4 I 2 Þ V1 = 2 V2 ..4 Þ z 22 = V1 = 4 I1 .V2 ) Þ I1 = (2 + j2) V1 .V1 ) = (1 ...3sI1 + 3sI1 + 2 sI 2 Þ V1 = 6 sI1 + 2 sI 2 Þ V2 = 2 sI1 + 3sI 2 I1 = (0) V2 + 5( -I 2 ) . 5 .2 V1 + V2 . (C) V1 = V2 + 0( -I 2 ).(ii) é5 New y-parameter = ê ë1 2ù . (A) [ z a ] = ê =ê 100 ú 0 10 mS ú ë 0 û ë û é5000 [z ] = ê ë 0 0 ù é100 + 100 ú ê100 û ë 100 ù é600 = 100 ú ê100 û ë 100 ù 200 ú û ZR 1 : 3 I2=0 + + V’2 9 W V2 + V1 = 600 I1 + 100 I 2 .23a V1 = ( 4| 1) I1 = | 4 I1 5 Þ z11 = Þ V1 = 0. (D) Let I 3 be the clockwise loop current in center loop I1 = Þ V2 + I 3..10. S1.. V2 = Vo = -300 I 2 2 V Vo = 100 I1 .. 12 V1 = 4(0.35 V2 .I 2 .4....4 V2 .o Þ V5 32 3 é2 30. (D) I1 = 2 V1 + jV1 + j( V1 .(i) ...I 2 ) + V2 = 2.(ii) 21.Two Port Networks GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.Vo Þ I1 = o 60 3 Vo 3 V = Vs = 11Vo ..V2 3 3 + = V1 . (B) V1 = .V2 1 2 2 2 V V ..(ii) I 2 = ( V2 .8 I1 z 21 = V2 = 2.(i) 26.2 ÷Þ I 2 = -2 I1 + V2 2 ø 2 è ( V .0. (C) [ TN ] = ê ë1 www.jV2 V2 + V1 + j( V2 . (B) I1 = -V2 + V1 V1 .(i) .j) V1 + (1 + j) V2 I2 = 1 I1 æ1 ö + sI1 + sI 2 = ç + s ÷I1 + sI 2 s ès ø Þ V2 = sI1 + (2 + 2 s) I 2 28.(ii) V2 = 7. I2 24.V2 I1 = 2 + 1 2 2 4 2 3 Þ V1 = 4 I1 + V2 2 20..(i) .1 ù é6 + = ê 2 ú ê-1 1ú û ë û ë0 -1 22.V2 ) Yab + V1 Ya Þ I1 = V1 ( Ya + Yab ) . (C) V1 = 3sI1 + 3sI1 . (D) Z R = 9 9 = =1 n2 9 I1 0 ù é5000 0 ù é2 mS 29....35 V2 ....V1 ) Yab + V2 Yb = -V1 Yab + V2 ( Yb + Yab ) ..V2 ) .2.com V1 4W V’1 - Fig. (A) V1 = ( Z a + Z ab ) I1 + Z ab I 2 ..V1 3 3 I 2 = 2 V1 + 2 + 2 = V1 + V2 1 2 2 2 ..gatehelp.33I 2 I ö 1 æ 19.10.. (B) y-parameter of 1 W resistor network are é 1 ê-1 ë ...(i) .

.8 W 41..2 4 sû ë 2F 39.10.10.ú 2 ú 5ú 2û Þ V1 = ( 6 + 2 a) I1 + 4 I 2 Þ Þ V2 = (2 + a) I1 + 2 I 2 a =2 .1...5 V1 + I1 + 2( I1 + I 2 ) + aI1 Fig.C = 1.1. (B) For symmetrical network A = D = 3 For bilateral AD . V2 = -100 I 2 Fig.V2 ..1 ´ 10 -3 V2 I 2 = 50 ´ 10 -3 V1 + 10 -3 V2 . (B) 100 = 5 I1 + V1 . V2 = -10 3 I 2 -10 -3 V2 = 50 ´ 10 -3 V1 + 10 -3 V2 . 9 .V1 = 0. -I 2 = V2 = 0 42. (A) V2 = z 21 I1 + z 22 I 2 .2 ÷ ç Z ÷ è L ø V2 ( Z L + z 22 ) = z 21 Z L I1 . I 2 = -V2 YL y21 V1 + ( y22 + YL ) V2 = 0 . V2 = 40 I1 + 10 I 2 Fig. 25 V1 .5 . [ ya ] = ê 1 2û 3ú êê. (D) [ ya ] = ê ë-2 s 38.2 V2 Þ 3V2 + 5 V1 = 0 V2 = -114. C=8 S 31.8 I1 6..(i) . V2 z 21 = V1 z11 é 3s + 3 [ y ] = [ ya ] = [ yb ] = ê ë-2 s .(ii) I 2 = 50 ´ 10 V1 + 20 ´ 10 V2 .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 3V1 .(ii) V2 = 2( I1 + I 2 ) + aI1 z12 = z 21 .gatehelp.1 10 V2 z Z = 21 L I1 z 22 + Z L ********** Page 100 www. [ yb ] = ê . (B) 2W 1W 2W 36.2s ù 4s + 4ú û I 1 I1 R . æ V ö V2 = z 21 I1 + z 22 ç .y21 = V1 ( y22 + yL ) V2 = -Z L I 2 R 43.. S. S.3 V. (C) I2 V1 = y21 = V2 = 0 1 = 0.6 V. 2 =2 R + R I1 R I2 ..32b VTH = 160 V.10. 100 = 25 I1 + V1 100 .33 34.(i) . V1 10 3 = = 153. S.. S. (B) V1 = z11 I1 .2s ù é 3 ú . [ yb ] = ê ú . V2 = -25 V1 10 3 I1 = 4 V1 + 2.(ii) Interchanging the port I¢ 2 ¢ = 0. Þ 800 .1.(i) .10..BC = 1. I 2 = 100 ´ 0. 4 = 2 + a For reciprocal network é 19 ê [ y ] = [ ya ] + [ yb ] = ê 10 ê. 40.com .5 V2 = -34 I 2 Þ 1W 3 2V1 1W 4 V1 = 20 I1 + 2 I 2 V2 = 160 + 6. Fig.1. RTH = 6..1 ë 5 ë 2 5û 7 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û 0ù 4ú û 1ù . (B) I 2 = y21 V1 + y22 V2 .32a V2 = -5 V1 .5 ´ 10 -3 V2 .0.2 33.5 V1 . (C) I1 = 4 ´ 10 3 V1 .125 V2 -3 -3 2F 2F Þ 800 = 10 V1 ..1 = 10 V1¢ 35. (A) z11 = 1W 1W 1W 2 A 4 = C 3 37.31a & b é3 [ za ] = ê ë1 1ù é 2 é 3 ê 5 .5ú ê 2 1ù ú . (B) I1 = 10 ´ 10 -3 V1 .5 I1 = I 2 V2 = 1 2 I1 + I 2 3 3 Þ V1 = 5 1 I1 + I 2 3 3 . (A) V1 = 0. V2 .1. V2 = z 21 I1 . (C) h21 = I2 I1 I1 + V1 R .7 ë 10 é 3s 32.8 I 2 100 = 25 I1 + 2 I 2 . From (i) and (ii) V1 = 68.0.

28 W 11. 25 mF. The resonant frequency wo = 106 rad s and bandwidth is BW = 10 3 rad/s.11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE Statement for Q. 10 W (C) 100 pF. P1.7 (B) 90. 10 MW (B) 100 pF. 1. The value of capacitor is (A) 6 mF (C) 2 nF 2.3 mH (C) 0. The quality factor at resonance is (A) 100 (C) 70.1 mF (D) 14.7 mH (B) 25 mH (D) 50 mH (A) 3200 V (C) -3 V www.16 mH 3. A parallel circuit has R = 1 kW . The required R for the BW 15. The maximum voltage across capacitor would be 0.14 mF (B) 56. The value of C is (A) 2 mF (C) 10 mF (B) 28.1 W (C) 15.gatehelp.11 (B) 3 V (D) 1600 V Page 101 .2 W (D) 500 W (B) 100 (D) 200 10. For the RLC parallel resonant circuit when circuit has a midband R = 8 kW. C = 50 mF and L = 10 mH.6 mH 9. 4.11. The quality factor at resonance is 200.105v1 + v1 25 W – 10 W 4H 1 mF 4 + vC – 3V 6. L = 40 mH and C = 0.4 mH (C) 17. The value of inductor is (A) 35.86 (D) None of the above (B) 20 nF (D) 60 mF 8. 10 W (D) 100 mF. A series resonant circuit has an inductor L = 10 mH.com ~ Fig.9 mW (B) 0. The value of R is (A) 40 W (C) 80 W 5. The value of R and C will be (A) 100 mF.4-5: A parallel resonant -3 7.57 W (D) 28. quality factor of 80 and a admittance of 25 ´ 10 resonant frequency of 200 krad s. A series resonant circuit has L = 1 mH and C = 10 mF. the quality factor Q is (A) 40 (C) 30 (B) 20 (D) 10 S. A parallel RLC circuit has R = 1 kW and C = 1 mF.1-3: A parallel resonant circuit has a resistance of 2 kW and half power frequencies of 86 kHz and 90 kHz.9 Hz is (A) 0. 10 MW (B) 43 mH (D) 1. The value of inductor is (A) 4. The quality factor is (A) 22 (C) 48 Statement for Q.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.

P1.16 (A) 346 kHz (C) 196 kHz (B) 55 kHz (D) 286 kHz (A) (5 + j20 w) -1 (C) (5 + j 30 w) -1 (B) (5 + j 4 w) -1 (D) 5(1 + j 6 w) -1 13.13 Fig.11.5.11. For the circuit of fig.11.14 (A) 200 kW (C) 100 kW (B) 150 kW (D) 50 kW The value of the C and A is (A) 10 mF.11.9 MHz (D) 2. The value of the frequency is 20 W + 2H Vo =? Vi vi ~ 4H 3ia 0. P1.6 jw(5 + jw) 3 (D) jw(20 + j 4 w) (B) Fig. 10 (D) 10 mF. H ( w) = Vo =? Vi 40 W + vs ~ 0. The value of input frequency is required to cause a gain equal to 1.6.11.11. 6 15.14 is 4 V H ( w) = o = V1 1 + j0.gatehelp.17 (A) 20 rad s (C) 10 rad s (B) 20 Hz (D) No such value exists.11.9 kHz (C) 2.18 Fig.05 MHz 14.1. The network function (B) 12. For the circuit shown in fig. P1. 6 (C) 5 mF.12 Fig. 2 w) 3 (C) jw(1 + jw) Page 102 0.13 the resonant frequency fo is 10 mH 600 pF 1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 12. In the circuit of fig. H ( w) = ia (B) 5 mF.11.01w 2 kW 15 kW + vi Vs ~ C + vC – ~ 1 mF + vO – AvC vo – Fig. P1.5 F 10 W vO – Fig.11. P1. The value of R is 10 W fig.P1. P1. P1.com (B) 20 Hz (D) 40 Hz . P1. P1. The value is 2 kW vs ~ 60 mF + vO – Fig. P1. (A) 12.11.05 kHz of circuit shown in 18. P1.18 phase shift equal to -45 ° is required at frequency w = 20 rad s .8 W 22 kW 17. For the circuit shown in fig.25 F vO – vs ~ 30 W + vO – Fig. P1. 10 19.11.15 0.11 resonant frequency fo is + Zin 10 W v1 50 nF v1 2 1 mH 16.19 (A) 20 rad s (C) 40 rad s www.6 (A) jw(1 + j0.19 the input frequency is adjusted until the gain is equal to 0.11.

56 16. 0 5. dB 40 dB /d e c. log w -40 -2 4.56 16.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 31.30 is 4W + vs SOLUTIONS 1. (C) wo = wo = 1 LC ( w1 + w2 ) 2 p(90 + 86)k = = 176p krad s 2 2 1 Þ L= 2 C wo 3 2 ~ 2W 30 mF vo – Fig.11.9 ´ 2 p = 0.86)k = 8 p krad s BW= 1 RC Þ C = 1 1 = RBW 8 p ´ 10 3 ´ 2 ´ 10 3 = 19.7 log w 0 5. (B) BW = w2 . Bode diagram of the network function Vo Vs for the circuit of fig.P1.7 L 10 ´ 10 -3 8.7 . (B) Qo = R Þ L = 25 mH C L Þ 200 = 10 3 10 -6 L 7.w1 = 2 p(90 . (B) wo = Þ C= LC 1 -3 10 ´ 10 ´ (106 ) 2 Þ R L = 100 pF BW = R L R = 10 ´ 10 -3 ´ 10 3 = 10 9.30 dB dB /de c.89 nF 2. (A) At mid-band frequency Z = R .11. (A) BW = Þ R = 15. (C) Qo = R 1 C 50 ´ 10 -6 = 10 3 = 70.com .gatehelp.1 W 1 ´ 10 -3 C L 10.16 mH (176 p ´ 10 ) (20 ´ 10 -9) wo 176 pk = = 22 8 pk B 1 R 20 (A) 0 dB 5.56 16. Y = R= 1 = 40 W 25 ´ 10 -3 dB (C) (D) 5.7 log w = 1 = 0. (A) Q = B 0d /d ec log w 0 dB 5. (C) Q = wo RC Q 80 Þ C= = = 10 mF wo R 200 ´ 10 3 ´ 40 *************** 6. /de (B) 3.56 16.7 c. (B) Q = R Page 104 www. P1.

707 |j + 1 | 2 Vo = AVc (15 k) 2 AVc 2 AVi = = 16 k + 30 k 3 3(1 + j2 ´ 10 3 Cw) Þ 2A Vo 3 = Vi 1 + j2 p ´ 10 3 Cw Þ A = 6. (A) I a = Vi .05 MHz 2p Vi jCw 1 2 ´ 10 3 + jCw w= 50 2 . Thus (D) is correct option.105 v1 ö 3 = v1 + 10ç 1 ÷ 125 è ø I sc = 1100 = 0. (D) H ( w) = gain = 1 j (5 + 1) w50 ´ 10 -9 (1 + w2 RC) For any value of w.11 = 8 ´ 10 3 0.w1 = 2 p( 456 .450 ° Þ R = 50 kW. 2 ´ 10 3 C = 0. (C) VC = Phase shift = . 24 + w2 10 -50 At resonance Im { Y } = 0 wo 6 ´ 10 -10 ( 324 + w2 10 -10 ) .6 2 = 16. 20 + j 4w Vo = 3I a 0. voc = 3 V RTH = = 1000 w L 1000 ´ 4 = 1066. C gain £ 1. (C) fo = www. 24 + w 10 2 o -10 Vo R = Vs 1 + jwL = 30 900 + 4 w2 + 0. (C) Y = jw600 ´ 10 -12 + = jw6 ´ 10 -10 + 45. 18.434) = 44 p wo = 2 pfo = QBW = 20 ´ 44 p fo = 440 Hz 22.Frequency Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.tan -1 wCR = .9 Mrad s 3 w fo = o = 2.45 + 1 1 + 2 ´ 10 3 1. (B) BW= w2 .8 + jw10 -5 = . (A) H ( w) = = Vi 1 + j2 ´ 10 3 Cw 14.67 ´ 10 wo = 12. (A) Z1 = = 1 + 10 1 + j 3w jw0.45 ° gain = 1 1 = = 0.2 w) 10 10 jw(0.0. (B) Applying 1 A at input port V1 = 10 V voltage across 1 A source Vtest = 10 + jw10 Z in = Vtest At resonance Im { Z in } = 0 Þ wo 10 -3 = 6 wo 50 ´ 10 -9 Þ wo = 346 kHz -3 = 10 = (5 + j20 w) -1 50 + j200 w Vo 1 = Vi 1 + jwRC 17.gatehelp.6 = = V1 jw(5 + jw) jw(1 + j0.8 1 LC Þ v1 = 100 Vo 3 0. (A) H ( w) = gain = R R +w L 2 2 2 1.wo 10 -5 = 0 .8 .67 ´ 3 = 3200 V max 12.jw10 -5 3. 25 jw 11. wo = . 20 ´ 1 ´ 10 -6 R = 1 19.51) 16.com 2A =4 3 Þ 1 2 p LC Page 105 C = 5 mF .8 V 125 3 = 375 W.tan -1 wCR = . R. wCR = 1. 25 ´ 10 -6 = 20 40 ´ 10 -3 15. R |vC| = Qo vTH = 1066. (A) Thevenin equivalent seen by L-C combination æ v .67 Qo = o = 375 .30 2 = 20 rad s 2 Vo 1 1 = = Vs 1 + jwCR 1 + j 20.01 21. o 3. 0. (D) H ( w) = phase shift Vo 1 = Vs 1 + jwCR fo = 55 kHz 13.5 Vo Z1 = = Vi 40 + Z1 10 1 + j5 w 10 + 40 1 + j5 w Open Circuit : v1 = 0.

5 ´ 10 3 ´ 40 ´ 10 -9 29. fc = = 106 kHz 2 p ´ 2.67 31. (D) R¢ = K m R = 800 ´ 12 ´ 10 3 = 9.05 1 RC 1 = 15.56 < w < 16. (D) = = jw 1 Vs 6 + 1+ . 3. (B) 20 log H = 20 log 23.2 LC L R 400 10 7 = = -6 L 240 ´ 10 6 1 1 1016 = = LC 240 ´ 10 -6 ´ 120 ´ 10 -12 288 R 1 1 < . (B) wc = 2 pfc = Page 106 1 RC www. (A) L¢C¢ = Þ K f = 2 ´ 10 -4 (1)(20 ´ 10 -6 ) L¢ L 2 2 Þ Km = = Km (2) ( 4 ´ 10 -3) C¢ C Þ K m = 0.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks = 1 2 p 360 ´ 10 -12 ´ 240 ´ 10 1 -6 = 541 kHz = 1. 1165 ´ 7.8 ( 30) C = (10) = 7.gatehelp. jw30 ´ 10 -3 356 2+ -20 dB/decade line starting from w = 5.5 kW | 1 .67 *********** 25.5 ´ 106 rad s . (B) wo = 1 .45 MHz Þ R= 1 .5 ´ 10 -9 1 jw 1+ Vo jw30 ´ 10 -3 16. = 106 kW 2 p ´ 15 ´ 10 ´ 10 -6 1 = -40 log w w2 fo = 2 p 50 ´ 10 1 2p -12 ´ 240 ´ 10 -6 30. R and C should be as small as possible.9 W R= 2 p ´ 20 ´ 10 3 ´ 0.+1.com .6 MW L¢ = C¢ = 800 Km 40 ´ 10 -6 = 32 mF = K f L 1000 C 10 -9 K F = 30 ´ ´ 1000 = 0. fo = = 938 kHz L LC 2 p LC 24.375 pF Km 80 LC K2 f Þ K2 = f 4 ´ 20 ´ 10 -3 ´ 10 -6 1´ 6 26.5 ´ 10 -6 27. RC (1.3.3) = 1165 kW .8) R = ( 3. (A) RTH across the capacitor is RTH = (1k + 4 k)| 5 k = 2.67 parallel to w axis to w > 16.56 rad s 20 dB/decade line starting from w = 16.5 pF (10 + 30) w= 1 = 114. (B) fo = 1 R2 . (D) wc = 2 pfc = Þ 28.67 rad s Hence -20 dB/decade line for 5.

22 eV above the valence band energy.4 cm -3 Page 109 (C) 2. states in valence -3 band N v(cm ) Intrinsic carrier concertration ni (cm -3) Mobility Electron Hole 15 ´ 1010 .3 ´ 10 -6 cm -3 (B) 4.5 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 0. In germanium semiconductor material at T = 400 K the intrinsic concentration is (A) 26.8 ´ 106 2. The hole concentration is (A) 4.12 11.0 ´ 1018 1. The thermal-equilibrium concentration of hole p0 in 1.23 (B) 47. the acceptor concentrations is N a = 1013 cm -3 and donor concentration is concentration p0 is (A) 2.4 ´ 1014 cm -3 (D) 3. (A) 300 K (C) 382 K (B) 360 K (D) 364 K N d = 0.97 ´ 10 9 cm -3 www.66 16.3 ´ 10 -6 m -3 7.2 eV.1 SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS In the problems assume the parameter given in following table.42 13. 3.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 2. Property Bandgap Energy Dielectric Constant Si 1.0 eV and material B has a bandgap energy of 1.7 Ga As 1.7 ´ 1017 Ge 0. The thermal equilibrium (B) 2. The ratio of intrinsic concentration of material A to that of material B is (A) 2016 (C) 58.0 104 ´ 1019 . The maximum temperature allowed for the silicon is ( E g = 112 eV) .5 ´ 1014 cm -3 (B) 18. 4.gatehelp.4 ´ 10 4 cm -3 (D) 4.1 4.8 ´ 1019 states in conduction band N c (cm -3) Effective density of 104 ´ 1019 .5 (D) 1048 Effective density of 2.4 ´ 1013 5.5 ´ 1015 m -3 (D) 0.6 ´ 10 4 cm -3 (B) 4.68 ´ 1012 cm -3 (D) 2. Two semiconductor material have exactly the same properties except that material A has a bandgap of 1. In germanium semiconductor at T = 300 K.8 ´ 108 cm -3 (C) 2. In silicon at T = 300 K if the Fermi energy is 0. The value of n0 is (A) 3.6 ´ 1014 cm -3 silicon at T = 300 K is 1015 cm -3.8 ´ 1014 cm -3 (C) 8. the value of p0 is (A) 2 ´ 1015 cm -3 (B) 1015 cm -3 (D) 4 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 3 ´ 1015 cm -3 1350 480 8500 400 3900 1900 6.95 ´ 1013 cm -3 . The intrinsic carrier concentration in silicon is to be no greater than ni = 1 ´ 1012 cm -3.0 ´ 1018 6.com 2. Use the temperature T = 300 K unless otherwise stated. In silicon at T = 300 K the thermal-equilibrium concentration of electron is n0 = 5 ´ 10 4 cm -3.3 ´ 108 cm -3 7.

4 eV (D) n .type with p0 = 15 ´ 10 7 cm -3 .08 eV 19. we want a current of 100 mA in crystal.08 eV (D) 0.8-9: In germanium semiconductor at T = 300 K.com 14. The resistance of bar is (A) 2. (C) n .s. The concentration of donors atoms added are (A) 12 ´ 1016 cm -3 .04 eV (C) 0. (C) 4.6 ´ 1016 cm -3 (D) 2. 10. For the device to operate properly. (D) 396 ´ 1013 cm -3 .04 eV (D)0. A silicon crystal having a cross-sectional area of 0.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices Statement for Q.type with n0 = 15 ´ 10 cm .86 ´ 10 3 cm -3 (B) 7 cm -3 (D) 3 cm -3 18.58 mW (C) 1. The resistor is to have a value of 2 kW. the donor concentration are N d = 1014 cm -3 and N a = 0. The doping (B) 8. A silicon sample contains acceptor atoms at a concentration of N a = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3.type. The length of bar is 1 mm. A thin film resistor is to be made from a GaAs film doped n .039 eV (B) 115 ´ 1011 cm -3 . The maximum temperature on that the device may operate is (A) 763 K (C) 486 K Page 110 cm 2 V . A sample of silicon at T = 300 K is doped with boron at a concentration of 2. For a particular semiconductor at T = 300 KE g = 15 .001 cm 2 and a length of 20 mm is connected to its ends to a 20 V battery.039 eV (B) .gatehelp.4 ´ 1012 cm -3 9. The mobility of electrons is 8000 needed is (A) 8. The position of fermi energy with respect to intrinsic Fermi level is (A) 0.045 eV (C) +0.7 ´ 10 21 cm -3 (D) 4. The position of Fermi level with respect to the center of the bandgap is (A) +0.4 ´ 1014 cm -3 12. n0 = 5 p0 and N a = 0. The thermal equilibrium electron concentration n0 is (A) 5 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 115 ´ 10 cm . In germanium at T = 300 K.type with p0 = 15 ´ 1013 cm -3 . the impurity concentration are N d = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3 and N a = 0 8.42 eV (B) 0. mp = 10 mn and ni = 1 ´ 1015 cm -3.36 mW (B) 11.02 eV (C) 0. the intrinsic carrier concentration must remain less than 5% of the total concentration. A silicon semiconductor sample at T = 300 K is doped with phosphorus atoms at a concentrations of 1015 cm -3. A GaAs device is doped with a donor concentration of 3 ´ 1015 cm -3.1 eV (B) 0. * * eV. The concentration of donor atoms to be added is (A) 2.6 ´ 1013 cm -3 (D) 8.3 eV (C) 0. 13 -3 17.86 eV 20. (B) 4. The value of n0 is (A) 9. Donor atoms are added forming and n . The position of the Fermi level with respect to the intrinsic Fermi level is (A) 0.8 kW 13. 9 -3 15.0. (C) 39 ´ 1012 cm -3 .6 ´ 10 21 cm -3 (B) 942 K (D) 243 K (C) 4. Germanium at T = 300 K is uniformly doped with an acceptor concentration of N a = 10 cm 15 -3 and a donor concentration of N d = 0. 11.06 eV (B) 0. The bar is doped with arsenic atoms.6 ´ 1015 cm -3 .36 ´ 1012 cm -3 (B) 195 ´ 1013 cm -3 .8 ´ 1014 cm -3 (B) 4.36 kW (D) 24. In a sample of gallium arsenide at T = 200 K.046 eV (D) .type with n0 = 15 ´ 10 7 cm -3 . The doping efficiency is known to be 90%.0.2 eV (D) 0. (D) 5 ´ 10 cm 6 -3 16. The Fermi energy level with respect to intrinsic Fermi level is (A) 0. The resistor length is to be 200 mm and area is to be 10 -6 cm 2 .5 ´ 1013 cm -3 and with arsenic at a concentration of 1 ´ 1013 cm -3. The thermal equilibrium hole concentration p0 is (A) 396 ´ 1013 . (B) p . The material is (A) p .4 ´ 1013 cm -3 (C) 7.7 ´ 1015 cm -3 www.215 eV below the conduction band edge. At T = 300 K.type compensated semiconductor such that the Fermi level is 0.86 ´ 10 9 cm -3 (C) 4. The cross sectional area of silicon bar is 100 mm 2 .

cm) -1 at T = 300 K. In a silicon sample the electron concentration 18 drops linearly from 10 cm -3 to 10 16 cm -3 over a length of 2.cm) -1 -1 (W .cm) -1 . The mobility m n is 7500 cm 2 V .s. (W . m p = 600 cm V .46 ´ 1015 cm -3 25.6 ´ 10 A cm 4 2 cm s. the hole (B) 1.0 mm. (A) 9. Assume the following parameters.3 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 (C) 9.type silicon sample has a resistivity of 5 W .cm) (W .30-31: A semiconductor has following parameter m n = 7500 cm 2 V . The minimum conductivity is 4 2 (B) 2.4 A cm 2 32 N c = N v = 10 cm 19 -3 These parameters are independent of temperature.8 ´ 1013 cm -3 (D) 9 ´ 1013 cm -3 the carrier concentration is uniform at 1016 cm -3.3% across a 2 cm long electric field of 1 kV cm is applied.067 mo .s. (B) 9.cm) -1 (B) 4 ´ 10 (D) 6 ´ 10 -5 -3 (W .6 ´ 1012 cm -3 30.cm) -1 24.s . An n . The mobility is m n = 1350 cm 2 V . The average drift velocity is 10 4 cm s.3 A cm 2 (C) 9.3 ´ 10 9A cm 2 (B) 2.type at 1018 cm -3 have a resistance of 10 W . In a particular semiconductor the donor impurity concentration is N d = 1014 cm -3. For an applied field of 10 V cm the drift current density is (A) 120 A cm 2 (C) 12 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 (B) 120 A cm 2 (D) 12 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 23.4 ´ 10 -3 (W . 32 cm -3.s.s) 2 -6 27.s .6 A cm 2 Statement for Q.2 ´ 1011 cm -3 (C) 1. Six volts is applied (B) 78. æ T ö N c = 2 ´ 1019ç ÷ è 300 ø æ T ö N v = 1 ´ 1019ç ÷ è 300 ø . the drift velocity produced is (A) 2.25 ´ 1014 cm -3 (D) 11 ´ 10 -15 cm -3 . The measured conductivity of the intrinsic material is s = 10 -6 (W .2% (C) 96. When conductivity is minimum. m p = 300 cm 2 V . ni = 3. m n = 1000 cm 2 V .s. (D) 6.8 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 (D) 2.6 ´ 108 A cm 2 (D) 2. An electric field of E = 10 V cm is applied.6 ´ 106 cm s (C) 14. The sample has an area of 10 sample is (m n = 800 cm V . A gallium arsenide semiconductor at T = 300 K is doped with impurity concentration N d = 1016 cm -3. The drift 31.1 21. The donor impurity concentration is (A) 2. For a particular semiconductor material following parameters are observed: m n = 1000 cm 2 V .44 ´ 1011 cm -3 (B) 1.s.86 ´ 10 -14 cm -3 (C) 11. E g = 11 eV.4 ´ 108 A cm 2 .8 ´ 10 -3 (W .cm) -1 Page 111 (C) 1. 2 29.cm) -1 (C) 2.cm at T = 300 K.4 ´ 10 A cm (A) 0.gatehelp. The electron mobility is (A) 4396 cm 2 V .8 ´ 10 9 A cm 2 26.s (C) 6 ´ 10 4 cm 2 V .Semiconductor Physics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.s (D) 3333 cm 2 V . In a GaAs sample the electrons are moving under an electric field of 5 kV cm and 7 concentration is (A) 7. For a sample of GaAs scattering time is t sc = 10 -13 s * and electron’s effective mass is me = 0. The electron velocity is the saturated velocity of 10 current density is (A) 1. The current density due to the electron diffusion current is ( Dn = 35 cm 2 s). A silicon sample doped n .s 28.1% (D) 54.8 ´ 106 cm s (B) 263 cm s (D) 482 semiconductor bar.s (B) 3 ´ 10 4 cm 2 V . If an cm 2 and a length of 10 mm . The doping efficiency of the (A) 43.6 ´ 10 -3 (W . The electric current density at 300 K is (A) 2. The conductivity at T = 500 K is (A) 2 ´ 10 (C) 2 ´ 10 -4 -5 cm -3.com (B) 17 ´ 10 -3 (W .cm) -1 www.6 A cm 2 (D) 3.3% 22.

W = 10 -2 cm.s 37. If only third mechanism were present. W = 2 ´ 10 -2 cm and L = 0. In a sample of silicon at T = 300 K.4 ´ 1015 cm -3 35.s.s (B) 1114 cm 2 V .8 mV. V H = +5.31mV (C) 3.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices 32.cm) at T = 300 K and 5 (W . The current is I x = 250 mA. p .type (B) 8 ´ 1015 cm -3. The majority carrier mobility is (A) 430 cm 2 V . the bandgap energy of the semiconductor is (A) 1. Three scattering (B) 1. as shown in fig. Vx = 15 V.9 eV (C) 2.s. The net mobility is (A) 2750 cm 2 V . The diffusion current density is found to be J n = 0.s (C) 9.8 ´ 10 26 cm -3 (D) 5.64 eV mechanism 2 Hole concentration p0 = 10 e æ -x ö ÷ ç ÷ ç 15 è L p ø cm -3.x ³ 0 æ -x ö ÷ ç ÷ ç Electron concentration n0 = 5 ´ 1014 e è L n ø cm -3. In a semiconductor n0 = 1015 cm -3 and ni = 1010 cm -3. If only the first mechanism were present. If change in mobility with temperature is neglected.s (B) 215 cm 2 V .x £ 0 Hole diffusion coefficient Dp = 10 cm 2 s Electron diffusion coefficients Dn = 25 cm 2 s exist in a Hole diffusion length Lp = 5 ´ 10 -4 cm. and the magnetic flux is Bz = 5 ´ 10 -2 (B) 0.3 eV (D) 0. Electron diffusion length Ln = 10 -3 cm The total current density at x = 0 is (A) 1. The electron-hole recombination rate is (A) 4 ´ 1019 cm -3s -1 (C) 4 ´ 10 24 cm -3s -1 Page 112 www.type GaAs is given by xö æ p = 10 ç 1 .26 mV Statement for Q.26 mV tesla.÷ cm -3 for 0 £ x £ L Lø è 16 where L = 10 mm.1 cm. The hole diffusion current density at x = 5 mm 2 is (A) 20 A cm 2 (C) 24 A cm 2 (B) 16 A cm 2 (D) 30 A cm 2 40. the applied voltage is Vx = 100 mV.86 ´ 10 cm 8 -3 (B) 2.type (C) 4 ´ 1015 cm -3. p .38-39: A silicon Hall device at T = 300 K has the geometry d = 10 -3 cm .75 mA. The hole diffusion coefficient is 10 cm s. P2.cm) at T = 330 K.s (D) 250 cm 2 V . The excess-carrier life time is 10 -6 s.010 x(cm) Fig. the mobility would be 1500 cm 2 V .gatehelp.34.type 39.19 A cm 2 .8 A cm 2 (B) 5.s (C) 818 cm 2 V . tesla 38. n .com 36. The majority carrier concentration is 34.6 eV 33. A particular intrinsic semiconductor has a resistivity of 50 (W . n .s (D) 195 cm 2 V .s (C) 390 cm 2 V .1. The device has the geometry d = 5 ´ 10 -3 cm. The electron concentration at is 5´1014 n(cm-3) n(0) 0 0.1.2 A cm 2 (D) 2 A cm 2 semiconductor.34 (A) 4. P2. If the electron diffusion coefficient is Dn = 25 cm 2 s. the electron concentration varies linearly with distance. the mobility would be 500 cm V .s. the mobility would be 750 cm 2 V . If only the second mechanism were present. The hole concentration in p . A germanium Hall device is doped with 5 ´ 1015 donor atoms per cm 3 at T = 300 K. The following parameters are measured: I x = 0. L = 10 -1 cm. The Hall voltage is (A) -0.31 mV (D) -3. The excess hole concentration is dp = 4 ´ 1013 cm -3.5 ´ 10 cm 13 -3 (A) 8 ´ 1015 cm -3.type (D) 4 ´ 1015 cm -3. For a particular semiconductor sample consider following parameters: (B) 4 ´ 1014 cm -3s -1 (D) 4 ´ 1011 cm -3s -1 .2 A cm 2 (C) 3.

239 = 0.5 Þ niA = 47. (A) p0 = N v e 6. ÷ ´e è 300 ø 3 æ 0 .1 41.com 2 Page 113 .28 ´ 10 -8 . = = 4. The factor. The equilibrium recombination rate is Rp 0 = 1011 cm -3s -1 . 9 -3 -1 ç æ T ö -ç è (1012 ) 2 = 2.95 ´ 10 cm 2 ø è www.881 eV . The minority carrier hole lifetime is t p 0 = 10 m s. The minority carrier life 4 ´ 10 -7s. ÷ = 0.4 ´ 10 3 æ 1013 ö 1013 13 -3 13 2 p0 = + ç ÷ ç 2 ÷ + (2.9 ´ 106 s (C) 4.8 ´ 1019 cm -3 Ec . N c = 104 ´ 1019. (C) ni2 = N c N v e æ -Eg ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è kT ø (B) 5 ´ 1010 cm -3 s -1 (D) 5 ´ 10 22 cm -3 s -1 æ 400 ö Vt = 0. 42.4 ´ 10 9 *********** At 300 K.d ÷ + ni2 2 2 ø è 2 For Ge ni = 2.Semiconductor Physics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.9 ´ 10 -6 s (D) 113 ´ 10 -7 s . æ 104 ´ 1019 ö .0259 = 2 ´ 1015 cm -3 . 239 eV EF .5 ´ 10 22 cm -3 s -1 (C) 2. (B) iA = E gB = e è 2 niB e kT = 2257.3 ´ 1013 (C) 2. N c = 2. n0 = 4. . (A) p0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . E g = 0.Nd N ö æ + ç N a .22 45.3 ´ 10 9 (B) 4.0259ç ÷ = 0. cm s -3 -1 (D) 4 ´ 10 9 cm -3 s -1 sample 16 -3 A n -type silicon contains a donor -ç n2 e kT 3. (A) 8. has a hole concentration time is of p0 = 1016 10 -3 cm -3 and an intrinsic concentration of ni = 10 cm .12 e ö ÷ ÷ kT ø (B) 10 cm s (D) 10 cm s 3 -3 4 -3 -1 -1 2.66 ö Þ ni = 8.0259 lnç ÷ ç 1015 ø è n0 = N c e ( Ec .4 ´ 10 4 cm -3 7. A uniform generation rate produces an excess.carrier concentration of dn = dp = 10 cm .EF = 112 .Ev = kT ln ç v ÷ ç p ÷ è 0 ø -0 .25 ´ 10 cm s 9 -3 -1 -10 = 9. (C) n = N c N v e (C) 2.EF ) kT the total recombination rate increase is (A) 2.gatehelp. The lifetime of the majority carrier is ( ni = 15 ´ 1010 cm -3) . In a silicon semiconductor material the doping concentration are N a = 10 16 - ( EF .E gB ö ç ÷ ÷ kT ø (C) 8.5 ´ 1010 cm -3 s -1 Statement for Q.0345 è 300 ø For Ge at 300 K. by which 14 -3 At 300 K. 25 ´ 10 cm s 43. The thermal equilibrium generation rate for electron is (A) 1125 ´ 10 cm s .5 ´ 1014 cm -3 2 i æ -Eg ö ÷ -ç ç kT ÷ è ø 3 æ 1 .0 ´ 1018 . (C) p0 = Na . ÷ e 300 ø è 3 -13´10 3 T T e (B) 2. 5.0345 ø ni2 = 104 ´ 1019 ´ 6. By trial T = 382 K E gA æ E gA . The thermal equilibrium generation rate of hole is (A) 5 ´ 10 cm s 8 9 -3 -1 -3 -1 SOLUTIONS 1. The thermal equilibrium recombination rate of electrons is (A) 2. N v = 10 ´ 1019 cm -3 .66 eV ÷ -ç ç ÷ æ 400 ö è 0 .0 ´ 1018 ´ ç .0.42-43: A n-type silicon sample contains a donor concentration of N d = 106 cm -3.5 ´ 10 -17 s (B) 8.9 ´ 10 44.Ev ) kT cm -3 and N a = 0. (B) p0 = N v e = 104 ´ 1019 e 0 . A semiconductor in thermal equilibrium. Þ æN ö EF .5 ´ 1015 cm -3 n0 5 ´ 10 4 ( EF .4 ´ 1013 (D) 4.5 niB concentration of N d = 10 cm .8 ´ 1019 ´ 104 ´ 1019ç . The minority carrier 4.4 ´ 10 ) = 2.Ev ) kT hole lifetime is t p 0 = 20 m s. N v = 6.Ev = 0.

(A) R = Þ n0 = L em n AR -4 = 26. 2 ´ 1011 cm -3 31.6 ´ 10 -19)( 35)ç ç 2 ´ 10 -4 è 1 1 1 1 = + + m m1 m 2 m 3 Page 115 . ø è æ 500 ö At T = 500 K .6 A cm 2 30. è 300 ø ni2 = (1019) 2 e Þ æ 1 . (A) vd = et sc E (1.86 ´ 10 -3(W .6 ´ 106 cm s 28. 9 -3 ( -1) em n ni2 ds =0 = + em p 2 dp0 p0 1 Þ ni2 = N c N v e æ Eg ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è kT ø æN N ö Þ E g = kT ln ç c 2 v ÷ ç n ÷ ø è i æm p0 = ni ç n çm è p ö2 2 ÷ = 3.6 ´ 10 -19)(1350) rem n dn dx ö ÷ = 2.6 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 27. kT = 0.cm) -1 24.6 ´ 1012 ) (7500)( 300) = 17 ´ 10 -3(W .300 ö ç ÷ = ln 10 2 k ç 330 ´ 300 ÷ è ø E g = 22( k300) ln 10 = 1.8 ´ 1017 ´ 100 = ´ 100 = 78.6 ´ 10 -19)(10 7)(1016 ) = 1.0432 ø = 2 ´ 1. (B) smin = 2 s i m pm n mp + mn = 2 en i m pm n ö æ 1019 Þ E g = 2(0.1 = e E g æ 330 .0432 eV. ni = 2.1 = 11.6 ´ 10 -19( 3.1 = (1.25 ´ 1014 cm -3 = 5(1. vd = m n E. 32.1016 = (1.81 ´ 1017 cm -3 = (1.18 ´ 1019 10 ´ 10 -4 = 7.1 ´ 10 -31 ) me 20. R= L em n n0 A 26.2 ´ 10 3 m s = 2. p0 ni2 p0 22.31 eV 33.0259 ø 21.0259) ln ç .6 ´ 10 -19)(1000 + 600)ni At T = 300 K. sA s » e m n n0 . (D) s1 = eni (m n + m p ) 10 -6 = (1.gatehelp.6 ´ 10 -19 0.s = E 3 23. ni = 391 ´ 10 cm . (A) J = evn = (1. (A) N d >> ni Þ n0 = N d -19 n0 = 0.0259ç ÷ = 0. r cm -3.6 ´ 10 -19)(1000)(1014 )(100) = 1.36 kW )(1100)(5 ´ 1016 )(100 ´ 10 -8 ) L . n0 = sA em n AR J = em n n0 E = (1.1 % Nd 1018 V 6 = = 3 V/cm. L 2 ni = 8. (B) s = 1 = emni .1 ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è 0 .47 ´ 10 9 cm -3 N d = n0 J = sE = em n n0 E = (1.Semiconductor Physics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.6 ´ 10 -19)(2.9)(1.6 ´ 10 29.cm) -1 .067)(9. (A) s = em n n0 + em p p0 and n0 = Þ s = em n ni2 + em p p0 .8 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 ÷ ø 0. (B) J n = eDn æ 1018 .29 ´ 1013)(1000 + 600) = 5.9 N d = 20 ´ 10 = 8. (B) s » e m n n0 . ÷ ç 391 ´ 10 9 ÷ = 1122 eV . (B) r = Nd = 1 1 = s em n N d Eg 1 ni1 e 2 kT1 r1 = = Eg 1 ni 2 2 kT2 e r2 Eg æ 1 1 ö ÷ ç T2 ÷ 2 k ç T1 ø è 1 1 = 9.6 ´ 10 -19)( 8000)(10 -6 )(2 ´ 10 3) L L .com 25.6 ´ 10 -19)(10 -13)(10 5) = * (0. (D) ni2 = N c N v e )(7500)(1016 )(10) = 120 A cm 2 æ -Eg ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è kT ø æ 1 .122 ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è 0 . (D) E = mn = vd 10 4 = 3333 cm 2 V .29 ´ 1013 cm -3 = (1.6 ´ 1012 æ 7500 ö ç ÷ ÷ 300 ø è ø 1 = 7.7 ´ 1015 cm -3 (0. (D) www.6 ´ 10 -19)( 800)(10 -6 )(10) Efficiency = n0 7. R = = (2 ´ 1019)(1 ´ 1019) e Þ N d >> ni Þ = 7.

The built-in voltage is 17 -3 -3 (A) 0.2 eV (C) 0.9 (B) 0. The width of depletion region extending into the n-region is (A) 4 ´ 10 -6 cm (C) 4 ´ 10 -5 cm 7. The space charge width is (A) 32 ´ 10 -5 cm . An abrupt silicon in thermal equilibrium at T = 300 K is doped such that Ec . (C) 4.gatehelp. at zero bias.1 eV (D) 0.region.2 THE PN JUNCTION In this chapter.18 eV in the p . 6.2 eV (D) 0.88 V 5.4 eV (A) 0.side is (A) 0.66 V (C) 0. The majority carrier concentration in n-region is (A) 1 ´ 1016 cm -3 (C) 1 ´ 10 22 8.4 eV Statement for Q. An n – n isotype doping profile is shown in fig.83 V (D) 0. The Fermi level on n .06 V (D) 0. In a uniformly doped GaAs junction at T = 300 K.side is (A) 0.20 V.9. In depletion region maximum electric field | Emax | is (A) 1 ´ 10 4 V cm (C) 3 ´ 10 4 V cm (B) 2 ´ 10 4 V cm (D) 4 ´ 10 4 V cm (B) 4 ´ 10 16 cm -3 (D) 4 ´ 10 22 9.026 V (B) 0. P2.5 ´ 10 -4 cm (B) 4.1 eV (C) 0. N d and N a denotes the net donor and acceptor concentration in the individual n and p-region. A silicon pn junction at T = 300 K has N d = 1014 cm and N a = 10 cm . The Fermi level on p .93 V (D) 0.2.com Fig. The built in potential barrier is Vbi = 1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 2. Statement for Q.EF = 0.61 V (B) 0.3 eV (B) 0.69 V (C) 0.5 ´ 10 -5 cm (D) 32 ´ 10 -4 cm .038 V 3.Ev = 0. The built-in potential barrier is Nd(cm-3) 10 10 15 16 cm -3 cm -3 (ni = 15 ´ 1010 cm -3 ) . P2.03 V www. (B) 3 ´ 10 -6 cm (D)3 ´ 10 -5 cm (B) 0.4–5: An abrupt silicon pn junction at zero bias and T = 300 K has dopant concentration of N a = 1017 cm -3 and N d = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3.33 V Page 117 .6–8: A silicon pn junction at T = 300 K with zero applied bias has doping concentrations of N d = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N a = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3.63 V (C) 0.21 eV in the n .3 eV 2. The built-in potential barrier Vbi is (A) 0. 0 4.2.region and EF . 1. only 20% of the total space charge region is to be in the p-region.

The change in diode voltage. The applied reverse voltage.8 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 (D) 5. then diode current is (A) 11 mA (C) 83 mA (B) 35 mA (D) 143 mA 20.8 mm (C) 1. A uniformly doped (B) 25 mm (D) 100 mm silicon pn junction has N a = 5 ´ 1017 cm -3 and N d = 10 17 cm -3. The doping relation is N d = 50 N a . The applied reverse bias voltage is VR = 8 V.36 (C) 19 (B) 9. The maximum electric field | Emax | in depletion region is (A) 15 ´ 10 V cm 4 concentration are N d = 4 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N a = 4 ´ 1017 cm -3.8 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 (C) 2.6 mV (C) 4. The maximum doping concentration in the n-region is (A) 32 ´ 1019 cm -3 . An inductance of 2. The ratio of the space charge width is (A) 4.gatehelp. The doping www.3 V 17.4 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 + (B) 9. 10.63 V (B) 0. If diode voltage is 0.87 V (D) 0. mA.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices Statement for Q.8 V (D) 12. The impurity doping concentration in junction A are N a = 10 cm 18 -3 and N d = 10 -15 cm .54 V 14.2 V (B) 9.13–14: An ideal one-sided silicon n+ p junction has uniform doping on both sides of the abrupt junction. An ideal pn junction diode is operating in the forward bais region.10–11: A silicon abrupt junction has dopant concentration N a = 2 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N d = 2 ´ 10 15 cm -3. (C) 6.2 mH is placed in parallel with the pn junction.8 (D) 3.6 MHz (D) 4.8 mm (D) 1.8 cm (B) 1. The junction has a cross-sectional area of 10 -4 cm -3 and has an applied reverse-bias voltage of VR = 5 V. Two p n silicon junction is reverse biased at VR = 5 V.7 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 21.13 22. then diode voltage is (A) 0. at which the ideal reverse current reaches 90% of its reverse saturation current.5 pF 18. The built-in potential barrier is Vbi = 0. (D) 5 ´ 10 4 V cm 11.3 MHz (B) 7 ´ 10 V cm 4 (C) 35 ´ 10 4 V cm . it has dopant concentration of N a = 1018 cm -3 and N d = 1015 cm -3. is 16. and those in junction -3 B are N a = 1018 cm -3 and N d = 1016 cm -3. An pn junction diode is operating in reverse bias region.3 mV is | Emax | = 3 ´ 10 5 V cm. (D) 6.4 ´ 1017 cm -3 (B) 32 ´ 1017 cm -3 . The pn junction area is 6 ´ 10 -4 cm 2 .8 m (B) 5 pF (D) 3.6 MHz (B) 2. The magnitude of the reverse bias voltage is (A) 3.com . The junction capacitance is (A) 3. 13.93 V (C) 0. An abrupt silicon pn junction has an applied reverse bias voltage of VR = 10 V. If diode has current of 70 .7 mV (D) 42. The total junction capacitance is (A) 10 pF (C) 7 pF Statement for Q. The resonant frequency is (A) 1.6 V (C) 7. The applied reverse bias voltage is V R = 10. A diode has reverse saturation current I s = 10 -10 A and non ideality factor h = 2.9 V.7 MHz (C) 3. A uniformly doped silicon p+ n junction is to be designed such that at a reverse bais voltage of V R = 10 V the maximum electric field is limited to Emax = 106 V cm. A diode has reverse saturation current I s = 10 -18 A and nonideality factor h = 105.75 V. that will cause a factor of 9 increase in current. The space charge region is (A) 2.8 mV (B) 2.4 ´ 1019 cm -3 19.5 mm (C) 50 mm 12. The space charge width is (A) 1. is (A) 83 mV (C) 43 mV (B) 59 mV (D) 31 mV 15. The maximum electric field in reverse-biased silicon pn junction Page 118 (A) 59.

8 ´ 1012 e -246 x cm -3. x ³ 0 (B) 6. P.6 nF organic atoms per cm 3 and the p . x ³ 0 (D) 3. The hole diffusion current density at x = 3 mm is (A) 0.3 ´ 10 -4 s (D) 6. The hole lifetime is (A) 1.4 nF (B) 38.region is doped with boron atoms per 2 cm .61 V. x ³ 0 -3 32.5 V.7 nF (D) 98.5 ´ 10 -8 s (B) 1.25–26: A ideal long silicon pn junction diode is shown in fig. if applied forward bias is Va = 0. For an ideal silicon pn junction diode t no = t po = 10 -7 s . P2. The slope of the diffusion capacitance verses forward-bias current of a p+ n diode is 2. so that 95% of the current in the depletion region is carried by electrons.region is 0. The minority carrier diffusion coefficients are Dn = 35 cm 2 s and Dp = 10 cm 2 s. The bandgap energy of second diode would be (A) 0.gatehelp.67 eV (D) 0.region is 2 mm and length of the n . The first has a bandgap energy of 0.8 ´ 1014 e -3534 x cm -3.j12.8 ´ 1012 e -246 x cm -3.83 Statement for Q. A p+ n silicon diode is forward biased at a current of 1 mA.3 ´ 10 -7 s (C) 6.083 29.2. The reverse saturation current is (A) 4 ´ 10 -12 A (B) 4 ´ 10 -15 A (C) 4 ´ 10 -11 A (D) 4 ´ 10 -7 A 28.1 mW (B) 235 + j7. The total number of excess electron in the p . The cross sectional area is A = 10 -4 cm 2 .034 (D) 0. W p n 30.com .77 eV (C) 0.region is doped with 10 5 ´ 10 16 16 (B) 0. The approximately series resistance of the diode is (A) 62 W (C) 72 W (B) 43 W (D) 81 W Page 119 26.4 A cm 2 (B) 0. is (A) 4 ´ 10 7 cm -3 (B) 6 ´ 1010 cm -3 (D) 6 ´ 10 7 cm -3 (C) 4 ´ 1010 cm -3 concentrations are N a = 10 cm -3 and N d = 10 16 cm .57 eV (B) 0. The hole life time in the n . x ³ 0 (C) 3.25-26 25. A silicon pn junction with doping profile of N a = 1016 cm -3 and N d = 10 15 cm -3 has a cross sectional area of 10 -2 cm 2 . Neglecting the depletion capacitance the diode impedance at 1 MHz is (A) 38.1 W (C) 38.4 ´ 10 -3 A cm 2 27. The diffusion capacitance is in (A) 49.1 m s. The n . The second pn junction diode is to be designed such that the diode current I = 10 mA at a forward-bias voltage of Va = 0.525 eV and a forward-bias current of 10 mA with Va = 0. Va x=0 x Fig. The minority carrier lifetime is 1 ms is both the n and p regions. A pn junction biased at Va = 0.3 nF (C) 77.5 W .6 A cm 2 (C) 0.34 (C) 0.5 W .8 ´ 10 e 14 +3534 x 31.1 ms. Dn = 25 cm 2 s .6 ´ 10 -3 A cm 2 (D) 0. (D) 235 .region is 1 mm.2 23.5 ´ 10 -4 s cm . The forward-bias voltage is Va = 0.The pn Junction GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2. is (A) 0.47 eV 24.7 + j12. Two ideal pn junction have exactly the same electrical and physical parameters except for the band gap of the semiconductor materials.j7.32 V. For a silicon p+ n junction diode the doping 18 cross-sectional area is 10 -3 cm 2 .255 V.2. The excess hole concentration is (A) 6.7 .2. The length of the p .25–26. -3 The www. The minority carrier lifetimes are t n 0 = 1 ms and t p 0 = 0.72 V has DC bias current I DQ = 2 mA.region. The minority carrier 2 3 lifetimes are D n = 23 cm s and Dp = 8 cm s. -3 The minority carrier hole diffusion coefficient is Dp = 12 cm 2 s and the minority carrier hole life time is t p 0 = 10 -7 s.5 ´ 10 -6 F A. Dp = 10 cm 2 s The ratio of N a N d . The doping concentrations of a silicon pn junction are N d = 10 16 cm -3 and N a = 8 ´ 10 15 cm .

N a = 1016 cm -3 t n 0 = 10 ns .5 ns.8 ´ 10 ) .1 mm (C) 7. The optical power emitted.com . For silicon the critical electric field at breakdown is approximately Ecrit = 4 ´ 10 5 V cm. If the peak electric field in the junction at breakdown is E = 4 ´ 10 5 V cm. For the breakdown voltage of 25 V. A GaAs laser has a threshold density of 500 A cm 2 . A uniformly doped silicon pn junction has dopant profile of N a = N d = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3. A gallium arsenide pn junction is operating in reverse-bias voltage VR = 5 V. The doping profile are N a = N d = 10 16 39.4 ´ 10 A cm 34.4 mm 37. The space charge width at a forward bias voltage of Va = 0. -8 -8 s.5 mW (D) 124. is (VB » 100 V) (A) 5. The electron-hole recombination time at threshold is 1.gatehelp.region of N d = 5 ´ 10 15 such that cm -3. the maximum n . The current density of 5J th is injected into the laser. 6 2 2 current density is A cm (C) 1. -9 -9 A cm 2 2 A cm (D) 1. The minority carrier life.43 eV. The reverse-biased generation (e r = 131. A silicon pn junction diode has doping profile N a = N d = 5 ´ 1019 cm -3. avalanche breakdown occurs before the depletion region reaches an ohmic contact.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices 33. A GaAs pn+ (B) 44 A° (D) 62 A° junction LED has following parameters Dn = 25 cm 2 s. The active region is dLas = 100 A °.6 mW cm . The laser has dimensions of 10 mm ´ 200 mm. The minimum width. An abrupt silicon p+ n junction has an n . t p 0 = 10 ns The injection efficiency of the LED is (A) 0.64 Page 120 (B) 0.type + doping *************** concentration in an abrupt p n-junction is (A) 2 ´ 1016 cm -3 (C) 2 ´ 1018 cm -3 (B) 4 ´ 10 16 cm -3 (D) 4 ´ 10 18 cm -3 35.4 V is (A) 102 A° (C) 153 A° 38. if emitted photons have an energy of 1.99 (D) 0.3 mm (B) 3.83 (C) 0.region doping concentration n . is (A) 143 mW (C) 62. ni = 1. Dp = 12 cm 2 s N d = 5 ´ 1017 cm -3.3 mW (B) 71.time are -8 -3 t p 0 = t n 0 = t 0 = 10 (A) 19 ´ 10 .4 ´ 10 (B) 19 ´ 10 .46 www.6 mm (D) 6. the breakdown voltage of this junction is (A) 35 V (C) 25 V (B) 30 V (D) 20 V 36.

826 = 7. 2p LC 2 p 2.77 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 C = AC¢ = 6 ´ 10 -4 ´ 2.008 V VR = 8. N d = 2.6 ´ 10 -14 )(10) æ 1018 ´ 1016 VbiB = 0.com æ VD ö 20.66 ´ 10 -12 18.85 ´ 10 -14 )(10 6 ) 2 . (B) I D = I s ç e hVt . (B) I D = I s ç e hVt .85 ´ 10 -4 )(10.752) ù .25 ´ 10 20 è é2 e( Vbi + VR ) Na Nd ù 2 | Emax | = ê e ( N a + N d) ú ë û Vbi + VR = = 2 eEmax 2e ö ÷ ÷ ø æ 1 1 ö ç ÷ çN + N ÷ è a d ø N a = 4. (B) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø æ 1018 ´ 1015 = 0. (D) W = í s bi + êN úý e ë a Na û þ î W A é( Vbia + V R ) ( N aA + N dA ) N aB N dB ù 2 = WB ê ( Vbib + R ) ( N aB + N dB ) N aA N dB ú ë û æN N ö Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø VbiA æ 1018 ´ 1015 = 0.814 øç 10 18 + 1016 è æN N ö 16.25 ´ 10 20 è W A éæ 5.1 ´ 1017 cm -3 1 (117 ´ 8.751 = 0.7 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 1 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) é 1 1 ùü 2 15.0259 ln ç ç 2.754 V ÷ ø 1 é2 ´ (117 ´ 8.85 ´ 10 2 (10 + 0.85 ´ 10 -14 )( 3 ´ 10 5) 2 æ . W -14 -4 = 35 ´ 10 -12 F .6 MHz.754 öæ 1018 + 1015 = êç ÷ç WB ëè 5. xn » ê ú eN d ë û 1 é2 eN d ù2 So that | Emax | = ê ( Vbi + VR ) ú ë es û Assuming Vbi << VR .0259 ln ç ÷ ç 2.008 .8 ´ 10 cm 1. (A) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø 2 æ 50 N a 0.1 ) = 35 mA ç ÷ è ø öæ 1016 öù 2 .754) -4 ´ 4.0.2 ´ 10 ù ú û = 2.0259 ln ç ç 2.0259 ln ç ç 2.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ 4. eA 117 ´ 8. 2 ´ 1015 cm -3.754) ë û 15 1 2 .gatehelp.9 æ VD ö 19. 24 ´ 1017 cm -3 0 .2 ´ 1015 ë û = 1.18 V 1 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) é 1 1 ùü 2 W = í s bi ê N + N úý . (B) | Emax | = eN a xn e = 5.85 ´ 10 -4 ´ 1015 ù 2 .814 V ÷ ø 1 1 é2e( Vbi + VR ) ù For a p+ n junction.754 V ÷ ø ö ÷ = 0. . ´ 117 ´ 8.6 ´ 10 =ê ë -19 1 2 1 2 é ù2 eeN a N d C¢ = ê ú ë2 ( Vi + VR )( N a + N d ) û 1 é ù2 eeN d For N a >> N d . 1 1 ö + ç ÷V 2 ´ 1. CT = .0259) . (C) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø Page 122 = 3.85 ´ 10 ´ 10 = 301 ´ 10 -5 .77 ´ 10 -9 = 1.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ 117 ´ 8.66 ´ 10 -12 F 1 1 fo = = = 2. e ë a a ûþ î Nd > > Na Þ é2 e( Vbi + VR ) æ 1 öù 2 ç W » ê ÷ ç N ÷ú e è a øû ë 1 2 æN N ö 17. 2 ´ 10 -3 ´ 1. =ê ú 2 (10 + 0.8 mm é ù ee N a N d 14.25 ´ 10 20 è ö ÷ = 0. C¢ = ê ú ë2 ( Vbi + VR ) û 1 é1.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices = 301 ´ 10 -5 cm. (D) C¢ = ê ú ë2( Vbi + VR )( N a + N d ) û é ee N a ù For N d >> N a .1 ÷ = 10 -10 ( e 2 ´( 0 .25 ´ 10 20 è ö ÷ = 0. æ 4 ´ 1016 ´ 4 ´ 10 17 ö ÷ = 0.0259 ln ç ç 2. 25 ´ 10 20 ø è 1 æN N ö 13.826 V = 0. -4 =ê ú = 1. = 2 eVR 2(1. C¢ = ê ú ë2( Vbi + VR ) û é1.6 ´ 10 -19 4 ´ 1016 4 ´ 1017 ø è = 8. ÷ç 15 ÷ú = 313 ÷ç 10 ÷ øû øè www. Nd = 2 eEmax (117 ´ 8.1 ÷ ç ÷ è ø Þ æ I ö VD = hVt ln ç 1 + D ÷ ç Is ÷ ø è .

x ÷ ù ç ÷ ø è dpn = 2.0 .9 ´ 10 -3 Cm ç ÷ é æ 0 .6 mV 1 23. (A) J p = .1ú ê ú ë û æI V1 .0259 ´ 2.5 ´ 10 -6 = 1. I d1 e = V2 = e I d2 e Vt np 0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 .Lx ç ÷ ç = pn 0 êe è kt ø .769 EV æ I p 0 t p 0 + I n 0 tn 0 29.1ú êe è 2 .0 .E g1 ö ç ÷ ç ÷ V 1 10 ´ 10 -3 =e 10 ´ 10 -6 10 = e 3 ( 0 . Y g d + jwCd 31.6 mV ÷ ø Þ ö æ I V = Vt ln ç + 1 ÷ ÷ çI ø è s V æ V ö ç e t .6 ´ 10 -19)( 480)(10 16 ) Page 123 www. (A) I = I s ç ÷ è ø = 4 ´ 10 7 cm -3 è ø 28.0259 ø .0259 ln 10 3 = 0. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 Nd 1016 10 -3 ´ 10 -7 = 193 ´ 10 -9 F .2 æ 70 ´ 10 -6 = (105)(0.86 ´ 10 -2 S 0.83´10 -4 ø ú ë ûë û 1 1 = = 235 .59 + 0.59 ö ç ÷ ç 0 .Va2 .86 ´ 10 -8 F 25.90 (–ive due to reverse current) Is V = 0.0259 ÷ è ø 1 J n = en Na Dn N Dn + a Nd Þ Dn . (D) æ E g2 .525+ E g2 ) ( 0 . ç 10 -18 è æ Vö ÷ çç V ÷ è tø ö ÷ = 0. (B) I s = Aen Nd 2 i e Þ I µ eè D t po 12 = 394 ´ 10 -15 A . (C) dpn = pn .8 ´ 1014 )( 3534) e -3534 x ¶x x = 3 mm = 3 ´ 10 -4 cm J p = (1.0259 ln 10 = 59.25 ´ 10 4 êe ç 0 .083 Nd æ ç ÷ é æ eVa ö ù é ç . 2 ´ (0. (B) I d » I s e .6 A cm 2 -4 t p 0 = 2 ´ 0. (B) Cd = ç ç 2 Vt è t n 0 = t p 0 = 10 -6 s.j7. (A) I µ ni2 e ç Vt ÷ µ e è æ Va .0 . = = 2.The pn Junction GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.95.0259) Lp = Dp t p 0 = ( 8)(1 ´ 10 -8 ) = 2.8 ´ 10 4 cm -3 Na 8 ´ 1015 Ln = Dn t no = 35 ´ 10 -6 = 5.2 = 26 W (10 -2 )(1.5 ´ 10 -6 = 3.eDp = eDp ( 3.83 ´ 10 -4 cm æ ö ÷ ç é æ 0 .com .V2 ) Vt ÷ ç é æ eVa ö ù ÷ ç 27.32 .gatehelp.0259) 24.3 ´ 10 -7 s rp L A = L A( em p N a ) 32. 16 10 Jn = 0.5 ö ù ç ÷ N p = 10 -3 ´ 5.87 V ÷ ø V1 Vt ( V1 . (D) g d = Cd = Z= I dQt p 0 2 Vt = 10 -3 = 3.0259 = pn 0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 .1ú êe è p ê ê ú ë ûë ö ÷ ÷ ø = 3. Cd = 2 ´ 10 ´ 10 2( 0.6 ´ 10 -19)(18)( 3.pn 0 ù ú ú û 30. Jn + Jp 2 i ø t ( Va1 .E g ö ç ÷ ç V ÷ ø t æ Va ö ç ÷ æ -Eg ö ç ÷ ç V ÷ t ø æ Va ö ç ÷ çV ÷ è tø I = -0.1÷ 22.5 W .8 ´ 10 e 14 -3534 x cm -3 ¶ ( dpn ) 26.8 ´ 10 4 êe è 0 .E ö = e Vt g2 ÷ ç a2 I2 ç ÷ Vt ø eè æ V a . è tø Þ tp 0 2 Vt = 2.8 ´ 1014 )( 3534) e . = = 2.6 ´ 10 -19)(15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . Dp 1 J p = en Nd 2 i Dp t po E g 2 = 0.95.255.0259) I dQ Vt -3 -6 5 = 0.0259 ln (1 .0. (A) For a p+ n diode I p 0 >> I n 0 æ 1 ö Cd = ç ÷ ç 2 V ÷( I pot po).E g1 + E g2 ) I1 e è = æ V .9 ´ 10 -3 ´ 2.0259) ln ç 1 + . t no = 0.9) = -59. (A) N p = ALn np 0 êe è kT ø -1ú ê ú ë û 21.( 3534 )( 3´10 = 0.95 Na 5+ 10 Nd ö ÷ ÷ ø I p 0 + I n 0 = I dQ = 2 mA Na = 0. 10 -7 = (10 -4 )(1. (C) RP = ) = 0.0259 ÷ .V2 = Vt ln ç d 2 çI è d1 ö ÷ = 0.61 ö ùé ç.

7. (D) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø Page 124 www.0259) ln ç ç 15 ´ 1010 è .18 ´ 10 -5 cm (1.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices Rn = = rn L L = A Ae(m n N d ) -3 æ 5 ´ 1019 = 2(0. = 35 ´ 10 4 10 ´ 10 -9 (5 ´ 10 4 )( 3.6 ´ 10 -19) = 715 MW .69 ´ 1018 cm -3 dLas 10 -6 change. J th = 3 ´ 10 -10 s t r ( J th ) = 5 J JA The optical power produced is p = hw e tr ( J ) = = (5 ´ 500)(2 ´ 10 -5)(1.69 ´ 1012 cm -3 1.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ N B hinj = N B = N d = 2 ´ 1016 cm -3 35. Na 1016 ni2 (1.6 ´ 10 -19)(5 ´ 1015) ú = 5.com . = = 5.0259) ln ç ç 1. the carrier density does not recombination is 15 ´ 10 -9 .34 ´ 10 cm 1. 2 ´ 10 -8 2 eEcrit 2 eN B Dn = tn 0 Dp tp 0 = 34. .10 = 46.8 ´ 106 ) 2 = = 6.6 ´ 10 è 5 ´ 10 øû ë = 6.34 ´ 10 -4 = 193 ´ 10 -9 A cm 2 .gatehelp.8 ´ 10 6 è 16 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) é 1 1 ùü 2 W = í s bi + êN úý e ë a Na û þ î 1 é2 ´ (117 ´ 8. -4 =ê ç 16 ÷ú = 1. 24 ´ 10 -4 ) (5 ´ 10 )( 3.48 ´ 106 cm -3 Nd 5 ´ 1017 25 = 5 ´ 10 4 . (A) VB = 25 = (117 ´ 8.85 ´ 10 -14 )(114 . VR = 19. (B) The areal density at threshold is n2 D = .19 ´ 10 -7 cm = 62 A° 38.3 W (10 )(1. 2 ´ 1.48 ´ 10 -6 ) .0.6 ´ 10 -19 e n2 D 4.986 39. 1 1 xn é2 eVB ù 2 é2(117 ´ 8. ö ÷ = 114 V ÷ . 2 öù 2 =ê ç -14 19 ÷ú 1. (A) For a p+ n diode. 24 ´ 10 -4 ) + ( 35 ´ 10 4 )( 6.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ 1. VR = VB 36.85 ´ 10 -14 )( 6. » ê ú = ê (1.85 ´ 10 -14 )(100) ù 2 .1 mm ë eN d û ë û **************** æN N ö 37.6 ´ 10 -19 10 øû è ë J gen = = eniW 2t o Dp Dn + pn 0 tn 0 tp 0 np 0 = pn 0 = ni2 (1. (B) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø æ 10 = 2(0.0259) ln ç ç 15 ´ 1010 ç n ÷ è . 10 ´ 10 -9 12 .6 ´ 10 -19 Þ Vbi + VR = 20. 1.6 ´ 10 )(2 ´ 5 ´ 10 ) û -5 2 Once the threshold is reached. i è ø 1 ö ÷ = 0.43 ´ 1. 4 1.8 ´ 106 ´ 1.18 ´ 10 ) = ê -19 6 ú ë (1.16 V ÷ ø 1 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) W = í s bi e î é 1 1 ùü 2 ê N + N úý ë a a ûþ Ln Dn np 0 Ln + Dp pn 0 Lp np 0 = np 0 Dn tn 0 é2 ´ (131 ´ 8.85 ´ 10 -14 )( 4 ´ 10 5) .85 ´ 10 -4 )( 4 ´ 10 5) 2 . Neglecting Vi compared to VB . When J > J th the electron hole (117 ´ 8. J th t r (500)(15 ´ 10 -9) = = 4.4) æ . (5. (D) Emax = eN d xn e Þ xn = eEmax eN d = 0.6 ´ 10 -19)(1350)(1015) R = Rp + Rn = 72.778 V ÷ ø The carrier density is nth = ì 2 e V æ N öæ öü 2 1 xn = í s bi ç a ÷ç ç N ÷ç N + N ÷ý ÷ d øþ î e è d øè a é2(117 ´ 8.6 ´ 10 -19)(5 ´ 1016 ) æN N ö æ 5 ´ 106 Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ = 2(0. ø 1 0. (B) Ln = Dn t n 0 .8 ´ 106 ) 2 = = 324 ´ 10 -4 cm -3 .9 V.16) æ 2 öù .3 W æN N ö 33. Lp = Dp t p 0 Dn np 0 hinj = 1 2 ö ÷ =1.69 ´ 1012 = = 4.85 ´ 10 -4 )( Vbi + VR ) ù .

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

2.3
THE BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR
Statement for Q.1-2: The parameters in the base region of an npn bipolar transistor are as follows Dn = 20 cm 2 s, nB0 = 10 4 cm -3, xB = 1 mm, ABE = 10 -4 cm 2 . 1. If VBE = 0.5 V, then collector current I C is (A) 7.75 mA (C) 0.16 mA (B) 1.6 mA (D) 77.5 mA 5. A uniformly doped npn bipolar transistor is biased in the forward-active region. The transistor doping concentration are N E = 5 ´ 1017 cm -3, N B = 10 16 cm -3 and N C = 1015 cm -3. The minority carrier concentration pE0 , nB0 and pC0 are (A) 4.5 ´ 10 2 , 2. 25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5 cm -3 (B) 2. 25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5, 4.5 ´ 10 2 cm -3 (C) 2. 25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5, 4.5 ´ 10 4 cm -3 (D) 4.5 ´ 10 4 , 2.25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5 cm -3 2. If VBE = 0.7 V, then collector current I C is (A) 418 mA (C) 17.5 mA (B) 210 mA (D) 98 mA 6. A uniformly doped silicon pnp transistor is biased in the forward-active mode. The doping profile is N E = 10 18 cm -3, N B = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N C = 1015 cm -3. For VEB = 0.6 V, the pB at x = 0 is 3. In bipolar transistor biased in the forward-active region the base current is I B = 50 mA and the collector currents is I C = 2.7 mA. The a is (A) 0.949 (C) 0.982 (B) 54 (D) 0.018 (A) 5.2 ´ 10 cm
19 -3

(See fig. P2.3.7-8) (B) 5.2 ´ 10 13 cm -3 (D) 5.2 ´ 10 11 cm -3

(C) 5.2 ´ 1016 cm -3 Statement for Q.7-8:

An npn bipolar transistor having uniform doping of N E = 10 18 cm -3 N B = 1016 cm -3 and N C = 6 ´ 10 15 cm -3 is operating in the inverse-active mode with VBE = - 2 V and VBC = 0.6 V. The geometry of transistor is shown in fig P2.3.7-8.
Emitter -nBase -pCollector -n-

4. A uniformly doped silicon npn bipolar transistor is to be biased in the forward active mode with the B-C junction reverse biased by 3 V. The transistor doping are N E = 1017 cm -3, N B = 1016 cm -3 and N C = 10 15 cm -3. The BE voltage, at which the minority carrier electron concentration at x = 0 is 10% of the majority carrier hole concentration, is (A) 0.94 V (C) 0.48 V (B) 0.64 V (D) 0.24 V

xE

xB

xC

x' = xE

x'=0 x'

x=0 x

x = xB x'' = 0 x''

x'' = xC

Fig. P2.3.7-8

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Page 125

UNIT 2

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Electronics Devices

7. The minority carrier concentration at x = x B is (A) 4.5 ´ 1014 cm -3 (C) 2.6 ´ 1014 cm -3 (B) 2.6 ´ 10 12 cm -3 (D) 39 ´ 10 14 cm -3 .

N E = 1018 cm -3, N B = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3, N C = 2 ´ 1019 cm -3, DE = 8 cm 2 s , DB = 15 cm 2 s , DC = 14 cm 2 s xE = 0.8 mm, xB = 0.7 mm The emitter injection efficiency g is (A) 0.999 (C) 0.982 (B) 0.977 (D) 0.934

8. The minority carrier concentration at x¢¢ = 0 is (A) 39 ´ 1014 cm -3 . (C) 2.7 ´ 10
14

(B) 2.7 ´ 10 12 cm -3 (D) 4.5 ´ 10
14

cm

-3

cm

-3

9. An pnp bipolar transistor has uniform doping of N E = 6 ´ 1017 cm -3, N B = 2 ´ 10 16 cm -3 and N C = 5 ´ 1014 cm . The transistor is operating is inverse-active mode. The maximum V CB voltage, so that the low injection condition applies, is (A) 0.86 V (C) 0.32 V Statement for Q.10-12: The following currents are measured in a 16. A silicon npn transistor has a doping concentration of N B = 1017 cm -3 and N C = 7 ´ 10 15 cm -3. The metallurgical base width is 0.5 mm. Let VBE = 0.6 V. Neglecting the B–E junction depletion width the VCE at punch-through is (A) 146 V (B) 0.733 (D) 0.8 17. A uniformly doped silicon pnp transistor is to (B) 0.44 (D) 8.39 designed with N E = 1019 cm -3 and N C = 10 16 cm -3. The metallurgical base width is to be 0.75 mm. The minimum base doping, so that the minimum punch-through voltage is Vpt = 25 V, is (B) 0.923 (D) 0.440 (A) 4.46 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 195 ´ 1015 cm -3 . (B) 4.46 ´ 10 16 cm -3 (D) 195 ´ 1016 cm -3 . (C) 295 V (B) 70 V (D) 204 V (B) 0.48 V (D) 0.60 V
-3

15. A uniformly doped silicon epitaxial npn bipolar transistor N B = 3 ´ 10 xB = 0.7 mm (A) 26.3 V (C) 12.2 V is
16

fabricated
-3 17

with

a

base

doping

of

cm

and a heavily doped collector region cm -3. The neutral base width is VBE = VBC = 0. The VBC at

with N C = 5 ´ 10 punch-through is

when

(B) 18.3 V (D) 6.3 V

uniformly doped npn bipolar transistor: I nE = 120 mA, I pE = 0.10 mA, I nC = 118 mA . . I R = 0.20 mA, I G = 1 mA, I pC0 = 1 mA 10. The a is (A) 0.667 (C) 0.787 11. The b is (A) 3.69 (C) 2.27 12. The g is (A) 0.816 (C) 1.083

13. A silicon npn bipolar transistor has doping concentration of N E = 2 ´ 1018 cm -3, N B = 10 17 cm -3 and . N C = 15 ´ 1016 cm -3. The area is 10 -3 cm 2 and neutral base width is 1 mm. The transistor is biased in the active region at VBE = 0.5 V. The collector current is (DB = 20 cm 2 s) (A) 9 mA (C) 22 mA (B) 17 mA (D) 11 mA

18. For a silicon npn transistor assume the following parameters: I E = 0.5 mA, b = 48 xB = 0.7 mA, xdc = 2 mm Cs = Cm = 0.08 pF, C je = 0.8 pF Dn = 25 cm 2 s, rc = 30 W The carrier cross the space charge region at a speed of 10 7 cm s. The total delay time t ec is (A) 164.2 ps (C) 144.2 ps (B) 234.4 ps (D) 298.4 ps

14. A uniformly doped npn bipolar transistor has following parameters:
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The Bipolar Junction Transistor

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 2.3

19. In a bipolar transistor, the base transit time is 25% of the total delay time. The base width is 0.5 mm and base diffusion coefficient is DB = 20 cm 2 s. The cut-off frequency is (A) 637 MHz (C) 12.8 GHz (B) 436 MHz (D) 46.3 GHz

Statement for Q.24-26: For the transistor in circuit of fig. P2.3.24-26. The parameters are bR = 1 , bF = 100 , and I s = 1 fA .
5V

20. The base transit time of a bipolar transistor is 100 ps and carriers cross the 1.2 mm B–C space charge at a speed of 10 7 cm s . The emitter-base junction charging time is 25 ps and the collector capacitance and resistance are 0.10 pF and 10 W, respectively. The cutoff frequency is (A) 43.8 GHz (C) 3.26 GHz Statement for Q.21-22: Consider the circuit shown in fig. P2.3.21-22. If voltage Vs = 0.63 V, the currents are I C = 275 mA and I B = 5 mA . (B) 32.6 GHz (D) 1.15 GHz 25. The current I E is (A) 1 fA (C) 2 fA 26. The current I B is (A) 2 fA (C) 1 fA (B) -2 fA (D) -1 fA (B) -1 fA (D) -2 fA 24. The current I C is (A) 1 fA (C) 1.384 fA (B) 2 fA (D) 0 A
Fig. P2.3.24-26

27. For the transistor in fig. P2.3.27, I S = 10 -15 A, bF = 100 , bR = 1. The current I CBO is
Vs
5V

Fig.P2.3.21-22

21. The forward common-emitter gain bF is (A) 56 (C) 0.9821 (B) 55 (D) 0.9818 (A) 101 ´ 10 -14 A . (C) 101 ´ 10 -15 A . Statement for Q.28-31: Determine 23. Consider the circuit shown in fig P2.3.23. If Vs = 0.63 V, I1 = 275 mA and I 2 = 125 mA, then the value of I 3 is
I1 I2

Fig.P2.3.27

22. The forward current gain a F is (A) 0.9821 (C) 55 (B) 0.9818 (D) 56

(B) 2 ´ 10 -14 A (D) 2 ´ 10 -15 A

the

region

of

operation

for

the

transistor shown in circuit in question. 28.
6V

Vs

I3

Fig. P2.3.23

Fig.P2.3.28

(A) - 400 mA (C) - 600 mA

(B) 400 mA (D) 600 mA

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation
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(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff
Page 127

UNIT 2

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Electronics Devices

29.

33. The current I1 is (A) -12.75 mA (C) 12.5 mA Statement for Q.34–35: The leakage current of a transistor are I CBO = 5 m
Fig. P2.3.29

(B) 12.75 mA (D) - 12.5 mA

6V

A and I CEO = 0.4 mA, and I B = 30 mA. 34. The value of b is (A) 79 (C) 80 35. The value of I C is (A) 2.4 mA (C) 2.34 mA (B) 2.77 mA (D) 1.97 mA (B) 81 (D) None of the above

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation 30.

(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff

6V

Statement for Q.36–37:
Fig.P2.3.30

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation 31.
3V

(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff

For a BJT, I C = 5 mA, I B = 50 mA and I CBO = 0.5 mA. 36. The value of b is (A) 103 (C) 83 37. The value of I E is (A) 5.25 mA (B) 5.4 mA (D) 5.1 mA (C) 5.65 mA (B) 91 (D) 51

6V

Fig.P2.3.31

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation Statement for Q.32-33:

(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff

********

For the circuit shown in fig. P2.3.32-33, let the value of b R = 0.5 and bF = 50. The saturation current is 10 -16 A.
+3 V

250 mA

I1

Fig. P2.3.32-33

32. The base-emitter voltage is (A) 0.53 V (C) 0.84 V
Page 128

(B) 0.7 V (D) 0.98 V
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The Bipolar Junction Transistor

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 2.3

SOLUTIONS
1. (A) I C = I s e
æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è b ø

8. (D) pC 0 =

ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 375 ´ 10 4 cm -3 . NC 6 ´ 1015
æ VBC ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø ö ÷ ÷

pC ( x¢¢ = 0) = pC 0 e è
æ ç ç 0 .6

eDn ABE nB 0 Is = xB = (1.6 ´ 10 -19)(20)(10 -4 )(10 4 ) = 32 ´ 10 -14 A . 10 -4
æ ç ç 0 .5 ö ÷ ÷

= 375 ´ 10 4 e è 0 .0259 ø = 4.31 ´ 1014 cm -3 . 9. (B) Low injection limit is reached when pC (0) = 0.10 N C = 5 ´ 1013 cm -3, pC 0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 4.5 ´ 10 5 NC 5 ´ 1014
æV ö ç CB ÷ ç V ÷ t ø

I C = 3. 2 ´ 10 -14 e è 0 .0259 ø = 7.75 mA 2. (C) I C = 32 ´ 10 .
-14 æ 0 .7 ö ç ÷ ç ÷ è 0 .0259 ø

e

= 17.5 mA

pC (0) = pC 0 e è

Þ

æ p (0) ö VCB = Vt ln ç C ÷ ÷ ç p è C0 ø

I bF 3. (C) bF = C , a F = IB 1 + bF aF = IC 2.7m = = 0.982 I C + I B 2.7m + 50m ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 NB 1016
æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø

æ 5 ´ 1013 ö = 0.0259 ln ç ÷ ç 4.5 ´ 10 5 ÷ = 0.48 V ø è 10. (C) a = = J nC I nC = + J R + J pE I nE + I R + I pE

J nE

4. (B) np 0 =

118 . = 0.787 12 + 0.2 + 0.1 . a 0.787 == = 3.69 1-a 1 - 0.787 J nE I nE 1. 2 = = = 0.923 J nE + J pE I nE + I pE 1. 2 + 0.1 ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2.25 ´ 10 3 cm -3 NB 1017 = 2.25 ´ 10 3 e è 0 .0259 ø = 5.45 ´ 1011 cm -3
æ ç ç 0 .5 ö ÷ ÷

At x = 0, np (0) = np 0 e è Þ

11. (A) b =

æ np (0) ö ÷ VBE = VT ln ç ç n ÷ è p0 ø 10 1016 ´ NB = = 10 15 100 10 ö ÷ = 0.635 V ÷ ø

12. (B) g =

np (0) = VBE

æ 1015 = 0.0259 ln ç ç 2.25 ´ 10 4 è

13. (B) nB 0 = nB (0) = nB 0 e è IC = =

5. (A) pE 0 = nB 0 = pC 0 =

ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 450 cm -3 NE 5 ´ 1017

æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø

ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 NB 5 ´ 1016 ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 5 cm -3 NE 5 ´ 1015 ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 4.5 ´ 10 3 cm -3 NB 5 ´ 1016
ö ÷ ÷ ø

eDB AnB (0) xB

(1.6 ´ 10 -19)(20)(10 -3)(5.45 ´ 10 11 ) = 17.4 mA 10 -4 1 N B D E xB 1+ × × N E D B xE

14. (B) g =

6. (B) pB 0 = pB (0) = pB 0 e 7. (C) nB 0 =

æ VEB ç ç V è t

= 4.5 ´ 10 e

æ 0 .6 ö ÷ ç ÷ ç 3 è 0 .0259 ø

=

= 5. 2 ´ 1013 cm -3

1 = 0.977 5 ´ 1016 8 0.7 1+ 1018 15 0.8

ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 NB 1016
æ VBC ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è t ø

æN N ö 15. (B) Vbi = Vt ln ç B 2 C ÷ ÷ ç n ø è i æ 3 ´ 1016 ´ 5 ´ 1017 = 0.0259 ln ç ç (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . è
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nB ( x = xB ) = nB 0 e
0 .6

ö ÷ = 0.824 V ÷ ø

= 2. 25 ´ 10 4 e 0 .0259 = 2.6 ´ 10 14 cm -3

At punch-through
Page 129

The Bipolar Junction Transistor

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 2.3

æ VBC ö æ VBE ö ÷ ö ç ÷ ç æ æ VBE ö ö ÷ ç ÷ ÷ ç ç I æ ç ÷ 27. (C) I E = I S ç e è Vt ø - e è Vt ø ÷ + S ç e è Vt ø - 1 ÷ = 0 ç ÷ bF ç ÷ è ø è ø æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø ç ç 1 bR + eè 1 + bF 1 + BF æ VBC ö ÷ Vt ÷ ø

33. (A) I E = (bF + 1) I B = 12.75 mA I1 = - I E = - 12.75 mA. 34. (A) I CEO = (b + 1) I CBO b+1= 0.4m = 80 5m Þ b = 79

Þ

=

æV ö æ VBC ö ç BC ÷ ù é æ VBE ö ç ÷ ù ç V ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ I é ç ÷ I C = I S êe è Vt ø - e è t ø ú - S êe è Vt ø - 1ú ê ú bR ê ú ë û ë û

35. (B) I C = bI B + I CEO = 79( 30m ) + 0.4m =2.77 mA 36. (A) I C = bI B + I CEO = b I B + (b + 1) I CBO b= I C - I CBO 5.2m - 0.5m = » 10396 . I B + I CBO 50m + 0.5m b = 0.9904 b+1

I CBO =

IS é ê1 - e 1 + bF ê ë

æ VBC ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è t ø

ù I é ú - S êe ú bR ê ë û

æ VBC ç ç V è t

ö ÷ ÷ ø

ù - 1ú ú û

VBC = - 5 V, Vt = 0.0259 V I CBO = Is I (1 - 0) - S (0 - 1) = 101I S = 101 ´ 10 -15 A . . 101 1

37. (A) a = IE =

28. (D) B-C Junction VBC Reverse Bias Forward bias Reverse Bias Forward-Active Cut-off Forward bias Saturation

I C - I CBO 5.2m - 0.5m = = 5.25 MA a 0.9904

B-E junction VBE

*******

Reverse-Active

VBE = 0 , VBC < 0, Thus both junction are in reverse bias. Hence cutoff region. 29.(A) VBE > 0 , VBC = 0, Base-Emitter junction forward bais, Base-collector junction reverse bias, Hence forward-active region. 30. (B) VBE = 0 , VBC > 0, Base-Emitter junction reverse bais , Base-collector junction forward bias, Hence reverse-active region. 31. (C) VBE = 6 V, VBC = 3 V, Both junction are forward biase, Hence saturation region. 32. (C) The current source will forward bias the base-emitter junction and the collector base junction will then be reverse biased. Therefore the transistor is in the forward active region IC = ISe
æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è t ø

I C = bF I B = 50 ´ 250 ´ 10 -6 = 12.5 ´ 10 -3 A æ 12.5 ´ 10 -3 ö æI ö ÷ VBE = Vt ln ç C ÷ = 0.0259 ln ç ç 10 -16 çI ÷ ÷ = 0.84 V ø è è Sø

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Page 131

UNIT 2

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

electronics Devices

11. In n-well CMOS fabrication substrate is (A) lightly doped n - type (B) lightly doped p - type (C) heavily doped n - type (D) heavily doped p - type 12. The chemical reaction involved in epitaxial growth in IC chips takes place at a temperature of about (A) 500° C (C) 1200° C (B) 800° C (D) 2000° C

18. Monolithic integrated circuit system offer greater reliability than discrete-component systems because (A) there are fewer interconnections (B) high-temperature metalizing is used (C) electric voltage are low (D) electric elements are closely matched 19. Silicon dioxide is used in integrated circuits (A) because of its high heat conduction (B) because it facilitates the penetration of diffusants (C) to control the location of diffusion and to protect and insulate the silicon surface. (D) to control the concentration of diffusants. 20. Increasing the yield of an IC (A) reduces individual circuit cost (B) increases the cost of each good circuit (C) results in a lower number of good chips per wafer (D) means that more transistor can be fabricated on the same size wafer. 21. The main purpose of the metalization process is

13. A single monolithic IC chip occupies area of about (A) 20 mm 2 (C) 2000 mm 2 (B) 200 mm 2 (D) 20,000 mm 2 s

14. Silicon dioxide layer is used in IC chips for (A) providing mechanical strength to the chip (B) diffusing elements (C) providing contacts (D) providing mask against diffusion 15. The p-type substrate in a monolithic circuit should be connected to (A) any dc ground point (B) the most negative voltage available in the circuit (C) the most positive voltage available in the circuit (D) no where, i.e. be floating 16. The collector-substrate junction in the epitaxial collector structure is, approximately (A) a step-graded junction (B) a linearly graded junction (C) an exponential junction (D) None of the above

(A) to act as a heat sink (B) to interconnect the various circuit elements (C) to protect the chip from oxidation (D) to supply a bonding surface for mounting the chip 22. In a monolithic-type IC (A) each transistor is diffused into a separate isolation region (B) all components are fabricated into a single crystal of silicon (C) resistors and capacitors of any value may be made (D) all isolation problems are eliminated 23. Isolation in ICs is required

17. The sheet resistance of a semiconductor is (A) an important characteristic of a diffused region especially when used to form diffused resistors (B) an undesirable parasitic element (C) a characteristic whose value determines the required area for a given value of integrated capacitance (D) a parameter whose value is important in a thin-film resistance
Page 140

(A) to make it simpler to test circuits (B) to protect the transistor from possible ``thermal run away’’ (C) to protect the components mechanical damage (D) to minimize electrical interaction between circuit components 24. Almost all resistor are made in a monolithic IC
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(A) during the base diffusion

Integrated Circuits

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chapc2.5

(B) during the collector diffusion (C) during the emitter diffusion (D) while growing the epitaxial layer 25. The equation governing the diffusion of neutral atom is (A) (C) ¶N ¶2 N =D ¶t ¶x 2 ¶ N ¶N =D 2 ¶t ¶x
2

30. For the circuit shown in fig. P2.5.30, the minimum number and the maximum number of isolation regions are respectively

R2

R1 Q1 Q2 Vo2

(B) (D)

¶N ¶2 N =D ¶x ¶t 2 ¶ N ¶N =D 2 ¶x ¶t
2

Fig. P2.5.32

26. The true statement is (A) thick film components are vacuum deposited (B) thin film component are made by screen-and- fire process (C) thin film resistor have greater precision and are more stable (D) thin film resistor are cheaper than the thin film resistor 27. The False statement is (A) Capacitor of thin film capacitor made with proper dielectric is not voltage dependent (B) Thin film resistors and capacitor need to be biased for isolation purpose (C) Thin film resistors and capacitor have smaller stray capacitances and leakage currents. (D) None of the above 28. Consider the following two statements S1 : The dielectric isolation method is superior to junction isolation method. S2 : The beam lead isolation method is inferior to junction isolation method. The true statements is (are) (A) S1 , S2 (C) only (B) only (D) Neither nor S2

(A) 2, 6 (C) 2, 4

(B) 3, 6 (D) 3, 4

31. For the circuit shown in fig. P2.5.31, the minimum number of isolation regions are

Fig. P2.5.31

(A) 2 (C) 4

(B) 3 (D) 7

*******

29. If P is passivation, Q is n-well implant, R is metallization and S is source/drain diffusion, then the order in which they are carried out in a standard n-well CMOS fabrication process is (A) S - R - Q - P (C) Q - S - R - P (B) R - P - S - Q (D) P - Q - R - S

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Page 141

(D) 20. (C) 15. (C) 18. (B) 5. (A) The minimum number of isolation region is two. (D) The minimum number of isolation region is 3 one containing Q1 . (B) 10. 31.com .gatehelp. The maximum number of isolation region is 4. (D) 29. ******* Page 142 www. One for transistor and one for resistor. (A) 23. (C) 13. (B) 12. (B) 27. (A) 30. (B) 14. (C) 6. (B) 17. (A) 2. (C) 19. (B) 9. (D) 8.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia electronics Devices SOLUTIONS 1. one containing and one containing both and . (B) 21. (A) 22. (B) 28. (C) 25. (A) 24. (D) 16. (A) 26. or one per component. (B) 4. (D) 7. (C) 11. (C) 3.

Choose the option for the waveform of output voltage vo .3 16 vo (A) vo 20 (B) vo 20 4 T 2 T t 4 T 2 T t (A) vo vo 16 (B) 5 t t 12 -4 T 2 (A) 2.1 20 15 vi 4V vo _ 2 T -16 T t t -10 -5 t vo 12 Fig.2 _ Fig.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 3.1.1. R D1 t vi 10 kW vo _ -5 6V vo t -10 vi 8V D2 Fig. The diode in circuit has cutin voltage Vg = 0.3. + 2.4 www. P3.1.3.1–4: In the question a circuit and a waveform for the input voltage is given.2 kW vi 5V _ -5 20 vi (C) 3.1.3. -3 vo 18 22 vo t t (A) vo t -7 (B) vo t 1.gatehelp.com Page 145 . t (D) vo 2 kW + vi 16 Fig.1 DIODE CIRCUITS Statement for Q. 2V + 20 (D) T t 4 T 2 T t (C) vi (D) vi + 10 4.

5 V _ vo (C) is Vg = 0.7 15 vi 4. the output waveform is + + 1 MW vi vo 2.8 -5. For the circuit shown in fig. P3. For the circuit in fig.6 the cutin voltage of diode _ Fig.33 10 vi -10 3.8 vo vo 5 -10 10 -5 t t Fig.7.5. vo 7.6 vo 19.33 4.42 5. P3.65 10 vs (A) vo 10 (B) vo 10 (C) 3.3 5.33 10 vi (D) 8.com (C) (D) . P3.48 10 3.3 4.1.1.1.33 4.68 -10 -6.1.7 V.gatehelp.33 -10 3.68 6. The vo for -10 £ vs +10 V is +10 V t 8 t -6 -8 10 kW D1 D2 vo D3 D4 10 kW -10 V 10 kW (C) (D) vs 5. The plot of vo versus vi is 2 kW 1 kW 15 V vi 1 kW (D) 6.7 V.6 19.1.42 4.8 10 vs -10 (B) vo 4.7 V.3 vo 9.5 vo 9.65 4.65 -4.43 10 kW vo Fig.7. P3.1. each diode has Vg = 0. let cutin voltage Vg = 0. For the circuit in fig. P.8.33 -10 3.3 15 vi vo vo 9.43 10 -10 -7.7 15 vi 4.6 vo (A) 5.3. P3. P3. A symmetrical 5 kHz square wave whose output varies between +10 V and -10 V is impressed upon the clipping circuit shown in fig.33 10 vi -10 3.7 t -6 -10 t (C) (A) vo vo 6 (D) (B) 7.1.48 vs vs Fig. If diode has rf = 0 and rr = 2 MW and Vg = 0. P3.UNIT 3 vo 8 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics vo 9.65 4.3 15 vi -5 vo 5 t vo (B) t (A) Page 146 (B) www. The plot of vo verses vi for -10 £ vi £ 10 V is + 20 kW vi 10 V 10 V _ vo 8.03 10 vi (A) vo 5.3 -10 -8.7 5.1.

3. P3.com Page 147 . P3.13 diodes has cutin voltage of 0. The output voltage vo is C + vi vo -10 _ vi 10 R t 5V 500 W 3V 5V Fig. In the circuit of fig.12. In the circuit of fig.10 the input voltage vi is as shown in fig.1.3.9. Assume the RC time constant large and cutin voltage of diode Vg = 0. If diode are ideal then the voltage vo is D1 + + v1 + v2 v3 D2 D3 vo 10 kW v v3 v2 vi C + vo 5V _ -20 vi 10 t R v1 t 35 Fig.4 V 18 W 5V (C) (D) (A) only D1 (C) both D1 and D2 Fig.10 vo 20 10 t t 13. The current i1 and i2 are (C) (D) D1 i1 i2 D2 10.1. P. 0 (D) 8 mA. P3.1. In the circuit of Fig.1. For the circuit shown in fig.1.1. P3.11 vo vo 25 vo Fig.11.1.Diode Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.9 5 vo t -5 t (A) vo t t 15 t (B) (A) vo vo (B) -15 (D) None of the above (C) t t (D) 12.1. P3.3. P.gatehelp. 0 vo Fig. P.12 (A) 0. D1 and D2 are ideal diodes.1. the input voltage vi is as shown in fig. Assume the RC time constant large and cutin voltage Vg = 0. The diode in ON state are D1 12 W 6W D2 (A) vo t -10 -20 vo (B) t 5. P3. the three signals of fig are impressed on the input terminals.1.3. The output voltage vo is (B) only D2 (D) None of the above www.1 9.13 11. For the circuit shown in fig. 4 mA (C) 0. 8 mA (B) 4 mA.6 V. P.

+10 V 9. 3. The largest and smallest possible value of vo most nearly to is respectively +15 V (B) 1. P3.1.1.07 V (B) 7.29–30 has the non linear terminal characteristic as shown in fig. P3.26–28: The diodes in the circuit of fig. 0 V (D) 15 V. The current iD is (A) 2.5 0.29–30: The diode in the circuit of fig.31 (A) 15 V.13 V (C) 5.6 V and rf = 0. P3.43 V (D) 8. The voltage vD is (A) 0.5( 3 + 1 cos wt) V (B) 0.7 Fig.93 V (C) 18. then vo is (A) 10 V (C) 8. If v1 = 10 V and v2 = 0 V.5(2 + 3 cos wt) V (B) 5(0. P3.63 V (D) 10. If v2 = 10 V.5 kW v2 v1 0.5 kW 0. The diodes in the circuit in fig.gatehelp.56 V (B) 9.842 V (D) 1. P3.16 V (D) 12.6 V and rf = 0.1. The circuit inside the box in fig.22 (A) 8.1. then vo is (A) 8.5 + cos wt) mA (D) 5(1 + 0. then vo is (A) 8.Diode Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.22 has parameters Vg = 0.13 V Fig. The current iD2 is +10 V 9. If v1 = 10 V and v2 = 5 V.25( 3 + cos wt) V (C) 0. The terminal voltage vo is connected to some point in the circuit inside the box.31.1.964 V (C) 10 V Statement for Q. If v2 = 0.93 V (B) 12. 6 V (C) 24 V.5 cos wt) mA 24.6 mA Statement for Q.25(1 + 3 cos wt) V (D) 0.5 kW 0.1. P3.23-25 have linear parameter of Vg = 0. P3.43 V (C) 7.07 V (D) 0. then output voltage vo is (A) 0.1.1. 6 V Fig.com . If v2 = 5 V.4 mA (C) 7.5 kW vo D2 31. then vo is (A) 9.43 V Statement for Q. P3.07 V 25.82 V (B) 0. then output voltage vo is (A) 6. 500 W v2 +10 V 500 W D1 9.5 kW D1 D3 +5 V vo D2 26.69 V 27.29–30 Fig.82 V (D) 2. P3.24 V 28.1.23–25 23.5(1 + cos wt) mA (C) 5(1 + cos wt) mA 30. If v1 = v2 = 0.23–25: (B) 10 mA (D) 0 mA The diodes in the circuit in fig. Let the voltage be vs = cos wt V.26–28 (B) 24 V.6 V and rf = 0. contains only resistor and diodes.26–28 have linear parameters of Vg = 0.93 V (C) 1. -9 V Page 149 www.1. 100 W vi a iD 100 W + vD b vD(V) 4 iD(mA) (B) 9.5 kW 0V iD2 +5 V 0.18 V 29.842 V -9 V Circuit Containing Diode and Resistor vo Fig.5 kW D1 D2 vo 2V ~ 0.1 22.

P3. The secondary transformer voltage of the rectifier 20 V Vz = 4 V Rz = 0 3.34 mA. The diode cutin voltage is 0.94 mA.35 (A) 5 kW (C) 10 kW (B) 2 kW (D) 8 kW vi = 120 sin 2 p60 t V.5 mA Fig. P3.1.com Page 150 . The value of filter capacitor will be + + vo 10 kW Fig. The value of RL that will establish maximum power in Zener diode is 222 W vi + vs - C - Fig.4 mF (D) 16.8 V Rz = 0 iL RL Fig.36–38: In the voltage regulator circuit in fig. P3.1. The power rating required for the load resistor is (A) 576 mW (C) 480 mW (B) 360 mW (D) 75 mW 34. P3. If the output voltage cannot drop below 100 V. P3.34 (A) (0. The Q-point for the Zener diode in fig.1. In the voltage regulator shown in fig.4 mA (C) 1.93 V) (D) (0. The range of possible load current is (A) 5 £ iL £ 130 mA (C) 10 £ iL £ 110 mA (B) 25 £ iL £ 120 mA (D) None of the above 50 V Vz = 15 V Rz = 0 75 W 37.33 (A) 1 W (C) 2 W (B) 1. The input to full-wave rectifier in fig.36–38 the Zener diode current is to be limited to the range 5 £ iz £ 100 mA.2 mF 40.94 mA.34 mA.1. 4 V) (C) (0.33 the power dissipation in the Zener diode is 150 W 36.1.1.5 W 38.1.8 mF 20 V Vz = 10 V Rz = 0 RL (B) 24.1 mF (C) 32. P3.8 mA (B) 2.3 mA (D) 2. P3.6 kW circuit shown in fig. In the voltage regulator circuit in fig.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 32.1. 4.93 V) 35.6 V.1. 3. The range of possible load resistance is (A) 60 £ RL £ 372 W (C) 40 £ RL £ 192 W (B) 60 £ RL £ 200 W (D) 40 £ RL £ 360 W Fig.32 (A) 1. 12 W iz 6.39 (A) 48. In the voltage regulator circuit in fig. The ripple voltage is to be no more than Vrip = 2 V.1.39 is vs = 60 sin 2 p60 t V.gatehelp.32 the maximum load current iL that can be drawn is 15 kW iL 30 V Vz = 9 V Rz = 0 RL Statement for Q.5 W (D) 0.1. P3.40 is Fig.1. P3.1.7 V. P3. P3.35 the power rating of Zener diode is 400 mW.34 is 11 kW 39. Each diode has a cut in voltage of Vg = 0. the required value of the capacitor is www.3 V Vz = 4.36–38 33. 4 V) (B) (0. 4. P3.

25 kW (C) 30 kW (B) 12.6 mF (B) 41. both diode vi - Fig.2.1. vo = 20 20 = 3.465 mA. (B) For D off . the output is negative of positive part.com . For the circuit shown in fig.1 + 1 : 1 + + vs + vs 2. vo = vs .7 = 0.33 + 0. For vs > 6 V.2. The minimum load resistance.7 = 4. Current through D2 is i= 10 . Thus (D) is correct option.03 V. vo = vi + 2 = -3 V Thus (C) is correct option.0.2 mF (D) 30. vo = 3.5 V and vo = 2. v1 = 15 ´ 1 =5 V 2 +1 Þ 3v1 + 2 vo . D2 is on vo = -6 V.5 + i = 5 V.41 diode cutin voltage is Vin = 0.9 Þ vo = 0. Diode is open (2 MW resistance) when v . vi < .Diode Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. Therefore (D) is correct option. (C) During positive cycle when vs < 8 V. 4.42 7. The ripple voltage is to be no more than vrip = 4 V.15 v1 v .5 kW C vo - SOLUTIONS 1. During negative cycle when |vs | < 6 V.40 (A) 61.gatehelp. 2.Thus vo = 0 For vi + 2 < 0 V.33 V For vi > 4.6 mF 41. 3.5 vi > 2.7 5 vo . vo = vi .7 For vi = 10 V. (D) Diode is off for vi < 5 V. For vs > 8 V .50 kW (D) None of the above **************** For vi £ 5. P3.2 vi = 15 Fig. (C) Let v1 be the voltage at n-terminal of diode. (D) For vs > 0. (C) Diode will be off if vi + 2 > 0.65 V.7 V.1. vo = vi . vo = vi v1 . For vi > 4 V diode is off and output vo = vi . vo = 10 ki = 4.3 V 6. D1 is ON.33 V.2 v1 = 15 + 2. both diode are OFF. that can be connected to the output is + 75sin 2p60t V ~ 50 mF vo - RL are OFF vo = vs .0.65 V 10 + 10 vo = vs for 0 < vs < 4. Hence vo = 5 V. 8. when D1 is OFF. 1 1 + 20 10 For vi £ 3. vo = 9.03 V . (D) For vi < 4 V the diode is ON and output vo = 4 V.4 vi + 3. 10 10 5.1. 3 Page 151 www.1 = 17.vi + + o =0 2k 1k 1k vo = v1 + 0.5 V and vo = vi . Therefore (C) is correct.2 mF (C) 20. (B) The diode conducts (zero resistance) when vi < 2. P3. For negative values of vs . For vi > 5 V.41 (A) 6. vo = 8 V. P3. Thus (D) is correct option.

9 = 1.3 = 20.8 i= = 125 mA 12 iL = i .5 = 0.0.4 mA.4.15 ÷ = 33 mA. (C) Full wave rectifier vs = vi = 120 sin 2 p60 t V vmax = 120 .iZ = 125 .25 kW = fCVrip 60 ´ 50 ´ 10 -5 ´ 4 *************** 50 | > VZ .3 V Page 154 www. 33. (B) iZ ( max ) = iL + iZ = 20 .10 = 45 mA 222 10 = 2 kW 5m iL ( min ) = 45 .3 V Vrip = 119.5 ´ 10 3 ´ 14. (A) PL = iL VZ = (120m)( 4.4 mA iL 15 k C= vmax 2 fkVrip = 119.3 . (D) The output voltage cannot exceed the positive power supply voltage and cannot be lower than the negative power supply voltage.7 = 119.40 = 5 mA.75 + 0.6 vmax C= = = 24. 25( 3 + cos wt) V 31.6 mF 2( 60)2.8 V 25 £ 4.com . (B) Current through 12 W resistor is 6.4 41. 11 + 3.6 V 58.iZ Þ 25 £ iL £ 120 mA 37. RTH = 150 | 75 = 50 W 3 1 æ 50 ö iZ = .4 mF 2 fRVrip 2( 60)10 ´ 10 3 ´ 2 40.71 kW. P = 15 iZ = 0.8 £ 120 mA RL Þ 40 £ RL £ 192 W 38. 32. (A) vTH = RTH 3. (B) vs = 60 sin 2 p60 t V vmax = 60 .93 V > VZ .6 4. RL = 36. (C) 25 £ iL £ 120 mA. iZ = | = 0. (A) At regulated power supply is = will remain less than 1.5 W ç 50 è 3 ø 34.4 = 58.1.71k 400m = 40 mA 10 35.6(20) = 4. 25 cos wt = 0.3 . iL RL = 4. (D) vTH = 75(50) 50 V = 75 + 150 3 30 .4 = 11 | 3.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics = 50 ´ 5 (1 + cos wt) ´ 10 -3 + 0.100 = 19.93 .34 mA 2.8) = 576 mV 39.6 = 2.gatehelp. (A) Vrip = RL = vmax fRL C 75 vmax = 6.

1 (A) 1.7 V. P3.3 (A) 0.04 kW (B) 1. VCE ( Sat ) = 0.9 V (D) 2.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 3. The voltage VBE in ON state is 0. 3.1 V 3.1-4: The common-emitter current gain of the transistor is b =75. 3.946 mA.987 mA.7 V.4 Fig. RC = ? +5 V (B) 6.98 kW 2. VEC = ? (B) 0.gatehelp. 4. RC = ? RC 50 kW VC = 2 V +12 V 10 kW IQ = 1 mA + VEC = 6 V RC -5 V Fig.3.2 BASIC BJT CIRCUITS Use VBE ( ON ) = 0.4 V (C) 4.04 kW (D) None of the above +8 V 10 kW 20 kW 10 kW 10 kW -2 V VC 2 kW 3 kW -8 V Fig. 6.3 V Page 155 .3..057 mA. 5. I C . P3.2 V for npn (A) 8.com (B) 2. Statement for Q.987 mA.13 mA. P3.46 mA.18 kW (D) 1.96 kW (D) 0. 3.78 V www. P3.49 V (C) 1.3.96 kW 4.2 (A) 1.74 kW (C) 1. 1. I E .013 mA. 2. VC = ? +5 V -12 V Fig.2 V (D) None of the above transistor if not given in problem.3.

63 (B) 1.1 V +3 V 9.3. 11.3.46 V (D) None of the above For the transistor in circuit shown in fig.43 mA. VBB = 2 V (A) 3. In the circuit shown in fig. The value of a and b are respectively +5 V Fig.14-16 8. P3. P3. 2. 6 V Page 156 14. VB = 0 V (A) 6.14-16 has b = 150.2 V (B) 135.914.5-6: In the circuit of fig.2 V Statement for Q.4 (C) 134. VB = 2 V (A) -7 V (B) 1. I Q = 0.46 V (C) 3.P3.83 V (D) 4.943.914.7 V (D) 4. b = ? (A) 103.8 kW (C) 2.3.4 V (C) 1.4 V (C) 3.1 mA (B) 2.18 V (C) 0.8-10: (B) 0.3.3.18 mA.5-6 5.8-10 Fig.4 The transistor in circuit shown in fig.8-10.54 (D) 0.7 voltage VE = 4 V. P3.3. 17.11-12: -3 V Fig.com . Determine Vo for given value of I Q in question.5 (D) 102.3. VB = 1 V (A) 4 V (C) 1 V 10. Determine the value of voltage Vo for given value of VBB .63 Statement for Q.9 V 500 kW 4. +5 V 5 kW 50 kW Vo 10 kW VBB 7.2 V (B) 4. 11.7 (A) 0. VBB = 1 V (B) 1. b = 200.11-12 2 kW 11.6 V Statement for Q. 3.3.04 V 100 kW VE 8 kW (A) 4.gatehelp.5 6. +6 V The transistor shown in the circuit of fig.46 V 13.5 V (D) None of the above www.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics Statement for Q. P3.54 (C) 0.3 V (B) 4.4 V (C) 0 A. VCE = ? (A) 6.5-6 VB = .5 V (D) None of the above (B) 3 V (D) 1. 17. Determine the value of I E and I C for given value of VB in question. P3.4 V (D) None of the above (A) 1.14-16: (B) 1.914.3.33 V 12.11 V (C) 2.44 V -5 V Fig. P3.11-12 has b = 200. P3.3.83 V (D) 3. P3. VBB = 0 (A) 2. +5 V 5 kW 10 kW VC VB Vo IQ 1 kW -5 V Fig. P3.

3. (A) 0. For the circuit shown in fig. P3.9 V (C) 2.20 . P3.22 the Q-point is VCEQ = 12 V and I CQ = 2 A when b = 60.68 mA (C) 0. P3. The value of a is +10 V 10 kW VE RB RC 50 kW 10 kW Fig. P3. The value of VB is +6 V 50 kW 4. P3.24 V (D) 6.5 mA 5 kW Vo 50 kW 4.7 kW 10 kW VC VB -9 V Fig.7 kW IQ -9 V Fig.07 V Fig. In the circuit shown in fig.3. the power dissipated in the transistor is +9 V 18.20 1 kW (A) 3. 699 kW www.Basic BJT Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. P3.9 V (D) -0.18.991 (C) 0.21 -5 V (A) 3.3.74 mW Fig.13 V (C) 5. 241 kW Page 157 Fig.gatehelp.19 (C) 6 kW.5 V (B) 2.22 (A) 10 kW.3. 241 kW -10 V (B) 10 kW.14 V (B) 1. P3.9 V (C) 0. The value of voltage VEC is +9 V 1 mA 17. P3.18 (A) 1. For the circuit shown in fig.939 (D) 0.5 V and b = 100.909 mA (D) None of the above 22.19 the emitter voltage is VE = 2 V.968 (B) 0.19 V (D) 1.21 if b = 50. b = 50.3.3. 699 kW (D) 6 kW.16 V (C) 2.52 V (D) 394V . P3.46 mW (D) 18.14 V 16.17 VB = VC and b = 50. For the transistor in fig.914 20. The value of resistor RC and RB are +24 V 19.3.18 V (B) 4.5 V (B) -4. I Q = 0.87 mW (C) 7.49 mW (B) 10. VCB = 0. P3. For the circuit shown in fig. P3.3.317 (A) 0.com .3.3.134 mA (B) 0.3. For the circuit in fig. P3. The value of I Q is +5 V 0.5 mA (A) 3. I Q = 2 mA (A) 4.84 V 21.2 15.

2.4 mA .73 V Fig. The current gain of the transistor shown in the circuit of fig.3 V www.4 V) (C) (0 .1 V) Fig.68 mA. The value of I CQ and VCEQ are +12 V 25 kW 3 kW 500 W 8 kW 1 kW Fig. 14. VCEQ) is +24 V 34. 1.43 V) (A) 2.47 mA. The Q-point values ( I CQ . P3.3.3.23 V) (B) (0. let b = 75. 5. P3. P3.3. The current gain of the transistor shown in the circuit of fig. 8. The value of VECQ is +5 V +10 V 58 kW 10 kW 2 kW 42 kW 10 kW 20 kW 2.46 V) . P3.8 mA. 4. 2.8 V) (D) (0. 4. For the transistor in the circuit of fig. The values of Q-point ( I CQ .3.Basic BJT Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.8 V) 33.P3.43 A .3.2 kW Fig.31 (A) ( 4.3.3 V) (D) (1. 5.4 V) 30.32 is b = 100. 16.69 V 31.3.com Page 159 .46 V) (C) ( 312 mA.29 V (D) 4.418 mA. 1.31. P3.7 V (D) 10. 5. For the circuit shown in fig. VCEQ) are +24 V (C) (1.94 V (D) 5.33 (B) 4. 16. For the circuit in fig.6 V (C) 3.915 mA.2 29. P3. The Q-point (I CQ .7 V (B) 12.34 Zener voltage is VZ = 5 V and b = 100. VCEQ) is +5 V 20 kW 1 kW 12 kW 5 kW 15 kW 2 kW 0.34 Fig.gatehelp. P3.P3.9 V (B) 4. 20. The voltage VB is +10 V 32.3.4 mA.32 (B) (1. (B) ( 312 mA .33.69 V (A) (1. P3. let b = 60.68 V (C) 3.3.22 V) (A) 12. (D) ( 4.3.3 V (C) 10. 18.68 mA .418 mA.3.30 -5 V -10 V (A) (0.30 is b = 125.29 -5 V (A) 3.5 kW Fig. In the circuit of fig. P3.47 mA. 1.29. P3.43 A.8 mA.3.915 mA.86 V) . b = 100.

If b = 25.com . the current I C2 is +5 V IC2 25 mA (A) 36. The expression for each load current is V + (A) 25 V (C) 15 V (B) 25. b = 50 and the Fig.63 mA (C) 49.2.38 VZ = 12 V.3 V.7 V. +5 V Assume transistor are (A) 11.2.gatehelp.68 mA (D) 432 mA 41. The output voltage Vo is +25 V 220 W 20 kW 50 kW Vo 1 mA Io Fig.35 are identical.2 V and VBE = 0. P3.2. P3. P32.32 mA (B) 36.9 V matched. P3. In the regulator circuit of fig.7 V (D) 15.7 V. P3. The two transistor in fig.19 mA 40.39 100 W (A) 6.2.04 mA (C) 962 mA (B) 1.38 Page 160 www. The output current I o is 37. VZ = 8.41 Fig.2.7 V.37 are matched with a finite gain b and early voltage V A = ¥.13 mA (D) 9.2. In the series voltage regulator circuit of fig.37 VBE = 0. All transistor in the N output mirror in fig.26.8 V (C) 12.5 V (B) 7. P3.7 V 38. P3. the transistor parameters are VBE = 0. In the current mirror circuit of fig. The Zener current is +20 V 220 W 1 kW Vo Io1 Iref R1 QS QR Q1 Io2 Io3 Q2 QN V - Fig.39 the diode voltage and transistor BE voltage are equal.7 V. b = 50.41 Fig. In the bipolar current source of fig.17 mA (D) 49.5 V (D) 8.40 50 kW 30 kW (A) 1.48 mA (B) 2.2.43 mA (C) 1.36 Early voltage is infinite. P3.2.2 mA (D) 24 mA 4. In the shunt regulator of fig.7 kW 10 kW 36.2. P3. The regulated output voltage Vo is 120 W +22 V Vo 10 kW -20 V Fig. P3.78 mA 39. b = 50.40. VBE = 0.2.2.2.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 35.2. the VZ = 8. P3. P3. If base current is neglected then collector current is Fig.35 (A) 28 mA (C) 26 mA (B) 23. P3. P3.

The expression for I o is V + Io Iref R1 I C = bI B = 0.( -3) -17 + 3 . Consider the basic three transistor current source in fig.2.98 kW 2.5 ´ 8 I B = 43 mA .5m =1 + b = = 11. P3.7 10 k Þ .42 RC = I ref æ 1 ö ç1 + ÷ ç (2 + b) ÷ è ø I ref æ ö 1 ç1 + ÷ ç b(2 + b) ÷ è ø 5.5.7 + b2 kI B 5 = (760 k + 20 k + 150 k) I B + 0.2 (A) I ref æ (1 + N ) ö ç1 + ÷ ç b (b + 1) ÷ è ø b I ref æ (1 + N ) ö ç1 + ÷ ç (b + 1) ÷ è ø (B) I ref æ N ö ç1 + ÷ ç (b + 1) ÷ è ø b I ref æ N ö ç1 + ÷ ç b + 1÷ è ø SOLUTIONS 1.760 ´ 4. IE 0.8 k IE 0.42. è ø VCE = 12 .347 mA VC = 5 . ç 75 + 1 ÷(113) = 112 mA ÷ .4 kW 4 = 0.12 RC . P3.5 mA 2k -5 V Fig.987m (A) I ref æ 2 ö ç1 + ÷ ç (1 + b) ÷ è ø I ref æ ö 2 ç1 + ÷ ç b(1 + b) ÷ è ø (B) 4.3 kW.5 6. I E = (b + 1) I B = 0.0.7 + 10 I B .918 mA 8 = 10(0. P3. (C) 8 = 10 ´ (75 + 1) I B + 0.3 kW .43 (A) 9.0 mA RB 500k (C) (D) 43.7 Þ I B = 4. Consider the wilder current source of fig.62 ´ 10 -3 = 1.3 = 100 I B + 0.026) +5 V R1 Iref Io Q1 Q2 RE VE = -1 .VE = 3 .com .1 V 75 æ 75 ö 3.271m = (b + 1) = IB 2m Þ b = 134.17 V . (A) I C = ç (1m) = 0.23 kW (C) 15. 8.906 mA.7 = .63 IB 43m Page 161 Þ ***************** www. I E = 113 mA æ 75 ö IC = ç . IE = E = = 0.8 k 4.08 mA.8 Þ VEC = 4.2.3 = 12.43.Basic BJT Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. (C) I E = 5.1.906) .7 + I B RB + I C RC . Both of transistor are identical and b >> 1 and VBE1 = 0. 18.918) + VEC + 3(0. (A) 5 = (1 + b)10 kI B + 20 kI B + 0.7 V.4 kW . I C » I E .I B RB Þ IB = -VB 1 = = 2. Assume all transistor are matched with finite gain and early voltage V A = ¥. P3.271 mA 4. I C = bI B = 0.2. (B) VCE = 3 . The value of resistance R1 and RE to produce I ref = 1 mA and I o = 12 mA is ( Vt = 0.7 V .0.58 kW (D) 15.13 ´ 10 . 0. 10 + 760 (C) (D) 42. (C) I E = 12 . 32.gatehelp.( -12) = 6 V RC = 5.1. 7. 9.4 kW .2 IB = 9.2.2 = 304 kW .(b + 1) I B RC = 5 . 16.987 mA ÷ IE = 76 è 75 + 1 ø V - Fig.( -17) = 4.2 kW (B) 9.49 V 5.62 mA.4 = 0. V . (C) VB = .

8 VB = 12.gatehelp. I E = I C » I E = 0.7 = 1. I Q = ç ÷0.0196) + 0.7) . (B) VB = 1 V . I E = 0.7 = 1. I E = = 1.497 mA è 150 + 1 ø Vo = 5 .2 . (D) I C = ç ç b + 1 I E ÷ = 51 mA = 0.45) = + .77 æ b ö 50 20.(1. 1 I C » I E = 1.0.VC mA.49 mA ÷ è ø IB = 0.9 = .50 V 15. (B) I E = 0.2 V = VC = Vo 14.68 V VEC = 1.1) = 0.98 mA ÷ è ø VC = I C RC .7) mA ÷ è ø è ø IC = 6 .5(0. Transistor is in cutoff region RL 10(5) Vo = VCC = + 5 = 3.3)(1) = 1.89 V . (B) VCB = 0.5 ´ 195 = -4. (C) I E = VB = VE .7 V VEC = 119 .7 = 6 mA 50 k 1 .0098)(50) + 0.074 V æ b ö 50 21.7) mW = 3.7 10.5 V 17.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics b = 10.0.3 = = 26 mA RB 50 k I E 0.Vo V = IC + o 5k 10 k Vo Vo Vo = 1.5 = 9.3 V . VCE = 0. PQ = I C VEC + I B VEB = (0.0.5m) = 0.3 mA.7 = 1.7) .099 mA (b + 1) 151 VE = I B RB + VEB = 50(0.77 I B 26m Þ b = 29.0.9 = (0.3 mA VC = 6 .(0.914 1+b Vo = VCE ( sat ) .7 = 0. a = b ® a = 0.0.49)(7.9 mA.5) = 0.5 V .19 V VC = I C RC .0.7 1k 8. VE = (1.77 = = 0.7 = 26 mA 50 k b 29. 18.3 mA 1k æ b ö æ 50 ö IC = ç ç b + 1 ÷I E = ç 51 ÷ ( VB .9 = . (B) I E = I Q = 0. (B) VB = 2 V. (A) I C = ç ç b + 1 ÷I E = 51 (0. VC = 6 V 9.VBE = 0.8 mA 51 Vo = 5 .7 = .77 b+1= a= I C = bI B = 75 ´ 6m = 0.5 æ 101 ö =0.0. (B) I E = VB .( -4.com .0.0098)(0. (B) I B = 1 .9 = (0.5 mA æ 150 ö IC = ç ÷ (0. (C) I B = 2 .3 V IB = VB 1.9 = 0. (D) Transistor is in saturation Page 162 VE = I B RB + VEB = (0.VB ( VB .95 mA .5 V IC = 5 .394) = 6.909 mA 5k è 100 ø 10 . The saturation voltage VCE = 0.3)(10) = .0.0.7 V Transistor is in saturation.3)(10) = 3 V 2 .63.87 mW www.98)( 4.VE = 0.75 V Transistor is in saturation.33 V RC + RL 10 12.I C RC = 6 .RC I C = 2.1 mA IC = b 150 IE = (0. VB = 119 V .4.517 V 16. (C) VB = 0 Transistor is in cut-off region.83 V (1 .2 V .45 mA 5 .6.7) = 7. VC = VB 10 50 6 .099) = 4.( -6.49)( 4.89) + (0.6 mA (b + 1) 51 I C = b I B = 75 ´ 26 mA =1.3 mA VC = 6 .394 V IB = IE 1 = mA = 19. VC = 5 . VC = VCE + VE = 15 V 11.0. VC = 0.0.8m = = 30. (C) VBB = 0.68 .968 b + 1 30.7) = 51 10 10.RC I C = 5 .8 mA 10k 19. Þ 5 10 13.I C RC = 5 .86 .

3.( 4.36 k + 1260 k) I BQ = 7.06 k)( I BQ) + VBE + (b + 1) I B (1k) Page 164 .67 .0.(0. (D) R1 = 25 kW.5 = 1. 5 .1 .67 V 10.22 V 32.69 V 30.68 mA VCEQ = 24 .29 V ÷ è 20 + 15 ø ø IE ( 8.2 kW 1 kW -10 V Fig. .4) .5)(1.0.412 mA I CQ = 100 I BQ = 1. .7 = (171 + 50. æ 2 ö VTH = ç .36 kW | VTH æ 42 ö =ç ÷(24) = 10.57 V 24.74 mA I CQ = bI BQ = 4.32 mA I CQ = bI BQ = 0.RC I CQ .74)(1) = 5. (B) R1 = 58 kW.(5)(1.71 kW -3.1 V è 42 + 58 ø -357 = I BQ(171k) + VBE + (b + 1) I BQ(0.36 kW +10. (B) RTH = 20 | 10 = 6.5 kW 10 kW -5 V Fig.67 10 .29 = 4. (B) R1 = 12 kW.29 b+1 5.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics æ R2 VTH = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö æ 15 ö ÷VCC = ç ÷(10) = 4.57 k) + 4.3.I CQ RC .1.412) + 5 = 2.82 . R2 = 2 kW RTH = R1| R2 = 12 | 2 = 171 kW | | .5 k) .( 4.7 = ( 6.922 mA VCEQ = 24 .046 mA b+1 VB = ( 8.1 V 0.32 Fig.06 k + 76 k) I BQ Þ I BQ = 62.57)(0.82 V è 25 + 8 ø 10 = (1 + b) I BQ(2) + VEB + I BQ( 6.7 = I BQ(24.8 V 31.67) + 1.I EQ RE = 24 . S3.1 = I BQ(24.62 MA IE = 0.67 kW | æ 20 ö VTH = ç ÷10 .RE I EQ + 5 = 5 .0.7 = I BQ( 6.3 V 33.046) + 4.(0.922)(10) = 14.5 .68)( 3) .30 RTH = 58 | 42 = 24. S3.3.0.5)I BQ .3.7 + Þ IB = IE ( 8.36 k) + VBE + (b + 1) I BQ(10 k) 10.67 + 122) www.915 mA I EQ = (b + 1) I BQ = 0.4 mA I EQ = (b + 1) I BQ = 4.67 V è 10 + 20 ø +10 V +24 V 2 kW 3 kW 6.57 k) + 4.06 kW +1.5 = . Þ I BQ = 14 mA I EQ = (100 + 1) I BQ = 1.com 5.gatehelp.31 Fig.357 .67 kW 6.82 V 2.33 | RTH = 25 | 8 = 6. S3. VTH æ 8 ö =ç ÷(24) = 5.29 101 I E = 4. R2 = 8 kW +5.06 kW.4 mA VCEQ = 5 .82 = ( 6. S3.357 V è 12 + 2 ø +5 V 10 = I E (1k) + VEB + 10 = I E + 0. ÷(10) . R2 = 42 kW +24 V 5 kW 1.

..VBE 2 = I E 2 RE » I o RE Page 166 www.5 . Io = IC2 = IS e Vt ö æI ÷ . (B) If b >> 1 and transistor are identical VBE1 VBE2 I ref » I C1 = I S e æ I ref VBE1 = Vt lnç ç I è S Vt . I BN I BR = I Bi ..gatehelp.3 kW I ref 1m æ (1 + N ) ö = I Oi ç 1 + ÷ ç b(b + 1) ÷ è ø I ref I oi = æ (1 + N ) ö ç1 + ÷ ç b(b + 1) ÷ è ø 42.7 . S3.2. (A) I ref = I CR + I BS = I CR + I ES 1+b æ I ref I o RE = Vt ln ç ç I è o RE = R1 = ö ÷ ÷ ø ö ÷ = 9.com ...UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 41. I CR = I Ci = I oi (1 + N ) I CR I ES = (1 + N ) I BR = b Then I ref = I CR + (1 + N ) I CR I ES = I CR + b (b + 1) b+1 æ 1 ´ 10 -3 0. VBE1 . VBE 2 = Vt lnç o çI ÷ è S ø ö ÷ ÷ ø ö ÷ ÷ ø æ I ref VBE1 .V .42 I E 3 = (1 + b) I B 3 2 IB2 IE3 I ref = I C1 + = I C1 + (1 + b) (1 + b) I C1 = I C 2 = bI B 2 I ref = I C 2 + IC2 = Io = æ ö 2 IC2 2 = I C2 ç 1 + ÷ ç b(1 + b) b(1 + b) ÷ è ø I ref æ ö 2 ç1 + ÷ ç b(1 + b) ÷ è ø 43.026 ln ç -6 ç 12 ´ 10 -6 12 ´ 10 è V + .. I E 3 = 2 I B 2 V + *********** Iref IC1 Q1 Q3 IE3 Io = IC2 Q2 IB1 IB2 V - Fig.( -5) = = 9.VBE1 .58 kW ÷ ø I ES = I BR + I B1 + I B 2 + . (C) I ref = I C1 + I B 3 . I B1 = I B 2 .VBE 2 = Vt ln ç ç I è o From the circuit.

24 mA 6. VDS =? (A) 4.1–3 -10 V Fig.4–6 the transistor parameter are as follows: VTN = 2 V.1–3 the transistor parameters are as follows: Threshold voltage VTN = 2 V 2 Statement for Q.74 V 5. P3. P3.3 BASIC FET CIRCUITS Statement for Q.86 V 2. VDS = ? (A) 2.863 mA (C) 0.48 V (B) 1.95 V (C) 3 V www.7 V Page 167 .76 mA (B) 11.4–6 1.9 V (D) 12. VGS = ? (A) 2.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 3.3.485 mA (D) None of the above (B) 6.5 kW Fig. I D = ? (A) 13.35 V (B) 3.62 V (D) 0.775 mA 3. VGS = ? (A) -3.5 mA / V +10 V W = 60 L 32 kW 4 kW 14 kW 1.62 V (C) -0.74 V (B) 10 mA (D) 4.05 V (C) 4.4–6: In the circuit shown in fig. I D = ? (A) 1. P3.43 V (D) 6.43 V (D) 3.59 V (C) 5.gatehelp.5 mA (C) 19.91 V 4.1–3: In the circuit shown in fig.3.com (B) 3. k¢ = 60 mA / V 2 . P3. n +10 V Conduction parameter K n = 0.2 kW 18 kW 2 kW 6 kW 0.3.3.

3. The parameter of the transistor in fig. If I D = 0.36 kW. 5 kW (D) 5 kW.6 V and K n = 0.72 V (D) -7.8 mA and VD = 1 V. P3. The voltage VDS is +5 V 50 mA 19. p L +5 V 24 kW Rs 0. P3. P. P3.2 V.com Fig.6 mm (D) 3. 5.2 mA / V 2 . 4 kW RD Fig. P3. +5 V 21.3.43 kW. P3. then value of RS (B) 4 kW. P3.5 mA / V 2 and l = 0.16 R (A) 1.3.8 kW.17 are VTN = 0.36 kW (D) 8.3.3.1 mA and VSD = 2.3. K n = 0. 8. P3. P3.16 are VTN = 1.26 mW www. The parameter of the transistor in fig.21 are VTN = 2 V and K n = 0. L = 4 mm and l = 0.4 mA / V 2 .28 V (B) -1.21 (B) 2.19 (A) 15 mm (C) 32 mm (B) 1. In the circuit of fig. 2 mA / V 2 .2 mm 17.19 the PMOS transistor ¢ has parameter VTP = -1.34 mW (D) 58.84 mW (C) 0.18 the transistor parameters are VTN = 17 V and K n = 0.3.20 mA and VD = -3 V.5 V.17 -5 V (A) 1. The power dissipated in the transistor is +10 V 50 kW RS -5 V Fig.18 10 kW If I D = 0. 4 kW 18. then value of resistor RS and RD are respectively (A) 2.84 V (B) 1. and k¢ = 30 mA / V 2 . P3.3.Basic FET Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.20 has parameters VTP = -1. kp = 25 mA / V 2 . W = 20. .3.52 V (D) 0 Fig.3.3 16.4 kW. then value of W will be +9 V Fig. 6.5 V.gatehelp. In the circuit of fig.2 V. P3.5 and RD are (A) 4 kW. The parameters for the transistor in circuit of fig. 2.43 kW (A) 5.72 V (C) 7.69 V (C) 1. The PMOS transistor in fig. P3.4 kW (B) 5 kW.3.25 mA -9 V RD Fig. 5 kW (C) 6.3.4 mW Page 169 .8 kW (C) 5.3. The voltage VS is +9 V 20.28 V If I D = 0.

5 V (D) 0 V (B) 28.75 4.22–33.93 35. P3.3 Statement for Q.26–27: All transistors in the circuit in fig. P3.22-23 M2 The both transistor have parameter as follows VTN = 0.5 56.94 10.4 (B) 0.91 V (C) 3.5 V (C) 5 V (B) 2. P3.com . P3.31 mA (D) 0.24 æW ö ç ÷ è L ø1 (A) (B) (C) (D) Page 170 æW ö ç ÷ è L ø2 6.56 22. In the circuit of fig. P3.3.25 have ¢ parameter VTN = 0.3. then Vo M2 Vi M1 Vo is +5 V ( ) ( W )2 = 1.62 mA (C) 0.53 12.56 (C) 0.3.46 mA 1.10 V W L 1 for M1 is M1 Fig.92 mA www. I D1 = ? (A) 0. If the width-to-length ratios of M1 and M 2 are æW ö æW ö ç ÷ = ç ÷ = 40 è L ø1 è L ø2 The output Vo is (A) -2.5 (C) 40. I D4 = ? (A) 0.8 50. P3. P3. L If Vo = 0.3.23 mA (B) 0.09 V (D) 1.25 22.2.22–23: Consider the circuit shown in fig.31 mA Fig. +5 V RD M1 ID1 RG M4 ID4 M3 æW ö æW ö 23.26–27 have parameter VTN = 1 V and l = 0. V1 = 5 V and V2 = 2 V then the width to-length ratio required in each transistor is +5 V M2 -5 V Fig. k¢ = 30 mA / V 2 n (A) 47.4 (D) 20.gatehelp. If the ratio is ç ÷ = 40 and ç ÷ = 15.21 æW ö ç ÷ è L ø3 27. The width-to-length ratio of M 2 when Vi = 5 V.5 n mA. kn = 40 mA / V 2 and l = 0.4 38. then Vo is è L ø1 è L ø2 (A) 2. +5 V 25.46 mA 27.59 V 24.41 V (B) 2.8 V.3.62 mA (D) 0.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics Statement for Q.3. P3.43 8. If I D = 0.8 V.5 Fig.26–27 The conduction parameter are as follows: M1 V1 M2 V2 M3 K n1 = 400 mA / V 2 K n 2 = 200 mA / V 2 K n 3 = 100 mA / V 2 K n 4 = 80 mA / V 2 26. the transistor parameters are VTN = 1 V and k¢ = 36 mA / V 2 . The transistors in the circuit of fig.324.

3.3.85 V (D) 1. 8 V) (C) (1.843 29.1 V. when input voltage is Vi = 4.731 (B) 0. I DSS = 18 mA.67 mA (D) 1. The value of I DQ is (A) 8.23 mA. P3.com Page 171 .33–34 the parameters are I DSS = 6 mA. VP = 4 V and l = 0. P3. P3. P3. and l = 0.32 ****************** www.3.3.3 28.Basic FET Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.986 (D) 1.30 V (B) 2. and I D = 0. P3.43 V (C) -1.35 has parameters I DSS = 8 mA and VP = -4 V. then I D is (A) 16.3 mA at VGS = 3 V. 1 kW (A) 1.8 kW 2 kW Fig.67 mA 35. If VDS > VDS ( sat ) and VGS = -2 V. VDS ) is +10 V 0.568 (C) 0.35 IQ = 8 mA (A) 2. value of VDS is +15 V 140 kW 2.28 For the p-channel transistor in the circuit of fig. For the circuit in fig.17 V (B) 8.3. For the transistor in fig.28 the transistor ¢ parameter are VTN = 0.7 kW 60 kW 0. P3.8 V and kn = 30 mA / V 2 .3.3. The transistor in the circuit of fig. 3.3. P3. P3. (B) 6.8 mA. P3.32 the transistor parameters are Vp = .33–34: (B) 5 mA (D) 2 mA Fig.30 V -15 V Fig.35 V. the parameters are I DSS = 6 mA and VP = -3 V.47 V (D) 2.28 V (C) 4. If output voltage is Vo = 0.33–34 33. The Q-point ( I D .55 mA (B) 0.6 V (D) 1.17 V 32.28 V (A) (1 mA.17 mA.1V) (B) 2.4 kW 20 kW -5 V 10 kW Fig. P3.2 V.2 mA.81 mA (C) 4. For an n-channel JFET.39 mA (D) 1. 8 V) (B) (0.gatehelp. The .5 mA / V 2 .32 mA 34. A p-channel JFET biased in the saturation region with VSD = 5 V has a drain current of I D = 2. The value of VDSQ is +20 V 31.29. The value of VSD is (A) -4. The value of I DSS is (A) 10 mA (C) 7 mA Statement for Q.3.67 mA (C) 5.86 mA Fig. the required transistor width-to length ratio is +5 V 10 kW Vo Vi (A) 7. For the circuit in fig.19 V 30.3.29 parameters are VTN = 1 V and K n = 12.7 V (C) -1. 4 V) (D) (0.

6 k .VS ID = = K P ( VSG + VTP ) 2 RS VS = VG + VSG Page 172 50 ´ 10 -6 = 0.2 = 1. RD = 2 kW æ R2 VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö æ 22 ö ÷(20) .8) 2 V .6 . VG .VTN ) 2 RS RS Kn = Þ Þ ¢ kn W ( 60)( 60 ´ 10 -6 ) = = 1.4.62 V .VGS + 10 = (0.VTN = (2. = 312 mA .12(2 + 0.( 4.( -1)) 2 Þ VGS = 124. (B) I S = 50 mA = I D .76 mA RS 0.6)(0.177 V.5 kW.8 kW. (B) R1 = 8 kW.67 + 377) . VDS = 119 V > VDS ( sat ) .25 .5) = 119 V .21 V 0.VGS + 10 ID = S = = K n ( VGS .2 V 10.( -1516) = 6.I D( RS + RD) = 10 .775( 4 + 2) = 5.775 mA RS 2k 3.4 . .0. Þ VGS = 1516 V.2.58 V .( -10) VG .10 VSD = 20 .10 = ç ÷(20) .2. 0.VGS ID = S = G = K n ( VGS . V .( 4. (A) R1 = 32 kW.( VG + VGS ) = RS RS 8.6 .8 = 2.124 + 5 .5 ´ 10 -3( VGS .com Assume transistor in saturation 10 . æ R2 VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 R2 = 18 kW. .8 mA / V 2 2 L 2 Assume transistor in saturation. = = RS RS 0.5 mA / V 2 Þ VGS = 2. (C) 10 = I D( RS + RD) + VSD . .62. VDS = VD . RL = 22 kW.05 . 4. RS = 0.8) = 1.10 = 4.0.5 = -3 V VSD = VS . VGS is positive. .25 .67 + VSG) = (0. (C) Assume transistor in saturation. 14. 21 V 12.5 ø ø Assume transistor in saturation V .2. K n = 0.5 ´ 10 -3( VGS .8 + 0.5) ( VGS .6.5)(1)( VGS ) Þ VSG = 377 V. Thus (D) is correct option.VG = VS 11.VTH = 124 .VGS + 5 = (0. (C) R1 = 14.35 V VDS ( sat ) = VGS .5 kW.12) 2 . VDS > VDS ( sat ) .5)( VGS . 16.10 VDS = 20 .5 9. RS = 0. (C) I D = G = = 0.62 + 10 = = 4.Assumption is correct.5 = -2.5) = 12. 0. (B) 10 = I D( RS + RD) + VDS .05 V 3. VGS will be positive. RS = 0. 13. R2 = 6 kW.5 æ ö ÷(10) .3. RD = 1.VGS -2.24 .( -5) ID = S = K n ( VGS . 10 .5 = (0. (A) I D = = 10 .76(12 + 0.0.VGS + 10 -4 .2 kW æ RL VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö æ 6 ö ÷(20) .25 V ÷ è 14. VSG is positive voltage.5)(1.VS = 5 .6 V ÷ è 18 + 32 ø ø Assume that transistor in saturation region V V .VGS = -1516 V . 7.I D( RD + RS ) = 10 . æ RL VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö 5.5 k 5.4)(5) .8) 2 10 .VTN ) 2 RS RS RS = 2 kW.5 kW.6 kW.5 kW.67 V ÷ è 8 + 22 ø ø = 2.0. VS = VG .4 = K P ( VGS + VTP ) 2 Þ VSG = 2 + 0.VTN = 3. RD = 0.VD = 2.6) = 6. 25 V VDS > VDS ( sat ) as assumed. (D) I D = VS + 5 VG .VGS = (2)(0.VGS 3.5 = ç ÷(10) .8)( VGS . . 21 .gatehelp.12) 2 .5 VDS = 10 .I D = K n ( VGS . I D = 0. VDD = 10 V ö æ 18 ö ÷VDD = ç ÷10 = 3.2)( VSG .4 = (0. (C) VDS = VDD . .2) 2 VGS = 3. VG = 0.74 V.5 + 5.4 mA.47 V VDS ( sat ) = VGS .VGS + 5 -2. Therefore (D) is correct option. (B) R1 = 14 kW. (B) 5 = I D( RS + RD) + VDS . (A) VD = I D RD .0. (D) I D = 6. Assumption is correct.10 = -4 V ÷ è 14 + 6 ø ø VSG = VS .VTN ) 2 Þ www. .62 .VS 10 . .( -1) =2.10 = ç ÷(20) .516 V .52 mA. 15. VG = 0. (B) I D = 50m = K n ( VGS .UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics SOLUTIONS 1.VTN ) 2 Þ 50 ´ 10 -6 = 0.52(0. VDS ( sat ) = VGS .( -3) = 5.VTN ) 2 RS VS = VG .I D ( RS + RD)= 20 . R2 = 5.05 2.

3 mA / V 2 ÷ ø 0.1) 2 = 200 ( VGS 2 .VTN ) VDS . ID = = 0. RD = 6 -1 = 5 kW 0.623 mA 10 k Power = I DVDS = 2. VGS will be 3.V1 = 10 .0. Vo = VGS 2 = 2.1) .5 = 0.76 V I D4 = K n 4 ( VGS 4 .VTN M1 is in non saturation because VGS1 = Vi = 5 V.VTN 2 ) 2 2 26. VTN1 = VTN 2 5 VGS1 = VGS 2 = V 2 Vo = VGS 2 = 2.76 .5 V www. è 2 øè L ø1 è L ø1 25.17) 2 .gatehelp.1) 2 I D = 0.VTN ) 2 = K n 3 ( VGS 3 .09. (A) I D = VS = -172 V .6) VG = 0.36 kW RS 19. 5 .VS .49 mA 10 k k¢ W 2 ID = n {2 ( VGS .8) 2 VGS 2 = 5 .3( VSG . VDS1 = VD = 0 V VDS1 < VGS1 .5 . VSG = 2.31 mA 28.VS .49 V 5 . VDS > VGS . VS = -311 V . 2 ÷ (2. (B) I D = K n ( VGS .VGS ID = = K n ( VGS .02 kW RS 0.1 .27 V. VGS = VG . (2. VGS = VDS = 377 V 10 .0.12) 2 .377 .3 VGS = 152 V.VGS = (10)(0. I D = æ 25 ö æ W 10 -4 = ç ÷ç è 2 øè 4 k¢ W p ( VGS + VTP ) 2 2 L Þ W = 32 mm For M 2 . (A) ç ÷ > ç ÷ thus VGS1 < VGS 2 è L ø1 è L ø2 VGS = 172 V. .VTN ) 2 are in = 100 ´ 10 -6 (2.0.2) 2 Þ .VTN ) 2 10 k 10 .VTN1 ) = K n 2 ( VGS 2 .V2 = 5 .0.1) 2 = 0.4)( VGS .2 V.8) = (5 . 22. .VS 5 .49 ID = Þ RS = = 5.0.8) 2 = 15( VGS 2 .2( VGS .1 V Therefore both transistor K n 1 = K n 2 .VGS 2 .83) = 16. VGS 2 = V1 .8 = (0.VTN ) 2 VGS1 = 5 . -311 .0. RD Þ I D = K n ( VGS .VTN For M 3 . VG = 0 VS = VSG = 2.0.8 è L ø3 æW ö ç ÷ = 6.0.62 mA 27.24 V VGS 2 = 2.24 . . VGS = VDS 17.5 = ç ´ 10 -5 ÷ç ÷ (5 .5m 21.91 V.VTN . (D) K p = ç ç 2 è I D = K p ( VSG + VTP ) 2 Þ Þ ö ÷(20) = 0. I D = 0. I D1 = I D2 æW ö æW ö 2 2 ç ÷ [2( VGS1 .Basic FET Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. VGS = 311 V .76 V.25 = 0. (D) M 2 is in saturation because VGS 2 = VDS 2 > VGS 2 . VGS1 = 10 . VGS = 377 V.2.1 ID = = 0. I D1 = I D2 Þ K n 1 ( VGS1 .8 mA. VG = 0.0. (C) VGS = 4. VDS = 0. (B) Assume transistor in saturation 10 .1) 2 I D = 0. (B) I D1 = K n 1 ( VGS1 .8 mA = Þ RS = 2.( -5) RD Þ RD = -3 + 5 = 4 kW 0.VTN1 ) VDS1 . V2 = 2 V = VGS 3 æ 36 ´ 10 -3 öæ W ö ÷ç ÷ (2 .VTN assumption is correct.VDS} 2 L Page 173 .5m ID = VD .1) 2 =0.8) 2 è L ø1 æW ö ç ÷ (0.35 mW VDS > VGS . (A) Each transistor is biased in saturation because VDS = VGS and VDS > VGS . 2 æW ö æW ö 23.15) ø For M1 .8m 5 .com VDS < VGS .0. (B) VGS 2 = VGS 3 = 2.VDS 2 ]= ç ÷ ( VGS 2 .1) 2 ] = (1)(5 .5 = ç ÷ L ç 2 øè ø3 è æ 36 ´ 10 -3 öæ W ö ÷ç ÷ ( 3 .VTN .VTN 2 ) L ø2 L ø1 è è æW ö Þ ç ÷ [2(5 .81 è L ø1 Þ æW ö ç ÷ =20.94 è L ø2 Þ VGS = VG . 18. 40( VGS1 .3 è L ø1 æ 30 ´ 10 -6 20. (B) For both transistor VDS = VGS .49 V.5 = 5 V æ 36 öæ W ö æW ö I D = 0.2)( VGS .( -5) .VTN ) 2 Þ 0.8)(0.63( VGS1 .1) 2 VGS1 = 2.VTN ) 2 = K n 2 ( VGS 2 .2 = 3 V Þ ö .VD = 0. VGS 2 = 2.VGS1 1.5 = ç ÷ L ç 2 øè ø2 è Þ æW ö ç ÷ = 27. Thus transistor is in non saturation. (C) VSD = VSG.91 V 24.VGS 2 Þ I D1 = 400 ´ 10 -6 Þ (5 .(0.77 V .8) VGS1 = 2.VTN saturation.VGS1 .VTN ) 2 Þ 0.1) 2 Þ ç ÷ = 174 .

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

3.4
AMPLIFIERS
1. If the transistor parameter are b = 180 and Early voltage V A = 140 V and it is biased at I CQ = 2 mA, the values of hybrid-p parameter g m , rp and ro are respectively (A) 14 A V, 2.33 kW, 90 kW (B) 14 A V, 90 kW , 2.33 kW (C) 77 mA V, 2.33 kW , 70 kW (D) 77.2 A V, 70 kW, 2.33 kW Statement for Q.2–3. Consider the circuit of fig. P3.4.2–3. The transistor parameters are b = 120 and V A = ¥. Statement for Q.5–6:
+5 V

3. The small signal votlage gain Av = vo vs is (A) -4.38 (C) -1.88 (B) 4.38 (D) 1.88

4. The nominal quiescent collector current of a transistor is 1.2 mA. If the range of b for this transistor is 80 £ b £ 120 and if the quiescent collector current changes by ±10 percent, the range in value for rp is (A) 1.73 kW < rp < 2.59 kW (B) 1.93 kW < rp < 2.59 kW (C) 1.73 kW < rp < 2.59 kW (D) 1.56 kW < rp < 2.88 kW

Consider the circuit in fig. P3.4.5.6. The transistor
4 kW 250 kW vs 2V vo

parameter are b = 100 and V A = ¥.
+10 V

~
50 kW vs

RC

Fig. P3.4.2–3
vBB

~
Fig. P3.4.5–6

2. The hybrid-p parameter values of g m , rp and ro are (A) 24 mA V, ¥, 5 kW (B) 24 mA V, 5 kW , ¥ (C) 48 mA V, 10 kW , 18.4 kW (D) 48 mA V, 18.4 kW, 10 kW

5. If Q-point is in the center of the load line and I CQ = 0.5 mA, the values of VBB and RC are (A) 10 kW , 0.95 V (C) 48 kW , 0.95 V
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(B) 10 kW , 1.45 V (D) 48 kW , 1.45 V
Page 175

Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

Statement for Q.14–15: Consider the common Base amplifier shown in fig. P3.4.14–15. The parameters are resistance RL .
Thevenin equivalent 270 W vi

19. For an n-channel MOSFET biased in the saturation region, the parameters are VTN = 1 V, 1 m n Cox = 18 mA V 2 2 and l = 0.015 V -1 and I DQ = 2 mA. If transconductance is g m = 3.4 mA V, the width-to-length ratio is (A) 80.6 (C) 190 (B) 43.2 (D) 110 g m = 2 mS

and

ro = 250 kW. Find the Thevenin equivalent faced by load

20. In the circuit of fig. P3.4.20, the parameters are
RL

~
Fig. P3.4.14–15

g m = 1mA / V, ro = 50 kW. The gain Av = vo vs is
VDD

60 kW 2 kW

10 kW

14. The Thevenin voltage vTH is (A) 263vi (C) 346vi (B) 132vi (D) 498vi
vs

~

300 kW

15. The Thevenin equivalent resistance RTH is (A) 384 kW (C) 408 kW Statement for Q.16–17: The common-base amplifier is drawn as a two-port in fig. P3.4.16–17. The parameters are b = 100, g m = 3 mS, and ro = 800 kW.
i1 + v1 _ i2 + 3.9 kW 18 kW v2 _

(B) 697 kW (D) 915 kW

Fig. P3.4.20

(A) -8.01 (C) 14.16 Statement for Q.21–23:

(B) 8.01 (D) -14.16

For the circuit shown in fig. P3.4.21–23 transistor parameters are VTN = 2 V, K n = 0.5 mA / V 2 and l = 0. The transistor is in saturation.
+10 V

10 kW vo vi VGG

Fig. P3.4.16–17

16. The h-parameter h21 is (A) 2.46 (C) 0.5 17. The h-parameter h12 is (A) 3.8 ´10 -4 (C) 3.8 ´10 4 (B) 4.83 ´10 -3 (D) 4.83 ´10 3 (B) 0.9 (D) 0.67 (A) 5.14 V (C) 2.89 V

~
Fig. P3.4.21–23

21. If I DQ is to be 0.4 mA, the value of VGSQ is (B) 4.36 V (D) 1.83 V

18. For an n-channel MOSFET biased in the saturation region, the parameters are K n = 0.5 mA V 2 , VTN = 0.8 V and l = 0.01 V -1 , and I DQ = 0.75 mA. The value of g m and ro are (A) 0.68 mS, 603 kW (C) 1.22 mS, 133 kW (B) 1.22 mS, 603 kW (D) 0.68 mS, 133 kW

22. The values of g m and ro are (A) 0.89 mS, ¥ (C) 1.48 mS, 0 (B) 0.89 mS, 0 (D) 1.48 mS, ¥

23. The small signal voltage gain Av is (A) 14.3 (C) -8.9 (B) -14.3 (D) 8.9
Page 177

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Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

(A) 4.44 (C) 2.22 Statement for Q.33–34: Consider ro = 100 kW. the

(B) -4.44 (D) -2.22

SOLUTIONS
1. (C) g m = I CQ Vt = 2m = 77.2 mA V 0.0259 in fig. rp = ro =
Ro

source-follower

circuit

P3.4.33-34. The values of parameter are g m = 2 mS and
+5 V

bVt b 180 = = = 2.33 kW I CQ g m 77.2m V A 140 = = 70 kW I CQ 2m 2 - 0.7 = 5.2 m A 250 k

vs

~

vo 500 kW IQ 4 kW

2. (B) I BQ =

I CQ = bI B = (120)(5.2m ) = 0.642 mA gm = rp = I CQ Vt = 0.624 = 24 mA V 0.0259

-5 V

Fig. P3.4.33-34

33. The voltage gain Av is (A) 0.89 (C) 2.79 (B) -0.89 (D) -2.79

bVt b 120 = = = 5 kW, ro = ¥ I CQ g m 24m

ö æ rp bRC 3. (C) Av = - g m RC ç ÷ çr + R ÷= r + R B ø B p è p æ ö 5k = - (24m)( 4 k) ç ç 5 k + 250 k ÷ = -1.88 ÷ è ø 4. (D) rp = rp( max ) = bVT , I CQ

34. The output resistance Ro is (A) 100 kW (C) 1.33 kW (B) 0.498 kW (D) None of the above

(120)(0.0259) = 2.88 kW, 108m . ( 80)(0.0259) = 156 kW . 1.32m 1 VCC = 5 V 2

*******************

rp(min) =

5. (A) VECQ =

VECQ = 10 - I CQ RC = 5 Þ 10 - (0.5m) RC = 5 I CQ b 0.5 =5 mA 100 RC = 10 kW, I BQ = =

VEB ( ON ) + I BQ RB = VBB Þ 0.7 + (5m ) (50 k) = 0.95 V I CQ Vt = 0.5 = 19.3 mA V 0.0259

6. (D) g m = rp =

bVt (100)(0.0259) = = 5.18 kW , ro = ¥ 0.5m I CQ

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æ 100 ö 7. (B) I CQ = ç ÷(0.35) = 0.347 mA è 1001 ø
Page 179

UNIT 3

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Analog Electronics

The small-signal equivalent circuit is as shown in fig. S3.4.7
500 W B C vo + 10 kW rp Vp _ gmVp E ro 7 kW

9. (A) DC Analysis: VTH =

50 (12) = 10 V 10 + 50

| RTH = 11| 50 = 8.33 kW 12 - 0.7 - 10 I BQ = = 119 m A . 8.33k + (101)1k . . I CQ = bI BQ = 119 mA, I EQ = 12 mA . VECQ = 12 - (1. 20)1 - (119)2 = 8.42 V AC Analysis:
Ib B rp vs _ bIb E 2 kW 1 kW (b+1)Ib Ic C vo

vs

~

Fig. S3.4.7

ö æ rp | 10 k vo | | = - gm ç ÷ ç 500 + r |10 k ÷ ( ro | 7 k) vs | ø p è I CQ 0.347m gm = = = 1313 mA V . Vt 0.0259 b bV 100 = t = = 7.6 kW rp = . g m I CQ 1313m ro = VA 100 = = 288 kW I CQ 0.347m 288 ´ 7 7.6 ´ 10 |10k = = 6.83 kW, rp | = 4.32 kW 288 + 7 7.6 + 10

~

10||50 kW

Fig. S3.4.9

rp =

bVt (100)(0.0259 = = 2.18 kW 119m . I CQ

vo = bI b (2k) , vs = - (b + 1) I b (1k) + I b ( rp) v -b(2 k) -(100)(2 k) Av = o = = = -196 . vs rp + (b + 1)1k 2.18 k + (100)(1k) 10. (B) VECQ = 8.42 V, For 1 £ vEC £ 11 V, DvEC = 11 - 8.42 = 2.58 V Þ Output voltage swing = 5.16 V peak to peak. 11. (B) Since the B–C junction is not reverse biased, the transistor continues to operate in the forward-active

|7k = ro |

4.32 k æ ö Av = -1313 mç . ÷( 6.83k) = - 80 è 500 + 4.32 k ø 8. (C) DC Analysis: I CQ = I EQ VCEQ = 5 = 10 - I CQ ( RC + RE ) Þ 5 = 10 - I CQ(1. 2 k + 0. 2 k) 3.57 I BQ = = 23.8 m A 150 AC Analysis:
Ib B + rp vs Vp bIb _ E 1.2 kW 0.2 kW C vo

Þ

I CQ = 3.57 mA

-mode
Ie + vce _ + vce _ rp gmvce ro

~

Fig. S 3.4.11

R1 || R2

Fig. S3.4.8

rp =

bVt (0.0259) = (150) = 109 kW , ro = ¥ . 357m . I CQ vo -(b I b ) RC , vs = I b rp + (b + 1) RE I b = vs vs -bRC -(150)(12) k . = = -5.75 rp + (1 + b) RE 109 k + (151)(0.2 k) .

æ 1 ö vce 1 , So rp | ç ÷ | ro = |ç ÷ | g m Vce g m è gm ø (100)(0.0259) rp = = 2.33 kW 2m I CQ 2m gm = = = 77.2 mA V Vt 0.0259 r= 1 V 150 = 12.95 , ro = A = = 75 kW gm I CQ 2m |( |( re = (2.33k)| 12.95)| 75 k) =12.87 W

Av = Av =

Page 180

www.gatehelp.com

+

Vp =

rp | 10 k | | ( vs ), vo = - g m Vp( ro | 7k) 500 + rp | 10 k |

Vp

Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

12. (C) ro =

VA I CQ

Þ

I CQ =

VA 75 = = 0.375 mA ro 200 k

Vp Vp v + Vpi + + g m Vp + i =0 rp ro 270 vi + Vpi Vp Vp + + 2mVp + =0 50 k 250 k 270 . I sc = 1297 mvi v 498 vi RTH = TH = = 384 kW I SC 1297mvi . Þ Vp = -0.647 vi ,

bV 75(0.0259) 13. (B) rp = t = = 194 kW . I CQ 1m
E Ie Ib vi rp B 1.5 kW 2.7 kW + vo _ bIb C

~

16. (B) The equivalent small-signal circuit is shown in fig. S3.4.16
ro i1 E gmVp 18 kW v2 = 0 C

Fig. S 3.4.13

vs

B

14. (D) The equivalent circuit is shown below
ro 270 W gmVp

Fig. S 3.4.16

rp =

b 100 = = 33.3 kW gm 3m i2 i1 , i2 =
v2 = 0

vi

Fig. S 3.4.14

vi rp Removing the RL , -Vp = 270 + rp vTH = -ro g m Vp - Vp = rp = vi rp(1 + g m ro) 270 + rp

b 100 = = 50 kW g m 2m vi 50 k(1 + (2m)(250 k)) = 498 vi 270 + 50 k

vTH =

15. (A) The equivalent small-signal circuit is shown in fig. S3.4.15
ro 270 W gmVp Isc

3.9 kW rp

Vp B +

Fig. S 3.4.17

vi

Fig. S 3.4.15

I sc = g m Vp +

Vp Vp = 2.004 mVp = 2mVp + ro 250 k

+

~

rp

Vp

æ 1 1 1 ö v2 v1 ç ÷ ç 39 k + r + r ÷ - r = - g m v1 . è p o ø o 1 1 v1 ro 800 k = = 1 1 1 1 1 1 v2 + + + 3m + + + gm 39 k 33.3k 800 k . 39 k rp ro . = 3.8 ´ 10 -4
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_

+

~

h21 = i1 = h21 =

rp

Vp

Vp + g m Vp r0 Vp can be neglected ro

Vp V V - p - p - g m Vp , 39 k rp . ro i2 = i1

. - g m rp 39 k - gm = = 0.91 1 1 . . rp + 39 k + g m rp 39 k + + gm 39 k rp . v1 v v - v2 + 1 + 1 = g m Vp 39 k rp . ro
ro

17. (A) v1 = -Vp ,

i1 = 0

E gmVp

+ C i2 18 kW

~

3.9 kW rp

Vp

_

vi = I b ( rp + 15k), I in = I e = (b + 1) I b . Vi ( rp + 15 k) 194 + 15 k . . . Rin = = = = 45 W Ie (b + 1) 76

_
_

~

v2

Page 181

Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

RS = 4 kW, v gs = 0.84 vi , | vo = - g m v gs ( ro | RD) = -(1.41m)(0.84 vi )(100 k | 5 k) | vo Þ = Av = - 5.6 vi 28. (A) Ro = RD | ro | 100k =4.76 kW | | 29. (A) As shown in fig. S3.4.27, Ri = R1 | R2 = 20.6 kW | 30. (C) From the DC analysis: . VGSQ = 15 V, I DQ = 0.5 mA g m = 2 K n ( VGS - VTN ) = 2(1m) (15 - 0.8) = 1.4 mA V . ro = [ lI DQ ]
-1

v gs = vi ,

vo = Av = - g m (7k) vi

g m = 2 K n ( VGS - VTN ) = 2 (1m)(151 - 0.8) = 1.42 mS . Av = -(1.42m) (7 k) = - 9.9 32. (A) The small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig. S.3.4.34
S _ vi gmvgs D vo

~

vgs 10 kW RS 5 kW + G RD RL 4 kW

Fig. S3.4.32

The resulting small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig. S5.4.30
G + vi D vo 7 kW

~

RTH

vgs gmvgs _ S RS

RD

| vo = - g m v gs ( RD | RL ), vi = -v gs v Av = o = g m ( RD | RL ) = (2m)(5 k | 4 k) = 4.44 | | vi 33. (A) The small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig. S3.4.33

0.5 kW G + D

Fig. S 3.4.30

vo = - g m v gs RD, vi = v gs + g m v gs RS vo - g m RD (7 k) Þ = = - (1.4m) = -5.76 vi 1 + g m RS 1 + (1.4m) (0.5 k) 31. (B) Since the DC gate current is zero, VS = -VGSQ I DQ = I Q = K n ( VGSQ - VTN ) 2 Þ 0.5 = 1( VGSQ - 0.8) 2 VGSQ = 151 V = -VS . . . VDSQ = 5 - (0.5m)(7 k) - ( -151) = 301 V The transistor is therefore biased in the saturation region. The small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig.S3.4.31.
G + vs D vo

vi

~

500 kW

vgs gmvgs _ S vo 4 kW

ro

Fig. S3.4.33

| vo = g m v gs ( RL | ro) vi = v gs + vo = v gs + g m v gs ( RL | ro) | 1 v gs = 1 + g m ( RL | ro) | vo g m ( RL | ro) | = Av = vi 1 + g m ( RL | ro) | RL | ro = 4 k | 100 k = | | Av = 100 k = 3.86 kW 26

~

vgs _

gmvgs S

7 kW

(2m)( 3.85 k) = 0.89 1 + (2m)( 3.85 k) 1 | ro | gm

34. (B) Ro =
Fig. S3.4.31

vo = - g m v gs (7k)

1 = æ ö | 100) » 0.498 kW ç ÷ |( è2ø
********************

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Page 183

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

3.5
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
1. Av = vo =? vi
vi 40 kW vo

(A) -2 sin wt m A
400 kW

(B) -7 sin wt m A (D) 0

(C) -5 sin wt m A

4. In circuit shown in fig. P3.5.4, the input voltage vi is 0.2 V. The output voltage vo is
50 kW 10 kW vi 25 kW vo 150 kW

R

Fig. P3.5.1

(A) -10 (C) -11 2. Av = vo =? vi
vi 40 kW

(B) 10 (D) 11
Fig. P3.5.4
400 kW

(A) 6 V (C) 8 V
vo

(B) -6 V (D) -8 V

60 kW

5. For the circuit shown in fig. P3.5.5 gain is Av = vo vi = -10. The value of R is
R 100 kW

Fig. P3.5.2

(A) -10 (C) 13.46 3. The input to the

(B) 10 (D) -13.46
vi 100 kW 100 kW vo

circuit
10 kW

in

fig.

P3.5.3

is

vi = 2 sin wt mV. The current io is
1 kW io vo 4 kW

Fig. P3.5.5

vi

(A) 600 kW (C) 4.5 MW

(B) 450 kW (D) 6 MW

Fig. P3.5.3

Page 184

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Operational Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.5

6. For the op-amp circuit shown in fig. P3.5.6 the voltage gain Av = vo vi is
R R R

10. In the circuit of fig. P3.5.10 the output voltage vo is
20 kW +0.5 V 40 kW -1 V 60 kW +2 V vo 20 kW

R vi R

R

vo

Fig. P3.5.10

(A) 2.67 V
Fig. P3.5.6

(B) -2.67 V (D) 6.67 V

(A) -8 (C) -10

(B) 8 (D) 10

(C) -6.67 V

11. In the circuit of fig. P3.5.11 the voltage vi1 is (1 + 2 sin wt) mV and vi2 = -10 mV. The output voltage vo is
20 kW 20 kW vi1 2 kW 1 kW vo 1 kW

7. For the op-amp shown in fig. P3.5.7 open loop differential gain is Aod = 10 3. The output voltage vo for vi = 2 V is
vi 100 kW vo 100 kW

vi2

Fig. P3.5.7

Fig. P3.5.11

(A) -1.996 (C) -2.004

(B) -1.998 (D) -2.006

(A) -0.4(1 + sin wt) mV (C) 0.4(1 + 2 sin wt) mV

(B) 0.4(1 + sin wt) mV (D) -0.4(1 + 2 sin wt) mV

8. The op-amp of fig. P3.5.8 has a very poor open-loop voltage gain of 45 but is otherwise ideal. The closed-loop gain of amplifier is
100 kW 2 kW vo vi

12. For the circuit in fig. P3.5.12 the output voltage is vo = 2.5 V in response to input voltage vi = 5 V. The finite open-loop differential gain of the op-amp is
vi 500 kW vo

1 kW

Fig. P3.5.8

(A) 20 (C) 4

(B) 4.5 (D) 5 (A) 5 ´ 10 4 (C) 2 ´ 10
4

Fig. P3.5.12

(B) 250.5 (D) 501

9. For the circuit shown in fig. P3.5.9 the input voltage vi is 1.5 V. The current io is
10 kW vi 6 kW 8 kW io vo
+18 V 100 kW 20 kW 40 kW +15 V vo

13. vo = ?
100 kW

5 kW

Fig. P3.5.13 Fig. P3.5.9

(A) -1.5 mA (C) -0.75 mA

(B) 1.5 mA (D) 0.75 mA

(A) 34 V (C) 32 V
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(B) -17 V (D) -32 V
Page 185

55 ´ 106 rad/s (C) 1.6 (D) -e - t 1 .5. P3. In the circuit of fig.5.5.5.5. P3. P3.02 V.1 ´ 106 rad/s (B) 0.30 t 10 (A) e (A) 479 mV (C) 168 mV (B) 234 mV (D) 116 mV (C) e u( t) V u( t) V (B) -e - t 10 u( t) V u( t) V - t 1 . If vi = 2 V. P3. The total output offset voltage is 500 kW vi 5 kW vo 8 mF vo 50 W 5u(t) mA 250 W 1 kW 5 kW Fig.32–33 Fig. P3. P3. P3.32–33: Consider the circuit shown below 3 kW 6 kW vi 2 kW vo D1 D2 29. io = ? 6 kW io 6A 2 kW 2 kW vo 4 kW is Fig.1 rad/s 33.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 28.30 the input offset voltage and input offset current are Vio = 4 mV and I io = 150 nA.5.29 the op-amp slew rate is SR = 0. S3. If the amplitude of input signal is 0. If vi = -2 V. In the circuit of fig. vo( t) = ? (B) 6 V (D) 3 V 30. then output vo is (A) 4 V (C) 3 V (B) -4 V (D) -3 V (A) 0.28 (A) 38 kW (C) 25 kW (B) 17 kW (D) 47 kW Statement for Q.5 V ms.29 32. then the maximum frequency that may be used is 240 kW vi 10 kW vo Fig.com .gatehelp.5.6 Page 188 www.31 2 kW 10 kW (A) -18 A (C) -36 A (B) 18 A (D) 36 A Fig.5.28 the input resistance is 31. then output vo is (A) -6 V (C) -3 V 34. P3.55 rad/s (D) 1.34 Fig. For the circuit shown in fig.5.

5. P3.5.38 (B) w is halved (D) None of the above Page 189 (C) R is doubled www. P3.5.5.5 Fig.Operational Amplifiers GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.com . The analog multiplier X of fig.5.5.39 V V (A) (C) 1 2 1 6 (B) (D) 1 3 1 12 36.5.35 (A) 10 . The magnitude of the vo is 2V 100 kW R R 1 kW R2 IL RL R2 Fig.5. P3. The |vo| will be 2 V if R1 R1 vi = sin wt V vo R C vo 41. an C.38 has the characteristics vp = v1 v2 . The vC ( t) for t > 0 is t=0 (A) vs vss v (C) .5.5 35. P3.36 (A) > 10 V (C) > 5 V (B) < 10 V (D) < 5 V 37.5 e t 12 .5t V (C) 5 + 5 e t 12 .39 is a sinusoidal signal of 8 V (peak to peak) without any DC component. P3. P3.40 the load current iL is R1 R1 vs Fig. If the input to the ideal comparator shown in fig.5t V (D) 10 .5.gatehelp. P3.41 output voltage is |vo| = 1 38. then the output of the comparator has a duty cycle of Input Output Vref = 2 V Fig.s vss (B) -vs vss (D) vs vss 20 kW 20 kW 20 kW + 5V 4 mF vC - 39.5. P3.5. R. In the circuit of fig. The output of this circuit is vss 10 kW X vs R Fig. P3. P3. In the circuit of fig.37 the CMRR of the op-amp is 60 dB. P3.5.5 (B) 5 + 5 e -12 . In the op-amp circuit given in fig. P.5 e -12 . The circuit shown in fig.35 is at steady state before the switch opens at t = 0.37 (A) 1 mV (C) 200 mV (B) 100 mV (D) 2 mV V for a certain set of w. P3.5. The LED in the circuit of fig.41 (A) w is doubled Fig.36 will be on if vi is 10 kW +10 V 10 kW vi 470W 40. P3.40 R R 1 kW vo (A) 100 kW vs R2 vs RL (B) (D) vs R2 vs RL (C) Fig.3.

P3. VBE = 0. The value of resistance RF is RF 100 pF 100 pF 100 pF R vo 46.5.1 kW Fig.1 mA (C) 49.43 operate at f = 80 kHz.2 V.3 mA (D) 168 mA (A) 35. P3. The value of C required for sinusoidal oscillation of frequency 1 kHz in the circuit of fig. P3.5.8 V (C) 29. P3. In the circuit shown in fig.45 43. the 3 dB cutoff frequency is 50 nF 6 kW +15 V 47 kW 3 kW vi vo vo Fig. The output voltage vo is +36 V 1 kW vo 1 kW C Fig.com .8 V Fig.303 log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø 47. P3.5.5.43 (A) 148 kW (C) 438 kW (B) 236 kW (D) 814 kW 20 kW vo 333 kW 44. If bF = 60.7 V and b = 60.44 is 1 kW 2.605 log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø æv R ö (C) 2. P3. P3. P3.59 kHz (D) 689 Hz Vz = 5 V 100 W Fig.gatehelp. P3.8 V (D) None of the above ******* Page 190 www. P8.5.5.46 both transistor Q1 and Q2 are identical.5.46 æv R ö (A) 2 log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø C 1 kW æv R ö (B) log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø æv R ö (D) 4. P3. In the circuit of fig.47 Vz = 6.5.42. In the circuit in fig.5.5. The phase shift oscillator of fig.3.5.4 mA (B) 98.42 (A) 10 kHz (C) 354 Hz (B) 1. P3.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 42.44 (A) (C) 1 mF 2p 1 2p 6 mF (B) 2p mF (D) 2 p 6 mF 30 kW 10 kW 45. then the total current supplied by the 15 V source is (A) 123.45 the op-amp is ideal. The output voltage at T = 300 K is R1 v1 R2 v2 R R 333 kW 20 kW Fig. In the op-amp series regulator circuit of fig.47 (B) 24.

s vss 39. (B) When vi > 2 V. (B) Since op-amp is ideal 34. vo = = 100 mV 1 10 3 38.5 e -12 .gatehelp. Hence (C) is correct. (C) v. S3. (D) If vi < 0.28 = 10 . vo = ( -2)( -15) = 3 V .Operational Amplifiers GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. S3.) = 5 V = vc (0 + ) = 5 V For t > 0 the equivalent circuit is shown in fig. v. 2 kis = 4 ki1 vs = 2 kis + 10 ki2 Þ is = 2 i1 is 2 i2 = is + i1 .= (2) = 1 V. 3k 32. (C) v2 + = v2 . current through 6 V source i= 6 = 2 mA.com Page 193 . = -15. When vi < 2 V. (A) Voltage follower vo = v. output is negative. i1 = i ö æ vs = 2 kis + 10 kç is + s ÷ 2ø è Þ (10)(10 k) =5 V 10 k + 10 k When v+ > 5 V.5.48 V w £ 0. vo = . (C) Closed loop gain A =½ F½ = = 24 ½ R1½ 10 k The maximum output voltage vom = 24 ´ 0. vo = F 2 1 CMRR 100 1 CMRR = 60 dB = 10 3 . output is positive. V 4V 2V vs = 17k = Rin is ½R ½ 240 k 29. vo = RF I io = (500 k)(150n) = 75 mV Total offset voltage vo = 404 + 75 = 479 mV 31. 37.5 / m SR . o = o + i .= t 0 . (D) v+ = 28.= v+ v+ (0 + ) = 5m(250 | 1000) = 1 V. (A) 6 = -vo v .= v+ .= 0 V.5t V for t > 0 v. then vo > 0..5. vp = vss vo R R v vs = -vss vo . v+ ( ¥) = 0 | t = 8m(1000 + 250) = 10 s 35. S3.08 s vc = 10 + (5 .5. D1 blocks and D2 conducts Av = 6k = -2 3k Þ vo = ( -2)(2) = -4 V p 6 2p 5p 6 t Fig.02 = 0. then vo < 0. io = . (B) If vi > 0.35 10 kW t = 20 k ´ 4m = 0. (C) v+ = 0 = v. vs = 2 kis + 10 k( is + i1 ).5..5 26.08 Fig. vd = 0 2R 2R v + vR VCM VCM = + = 1. v. 2k vo(1) vo v (2) vo(1) = .35 20 kW i1 4 kW is 2 kW is i2 10 V 4 mF + vC – Fig. output will be positive and LED will be on. Let output of analog multiplier be vp .48 vom æ R ö 30. vp vs =Þ vs = -vp . (A) vc (0 .10) e 36.= i + 1+ 3 4 2+1 2 +1 2v v v v v+ = v. D2 blocks and D1 conduct Av = 3k .6 + = -18 A. S3. o = -8 4 3 3 vi 27.6 + o 6k 3k -6( 6 k) io = .39 www. (B) v+ = (2) R R = 1 V. = = 11 ´ 106 rad/s 0. (A) The offset due to Vio is vo = ç 1 + 1 ÷Vio ç R1 ÷ ø è 500 ö æ = ç1 + ÷ 4m = 404 mV 5 ø è Due to I io. vo = -2m( 3k + 2 k) = -10 V 3k 33.

vo2 = -Vt ln ç c1 çi è c2 ic1 = v1 .= vs + ç 2 + 2 ÷ v+ .(A) vs . (D) This is a all pass circuit vo 1 .5.vo2 ) 20 ö æi ÷. R2 iL = v+ .44 Frequency = C= 1 mF 2p 41. v. = H ( jw) = vi 1 + jwRC 1 2pRC Þ 1 ´ 10 3 = 1 2 p(1k) C | H( jw)| = 1 + ( wR 2 C) 2 1 + ( wRC) 2 =1 Thus when w and R is changed.12 k)(29) = 236 kW vo = 4 vz = 6.2 ´ 4 = 24.4 mA 47 k 61 è 100 ø 333 ( vo1 . vo2 = -vBE 2 .v.. the transfer function is unchanged.vo2 ) = (0.com .Vt ln ç c1 ç i è s æi vo1 . (B) Let R1 = 3 kW . (B) The oscillation frequency is 1 1 f = Þ 80 k = 2 p 6 RC 2 p 6 R(100 p) Þ R= 1 ( 80 k)(2 p 6 )(100 p) Þ = 8.1 is greater than 2. Vt = 0.gatehelp.vo = R1 R1 Þ Þ 2 v1 = vs + vo æ R ö vo = ç 2 + 2 ÷ v+ ç RL ÷ ø è 44. 2 p( 3k | 6 k)50n 2 p(2 k)50n | 43.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 5p p TON 1 Duty cycle = = 6 6 = 2p T 3 40. vZ = 10 vo v = o 10 + 30 4 RF = 29 R RF = ( 8.1k = = 2.3026) log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø è 1 2ø æv R ö = log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø 47.= vE . RL iL = vs R2 R R C C Fig. So there will be R1 1k oscillation R1 R2 v+ v v .vo2 = Vt ln ç 2 1 ÷.8 V ************ Page 194 www. The input current to the op-amp is zero.vo + + + + =0 R2 RL R2 æ R ö 2 v. R2 = 6 kW .0259 V çR v ÷ è 2 1 ø vo = æv R ö 333 333 ( vo1 . (C) v+ = 5 V = v.0259) ln ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ 20 20 è 1 2ø 1 1 = = 159 kHz . (B) vo = æi vo1 = -vBE1 .4329(2.5 60 æ 5 ö + ç ÷ = 49.= v+ ç RL ÷ ø è R Þ 0 = vs + 2 v+ RL v+ = RL vs .jwRC . 42. C = 50 nF vi v . (A) This is Wien-bridge oscillator. S3.v.12 kW æv R ö æv R ö = 0.Vt ln ç c 2 ÷ ç i ø è s ö ÷ ÷ ø ö ÷ ÷ ø éR ù vi ê 2 (1 + sR1 C) + 1ú = vo R1 ë û vi [R2 + R1 + sR1 R2 C ] = vo R1 vo R + R1 = 2 vi R1 Þ f3dB = é sR1 R2 C ù ê1 + R + R ú 1 2 û ë 46. i+15V = iZ + iC = iZ + a F iE = 15 .vo + i =0 1 ö R2 æ R1 | ç | ÷ è sC ø Þ vi v v + i = o ö R2 R2 æ R1 ç ÷ ç 1 + sR C ÷ ø 1 è 45. (B) v+ = v.4329 lnç 2 1 ÷ = 0. R1 ic 2 = v2 R2 æi ö ÷ = Vt ln ç c 2 çi ÷ è c1 ø vo æ R ö = ç 1 + 2 ÷(1 + s( R1 | R2 ) C) | vi ç R1 ÷ ø è 1 = 2 p( R1 | R2 ) C | æv R ö vo1 . The ratio R2 2..

. 0 1 0 0 4. The 100110 2 is numerically equivalent to 1. 2. and 4 (D) 1. Consider the signed binary number A = 01010110 and B = 1110 1100 where B is the 1’s complement and MSB is the sign bit. -6 and -6 respectively (C) -7. 9 and 57 respectively (B) -6. 212 4 5. -7 and -7 respectively (D) -25. 3610 3. 11001. 2. A + B Q. -9 and -57 respectively 4.1 NUMBER SYSTEMS & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 1. A signed integer has been stored in a byte using 2’s complement format. then the value of base x is (A) 6 (C) 7 (B) 5 (D) 9 6. 2616 2. A computer has the following negative numbers stored in binary form as shown. (A) (B) (C) (D) www.B S. If (211) x = (152)8 . 1001 and 111001 correspond to the 2’s complement representation of the following set of numbers (A) 25. B . We should copy the original byte to the less significant byte of the word and fill the more significant byte with (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) equal to the MSB of the original byte (D) complement of the MSB of the original byte. and 4 (C) -48 as 1110 1000 (B) -89 as 1010 0111 (D) -32 as 1110 0000 The correct answer are (A) 1. and 3 (C) 1. In list-I operation is given. 1 0 1 1 6. 0 1 1 0 3. 3. 1 0 0 1 5.A R. and in list-II resultant binary number is given. and 4 2. 0 1 1 0 0011 1001 0010 0101 1100 0110 1101 1010 The correct match is P 3 3 1 1 Q 4 6 4 6 R 2 8 8 2 S 5 7 7 5 Page 197 . The wrongly stored number is (A) -37 as 1101 1011 (B) 2.A . 1 0 0 1 7. 468 4.gatehelp. 3. 0 1 0 0 2. 1 0 1 1 8. A . 3. We wish to store the same integer in 16-bit word.B List-II 1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 4.com List–I P.

the other input is being held permanently LOW. The logic circuit would be A B C X A B C X 37. C = 0 36. The logic circuit is Page 200 www. the minimum number of two-input NAND required to implement X Å Y is (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 7 (C) (D) 34.1. is A B 31. A logic circuit control the passage of a signal according to the following requirements : 1. The statement. If XY = 0 then X Å Y is equal to (A) X + Y (C) XY (B) X + Y (D) X Y C X Fig.4. If the output waveform from an OR gate is the same as the waveform at one of its inputs. C = 0 32.1. which is always true.34 (A) A = 1. If X Y + XY = Z then XZ + XZ is equal to (A) Y (C) 0 (B) Y (D) 1 35. 2. X will remain HIGH when B and C are different. In fig. B = 1. B = 0. The output of logic circuit is HIGH whenever A and B are both HIGH as long as C and D are either both LOW or both HIGH. C = 1 (B) A = 1. needed to produce X = 1.com .UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 28. P4.35 the input condition. 2. B = 1. Output X will equal A when control input B and C are the same. The simplified form of a logic function A B C Z A B C D Z Y = A( B + C( AB + AC)) is (A) A B (C) AB (B) AB (D) AB D (A) A B C D Z A B C D (B) 29. Consider the statements below: 1. If the X and Y logic inputs are available and their complements X and Y are not available. is (A) Both 1 and 2 (C) Only 2 (B) Only 1 (D) None of the above 33. From a four-input OR gate the number of input condition. To implement y = ABCD using only two-input NAND gates. that will produce HIGH output are (A) 1 (C) 15 (B) 3 (D) 0 (C) A = 0. one of its input is being held permanently HIGH. C = 1 (D) A = 1. The reduced form of the Boolean expression of Y = ( AB ) × ( AB) is (A) A + B (C) AB + AB (B) A + B (D) A B + AB Z (C) (D) 30. P.gatehelp. B = 1. If the output waveform from an OR gate is always HIGH. minimum number of requirement of gate is (A) 3 (B) (C) 5 X (B) 4 (D) 6 (A) A B C X A B C 38.

2.. Only A.2 + X n Y X Fig.. X n + X 2 X 3 X 5 K X n + . P. The gates G1 and G2 in Fig. P4.... then the output Y is equal to 1 45. a minimum cost solution for realizing f using 2-input NOR gates and 2-input OR gates (each having unit cost) would have a total cost of (A) 1 units (C) 3 units (B) 2 units (D) 4 units 44.gatehelp. In the network of fig... f (1. 1 Vi 0 Vi G1 G2 Vo 40. 39.1..1 Statement for Q. If NAND gate are available then minimum cost is (A) 2 units (C) 4 units (B) 3 units (D) 6 units to Fig. X n -1 X n (B) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 + X 2 X 3 X 4 .1.45 f can be written as X0 X1 X2 1 2 3 n-1 X3 Xn-1 Xn n F Fig.1.4. 0) = 0 www..44 have propagation delays of 10 ns and 20 ns respectively.. X n -1 X n (C) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 ...1.. t3 = t2 + 10 ns] (A) 1 kW t0 t1 t2 t3 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW (B) t0 t1 t2 t3 (C) Fig.com Page 201 .. P.. X n -1 + . P4. X n -1 + X 2 X 3 X 5 K X n +.1.4. + X n -1 X n (D) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5.39–40: A Boolean function Z = ABC is to be implement using NAND and NOR gate. 1) = 1.1. 0) = f (0.. Each gate has unit cost. X n + .. If both gate are available then minimum cost is (A) 2 units (C) 4 units (B) 3 units (D) 6 units Assuming complements of x and y are not available.45 (A) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 + X 2 X 4 X 5 . In fig.42 (A) X (C) 0 (B) X (D) 1 ******* 43.1. B and C are available. A Boolean function of two variables x and y is defined as follows : f (0. P4.. t2 = t1 + 10 ns..Number Systems & Boolean Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.41 t0 t1 t2 t3 (D) t0 t1 t2 t3 (A) both switch are closed (B) both switch are open (C) only one switch is closed (D) LED does not emit light irrespective of the switch positions 42.. P4. P4. P4..42 consisting of a cascade of 20 XOR gates is X. 1) = f (1.44 41.41 the LED emits light when VCC = 5 V If the input Vi makes an abrupt change from logic 0 to 1 at t = t0 then the output waveform Vo is [t1 = t0 + 10 ns.+ X n -1 X n . If the input to the digital circuit shown in fig.

B A 1101 0011 + 1011 1010 1 1000 1101 Discard the carry 1 . (C) 4810 = -4810 = 00110000 2 1100 1111 + 1 00101010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 11010110 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 = 710 Þ x =7 A .310 = 0.A . B A 1110 1100 + 1010 1001 110010101 1 + 10010110 Page 202 www.A.gatehelp.A = B + A.6 11010000 6.B = A + B.6 1.6 0. A B 010 10110 + 00010011 0110 1001 1010 1001 + 00010011 10111100 . A B 7. 5. (C) See a example 42 in a byte 42in a word -42 in a byte -42 in a word Therefore (C) is correct.4 0. (B) Here A .B = A + B.4 0.01001 9.2 0. + 1 0100 0011 B . A B 010 0 0110 + 0010 1101 0111 0011 B . A B 1011 1010 + 0010 1101 1110 0111 8.B = A + B. (C) 2 x 2 + x + 1 = 64 + 5 ´ 8 + 2 3. B are 2’s complement A + B.8 1.3 2Fi-1 0. A B 0100 0110 + 1101 0011 1 0001 1001 Discard the carry 1 A .A . 2. (C) b4 Received 1 b3 1 b2 0 p3 1 b1 1 p2 0 p1 0 C1* = b4 Å b2 Å b1 Å p1 = 0 * C2 = b4 Å b3 Å b1 Å p2 = 1 * C3 = b4 Å b3 Å b2 Å p3 = 1 .B = A + B. A 01010110 B + 1110 1100 10100 0010 . (B) 1110 = 10112 0.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics SOLUTIONS 1. (D) 100110 2 = 2 5 + 2 2 + 21 = 3810 2616 = 2 ´ 16 + 6 = 3810 468 = 4 ´ 8 + 6 = 3810 212 4 = 2 ´ 4 2 + 41 = 3810 So 3610 is not equivalent.6 Bi 0 1 0 0 1 2 Fi 0. B are 1’s complement A + B. (C) All are 2’s complement of 7 11001 Þ 00110 + 1001 Þ 1 = 710 00111 0110 + 1 0111 111001 Þ 000110 + 1 = 710 000111 4.com Repeat from the second line 0.8 0.2 0. (D) Here A .

(D) Z = A + ( AB + BC) + C = A + ( A + B + B + C) + C = A + B + C ABC = A + B + C AB + BC + AC = A + B + B + C + A + C = A + B + C 14. (A) The logic circuit can be modified as shown in fig. 4. S 4. S.11 1 1 Now Z = AB + ( C + D) E 12. (D) X = MNQ + M NQ + M NQ = MQ + M NQ = Q( M + M N ) = Q( M + N ) 11. (C) ( AB ) × ( AB) = AB + AB = AB + AB 30.com Page 203 . 13. (B) X Z + XZ = X ( XY + XY ) + X ( X Y + XY ) = X ( XY + X Y ) + XY = XY + XY = Y 31. (C) Z = A( A + A) BC = ABC 20. (B) A( B + C ( AB + AC)) = AB + AC ( AB × AC) = AB + AC[( A + B)( A + C)] = AB + AC ( A + AC + AB + B C) = AB 29. (B) ( A + B)( B + C ) = ( AB)( BC) = ABC ( A + B)( B + C ) = ( A + B) + ( B + C) = A + B + C ( A + B)( B + C) = ( A + B) + ( B + C) = AB + B + C = A + B + C From truth table Z = A + B + C Thus (B) is correct. (B) Z = ( AB)( CD)( EF ) = AB + CD + EF 17.gatehelp.1. 26. 16. 10. (D) AC + BC = AC( B + B) + ( A + A) BC = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC 27.1. (A) X Å Y = X Y + XY = ( XY + XY ) = ( XY ) = X + Y www. 23. (B) Y = ( A Å B) × C = ( AB + AC) × C = ( AB + AB) + C = A B + AB + C 19. S4. (A) A( A + B)( A + B + C) 24. (B) Using duality ( A + B)( A + C)( B + C) = ( A + B)( A + C) Thus (B) is correct option. (A) X = ( A B + AB)( A + B) = ( AB + A B)( AB) = AB 18. So output will be HIGH. (A) Z = ( A + B ) × BC = ( AB) × BC = ABC 22.1.11 A B C+D E Z ( A + B)( A + C) 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 Fig. (C) ( X + Y )( X + Y ) = XY + X Y ( X + Y )( X + Y )( X + Y ) = ( X + Y )( XY + X Y ) = XY + XY = XY 15.23 Transmitted code 1001100. (A) A 0 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 ( A + BC) 0 0 0 1 1 1 Fig. (D) F = A + AB + A BC + A B C( D + DE) = A + AB + A B( C + C( D + E)) = A + A( B + B( C + D + E)) = A + B + C + D + E 28. (B) X = ABC + ABC + ABC = BC + ABC 25. (A) Z = AB( B + C) = ABC 21. (D) You can see that input to last XNOR gate is same.1 * * C3 C2 C1* = 110 which indicate position 6 in error = ( AA + AB)( A + B + C) = A( A + B + C) = A Therefore No gate is required to implement this function.Number Systems & Boolean Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.

XY + XZ 4. C. The relay turns on when f(A. XYZ + XYZ 3.12 the redundant gate is x y z w x z w y z 1 2 4 X 3 Fig. 2. B. The minimized Boolean expression f is (A) ACD + BCD + BCD (C) ABD + BCD + BCD (B) BCD + BCD + ACD (D) ABD + BCD + BCD 15. and Z are as follow W = R + PQ + RS X = PQRS + P Q RS + PQ R S Y = RS + PR + PQ + P Q Z = R + S + PQ + P Q R + PQ S Then (A) W = Z . 6) + Sdc (1. D are fed to logic circuit. D) = ( A + B C)( B + CD) The function as a sum of product is (A) A + BC + ACD + BCD (B) A + BC + ACD + BCD (C) AB + BC + ACD + BCD (D) AB + AB + ACD + BCD 10. B. X.gatehelp. x2 . P4. x2 . 1101 and 1110. d) = Sm(0.2. x2 ) = Sm(1. XZ + XZ + YZ The solution for g are (A) 1. 11) + Sdc ( 4. x3 . x1 ) is (A) Sm(3.2. 6) (D) 0 Fig. In a certain application four inputs A. x3 and x4 . D) =1 for the following states of the inputs (ABCD) : 0000. c. 2. Y. In the logic circuit of fig. 4) For above function consider following expression 1. 2. 8. B. X = Z (C) W = Y (B) W = Z . X = Y (D) W = Y = Z 9. If function W. There are four Boolean variables x1 . C. P4. 4. P4. The Boolean Expression Y = ( A + B)( A + C) is equal to Page 206 www. 5) g( x4 . A logical function of four variable is given as f ( A. x3 . 7) h( x4 .com . x2 .1 (A) ( AB + AB ) C (C) ABC (B) ( AB + AB ) C (D) A Å B Å C 11.12 8. 9. and for the remaining states the relay is off. 6. x3 . 13) (C) Sm(3. 7. 2. producing an output which operates a relay. The output of the circuit is given by CD 00 00 A 01 1 01 1 1 11 10 1 14.2.10. 10. 12) (B) Sm(3. YZ + YZ (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 4 13. 0101. States 1000 and 1001 do not occur. 0110. 5. Z ) = Sm(5. x1 ) = Sm( 3. A function with don’t cares is as follows : g( X . Y . b. and 3 (C) 1. and 4 (D) 1. A function with don’t care condition is as follows f ( a. B. and 4 (B) 1. 0010. x1 ) = fg Then h( x4 . The following function are defined on sets of them f ( x3 . 12. and C and its K-map is as shown in fig. and 3 2. 3. A combinational circuit has input A.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics (A) ( w + y)( x + y + z)( w + x + z) (B) ( w + x)( w + z )( x + y)( y + z ) (C) ( x + z)( w + y) (D) ( x + z )( w + y) 7. C. 15) The minimized expression for this function is (A) ab + b d + cd + abc (C) ab + b d + b c + abd (B) ab + b d + cd + abd (D) Above all (A) AC + AB (C) AB + BC + ABC (B) AC + AB + BC (D) Above all 12. P4. x2 .2.

For a binary half subtractor having two input A and B. 10. The logic circuit shown in fig. P4. 9. is (A) 32 (C) 4 (B) 16 (D) 1 x0 x1 x2 I0 I1 I2 D0 3-to-8 Decoder D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 f1 17.22 18. 2. 5.2.B) and X (borrow) are (A) D = AB + AB . 7. X = AB (D) D = AB + AB . P4. 3. the corresponding minterm numbers are (A) m3 and m0 (C) m2 and m0 (B) m9 and m6 (D) m6 and m9 (B) x0 Å x1 Å x2 (D) 0 23. P4. x y. x1 . 15) 21. 7. X = AB (C) D = AB + AB . P4. 7) (C) S(0. 15) f1 = Sm(0. 1. 3.21 (A) P(1. f1 f2 = ? 16.com Page 207 . P4. of the same variable f = f1 f2 . 4. 5. x0 ) = ? D0 3-to-8 D1 Decoder D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 I0 I1 I2 B C Z D Fig. The number of full specified function. A four-variable switching function has minterms m6 and m9. 7) (D) None of Above Y Fig.2.2. 2. The function f and f1 are as follows : f = Sm( 4. 11. X = AB 22. The simplest function for f2 is (A) x (C) y (B) x (D) y (A) x0 x1 x2 (C) 1 f2 Fig.2 Statement for Q.2. 2. If the literals in these minterms are complemented. 4. 6) (B) S(1. that will satisfy the given condition.2.gatehelp. 4.24-25 www. The minimum function that can detect a “divisible by 3’’ 8421 BCD code digit (representation D8 D4 D2 D1 ) is given by (A) D8 D1 + D4 D2 + D8 D2 D1 (B) D8 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D8 D4 D2 D1 (C) D4 D1 + D4 D2 + D8 D1 D2 D1 (D) D4 D2 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D8 D4 D2 D1 20.23 (A) D( A u C + AC ) (B) D( B Å C + AC ) (D) D( B (C) D( B Å C + AB ) Statement for Q. P4.24–25: u C + AB ) x0 x1 x2 I0 I1 I2 The building block shown in fig.23 implements D0 3-to-8 D1 Decoder D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 EN A 19. 8.16–17: A switching function of four variable. f ( w. X = AB (B) D = AB + AB .Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. z) is to equal the product of two other function f1 and f2 .2. the correct set of logical expressions for the outputs D = ( A . f ( x2 .24–25 is a f active high output decoder. D0 3-to-8 Decoder D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 X A B C I0 I1 I2 Fig.

P4.27-29 Fig. P4.30 The output of decoder are as follow D0 = 1 when A0 = 0. P4. z) is (A) 0 (C) z Statement for Q.2. A logic circuit consist of two 2 ´ 4 decoder as shown in fig.30 implements A 1 MUX f 1 0 S0 B 1 MUX 0 0 S0 C Fig. P4. y. P4. P4. Z 2 = ? (A) ab + bc + ca (C) abc 29. The value of f ( x. The MUX shown in fig. The output X is (A) AB + BC + CA (C) ABC 25.32 is a 1 MUX Z0 S0 b c 1 S0 MUX a 0 Y +5 V I3 I2 I1 I0 S 1 S0 Y MUX Z Z2 X b 0 Fig. The output Y is (A) A + B (C) C + A (B) B + C (D) None of the above (B) A + B + C (D) None of the above 28.32 27.com (B) X + Y (D) XY (C) XY + X . (A) ABC c 1 MUX S0 Z1 A1 = 0 A1 = 0 A1 = 1 A1 = 1 (A) NOR gate (C) XOR gate (B) NAND gate (D) XNOR gate 31. P4.27-29: A MUX network is shown in fig. Z1 = ? (A) a + b + c (C) a u b u c Page 208 (A) X + Y (B) ab + ac + bc (D) a Å b Å c www.gatehelp. x A0 D0 D1 D2 y A1 D3 A1 D0 D1 D2 z A0 D3 f 30. P4. P4.26 Fig.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 24.27-29.2.31 is 4 ´ 1 multiplexer. D2 = 1 when A0 = 0.26. P4.31 B) A Å B Å C (C) A u B uC (D) A + B + C c 0 32.2. The output Z is C I3 I2 I1 I0 +5 V S 1 S0 A B MUX Z (B) z (D) 1 Fig.2.2.2. D3 = 1 when A0 = 1. D1 = 1 when A0 = 1. This circuit act as a (A) Full adder (C) Full subtractor (B) Half adder (D) Half subtractor (B) a + b + c (D) a u b u c 26.2. The output of the 4 ´ 1 multiplexer shown in fig.2.2.2. The network shown in fig.

4.com Page 209 . 12. The 8-to-1 multiplexer shown in fig.2.36 implements the Boolean expression I3 z 0 I2 I1 I0 S1 S0 w x MUX f Fig.33 (A) A Å C (C) B Å C 34. z) = Sm( 4.37 realize 0 1 1 I0 I1 MUX I2 I3 EN S1 S0 y z the following Boolean expression f 1 z z 0 z 0 1 z I0 I1 MUX I2 I3 EN S 1 S0 w x I0 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 MUX EN S2 S1 S0 0 w x y Fig. yÅ z 37.2.2.38–40 x0 1 0 I 0 I1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 I 7 C B A EN S2 S1 S0 MUX x1 x2 Fig.34 Fig.35 Y X X X X X X X X f1 f2 f3 (A) A Å B (C) A Å B Å C (B) A Å B (D) A Å B Å C Fig. 7. y + z (C) y + z.36 f ( w. P4. P4. P4. P4.37 (A) wxyz + wx yz + xy + yz (B) wxyz + wxyz + x y + yz (C) wx yz + w x yz + yz + zx (D) wxyz + wxyz + gz + zx 35. y. The MUX shown in fig.gatehelp.2. The output Z is C C I3 I2 I1 I0 S1 S0 A B MUX Z 36. P4. 10.2 33. 15) The input to I1 and I 3 will be (A) yz . P. P4. For the logic circuit shown in fig.33 is a 4 ´ 1 multiplexer. 5.2. P4.2. P4.2. P4.2. f = ? 0 1 1 0 1 I0 I1 MUX I2 I3 EN S 1 S0 w 0 1 0 1 1 x (B) A uC (D) B u C Fig. x. P4.2.Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.38-40: A PLA realization is shown in fig.35 the output Y is (A) wxz + w x z + wyz + xy z (B) wxz + wyz + wyz + w x y (C) w x z + wy z + w yz + wxz (D) MUX is not enable Statement for Q. 8. y u z (D) x + y . The 4–to–1 multiplexer shown in fig.2. y Å z (B) y + z.38-40 www.2.

then output Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 are X3 X2 X1 X0 Z R Z R Z R Z R Output Fig. 5.2. R and output Y .2. f2 ( x2 . 4. The circuit shown in fig. f3( x2 .42 Page 210 www. 2. x1 . ab .2. bc. P4. 4. It is desired to generate the following three Boolean function f1 = ab c + abc + bc f2 = ab c + ab + abc. x0 ) = ? (A) P M(0. bc (B) ab .41 are 8–4–2–1 BCD numbers. a . bc (D) Above all 0 43. f3 = ab c + abc + ac by using an OR gate array as shown in fig.42 where P1 and P5 are the product terms in one or more of the variable a. 3. P4 and P5 are ux (A) ab. P2 . b.7) (D) P M(2.gatehelp.P (D) adder giving P + Q + R 44. P4. 7) (C) P M(1. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 F1 F2 MSB Fig.2. P3 . P4. 2. ac.com .44 converts MSB X X X X Y3 X X X X X X Y2 X X X X X X X X Y1 X Y0 Fig.44 (A) BCD to binary code (B) Binary to excess (C) Excess–3 to Gray Code (D) Gray to Binary code X X X X X X F3 ******* Fig. 5. P4. 6) (C) Sm(2.43 BCD to Decimal Decoder D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 The circuit act as a 4 bit (A) adder giving P + Q (B) subtractor giving P . ab (C) ac. Z with Y = P Å Q Å R and Z = RQ + PR + QP . ab.2. If the input X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 to the ROM in fig.41 (A) 2–4–2–1 BCD number (C) excess 3 code converter (B) gray code number (D) none of the above + + + 42. x1 . Q P P Q P Q P Q P Q 41. P4. 3. c and c. b .Q (C) subtractor giving Q . P4. ac.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 38. 7) (B) Sm(1. P4. 4) 40.43 has 4 boxes each described by input P. x0 ) = ? (A) x2 x0 + x1 x0 (C) x2 Å x0 39. The circuit shown in fig. bc. P.2.4. x0 ) = ? (A) Sm(1.2. 6. 2. 4.2. 3. 6. x1 . 5) (B) P M(2. Q. ab . bc. bc. 7) (D) None of the above (B) x2 x0 + x1 x2 (D) x2 The terms P1 . f1 ( x2 .

5. 2. S 4. X = Z 14.2. 8.17 RS 00 00 PQ 01 11 10 1 01 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 18. 6 and 9 are divisible by 3 D2 D1 00 01 11 1 1 ´ ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 10 00 D8 D4 01 11 10 1 Fig.13d = R + S + PQ We can see that W = Z . 12.gatehelp.Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.com 1 1 Fig. f2 = x yz 00 01 0 ´ ´ 0 11 0 1 1 0 10 0 ´ ´ 0 Fig. S 4. So 2 5 = 32 different functions f2 . 13) www. S 4.2. 6. 3. S 4. 11.13c 00 Z = R + S + PQ + P Q R + PQ S= R + S + PQP Q R PQ S = R + S + ( P + Q )( P + Q + R)( P + Q + S) = R + S + ( PQ + PR + Q P + Q R)( P + Q + S) = R + S + PQ + PQS + PR + PRQ + PRS + Q PS + Q PR + Q RS 0 1 ´ 0 01 wx 11 10 Fig.14 01 11 10 1 1 1 f = D8 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D8 D4 D2 D1 20. 13. 3. (B) f = Sm(0. 17.2.20 Page 213 . S 4. (C) D = AB + AB. 3. 15) + Sdc(5. 15). 15) f2 = Sm(4.2. f1 = Sm(0.19 CD 00 00 01 AB 11 10 ´ 1 1 1 ´ Fig. (A) f = x3 x2 x1 + x3 x2 x1 + x3 x2 x1 = x3 x2 x1 + x3 x2 g = x4 x3 x2 + x4 x3 x2 + x4 x3 x2 = x4 x3 x2 + x4 x3 fg = x4 x3 x2 x1 + x4 x3 x2 = x4 x3 x2 x1 + x4 x3 x2 x1 + x4 x3 x2 x1 h = Sm(3. 2. 7.2 RS 00 00 PQ 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 01 11 1 1 1 1 1 10 16. 12. 7) 21. 6. ¢ m6 = ABCD = m9 . m9 = ABCD m¢ = ABCD = m6 9 After complementing literal 19. (B) 0. (A) f = Sm(4. 4.2.2. 9. A 0 0 B 0 1 0 1 X = AB D 0 1 1 0 X 0 1 0 0 15. 14). 13. 7. (B) m6 = ABCD . 4. 15) + Sdc(5. 12. 1. (D) ABD + BCD + BCD Fig. (A) f2 = Sm(4. 10. S 4. 7. 6) = Sm(1. 14) There are 5 don't care condition. 7.

2. S4.2. it is a full adder. 30. 6. 3. 5. 4. 7). D1 = A1 A0 . 7). = C + B + A = ABC 31. (A) The equation of Z1 is the equation of sum of A and B with carry and equation of 2 is the resultant carry. (D) D0 = A1 A0 . D3 = xy For second decoder A1 = D2 D3 = yxxy = 0.35 A0 = z Therefore Y = A Å B Å C 36. f1 f2 = 0 23. f = D0 + D1 = A1 A0 + A1 A0 = A1 = 1 27.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 22. BC 00 00 A 01 01 1 1 11 1 1 10 35. (A) Z = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC = AC + AC = A Å C 34. yz 00 00 S1 S0 bb wx 01 11 10 0 1 1 1 01 0 1 0 0 11 0 1 1 0 10 0 0 0 1 I0 = 0 I1 = y + z I 3 = yz + yz = y u z I2 = z I3 = y z Page 214 www. 2. S 4. D2 = yx . 25. (A) Z 2 = bS0 + cS0 = b( ab + ab ) + c( ab + ab ) = ab + ab c + abc = a( b + b c) + abc = ab + ac + abc = ab + ac + bc Fig. 7). S4. fb = wx + wx = x f = fa yz + fb yz + yz = ( wx + wx) yz + xyz + yz = wxyz + wx yz + xy + yz Fig.24 26. D2 = A1 A0 .gatehelp. (A) The output from the upper first level multiplexer is fa and from the lower first level multiplexer is fb fa = wx + wx. (D) Output is 1 when even parity BA 00 00 1 1 C 01 11 1 1 10 Fig. 3.36 Fig. Thus. (B) I1 = y + z .com . (A) Z = XY + XY + XY . 5. 6). (B) f1 = CD + CB = CB . (D) Z = ABC + AB + AB + AB = A ( BC + B) + A( B + B) = A ( B + C) + A = A + B + C S = F1 f = f 1 + f1 A = CB + CBA = CB + A u C + AB ) X = AB + BC + CA Y =C 24. BC 00 A 00 01 1 01 11 1 1 1 10 Z=X +Y 33. (D) Z = D( ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC) = D( AB ( C + C) + BC( A + A) + ABC ) = D( AB + BC + ABC ) = D( B ( A + AC ) + BC) = D( BA + BC + BC) = D( B 29. (D) f1 = Sm(0. (A) X = Sm(3. 32. (D) The output of first MUX is Z o = ab + ab = ( a Å b) This is input to select S0 of both second-level MUX Z1 = CS0 + CS0 = C Å S0 = a Å b Å c 28. (D) Y = Sm(1.2. f2 = Sm(1. A1 = y. S4.25 01 D3 = A1 A0 For first decoder A0 = x .2. 5.

S4. x1 .Q .43a then output is 00111. Z n = Rn Qn + Pn Rn + Qn Pn P = 1101 and Q = 0110 output is 1111 which is 2’s complement of –1.gatehelp.43b bc 00 00 a 01 1 Fig. 7) f3( x2 . 2. It gives P–Q. Let X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 be 1000 then Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 will be 1110 Let X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 be 0110 then Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 will be 1100 bc 00 00 a 01 1 01 11 1 1 10 1 42. P5 = ab 43. (C) Let z = 0. x0 ) = Sm(0. www. x1 . (C) f3 = x0 x1 + x1 x2 = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 f3( x2 . P2 = ac.42a Fig. P4 = bc.2.2. S4. 5) 41.2. 3. 7) 40. S4. x0 ) = PM(1. bc 00 00 a 01 Fig. x1 . (A) Let X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 be 1001 then Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 will be 1111. 38.42b 44.Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.2 37. (D) Let input be 11 10 1 1 1 output will be Let input be 1010 1101 0110 01 output will be 0100 This convert gray to Binary code. 6. Pn n =1 n =2 n=3 n=4 1 0 0 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 Rn 0 0 1 1 Zn 0 1 1 1 Yn 1 1 1 1 1 Fig. Pn n =1 n =2 n=3 n=4 1 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 1 0 Rn 0 0 1 1 Zn 0 1 1 0 Yn 1 1 1 0 0 Fig. (C)f = x0 x2 + x0 x1 x2 + x0 x2 = x0 x2 (1 + x1 ) + x0 x2 = x0 x2 + x0 x2 39. P3 = bc. Then f = w x y + w xy + wx y + wxy = w x + w y If we put z = 0 in given option then (A) = w x + xy (B) = wy + w x y (C) = w x + wy Since MUX is enable so option (C) is correct. 6.com Page 215 . S4. S4. (B) f2 = x0 x1 + x1 x2 + x0 x1 x2 = x0 x1 x2 + x0 x1 x2 + x1 x2 x0 + x1 x2 x0 + x0 x1 x2 = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 f2 ( x2 .2. x0 ) = Sm(1. (B) Let P = 1001 and Q = 1010 then Yn = Pn Å Qn Å Rn . 2. 4.42b 01 1 11 1 1 10 ******* 1 So this converts 2–4–2–1 BCD numbers. (A) f1 = ab c + abc + bc = ac + ab f2 = ab c + ab + abc = ac + b c f3 = ab c + abc + ac = ab + bc Thus P1 = ab. Let another example So (B) is correct. So it gives P .2.

2.P4.3. (D) generate sequence 00.3..3 1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y 13. P4.3. 00. 12.Sequential Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. is 160 kHZ 10-Bit Ring Counter w 4-Bit Parallel Counter x Mod-25 Ripple Counter y 4-Bit Johnson Counter z Fig..13 (A) 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 D1 Q1 1 D2 Q2 Y (B) 1 1 1 to 0 0 0 (D) 0 0 0 to 1 0 0 (C) 1 0 0 to 0 0 0 (D) X Q1 Q2 14. input are HIGH Q Fig.P4.3. The counter shown in fig. 10. 01. P4. P4. 00 .3. 00.15..K.11 is K CLR K CLR K CLR K CLR K CLR T CLK A Q CLK Q T B Q All J. P4.. The frequency of output Q2Q1Q0 will be Q1 Q0 Fig. The circuit shown in fig.gatehelp. The counter shown in fig..14 Fig. The frequency of the pulse at z in the network shown in fig.3.15 (A) 10 Hz (C) 40 Hz Q C Q K Q J Q B K Q J Q A K 1 CLK J 1 (B) 160 Hz (D) 5 Hz 16. The mod-number of the asynchronous counter shown in fig.11 (A) 24 (A) a MOD–2 counter (B) a MOD–3 counter (C) generate sequence 00. The three-stage Johnson counter as shown in fig.P4.P4. 10..12 is a (C) 25 (B) 48 (D) 36 15. P4.13 is J Q0 J Q1 J Q2 J Q3 J Q4 11..3.com Page 218 .3.13 counts from C J B J A J (B) X Q1 Q2 C CLR K B CLR K A CLR K 1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y (C) X Q1 Q2 A B C Fig.16 is clocked at a constant frequency of fc from the starting state of Q2Q1Q0 = 101.16 www.2.3..P4.3. 10.. P4.12 (A) MOD–8 up counter (B) MOD–8 down counter (C) MOD–6 up counter (D) MOD–6 down counter J2 Q2 J1 J0 K2 CLK Q2 K1 Q1 K0 Q0 Fig.P4.

P4. P4.20 (A) 0 0 0 0 (C) 1 1 1 1 Page 219 (B) 0 1 0 1 (D) 1 0 1 0 www. P4. The D input is derived from Q0 . S = 40 ns (C) R = 10 ns.21 20.3. which loads at the rising edge of the clock.3.P4.3.3. The pattern 1000 will appear at Fig.17 has initially Q2Q1Q0 = 000.2. The counter shown in the fig.22 . The status of Q2Q1Q0 after the first pulse is 0 0011 2 1111 4 0100 6 1010 8 1011 10 1000 12 0010 J2 Q2 J1 Q1 J0 Q0 The clock to the register is shown below. After three clock pulses are applied. A 4 bit ripple counter and a 4 bit synchronous counter are made by flips flops having a propagation delay of 10 ns each. S = 10 ns (D) R = 30 ns. S = 10 ns 1 E ROM 19. Q0 ).com D Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Fig.22.3. Q1 . K2 CLK Q2 K1 Q1 K0 Q0 MSB Fig. the contents of the shift register will be CLK 0 1 1 0 The data on the bus at time t2 is (A) 1 1 1 1 (C) 1 0 0 0 (B) 1 0 1 1 (D) 0 0 1 0 22. Its output acts as the input to a 16 ´ 4 ROM whose output is floating when the enable input E is 0. A 4-bit right shift register is initialized to value 1000 for (Q3 .P4. S = 30 ns (B) R = 40 ns. Q2 . The initial contents of the 4-bit serial-in-parallel-out right-shift. The input lines are connected to a 4 bit bus. In the circuit shown in fig.3. then (A) R = 10 ns. and the data on the bus at time t1 is 0110. the maximum clock frequency that can be used is equal to (A) 5 MHz (C) 4 MHz (B) 10 MHz (D) 20 Mhz CLK t1 t2 t Fig.17 (A) 0 0 1 (C) 1 0 0 (B) 0 1 0 (D) 1 0 1 CLK A 18.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics (A) fc 8 (B) fc 6 21. A partial table of the contents of the ROM is as follows Address Data f (C) c 3 f (D) c 2 17.3.20 is 0 1 1 0. If the worst case delay in the ripple counter and the synchronous counter be R and S respectively.21 is PIPO 4-bit register. If the propagation delay of each FF is 50 ns. P4.gatehelp. Q2 and Q3 through two XOR gates as shown in fig. register shown in fig. A 4 bit modulo–6 ripple counter uses JK flip-flop. P4.P4.

23.3. The output of a Mealy system is 1 if there has been a pattern of 11000. To count from 0 to 1024 the number of required flip-flop is (A) 10 (C) 12 (B) 11 (D) 13 The 8-bit left shift register and D-flip-flop shown in fig. If initially register contains byte B7.3 (A) 3rd pulse (C) 6th pulse Statement for Q. The address bus width of a memory of size 1024 ´ 8 bits is Q (A) 10 bits (C) 8 bits (B) 13 bits (D) 18 bits Fig.23–24: (B) 7th pulse (D) 4th pulse 28. The flip-flop required to implement this system are (A) 2 (C) 4 (B) 3 (D) 5 27.25–26: A Mealy system produces a 1 output if the input has been 0 for at least two consecutive clocks followed immediately by two or more consecutive 1’s. Four memory chips of 16 ´ 4 size have their address buses connected together.Sequential Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. The circuit act as (A) Binary to 2’s complement converter (B) Binary to Gray code converter (C) Binary to 1’s complement converter (D) Binary to Excess–3 code converter 24. P4. then after 4 clock pulse contents of register will be (A) 73 (C) 7E Statement for Q.23-24 D flip-flop is initially cleared.3. The b7 b 6 b 5 b4 b 3 b 2 b 1 b0 29. The minimum state for this system is (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 7 www.3. 25. The minimum state for this system is (A) 4 (C) 8 (B) 5 (D) 9 (B) 72 (D) 74 31. This system will be of size (A) 64 ´ 4 (C) 16 ´ 16 (B) 32 ´ 8 (D) 256 ´ 1 D CLK Q 30.3.P4.22–23 is synchronized with same clock.31 consider the statement: Assertion (A) : The circuit is sequential Reason (R) : There is a loop in circuit d a b c z0 b e z1 Fig. For the circuit of Fig.gatehelp.131 Choose correct option (A) Both A and R true and R is the correct explanation of A (B) Both A and R true but R is not a correct explanation on of A (C) A is true but R is false (D) A is false ***************** 26. P4. otherwise 0.P4.com Page 220 .

(C) x 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 S 0 1 1 0 Fig. (D) Q + = x Å Q Q1+ = x1 Å Q0 = x1 0 + x1 0 = x1 + Q2 = x2 Å x1 . 3. So Q will be high till 2nd rising edge of clock. so Q will be LOW till 6th rising edge. D is LOW.3. (A) At first rising edge of clock. At 2nd rising edge. D is low so Q will be LOW till 3rd rising edge of clock. (D) Z = XQ + YQ X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 Fig.3. (D) Q + = LM + LMQ = L( M + MQ ) = L M + LQ L 0 0 1 1 M 0 1 0 1 Fig.3.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics SOLUTIONS 1. (A) A 1 1 B 1 0 X 0 0 Y 1 1 So this generate the even parity and check odd parity. So at the negative edge of clock Vi FF will invert the output if there is 1 at input. At 3rd rising edge. S4.com . 8. + Q3 = x3 Å x2 Å x1 + Q4 = x4 Å x3 Å x2 Å x1 Therefore sequence is 010101.6 Q+ 0 0 1 Q1 7. X = K Fig. At 5th rising edge.9 Z Q 0 1 Q1 Comparing from the truth table of J–K FF Y = J. S4. (C) A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 S 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Q+ 1 1 0 0 0 1 ´ ´ X and Y are fixed at 0 and 1.5 Q + = AB + AQ = AB + BQ Page 221 www.3 6.3. S4. so Q will be HIGH till 4th rising edge. At 4th rising edge D is HIGH so Q will be HIGH till 5th rising. S4. 9.gatehelp. (C) Given FF is a negative edge triggered T flip-flop. edge. 5. (D) Initially J K 1 Q 0 0 1 0 1 0 Q 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Qn + 1 Qn +1 R 1 0 0 1 Q+ 0 1 1 0 Clock 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Fig.7 4.3. D is HIGH. D is HIGH. 2. S4.

contents are 1 0 1 0 Page 222 . therefore. S4.11 From table it is clear that it is a MOD–3 counter. 17. (D) 10-bit ring counter is a MOD–10. (1 kHz/25 = 40 Hz). (A) It is a 5 bit ripple counter. the frequency at x = 1 kHz. www. You may trace the following sequence. w = 16 kHz. S4. 010. Note that when 11000 occur. Thus the counting sequence will be 100. This will clear all FF. 16. The NAND gate will clear FFs A and B when the count tries to recycle to 111. 011. 12. Q1 = 1.16 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Fig. (B) Present State Q A QB 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 frequency at z = 5 Hz. The MOD–25 ripple counter produces a frequency at y = 40 Hz. (B) It is a down counter because 0 state of previous FFs change the state of next FF. 19.3.3 10. so it divides the 160 kHz input by 10.3. So it is a MOD 24 counter not MOD 25. (B) In ripple counter delay 4Td = 40 ns. Q0 = 0 18. let initial state be 0 0 0 FF C JK C 111 000 000 000 111 001 001 000 FF B JK B 111 000 110 001 111 000 110 001 FF A JK A 111 110 111 110 111 110 111 110 C+ B+ A+ 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 1 0 0 1 1 0 We see that 1 0 1 repeat after every two cycles.gatehelp. then its worst delay will be equal to 10 ns. (D) Q0 Q0 J2 K2 Q2 Q2 J1 K 1 Q1 Q1 J0 K0 + + Q2 Q1+ Q0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 Fig. The D2=Q1 Q2 t0 t1 four-bit parallel counter is a MOD–16. 15. (C) At first cycle J 2K 2 = 1 0 J1 K 1 = 0 0 J 0K 0 = 0 0 Þ Þ Þ Q2 = 1. hence frequency will be fc / 2 .S4. the CLR input is activated and all FF are immediately cleared. 000. The four-bit Johnson Counter is a MOD-8. S4. (D) At pulse 1 input. 001. the FF Input TA TB 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 Next State + Q + QB A Fig.3. The synchronous counter are clocked simultaneously.12 13.10 11.3. So contents are 1 0 1 1.Sequential Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. (C) It is a down counter because the inverted FF output drive the clock inputs. 1 Å 0 =1 At pules 3 input 0 Å 1 = 1. (C) t2 14. This. At pules 2 input 1 Å 1 = 0‘ So contents are 0 1 0 1.com Fig. Thus. 100 etc. (A) 4 bit uses 4 FF Total delay Ntd = 4 ´ 50 ns = 200 ´ 10 -9 1 f = = 5 Mhz 200 ´ 10 -9 20. So it is a t0 Q1 0 1 t1 t3 Mod–24 counter. This will produce as result of 100. At 11000 the output of NAND gate is LOW.

In the circuit shown in fig.4.4 DIGITAL LOGIC FAMILIES Statement for Q. Assume ideal diodes. P4. 5 mA (D) 0. P4. If V1 = V (0) and V2 = V (1).5-7 Fig. 0 I D1 .1–2.5–7: (B) ABC (D) ABC Fig. Vss 20 kW 1 kW V1 Vo V2 1 kW D2 +5 V D0 D1 2.4. 4 mA (C) 5 mA.com .4. then Vo is to rise above 5 V.gatehelp. and I D0 are (A) AND (C) NAND Page 224 (B) OR (D) NOR (A) 1 mA. 1 mA. However. the output Z is +5 V +5 V + + V2 + Vo - V1 Fig. the diode current (B) 1 mA.4. P4.4.3 5. If Vss = 20 V and V1 = V2 = V (1). P.4. 0. I D2 . if V1 = V2 = V (1). For positive logic the circuit is a (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR Consider the AND circuit shown in fig. P4. P4.1–2: Consider the DL circuit of fig. The diode logic circuit of fig.1-2 1. 1 mA. The binary input levels are V(0) = 0 V and V(1) = 25 V.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 4.4.4. For negative logic the circuit is a (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR 3. P4. then Vo is to be at 5 V. 1 mA www.4. P4.5–7.4 (A) AB + C (C) ABC Statement for Q.3 is a D2 V1 V2 D1 Vo Fig.4. 5mA. +5 V +5 V A B C Z 4.

8 has a reference voltage of 2.4. diode current I D1 . If either or both V1 and V2 are logic LOW. If Vss = 40 V and both input are at HIGH level then.10–11: (B) 4.75 V. If Vo1 is taken as the output.12-13 9.10-11 10.4.4. Q1 +VCC (A) 5 V. 0. P4. P4. P4.9. The ideal inverter in fig. 0. 0 (C) 0. The maximum number of diode logic circuit.2 V Statement Q. 0.4.4.4 mA.14. I D2 and I D0 are respectively (A) 0.2 V is driven to saturation. The maximum value of Vss which may be used is (A) 30 V (C) 125 V (B) 25 V (D) 20 V Fig. The forward voltage of the diode is 0. that may be cascaded ahead of the inverter without producing logic error. then circuit is a (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR 13.8 V. +VCC RC RB1 V1 Q1 V2 Q2 Q3 RB2 Vo1 RB3 Vo2 n Stages of Diode Logic Fig.4.8 V. P4.4. P4. R1 R3 V1 V2 Q1 Vo1 R2 Vo2 Q2 Consider the resistor transistor logic gate of fig.12–13: (B) OR (D) NOR +5 V A B C D Z Consider the RTL circuit of fig. P4. P4. For negative logic the gate is (A) AND (C) NAND Statement for Q. P4. For positive logic the gate is (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR 8. then circuit is a 4 kW 2 kW Vo Vi (A) AND (C) NAND Statement for Q.4 mA. 0 V (C) 4.14–15: (B) OR (D) NOR Fig.8 (A) 3 (C) 5 (B) 4 (D) 9 Fig.14-15 www.4 6.5 V. 0 V (D) 5 V. 0.4.com Page 225 . 0. P4. is +5 V +5 V +5 V 11. Fig.12–13.4 mA. 0. Consider the TTL circuit in fig.gatehelp.Digital Logic Families GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.10-11.4. P4. 1 mA (B) 0. The value of V H and VL are respectively +5 V 12. If Vo2 is taken as output. 0 RB1 V1 Q1 V2 +VCC RC Vo RB2 Q2 7. 1 mA (D) 0.9 Consider the TTL circuit of fig.4.4 mA.

Digital Logic Families GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.22 is +VDD 25. P4. P4.4 22. P4. P4.4.4.24 E (A) ABC + ABC (C) ABC + ( A + B + C) (B ABC + ( A + B + C) (D) None of the above Fig. The circuit shown in fig. Consider the CMOS circuit shown in fig. P4.23 B (A) NAND (C) AND (B) NOR C Y (D) OR A B 24.4.26.25 23.4.4.27 implement +5 V Logic Input A to E PMOS Network Y B B A C C B C D Fig.23 acts as a +VDD M3 Y A M1 M2 B (B) ( AB + C) D (D) ( AB + C) D 26. P4. P4.25. P4. P4.22 A B D (A) NAND (C) AND (B) NOR (D) OR (A) ( A + B) C + D (C) ( A + B) C + D C Fig.26 (A) ( A + C) B (C) AB + C (B) ( A + B) C (D) AB + C A B 27.4.4.gatehelp. The circuit shown in fig.24 implements the function +VDD A B C C Y A A +VDD Fig. implements the function +VDD Y A M2 M1 C A B B D Y Fig.com .4. The CMOS circuit shown in fig.4.27 (A) AB + CD + E (C) AB + CD + E (B) ( A + B)( C + D) E (D) ( A + B)( C + D) E Page 227 www. The circuit shown in fig. P4. P4.4.4.4. The output Y is +VDD C A Fig. P4. The circuit shown in fig.

(B) The Q3 stage is simply an inverter (a NOT gate). If boths inputs are V (1) = VDD . while V2 ( V1 ) £ VL . then M 4 and M 3 will be OFF and M1 ON hence Vo = 0 V = V (0). If V1 = V2 > V H .35 . Vo1 is logic LOW otherwise Vo1 is logic HIGH. Thus the given CMOS satisfy the function of a positive NOR gate. M 2 OFF hence Vo = -VDD. then M 3 OFF. Thus output Vo2 is the logic complement of Vo1 . It satisfy NAND gate. M1 and M 2 will be ON but M 4 will be OFF hence Vo = 0 V = V (0).VCE ( sat ) 5 . (C) The Q2 stage is simply an inverter. Hence AND logic. hence Vo = 0 V. 5 . Q1 (Q2 ) is ON and Q2 (Q1 ) is OFF and Vo1 » VCC . (A) Let V1 = V2 = 0 V = V (0) then M 4 and M 3 will be 15. To assure no logic error Vo = VCC . (A) When Q1 shows AND logic V1 1 0 1 0 V2 1 1 0 0 Vo1 1 0 0 0 is saturated. 2 = = = 0. Hence it is a NOR gate. the corresponding FET will be ON and the output will be V (0) = 0 V. V . 22. transistor M1 the 17. 14. M 3 and M 4 will be OFF and M1 . (A) The Q3 stage is simple an inverter. Thus given flowing through M 4 circuit satisfies the logic equation A + BC . V2 = 0 V . M 2 will be ON.6 Þ n £ 15 RC I B ( sat ) 640(0. Thus output Vo2 is the logic complement of Vo1 . that has a transistor in saturation. If V1 ( V2 ) > V H .gatehelp. (B) If both the inputs are at V(0) = 0 V. Thus the given CMOS gate satisfies the function of a negative NAND gate. 20. I C ( sat ) VCC . M1 and M1 will be OFF hence Vo = VDD = V (1). (A) If either one or both the inputs are V(0) = 0 V the corresponding FET will be OFF.15 mA b bRC 50( 640) www. If either one or both of the inputs are at V (1) = VDD . n £ CC = = 15. hence the output is VDD . both M1 and M 2 are ON and the output is V(0) = 0 V. Let V1 = -VDD and V2 = 0 V.I o RC > V H = 35 V .com . M1 and M 2 OFF and M 4 ON. VC are 0 V then M1 is OFF and either or both M2 and M 3 will be OFF. 16. both Q1 and Q2 are ON and Vo1 » 2 VCE ( sat ) . then M 3 will be ON. M1 OFF M 4 OFF. 21. The following truth table VB = VC = -VDD and V A = 0 V then M 3 and M 2 are ON but M1 is OFF hence VY = 0 V. M 4 ON. the current required is I B ( sat ) = Page 230 and M 2 are OFF.15m) 19. M 2 ON. Therefore this is a OR gate. The truth table shows NAND logic V1 Actual VL VH VL VH Logic 0 1 0 1 Actual VL VL VH VH V2 Logic 0 0 1 1 Actual VCC VCC VCC 2VCE ( sat ) Vo Logic 1 1 1 0 ON and M 2 . Let OFF hence Vo = 0 = V (0). Let V1 = 0 V. hence Vo = -VDD . the voltage across the load FET will be 0 V. Finally if V1 = V2 = VDD . (A) Let V1 = V2 = 0 V. If V A = 0 V and either or both VB . 18. Finally if V1 = V2 = -VDD.0.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics V1 Actual VH VL VH VL Logic 1 0 1 0 Actual VH VL VL VH V2 Logic 1 0 0 1 Actual VCE ( sat ) VCE VCE ( sat ) VCE ( sat ) Vo Logic 0 1 0 0 For n attached gate I o = nI B ( sat ) . (C) If V A = -VDD then M1 is ON and VY = 0 V. Vo1 » VCC . V2 = VDD then M 4 and M 2 will be ON but M 3 V1 = VDD . (C) If V1 = V2 £ VL . which implies no current hence VY = -VDD . (C) For each successive gate. If 13.35 . hence Vo = -VDD. hence the output is V (1) = VDD . 23. Let V1 = 0 V and V2 = -VDD then M 3 will be ON.

(A) In this circuit parallel combination are OR gate and series combination are AND gate.9 V. (A) When an output is HIGH. The maximum voltage that an input will respond to as a LOW is V IL ( max ) = 0. Hence Y = ABC + ABC = ABC + ( A + B + C) 30.4 V. (B) V NH = 2.0 V if its amplitude is greater than V NH = VOH ( min ) .9 .1 = 0.4 = 0.8 V. If all inputs are LOW. The minimum voltage that an input will respond to as a HIGH is V IH ( min ) = 2.4 V . V NL = V IL ( max ) . 37.VOL ( max ) = 1 . 28.8 (for LS) .0 V. Hence load = 6 ´ I IH = 6 ´ 20m = 120 mA 38.4 V 31.4 V.V IH ( min ) = 2. Option (B) satisfy this condition. (B) The operation of this circuit is given below : A B C ´ 0 ´ ´ 0 0 1 1 1 1 PA ´ ´ PB ´ PC ON N A NB NC ´ ´ ON ´ OFF Y HIGH HIGH LOW LOW V NL = 0.0 (for LS) = 0. Hence Y = ( A + B)( C + D)( E + F ) 29. then input to inverter is also LOW and output Y is HIGH.2.5 V if the amplitude is greater than V NH = VOH ( min ) .4 = 2 mA ******* www.7 (for LS) -2. (D) V NH ( min ) = 0. (B) If all inputs A.0.35 = 1.0 = 0. A positive noise spike can drive the actual voltage above the 0. (B) fanout (LOW) = fanout (HIGH) = V NL ( min ) = 0. (B) In HIGH state the loading on the output of gate 1 is equivalent to six 74LS input load.5 (for LS) = 0. A negative noise spike can drive the voltage below 3.4 . then input to invertor is LOW and output Y is HIGH.7 V V NL = 0.0.1m ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ´ ON ON 1 ´ OFF ´ Y = ( A + B) C 27. (C) The operation of circuit is given below ABCD PA PB PC PD NA NB NC ND Y LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW LOW V NL = V IL ( max ) .V IH ( min ) = 4.8 . 32.4 (for ALS) = 0.V IH ( min ) . (B) If input E is LOW. output will not be LOW.3 V V IL ( max ) = VOL ( max ) + V NL = 0.V NH = .8 (for ALS) -0. (C) V NH = VOH ( min ) .5 V .com Page 231 .8 V level if its amplitude is greater than V NL = V IL ( max ) .4 24.5 + ( -2) = -15 V .3 V 34.0. it may be as low as VOH ( min ) = 2.1.0.5 (for ALS) . Hence only five loads in the LOW state.3 V I OL ( max ) 8m = = 80 I IL ( max ) 0. In all other case the input to inverter is HIGH and output Y is LOW.VOL ( max ) = 0. It must be HIGH. (C) The NAND gate represent only a single input load in the LOW state. (B) V IH ( min ) = VOH ( min ) . it may be as high as VOL ( max ) = 0. 33. 36. B and C are HIGH. A negative noise spike that can drive the actual voltage below 2.5 V ´´´ 1 ´ ´0 0 0010 0110 1010 1110 ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ OFF ON ON ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF OFF OFF ON OFF OFF ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON ON ON OFF Y = ( A + B)C + D 26.0 (for ALS) = 0.2.8 .0 V level if the amplitude is greater than 25.0.4 V 35.VOL ( max ) V NH = 2.5 = .Digital Logic Families GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. (A) When an output is LOW.gatehelp. load = 5I IL = 5 ´ 0. (B) A positive noise spike can drive the voltage above 1.4 V I OH ( max ) 400m = = 20 I IH ( max ) 20m The fanout is chosen the smaller of the two.

the flag register of 8085 mP has the following contents D7 1 D6 0 D5 ´ D4 1 D3 ´ D2 0 D1 ´ D0 1 HLT DSPLY : XRA OUT HLT A PORT1 The output at PORT1 is (A) 00 (C) 01H (B) FEH (D) 11H The contents of accumulator after operation may be (A) 75 (C) DB (B) 6C (D) B6 5. After an arithmetic operation. 1) (C) (1. Consider the following 8085 assembly program MVI A. 1.gatehelp. 0. Consider the following 8085 instruction MVI MVI ADD ORA A. In an 8085 microprocessor. reset (C) reset. Consider the following set of instruction (a) MOV ANI MOV HLT A.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 4. A SUI 51H JC DLT MOV A. A Page 239 The flag status (S. set (D) set. C F0H C. the instruction CMP B has been executed while the contents of accumulator is less than that of register B. 0. 0) 4. set 3. reset (B) reset. 0) (D) (1. It is desired to mask is the high order bits ( D7 . 1.6 MICROPROCESSOR 1. B OUT PORT2 HLT 2. DATA1 MOV B. is (A) (0. CY) after the instruction ORA A is executed. Z.com . 1) 6.D4 ) of the data bytes in register C. 8EH 73H DSPLY PORT1 www. As a result carry flag and zero flag will be respectively (A) set. Consider the following set of 8085 instructions MVI ADI JC OUT A. 57H B A This program will display (A) the bytes from 51H to 82H at PORT2 (B) 00H AT PORT1 (C) all byte at PORT1 (D) the bytes from 52H to 81H at PORT 2 (B) (0. A9H B. B SUI 82H JC DSPLY DLT : XRA A OUT PORT1 HLT DSPLY : MOV A.

A part of the 8085 program for this purpose is given below : A. 37H PORT1 The output at PORT1 is (A) 89 (C) 00 (B) 37 (D) None of the above The sequence of instruction to complete the program would be 9. Consider the following 8085 assembly program : MVI MOV MOV MVI OUT HLT B. 9258H A. C B. Consider the sequence of 8085 instruction given below LXI MOV CMA MOV H.com . which execute the desired operation are (A) a and b (C) only a (B) c and d (D) only d A ´´ C ´´ S 0 Z 0 CY 0 After execution of the instructions the contents of register and flags are A (A) 10H (B) 10H (C) 00H (D) 00H C 10H 10H 00H 00H S 0 1 1 0 Z 0 0 1 1 CY 1 0 0 1 7. 89H A. 4A (C) B1. A D. B C. 0FH B C. A (c) (d) The initial contents of resistor and flag are as follows The instruction set. A A. 5EH A2H C. It is desired to multiply the number 0AH by 0BH and store the result in the accumulator. A (C) 8529H are complemented and stored at location 529H (D) 5829H are complemented and stored at location 85892H 10. C 0FH C. 00 (D) None of the above 11. 4A (B) 4F. M M. F0H B C. The numbers are available in register B and C respectively. Consider the following 8085 instruction XRA MVI SUI ANA HLT A B. A (A) JNZ ADD DCR ADD JNZ DCR DCR JNZ ADD ADD DCR JNZ LOOP B C B LOOP C C LOOP B B C LOOP (B) By this sequence of instruction the contents of memory location (A) 9258H are moved to the accumulator (B) 9258H are compared with the contents of the accumulator Page 240 (C) (D) www. A A. 4AH 4FH B The contents of register A and B are respectively (A) 05. C B.gatehelp. Consider the sequence of 8085 instruction MVI ADI MOV HLT A. 00H MVI LOOP : ----------------------------------------------------------------------HLT END 8.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics (b) MOV MVI ANA MOV HLT MOV MVI ANA MOV HLT MOV ANI MOV HLT A.

com .6. Consider the following 8085 program MVI ORA JM OUT CMA DSPLY : ADI OUT HLT A. 87H A. 13. 4A01H and 4A02H. are respectively A7H. Consider the following loop XRA LXI LOOP : DCX JNZ A B. that does not clear the accumulator of 8085. B NEXT B. M D L. Consider the following assembly language program: MVI MOV START : JMP MVI XRA OUT HLT NEXT : XRA JP OUT HLT B. 0007H B LOOP 14. A D D H.gatehelp. M H D. A FNSH M.6 12. If the contents of memory location 4A00H. A If DATA1 = A7H. The instruction. is (A) XRA A (C) MVI A.14–15: Consider the following program of 8085 assembly language: LXI LDA MOV LDA CMP JZ JC MOV JMP MOV FNSH : HLT H 4A02H 4A00H B. 00H (B) ANI 00H (D) None of the above The execution of the above program in an 8085 will result in (A) an output of 87H at PORT1 (B) an output of 87H at PORT2 (C) infinite looping of the program execution with accumulator data remaining at 00H (D) infinite looping of the program execution with accumulator data alternating between 00H and 87H. DSPLY PORT1 01H PORT1 17. the output at PORT1 is (A) 47H (C) 00 Statement for Q. 00H B PORT1 B START1 PORT2 (A) A7H (C) 47H (B) 98H (D) None of the above 15. DATA1 A.Microprocessor GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. The memory requirement for this program is (A) 20 Byte (C) 23 Byte (B) 21 Byte (D) 18 Byte 16. B The contents if HL pair after the execution of the program will be (A) 0030 H (C) 3002 H (B) 3000 H (D) 0230H 18. 98H and 47H. P4. then after the execution of program contents of memory location 4A02H will be respectively This loop will be executed (A) 1 times (C) 7 times (B) 8 times (D) infinite times Page 241 www.) 02 30 00 30 Fig. 3000 3001 3002 3003 Contents (Hex. The contents of some memory location of an 8085 mP based system are shown Address Hex. A 4A01H B FNSH GRT M.17 The program is as follows (B) 58H (D) None of the above LHLD MOV INX MOV LDAX MOV INX LDAX MOV 3000H E.

00. The contents of accumulator after the execution of following instructions will be MVI ORA RAL A. The contents of the accumulator after the execution of the following program will be MVI ORA RAL A. after the execution of program will be (A) 46H (C) 38H (B) 70H (D) 68H Page 242 www.com . FA 26. 00. 00. 00. 00. C8H B RJCT C RJCT PORT1 20. FA (D) 00. DATA B. B C LOOP 24. BYTE1 If BYTE1 = 32H. 64. B4. 00. FA (B) 58. Consider the following loop LXI LOOP : DCX MOV ORA JNZ H. 73. 64H C. A7H A (A) CFH (C) 4EH (B) 4FH (D) CEH RJCT : PORT1 21. C8. Consider the following instruction to be executed by a 8085 mp. 73. FA (C) 58. A After execution of the two instruction the contents of flag register are (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 1 0 1 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 1 1 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 0 0 0 B If BYTE1 = 07H. Consider the following program MVI MVI MVI CMP JC CMP JNC OUT HLT SUB A OUT HLT A. Consider the following program MVI RRC RRC A. the contents of A after the execution of program will be (A) 08H (C) 12H (B) 8CH (D) None of the above This loop will be executed (A) 1 time (C) 11 times (B) 10 times (D) infinite times 25. 000AH B A. The input port has an address of 01H and 22. Consider the following set of instruction MVI RLC MOV RLC RLC ADD A. BYTE1 B. C8. B4. then content of A. 00. The contents of accumulator after the execution of following instruction will be MVI ORA RLC A. DATA (H) 58 64 73 B4 C8 FA (A) 6EH (C) EEH (B) 6FH (D) EFH then sequence of output will be (A) 00.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 19. C5H A (A) 45H (C) C4H (B) C5H (D) None of the above has a data 05H to input: IN ANI 01H 80H 23. B7H A If the following sequence of byte is loaded in accumulator. 64.gatehelp. 00.

Microprocessor GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.B ® A .Rotate A left through . 14. Thus (D) is correct option. MVI ORA RAL RRC A. JC. (A) RAL instruction rotate the accumulator left through carry.A+1 ® A . 22.6 ORA JM OUT DSPLY : CMA ADI OUT HLT A DSPLY PORT1 01H PORT1 .(DE) ® A = (3001) = 30H . MVI ORA RLC A. C5H A .If CY = 1. Hence content of A will be 46H. .A AND 00 . LXI and DCX does not alter the flag.Rotate accumulator left The contents of bit D7 are placed in bit D0 . 4A02H 4A00H B.Store destination address .A ® PORT1 .memory location A00H . (C) 05H AND 80H =00 Hence HL pair contain 3002H. (A) The instruction XRA will set the Z flag. D7 ® CY .DSPLY . (D) This program will display the number between 64H to C8H including 64H.A OR C ® A.Load A with contents of .Set flag . 26.B7H ® A . A7H > 98H Thus A7H will be stored at 4A02H.Set Flags.M ® D=(3003H) = 30H . A D D H.7 ´ 10 = 70.Rotate A right.(3002H) ® E = 00 . Accumulator Before RLC After RLC 10100111 01001111 21. Before RAL After RAL CY ® D0 . Accumulator 10110111 01101110 CY 0 1 This program find the larger of the two number stored in location 4A00H and 4A01H and store it in memory location 4A002. ORA reset the carry.C5H ® A .Reset Carry flag . (A) LXI LDA MOV LDA CMA JZ JC MOV JMP GRT : MOV FNSH : HLT H. (A) RRC instruction rotate the accumulator right and D0 is placed in D7 . LDA. (C) Operand R.Jump to FNSH if two .(3000A) ® HL = 3002H .A ® H = 30H 25. HLT Hence memory = 3 ´ 6 + 1 ´ 5 = 23 Byte.Complement A .00 ® A .A ® PORT1 18. JMP P–Byte instruction are : MOV. A = 45H 15. 07H = 0710 . M H D. www.A ® B .If negative jump to .number are equal . If DATA1 is negative. 23. 7010 = 46H 24.Compare A and B . B7H A .com Page 245 . 000AH B A.DE +1 ® DE = 3001H . A FNSH M. 19.Otherwise A ® (4A02H) 20. (D) All instruction clear the accumulator XRA ANI MVI 17. M or implied : 1–Byte instruction Operand 8–bit Operand 16–bit : 2–Byte instruction : 3–Byte instruction 3–Byte instruction are: LXI.gatehelp. (B) LXI LOOP : DCX MOV ORA JNZ B. C8H will not be displayed. Hence this loop will be executed 1 times.memory location 4A01H . (C) LHLD MOV INX MOV LDAX MOV INX LDAX MOV A 00H A 3000H E. B C LOOP .Load A with contents of .A Å A .A ® L = 02H .00 ® C. CB – 1 ® B.HL +1 ® HL = 3003H .(DE) ® A=(3000H) = 02H .in HL pair . 0AH ® B . JZ. A = 8AH . set flag This program displays the absolute value of DATA1.carry. (B) Hence this loop will be executed 0AH or ten times. M D L. CY = 1 . A . it determine the 2’s complements and display at PORT1.flag not affected . (B) Contents of Accumulator A = 0011 0010 After First RRC After second RRC = 0001 1001 = 1000 1100 16.to GRT . A 4A01H B FNSH GRT M. (A) This program multiply BYTE1 by 10. (A <B) jump . B . CMP.

Contents of HL are not altered.gatehelp. 33. The contents of L will go to 03FFH and contents of H will go to 03FEH. then . P =1. Hence zero flag will be reset and carry will be set. (C) Instruction load the register pairs HL with 01FFH.If A is positive. S = 0. (C) The stack pointer register SP point to the upper memory location of stack. When data is pushed on stack. 31. (A) MVI A DATA1 ORA A JP DSPLY A PORT1 . CY is reset and AC is set . Z and P are modified to reflect the result of operation. 29. Set flag . CY = 0 27. (C) The instruction PUSH B store the contents of BC at stack. Hence memory location 03FEH contain 22H. (B) ACI 56H . ******************** Page 246 www. A ® PORT2 XRA DSPLY OUT HLT If DATA1 is positive. it will be displayed at port1 otherwise 00.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics After the ANI instruction S. (B) At a time 8085 can drive only a digit. AC = 1. 34. Z = 1. D0 = 1 = carry flag. D6 = 0 = zero flag. 32.4 ms. The contents of register C will be copied into flag register. SHLD instruction store the contents of L in the memory location 2050H and content of H in the memory location 2051H. (C) Contents of register pair B lie on the top of stack when POP H is executed. (5 ´ 500) 30.com . In a second each digit is refreshed 500 times. it stores above this memory location. (B) Line 5 push the content of HL register pair on stack.DATA1 ® A . Thus.A + 56H + CY ® A 37H + 56H + 1 =8EH 28. Clear A .jump to DSPLY . HL pair will be loaded with the contents of register pair B. The POP PSW instruction copy the contents of BC in to PSW. Thus time given to 1 each digit = = 0.

2 e -3t ]u( t) 2 6 1 2t 1 e + [5 . dy( t) = 1.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System ì e2 t. x( t) = u( t) dx (B) 1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) 5 (D) .4) (A) tu( t) + (1 . 36.t sin t + cos t e + e .e -3t u( -t) 2 6 3 (B) (C) (D) 1 2t 5 1 e u( -t .t u( t) dt 0 - (A) sin t + 4 cos t .t ]u( t) 32.t 5 -2 t 5 -4 t e . Determine the output of the system and choose correct option.u( t .gatehelp.4 cos t + 3te -3t + t.83 www.t . y(0 . t ³ 0 34 34 6 51 d 2 y ( t) dy ( t) +6 + 8 y( t) = 2 x( t).3te . Determine the step response. t ³ 0 (B) 4 sin t . (B) e t u( -t + 1) + 2 .1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) u( t) 5 40.|t | (A) 2 + e t .e-3t u( -t) 2 6 3 1 2t 1 e + [5 . x ( t) = í 2 ï 0. t ³ 0 d 2 y( t) 3dx( t) .3e 2 t . t ³ 0 3 2 6 (C) 4 + 5( 3e -2 t + e -4 t ) . The DC component in the signal is (A) 3.3te .e .t .4) (D) (1 + t) u( t) (B) u( t) (D) d( t) 38.t .46 (C) 2. 31.e t ]u( t) (A) (B) 2 .1) + . x( t) = 2 te.t sin t + cos t e + e .t (D) e t + [2 .e .e . +5 + 4 y( t) = 2 dt dt dt dy( t) = 1. t ³ 0 (C) sin t . t ³ 0 39. dt 2 dt y (0 .1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) 5 (B) t (D) tu( t) (B) tu( t) + (1 .3te -3t + t. Statement for Q.4) (C) 1 + t 34. t ³ 0 34 34 6 61 5 3 13 -4 t 1 . t < 0 30.35-38: The system described by the differential equations has been specified with initial condition.5( 3e -2 t + e -4 t ).e . + y( t) = dt 2 dt y (0 . t ³ 0 (D) 4 .t . The raised cosine pulse x( t) is defined as ì 1 ï (cos wt + 1) .cos t . t ³ 0 34 34 51 6 3 5 13 -4 t 1 .3e 2 t . The sinusoidal signal x( t) = 4 cos (200 t + p 6) is passed through a square law device defined by the input output relation y ( t) = x 2 ( t).t (C) e t u( -t + 1) + [2 .2 e -3t ]u( -t) 2 6 (A) (B) (C) (D) 5 3 1 13 -4 t sin t + cos t + e .t) u( t .1) + .) = -1. y( t) = u( t) * h( t) . t ³ 0 (D) 4 sin t + cos t . t ³ 0 34 34 51 6 3 5 1 13 -4 t sin t + cos t + e -4 t e . dy( t) = 1.) = 1.com d 2 y( t) dy( t) dx( t) .) = 0. 35.t e .t u( t) dt 0 - 37. h( t) = u( t) . î p p £t£ w w otherwise The total energy of x ( t) is 3p 3p (B) (A) 4w 8w (C) 3p w (D) 3p 2w (A) 1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) u( t) 5 (C) .e + e .31-34: The impulse response of LTI system is given. h( t) = d( 2 ) ( t) (A) 1 (C) d( 3) ( t) 33. dt 0 - (B) 4 (D) 8 Page 252 . h( t) = y( t) (A) u( t) (C) 1 Statement for Q. t ³0 3 2 6 2 5 -2 t 5 -4 t + e + e . where h( t) = í -3t îe .t) u( t . dy( t) + 10 y( t) = 2 x( t). x( t) = sin t u( t) y (0 . x( t) = e . h( t) = e . t >0 1 5 1 (A) e -2 t u( .) = -1.

Consider the impulse response of two LTI system S1 : h1 ( t) = e . the value of a is (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 0 43.46–47: Suppose that ì 1.1) 46. the impulse response of the overall system will be (A) 0. The y( t) = x( t) * h( t) is y(t) y(t) a 1 1+a t a 1-a 1 t 42. èaø ********************* www.58( t .j 5t If x1 ( t) = cos (2 t .t u( t) is (A) (C) 1 t 1 e u( -t) + e .25) (D) 0. x(t) h(t) (A) y(t) y(t) (B) a 1 5 t 3 t 1+a 2 1+a t a 1-a 1 t (C) (D) Fig P5. A continuous-time linear system with input x( t) and output y( t) yields the following input-output pairs: x( t) = e j 2 t Û y( t) = e j 5t x( t) = e .5 d( t .1.com Page 253 . 51. The system ò t (A) is definitely LTI x( t) dt (B) is definitely not LTI (C) may be LTI (D) information is insufficient 50.4) (C) y( t) = dx( t) dt (B) y( t) = -¥ x( t) = e j 5t is specified as y( t) = te j 5t . Fig. where 0 < a £ 1.1) x( t) = e j8 t is specified as y( t) = cos 8 t.25) (C) d( t .1.t + ( e .0. 0 £ t £1 elsewhere and (B) e. the corresponding y1 ( t) is (A) cos (5 t .42 The output of the system is zero every where except for the (A) 0 < t < 5 (C) 1 < t < 5 (B) 0 < t < 8 (D) 1 < t < 8 47.t u( t) 2 2 ætö h( t) = xç ÷.2 j ) t u( t) S2 : h2 ( t) = e cos 2 t u( t) The stable system is (A) S1 (C) Both S1 and S2 (B) S2 (D) None -t 48.gatehelp.The value of E¥ for the signal y( t) = (A) 4 (C) 1 49. P5.2).j 2 t Û y( t) = e .t u( t) 2 2 (B) (D) et 1 .0.Continuous-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.e t ) u( t) 2 2 1 t 1 e u( -t) .(1 .j cos (5 t .1) (C) cos 5( t . x( t) = í î 0.1) Statement for Q.1 41.40 show the input x( t) to a LTI system and impulse response h( t) of the system.1).d( t . Consider the signal x( t) = d( t + 2) . The non-invertible system is (A) y( t) = x( t . The auto-correlation of the signal x( t) = e .1) (D) e j cos (5 t .t u( t) 2 2 1 -t 1 e u( -t) + e . The impulse response of a system is h( t) = d( t .e .0. The -¥ ò x( t) dt (B) 2 (D) ¥ t is response of a system S to a complex input 44.1) (B) d( t . The response of a system S to a complex input (D) None of the above 45. If dy( t) dt contains only three discontinuities. If two such systems are cascaded. The system (A) is definitely LTI (B) is definitely not LTI (C) may be LTI (D) information is insufficient.5).

(Causal) 17. P¥ = lim 1 T® ¥ 2T T 16. E¥ = -¥ ò | x( t)| dt 2 =8+ =¥ 2 26 = 3 3 So this is a power signal not a energy. æ 20 ö It may be checked by y( t) = xç ÷ = x( 4). (C) y1 ( t) = v( t . è 5 ø ì 1. 13.5) + w( t .4 for 4 < t <5 otherwise E = ò (1) 2 dt + ò ( -1) 2 dt = 2 -5 4 ¥ ¥ -¥ ò | x ( t)|dt < ¥ = -¥ ¥ -4 t -4 t ò e u( t) dt = ò e dt = 0 1 4 15.10 (Time invariant) Page 254 .to) (Time invariant) -T ò | x( t)| dt 2 =1 8.kv( 3 .5 -0. (D) E = 2 ò x 2 ( t) dt = 2 ò (1)1 dt + 2 ò (5 . (B) r(t-4) 2 r(t-6) 2 r(t-4) .w( 3 . T2 = s. ÷ = 2p 5 7 7 ø è 5 12.8) = x( 4). it is also y1 ( t) = v( t . The fundamental frequency can’t be determined.w( 3 .v( 3 .t) Let x3( t) = x( t) + w( t) Then y3( t) = v( t .5) . 4. (D) v( t) is sum of 3 unit step signal starting from.r(t-6) 2 = y1 ( t) + y2 ( t) linear. (C) y( t) = í -1.5) . (D) Not periodic because least common multiple is infinite.1.to)} = y1 ( t . (A) | x( t)| = 1.5) .t) Let x2 ( t) = 2 w( t) then y2 ( t) = w( t .3.t) .t) y2 ( t) = v( t .1. (C) This is energy signal because E¥ = ¥ for . (A) 2p = 60 p T Þ T= p 30 11.t) 2 dt 0 0 4 5 4 5 7.com 4 6 8 t 4 6 8 t 4 6 8 t Fig S5. y2 ( t) = u{v( t . î -4 5 3.v( 3 .5 < t < .5) . (A) Division by 5 will bring expansion on time scale. (D) Not periodic because of t.t) = ky1 ( t) (Homogeneous) Let x1 ( t) = v( t) then y1 ( t) = v( t . (B) Let x1 ( t) = v( t) then y1 ( t) = u{v( t)} Let x2 ( t) = kv( t) then y2 ( t) = u{kv( t)} ¹ ky1 ( t) (Not homogeneous not linear) y1 ( t) = u{v( t)}.9 10.9 1 t Fig S5. all signal ends at 4. ï 0.5) . Since it is both homogeneous and additive. and 3.u(t-b) The response at any time depends only on the excitation at time t = to and not on any future value. 2. 9.t) (Additive) a t b t t Fig S5.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System SOLUTIONS 1. 5.1 0. (C) T1 = 2p 2p æ 2p 2p ö s. (C) x(10t) 1 x(10t-5) 1 -0.1.4 0. It can be shown as follows : u(a-t) u(t-b) u(a-t) .v( 3 .to) www.gatehelp.5) .v( 3 . 6. (D) Multiplication by 5 will bring contraction on time scale.5) . It may be checked by x(5 ´ 0.to . 1.t) y2 ( t) = kv( t .11 2.t + to) = y1 ( t .v( 3 . (A) The function 1 does not describe the given pulse. (C) y( t) is not periodic although sin t and 6 cos 2 pt are independently periodic.4 0. ï 14. LCM ç .5 t 0.

y2 ( t) = |kv( t)| = k y1 ( t) If k is negative k y1 ( t) ¹ ky1 ( t) (Not Homogeneous Not linear). y( -2) = x( -1).to)]v( t . and not on any future values.t ) 1 o (Time invariant) The response at any time. 20.to) dt This equation is not satisfied if y2 ( t) = y1 ( t .to) = cos [2p( t . It is also y3( t) = -¥ ò kv(l)dl = k ò v(l)dl = ky1 ( t) -¥ t+ 3 (Homogeneous) x3( t) = v( t) + w( t) t+ 3 -¥ ò [ v( l) + w( l)]dl = -¥ ò v( l)dl + t+ 3 -¥ ò w( l)dl (Additive) = y1 (t) + y2 (t) Since it is Homogeneous and additive. t = -1.to + 3 -¥ t+ 3 -¥ ò v(l)dl = y (t . (D) y1 ( t) = vç ÷ .to ÷ ¹ y( t .t) are bounded The system can be written as y( t) = Since it is both homogeneous and additive. (C) All option are linear.to) (Time Variant) The response at any time t = to depends only on the excitation at that time and not on the excitation at any later time. 19. it is also ò t So the response at any time.to) = vç ÷ 2ø 2 è è ø è 2 ø (Time variant) At time t = -2.8 y( t .to) (Time Invariant) The response at any time t = to depends only on the excitation at that time and not on the excitation at any later time.5) and x( 3 . If x( t) is bounded then y( t) is bounded. d y1 ( t) . (Causal) The Homogeneous solution to the differential equation is of the form y( t) = kt8 . y2 ( t) = kvç ÷ = ky1 ( t) è2 ø è2 ø (Homogeneous) x3 = v( t) + w( t) then ætö ætö y3( t) = vç ÷ + wç ÷ = y1 ( y) + y2 ( t) è2 ø è2 ø linear ætö æt ö æ t . the response at time t = -2. ætö ætö 18. y ( t) increases without bound. then y ( t) = t+ 3 (Not causal) -¥ ò kdl = k ò dl and as -¥ t+ 3 t ® ¥ . t = 0.to) ¹ y( t . (Unstable) 22. t = to . depends on the excitation at a later time. y2 ç . (unstable) www. response is not zero. Therefore the 21. y1 ( t) = |v( t)|.to )dl = t . (C) y1 ( t) = y2 ( t) = t+ 3 t+ 3 -¥ ò v(l)dl t+ 3 Since it is both homogeneous and additive.1 At time. (C) y1 ( t) = cos 2 pt v( t) y2 ( t) k cos 2 pt v( t) = ky1 ( t) x3( t) = v( t) + w( t) y3( t) = cos 2 pt [ v( t) + w( t)] = y1 ( t) + y2 ( t) linear.to) then t y2 ( t) . If x( t) is bounded then y( t) is bounded.to) therefore y2 ( t) ¹ y1 ( t . t = to depends on the excitation at t £ to .com Page 255 . It x( t) is bounded then y( t) is bounded. The response will increases without bound as time increases. If there is no excitation but the zero excitation. y1 ( t) = y2 ( t) = t+ 3 -¥ ò v(l)dl ò v(l . t = 0 depends on the excitation at a later time t = 3. (Causal) (Stable) (Causal) (Stable) (Additive) (Homogeneous) (Not causal) (Stable) (Additive) (Not causal) (Stable) If x( t) is bounded then x( t . y(0) = x( -5) .gatehelp.8 y2 ( t) = v( t .to) dt Let x1 ( t) = v( t) then t The first equation can be written as d ( t .8 y1 ( t) = v( t) dt d Let x2 ( t) = v( t .to)| = y1 ( t .to ö y1 ( t) = vç ÷ . y1 ( t) = cos 2 pt v( t) y2 ( t) = cos 2 pt ( t . and so is y( t).to) y( t . it is also linear.x( 3). therefore. depends partially on the excitation at time to to < t < ( to + 3) which are in future.to) x( l) y( l) dl + 8 ò dl l -¥ -¥ l (Time Variant) t response at time. (C) y1 ( t) = |v( t)|. So it is not required to check linearity. y2 ( t) = | y( t .to) = v( t .Continuous-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. If x( t) is a constant k.to) .

15} (C) {1. 2. 7. 2. 7} 19. 6. 20} (B) {1. 3. 4. -4. 1. h [ n] = {1} (A) {1. The range of their convolution is (A) -7 £ n £ 9 (C) 2 £ n £ 3 (B) -3 £ n £ 9 (D) -5 £ n £ 6 (D) -2 -3 Statement for Q.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 11. 3. 4} (B) {1. 7. 1} (A) {1. 4.com (B) {1. 4} (C) {1. 7. x[ n] = cos ç ÷ cos ç ÷ è8ø è 8 ø (A) Periodic with period 16p (B) periodic with period 16( p + 1) (C) periodic with period 8 (D) Not periodic Statement for Q. . 2. 5}. 3. 6. 6. 7. 4. 8. 10} and choose correct 20. 2. 4} (D) {1. x[ n] = cos + sin ç + ÷ 9 2ø è 7 (A) periodic with period N = 126 (B) periodic with period N = 32 (C) periodic with period N = 252 (D) Not periodic æ nö æ pn ö 13. 1.gatehelp. 16. -1}. 4}.p÷ ç ÷ è6 ø x[n] 3 (B) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 n 15. 9. 1} (D) {2.2 ] x[n] 3 æ pn ö æ pn ö æ pn p ö 14. 3.sin ç ÷ + 3 cos ç 3ø è 2 ø è 8 ø è 4 (A) periodic with period 16 (B) periodic with period 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 n (A) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 1 (C) periodic with period 2 (D) Not periodic æn ö j ç . x[ n] = 2 e (A) periodic with 12p (C) periodic with 11p (B) periodic with 12 (D) Not periodic -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 16.12–15: A discrete-time signal is given. 3. Compute the convolution y[ n] = x[ n] * h[ n] option. 10. pn æ pn 1 ö 12. 3. x[ n] = {1. h[ n] = {1. 4. 7.5 £ n £ 3 and h[ n]. -2} Page 260 . 1} (C) {1. 2 £ n £ 6 be two finite duration signals. The sinusoidal signal has fundamental period n N = 10 samples. x[ n] = cos ç + ÷ ÷ . Determine the period of signal and choose correct option. 1. 4. 18. 3. 5} (D) {1. 4. x[ n] = {1. 6. is 1 (A) rad/cycle 10 (C) 5 rad/cycle (C) -2 -3 (B) 10 rad/cycle (D) p rad/cycle 5 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 n 17. 2. The smallest angular frequency.18–26: x[ n] and h[ n] are given in the question. for which x[ n] is periodic. x[ n + 2 ] y[ n . 2. Let x[ n]. 4. x[ n] = {1. -1} www. h [ n] = x [ n] (A) {1. 2.

1] + d[ n . x[ n] = {1. -3. 2.4 ] + 2 d[ n . x[ n] = {1. 1. ï ï (A) í 2 ï 83 .5 ] (B) d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n + 1 ] . 4. 0. 4} ­ 22. î ì 3n .5. 4. h[ n] = {2. 2. x[ n] = í 2. x[ n] = {1. 27. 2. 1. 1} ­ ­ 25. 1} ­ (A) {2. 6. 3. -1. 1. 4. 1. -2. 1} ­ (D) {1. 4. 1}. -25} ­ (C) {0. 1. ï î 2 n £5 n³6 (B) {1. 1} ­ (C) {1. -1.4] (A) d[ n ] . -1. -5. 4. x[ n] = {0. -19. -3. 1} ­ www. 4. 2. 4. 1. 36. -1. 0. ï 26.2. 2. 3.gatehelp. -2. 10. -2.5 ] + d[ n . 4. 1. 4. 2. 4. x[ n] = {1. 3} ­ (C) {1. 4.3 ] . 1. 4. 1. 0. . -1. 4. 1. 10. Choose correct option for y[ n]. 1. 1. 4. 4.3 ] + d[ n . 2. 4. 0. -3. ï ï (D) í 6 ï 81 . 1. 4. 1}. -4.n ÷u[ n + 2 ] è 3 4 ø (B) (D) 4 u[ -n + 2 ] 6 8 ( -1) n 3 23. . 4. 6. y[ n] = (D) {1.2 ] ì 3n .n ÷u[ n + 2 ] è3 4 ø 1 ö æ 16 (D) ç . 0. . 1. 1} ­ Statement for Q. h[ n] = {1. 1. 2. 1} ­ (B) {1. 2. 4} ­ æ1 1 ö (A) ç .d[ n ] + 2 d[ n . -1. 2. ï ï (C) í 2 ï 81 .3. 0. 4} ­ ­ (A) {1. ï0 î n = -2. ï (B) í 83 ï 2 . 3}. h [ n] = {0. 4. 4. -25. 1.4 ] + d[ n . 0. 1. 1.2 21. 4}.d[ n . .com . ï î 2 n £5 n³6 n £5 n³6 ì 3n . 1.d[ n + 1 ] + d[ n ] + 2 d[ n . 3} ­ ì 1. 4. 4. 4.5 ] (B) {0. 3} ­ ­ (A) {0. 10. -1. .27–30: In question y[ n] is the convolution of two signal.2. 3} ­ (B) {4.5 ] (D) d[ n ] + 2 d[ n .1 ] + 4 d[ n . 1.n ÷u[ n] è3 4 ø æ 4 1 æ 1 ön ö ÷u[ n + 2 ] (C) ç ç 3 12 ç 4 ÷ ÷ è ø ø è 24. 1 n = -1 elsewhere h (n) = d[ n ] . 1} ­ 29.5. 1. 1.2 d[ n . 2. 1}. 3} ­ (D) {1. 12} ­ (B) {0. 1. -19. y[ n] = ( -1) n * 2 n u[2 n + 2 ] (A) (C) 4 6 8 ( -1) n u[ -n + 2 ] 3 1 u[ n] * u[ n + 2 ] 4n æ 1 12 ö (B) ç . 4. 1} ­ (C) {1.Discrete-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. 0.1 ] + 4 d[ n .5 ] (C) d[ n + 2 ] . 2. -2. 4. 3. 1. 10. 1. 1} ­ n £5 n³6 Page 261 (D) {1. 3. 4} ­ 28. 1. 36. 3. 6. 0. h[ n] = {1. 4} ­ (D) {0. 1. 4. -2. 3} ­ ­ (A) {1. 4. 0. 1} ­ (C) {1. 1. 4. h[ n] = x[ n] ­ (A) {1. y[ n] = 3n u[ -n + 3] * u[ n . 4. -2. -5.4 ] + d[ n . 1.d[ n . ï 2 î ì 3n .

39.com (B) Only a (D) None . 4 m + 2 n = 4 m + 1. x[ n] as shown in fig. (b) If S1 and S2 are linear and time varying. Q Page 262 (B) Q. S (C) P. c. S (C) P. Q.37 5 + and x[n] 10 y[n] h[ n] = u[ n . then S is nonlinear (c) If S1 and S2 are causal. R be causality and S be stability. b.2. Consider the following statements (B) Q. P. S 38. R 34. S. 4 m + 2 Fig. 4 m + 3 n = 4 m + 1. P (D) P. P5. R. S (A) Both a and b (C) Only b www. 32.39–41. (A) í n = 4 m. R (B) b. S (C) P. Q. Choose the option which match the properties for system. R (D) Q. then interchanging their order does not change the system.39–41. S (C) S.1] is f [ n]u[ n . S (D) Q. Q. ì 1. (B) í î 1. c (C) a.38 (A) P. S (D) R. R. R. P5. Q 40. n = 4 m + 1. P 33. R. Q. the S is linear (b) If S1 and S2 are nonlinear.36 (A) P. R. In the option properties of system has been given. ì 0. y[ n] = rect ( x[ n]) (A) P. Q S1 y[n] Fig.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 30.2. 4 m + 3 î 0. y[ n] = nx[ n] (A) P.1]. S (D) P.2.2. Q 35. then interchanging their order does not change the system. x[ n] as shown in fig. 4 m + 2 n = 4 m. S (B) Q. R. R. P5. (D) í î 1.gatehelp. Q.2. Q. 4 m + 3 n = 4 m. Q. Consider the following statements (a) If S1 and S2 are linear and time invariant. c.3] (A) ( n + 1) u[ n] (C) ( n .2. Q. True statement are 36. P. R. 4 m + 2 ì 1. P5. P5. Q be time invariance. x[ n] as shown in fig. The convolution of (B) nu[ n] (D) u[ n] p x[ n] = cos ( 2 n) u[ n] 37. y[ n] = n +1 m = -¥ (B) P. S.1) u[ n] 31. In question discrete time input x[ n] and output y[ n] relationship has been given.37 (A) P. P5. R True statements are : (A) a. (C) í î 0. R.2. R. 4 m + 3 n = 4 m. Q Statement for Q. S (a) If S1 and S2 are linear. S (C) P. S Statement for Q.32–38: Let P be linearity. d (D) All å u[ m ] (A) P. then S is time invariant (B) R. R (C) R. ì 0. Q.38 x[n] + + y[n] Fig. then S is causal (d) If S1 and S2 are time invariant. P5. P5. and S2 are connected in cascade to form a new system as shown in x[n] S2 (B) Q. d (B) R.39–41: Two discrete time systems S1 fig. y[ n] = u[ n + 3] * u[ n . S (D) Q. y[ n] = x[ n] (A) Q.2. R. R. The function f [ n] is n = 4 m + 1.36 x[n] 2 y[n] Fig. S (D) S . S (C) P.

the S is unstable.æ .2 y[ n . 1.x[ n .45 is x[n] 1 4 + + + 1 4 -1 2 y[n] D D y[n-2] + 42.1.1] + 0. è 2ø The step response is (A) 1æ ç2 .1] . 3} ­ x3[ n] = {0. 1} ­ The conclusion regarding the linearity of the system is (A) System is linear (B) System is not linear (C) One more observation is required.÷ u[ n]. 2.1.45 (A) Stable and causal y1 [ n] = {0. P5. . 1. 0. 1} ­ (A) The natural response of system is 3æ 1ö ç .Discrete-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. 0.1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n +1 n y2 [ n] = {0.1] + y[ n .1. 2} ­ ¬¾® S (B) Stable but not causal (C) Causal but unstable (D) unstable and not causal 46.2. 2.÷ u[ n] 3è 2 ø 2æ1ö ç ÷ u[ n] 3è2 ø n n (C) (D) The conclusion regarding the time invariance of the system is (A) System is time-invariant (B) System is time variant (C) One more observation is required (D) Conclusion cannot be drawn from observation 44. 43. 2 y [ -1] = 3 ¬¾® S y1 [ n] = {1.1] = 2 x[ n]. The stable system is (A) y[ n] = x[ n] + 11 y[ n . The difference equation representation for a system is y[ n] . P5. 1. The following input output pairs have been observed during the operation of a time invariant system : x1 [ n] = {1.2. True statement are : (A) Both a and b (C) Only b (B) Only a (D) None (D) Above all 45. . 2. Consider a discrete-time system S whose response to a complex exponential input e jpn S : e jpn www. 1} ­ ¬¾® S S ¬¾® Fig.gatehelp. 1} ­ y2 [ n] = { . 0. 2} ­ y3[ n] = {1.÷ u[ n] 2è 2ø 3æ 1ö ç ÷ u[ n] 2 è2 ø n n (B) 2æ 1ö ç . The impulse response of a LTI system is given as æ 1ö h[ n] = ç . .1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n +1 (D) 1æ ç2 + æ .(15 y[ n . 0. 2} ­ y3[ n] = {1.com 2 2 is specified as (C) y[ n] = x[ n] . (D) Conclusion cannot be drawn from observation.1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (C) 1æ ç2 + æ . (B) y[ n] = x[ n] 1 ( y[ n . 0. then y[2 ] will (A) 2 (C) -1 (B) -2 (D) 0 49.2 ]) .1] If y[ n] = 0 for n < 0 and x[ n] = d[ n].1} ­ x3[ n] = {0.1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n 47.4 y[ n . 0. 2} ­ x2 [ n] = {0.2 41. The following input output pair have been observed during the operation of a linear system: x1 [ n] = { -1.1] + y[ n . the S is non causal (b) If S1 and/or S2 are unstable. 0. Consider the statement (a) If S1 and S2 are noncausal. 1. 2.2 ] = x[ n] .æ . The difference equation representation for a system is y[ n] 1 y[ n . Þ e jp3n 2 Page 263 . 1} ­ x2 [ n] = {1.2 ]) 2 be 48. 1} ­ S ¬¾® S ¬¾® ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (B) 1æ ç2 . The system shown in fig.

S5. y[ n] = 0 n -1 or n <1 . 3 12 4 n 1 1 2 0 2 1 1 2 0 2 1 2 2 4 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 0 4 2 1 1 2 Þ æ 4 1 æ 1 ön ö ÷u[ n + 2 ] y[ n] = ç ç 3 12 ç 4 ÷ ÷ è ø ø è n -2 29. 0.2. (C) For n + 2 < 0 for n + 2 ³0 or or n < . ï 2 î n £5 n³6 k = -¥ å3 3 k = Fig.2. 4 m + 3 y2 [ n] = rect ( kv[ n]) 32.26 y[ n] = {1. 1. 4. 1. -25. 1} ­ 28. (Stable) 33. (D) y[ n] = æ 1ö 2n ç . 2 3n 6 for n . S5. ï ï y[ n] = í 6 ï 81 . h[ n] = {1. y[ n] = å cos ç k ÷ k=0 è2 ø 26. y[ n] = å4k 1 = 4 1 1 . 4. 1}.2 £ 3 or n £ 5 .d[ n ] + 2 d[ n . (B) x[ n] = {1. 10. 36. -1.no ] ¹ yn [ n] = nv[ n . the response depends only on the excitation at that discrete time. (A) For n . 2. 4. 4.3 or y[ n] = ( n + 1) u[ n] 31. 2. 1. 0. 1} ­ ­ n = 4 m + 1.2. y[ n] = ì 3n . 0. -1. S5. (D) For n .5 ] 27. 4 m + 2 n = 4 m.÷ è 2ø = 1 1+ 2 Page 266 n -2 k=n -2 å ( -1) ¥ k 2n -k = 2n k=n -2 å ¥ æ 1ö ç. 0. y [ n] = 0 n+2 k=0 n ³ . (A) For n .1 < 0 For Þ n -1 ³ 0 ì 1.2 ³ 4 or n ³ 6. it is also y1 [ n . 4.2.no) v[ n . 12} ­ 30. No matter what values the excitation may have the response can only have the values zero or one.24 Þ 25. (B) y1 [ n] = rect ( v[ n]) .3 ³ . y2 [ n] = rect ( v[ n .2. 2. y[ n] = 0 2 1 k=¥ å 3k = 81 .gatehelp.no ] . y[ n] = å 1 = n + 1. n -3 k = -3 y[ n] = 0 1 2 -4 3 2 -4 3 4 8 -16 12 for n . 1 1 -1 0 0 1 1 -1 0 0 1 2 2 -2 0 0 2 1 1 -1 0 0 1 1 -1 -1 0 0 1 y2 [ n] ¹ k y1 [ n] (Not Homogeneous not linear) (Time Invariant) (Causal) y1 [ n] = rect ( v[ n]). or n > 0. Fig.no ] = ( n .3 or -3 -6 12 -9 6 12 -24 18 4 8 -16 12 n < 0.÷ è 2ø k Let x3[ n] = v[ n] + w[ n] then y3[ n] = n( v[ n] + w[ n]) = nv[ n] + nw[ n] = y1 [ n] + y2 [ n] linear. (C) y1 [ n] = nv[ n] .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 24.4 ] + d[ n . (A) y[ n] = {2. (B) y[ n] = {1. y[ n] = í î 0. ky1 [ n] = y2 [ n] Let x1 [ n] = v[ n] Let x2 [ n] = w[ n] then then y1 [ n] = nv[ n] y2 [ n] = nw[ n] y2 [ n] = nkv[ n] (Homogeneous) Fig.no ]) y1 [ n . 4.com (Additive) = 8 ( -1) n 3 Since the system is homogeneous and additive.3 ] + d[ n . www.no ] = rect ( v[ n .3 < .no ]) = y2 [ n] At any discrete time n = no .25 æp ö n ³ 1. -19. 1} ­ y[ n ] = d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n + 1 ] .

no ] = y2 [ n] (Time Invariant) m = -¥ å v[ m ] .com . the response depends only (Causal) (Stable). without bound. the response depends on the excitation at the next discrete time in future.no ] y1 [ n . (C) y1 [ n] = y2 [ n] = ky1 [ n] y1 [ n] = y3[ n] = = n +1 n +1 n = -¥ n +1 n +1 If the excitation is bounded. the response is bounded.Discrete-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. n n y2 [ n ] = m = -¥ å kv[ m ] = ky [ n] (Homogeneous) ¥ n n At any discrete time. (Stable).no ] then y2 [ n] = 2 v 2 [ n .no ] Let m = n . y2 [ n] ¹ ky1 [ n] y2 [ n] = 10 kv[ n] . (Causal) (Unstable) If the excitation is constant. (B) y[ n] = 2 x [ n] 2 y1 [ n] can be written as y1 [ n .1] + y[ n .5 (Causal) (Unstable) If the excitation is a constant.5.no ] = y2 [ n] on the excitation at that time (Time Invariant) At any discrete time n = no . y2 [ n] = n -no +1 m = -¥ n +1 m = -¥ å v[ m . n = no the response depends only on the excitation at that same time.1] + y[ n . the response increase If the excitation is bounded.n ] o n 35. n = no . 37. Let x1 [ n] = v[ n] ky[ n] ¹ y2 [ n] Let x1 [ n] = v[ n] then y1 [ n] = 2 v 2 [ n] y2 [ n] = 2 k2 v 2 [ n] (Not homogeneous Not linear) then y1 [ n] = 2 v 2 [ n] (Time invariant) (Causal) 39. where b ¹ 0 S{x[ n]} = S2 {S1 {x[ n]}} = S2 {x[ n] + b} = x[ n] Hence S is linear. y[ n .5.1].2 ] y[ n] = x[ n] + x[ n . y2 [ n] = v[ n . y2 [ n] = 10 v[ n . the response is (Not Homogeneous so not linear) (Time Invariant) m = -¥ å v[ m ] .no ] = y2 [ n] on the excitation at that time. the response is bounded. y2 = å v[ m ] n -no ¥ m = -¥ å v[ n .gatehelp.no ] = å v[ m ] = n +1 m =n å x[ m ] = å x[ m ] m = -¥ 1 -¥ n q = -¥ å v[ q .no ] = 2 v[ n . For example S1 : y[ n] = x[ n] + b.no ] . y2 [ n] = n +1 n = -¥ å w[ m ] m = -¥ å ( v[ n] + w[ m ]) n +1 1 2 m = -¥ å v[ m ] + å w[ n] = y [ n] + y [ n] m = -¥ (Additive) 38.1] = x[ n . (Causal) (Stable). 40. m = -¥ å kv[ m ] (Homogeneous) å v[ m ]. 34. y1 [ n] = m = -¥ (Additive) . (B) y1 [ n] = 10 v[ n] . (B) For example S1 : y[ n] = nx[ n] and S2 : y[ n] = nx[ n + 1] If x[ n] = d[ n] then S2 {S1 {d[ n]}} = S2 [0 ] = 0. Page 267 Let x2 [ n] = kv[ n] then Let x2 [ n] = v[ n . y2 [ n ] = n +1 y1 [ n] = 10 v[ n] . = y2 [ n] At any discrete time. (Anti causal) If the excitation is a constant.1] + x[ n .no ] y1 [ n .2 ]. the response increases without bound. At any discrete time.b .no ] . (Unstable) y3[ n] = m = -¥ å (v[ m ] + w[ m ]) = å v[ m ] + å w[ m ] m = -¥ m = -¥ = y1 [ n] + y2 [ n] System is Linear.no ] = v[ n .no ] = 10 v[ n . the response depends only www. the response is bounded.5.k then y[ n] = y1 [ n] = y1 [ n .2 ] + K x[ n . Then by induction y[ n] = x[ n . and S2 : y[ n] = x[ n] . If the excitation is bounded. 36.k] k=0 ¥ Since the system is homogeneous and additive it is also linear y1 [ n] = n +1 m = -¥ å v[ n] . n = no the response depends only on the excitation at that discrete time and not on any future excitation. (C) Only statement (b) is false.no ] = m = -¥ å v[ m ] = å v[ q .2 (Time variant) At any discrete time.n ] = y [ n] q = -¥ o 2 n (Time Invariant) At any discrete time n = no the response depends only on the excitation at that discrete time and previous discrete time. (B) y[ n] = x[ n] + y[ n .5 y1 [ n . n = no . (A) y1 [ n] = v[ n] . unbounded as n approaches infinity.k] + K = å x[ n . y2 = kv[ n] = k v[ n] ky1 [ n] = k v[ n] ¹ y2 [ n] (Not Homogeneous Not linear) y1 [ n] = v[ n] .

1. x( t) = tu( t) * cos 2pt u( t) (A) 1 s( s 2 + 4 p2 ) 1 s ( s + 4 p2 ) 2 2 3.s s+2 (B) 2p s 2 ( s 2 + 4 p2 ) s3 s + 4 p2 2 (C) (D) 9.2) (A) -e s -2 s 6.2) (A) (C) e -2 s .com .1) * e -2 t u( t . x( t) = u( t .s s+1 (B) (D) 1 s (C) -e .1 s 2 s d { te . x( t) = t 3u( t) (A) 3 s4 6 s4 (B) -3 s4 6 s4 4.s s+2 -e . x( t) = (A) e (C) 1+ s 2.1) (A) e -2 ( s + 1 ) 2s + 1 e.u( t .2 s s 8. x( t) = e 2 t u( -t + 2) (A) (C) e 2 (s . x( t) = u( t) .t u( t)} dt (B) (D) s ( s + 1) 2 e.3 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM Statement for Q.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5.1-12: Determine the Laplace transform of given signal.( s + 2 ) s+2 (B) (D) e. x( t) = e -2 t u( t + 1) (A) (C) 1 s+2 e. x( t) = u( t .gatehelp. x( t) = sin 5 t 5 (A) 2 s +5 5 (C) 2 s + 25 s (B) 2 s +5 s (D) 2 s + 25 10.2 ) -1 s -2 -2 ( s .s ( s + 1) 2 (B) (D) 1 .2 ) (B) (D) e s+2 e s -2 -2 s -2 s (C) 1-e s -2 (D) - 5.( s + 2 ) s+2 (B) e -2 ( s + 1 ) s+1 e -2 ( s + 1 ) s+2 Page 269 (C) (D) www. x( t) = u( t + 2) (A) (C) 1 s e -2 s s -2 s (D) 0 1 s( s + 1) 2 e.e -2 s s -2 s (B) e -2 s s 7.

t sin 2 t .t + e -2 t ) u( t) (A) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .t . X ( s) = -t -2 t -2 t + e ) u( t) + e -3t ) u( t) -3t (A) 2 d( t) + ( 3e -2 t .t cos 2 t .t cos 3t) u( t) 19.e.t sin 2 t) u( t) (D) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .e -3t ) u( t) + ( e -2 t .2 e-3t ) u( t . X ( s) = 2 s + 3s + 2 (A) (2 e -2 t + e .e -3t ) u( t .t .2 e .t cos 2 t) u( t) 20.( e 15.e .t + 3te. X ( s) = 4 s 2 + 8 s + 10 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 5) Statement for Q.2 te ) u( t) (B) ( 3e. X ( s) = 2 s 2 + 10 s + 11 s2 + 5 s + 6 (B) (2 e .t cos 2 t . x( t) = ò e -3t cos 2 t dt 0 t 17.e .t ) u( t) (C) (2 e -2 t .t cos 3t ÷u( t) 3 è ø (C) ( 3e .t sin 2 t) u( t) (C) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .t .t cos 2 t) u( t) (B) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .e -3( t . s+3 13.t .t sin 3t + 3e.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 11.t + 2 te -2 t ) u( t) (A) -( s + 3) s(( s + 3) 2 + 4) s( s + 3) ( s + 3) 2 + 4 d -t { e cos t u( t)} dt (B) (A) ( e -2 t . X ( s) = s d2 ds 2 æ 1 ö 1 ç 2 çs +9÷+ s+ 3 ÷ è ø 2s .2) (D) 2 d( t) + (2 e -2 t .3 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 1) (B) ( e -2 t + 2 te .t ) u( t) (D) (2 e.2 te .e-3t ) u( t) (C) 2 d( t) + ( e (D) 2 d( t) .t + 3e -2 t ) u( t) (B) (2 + e .3e -2 t ) u( t) (D) ( 3 + e .t ) u( t) (C) (2 e.e-2 t ) u( t) (B) 2 d( t) + ( e -2 t .2 ) + e -3( t .e . X ( s) = 3s 2 + 10 s + 10 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 6 s + 10) (A) ( e -2 t + 2 e -3t cos t + 2 e -3t sin t) u( t) (B) ( e -2 t + 2 e -3t cos t .t sin 3t) u( t) (D) ( 3e .t .t sin 2 t .3te.6 e -3t sin t) u( t) (C) ( e -2 t + 2 e -3t cos t .t ) u( t) (D) ( e .2) (B) 2 d( t) + (2 e -2 t .e .e -2 t ) u( t) (D) (2 e .t sin 3t ÷u( t) 3 è ø 2 -( s 2 + 4 s + 2) (A) 2 ( s + 2 s + 2) 2 (C) ( s + 2 s + 2) ( s 2 + 4 s + 2) 2 2 ( s 2 + 4 s + 2) (B) 2 ( s + 2 s + 2) 2 (D) -( s + 2 s + 2) ( s 2 + 4 s + 2) 2 2 1 æ ö (B) ç 3e.2 ) ) u( t . X ( s) = ( s + 3) s(( s + 3) 2 + 4) -s( s + 3) ( s + 3) 2 + 4 s2 .2 te -2 t ) u( t) 18.2 e .gatehelp.1 s2 + 2 s + 1 -t (A) ( 3e . X ( s) = 5s + 4 s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s ö æ 2t t2 (A) ç e -3t + sin 3t + cos 3t ÷u( t) ÷ ç 3 9 ø è (B) ( e -3t + 2 t sin 3t + t 2 cos 3t) u( t) 2t æ ö (C) ç e -3t + sin 3t + t 2 cos 3t ÷u( t) 3 è ø (D) ( e -3t + t 2 sin 3t + 2 t cos 3t) u( t) (A) (2 + e .com .t cos 3t .2) 22.e -3t ) u( t) + ( e -2 ( t .t + 3e -2 t ) u( t) Page 270 www.e.3e -2 t ) u( t) (C) ( 3 + e .6 e -3t cos t + 3e -3t sin t) u( t) 21. x( t) = t 3s + 2 s + 2 s + 10 1 æ -t ö (A) ç 3e cos 3t .t sin 3t .2 ) ) u( t) (C) 2 d( t) + (2 e -2 t .t ) u( t) 14.2 e -3t sin t) u( t) (D) (9 e -2 t .t ) u( t) 16.13–24: Determine the time signal x( t) corresponding to given X ( s) and choose correct option. X ( s) = 2 s 2 + 11s + 16 + e -2 s ( s2 + 5 s + 6) (A) 2 d( t) + ( e -3t . X ( s) = (C) (D) 12.t ) u( t) (C) ( e .e -3t + e -2 ( t .2 ) .t + 2 te.

1+ s e2 ( s + 1 ) .t) (C) -( t .te . Determine the time signal y( t) and choose correct option.25–29: (C) (D) Given the transform pair below.1 Re ( s) < . Y ( s) = X ( 3s) æ2 ö (A) cos ç t ÷u( t) è3 ø (C) cos 6t u( t) 27.( t . 34.3) u( t . s+1 1 . s+1 1 .34–43: Determine the bilateral laplace transform and (B) 1 . X ( s) = (A) e (C) -0 .The Laplace Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.3) (C) -t cos 2( t . y( t) = 2 tx( t) (A) (C) 8 .8 ( s 2 + 2) 2 s2 s +1 2 (B) e2 t cos 2 t u( t) (D) e-2 t cos 2 t u( t) Statement for Q. X ( s) = e 1 d æ ç ds ç ( s + 1) 2 è 30.3) www. s2 + 2 Determine the Laplace transform Y ( s) of the given time signal in question and choose correct option.t x( t) (A) (C) 2( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2( s + 1) s2 + 2 s + 4 (B) (D) 2( s + 1) s2 + 2 s + 2 2( s + 1) s2 + 2 s 26.5t 1 (2 s + 1) 2 + 4 1 (B) e .2) Statement for Q.t u( t . Y ( s) = d -3s [ e X ( s)] ds (A) t cos 2( t .2) 2 e . 32.2) 2 + 1 dx( t) dt (B) (D) 4 ( s 2 + 2) 2 4 ( s 2 + 2) 2 (B) 2 se 2 s s2 + 2 2( s + 2) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 (A) . 1+ s Re ( s) > -1 Re ( s) < .2) u( t) (C) cos 2( t + 2) u( t) X ( s) 28. cos 2t u( t) 25.1) (D) te .com .30–33: Given the transform pair x( t) u( t) L ¬¾® sin t u( t) 1 -0 .5t e sin t u( t) 4 -2 s 2s .4 s2 ( s 2 + 2) 2 4 s2 s2 + 1 (B) (D) 4 s2 .3) u( t) (D) -t cos 2( t .t sin t u( t) 2 (D) e . Y ( s) = 2 s (A) 4 cos 2 t u( t) (C) t cos 2 t u( t) 2 1 æ2 ö (B) cos ç t ÷u( t) 3 è3 ø (D) 1 cos 6 t u( t) 3 33.gatehelp. y( t) = x( t) * (A) 4 s3 ( s 2 + 2) 2 -4 s 3 ( s + 2) 2 2 X ( s).t sin t u( t) ö ÷ ÷ ø (B) -te . 24.2) ( s .1) Statement for Q. y( t) = e . x( t) = e .1 Re ( s) > -1 Page 271 cos 2 t (D) u( t) t2 29.cos 2 t u( t) 4 choose correct option.t u( t + 2) (A) (B) (B) t cos 2( t .t u( t .3) u( t . y( t) = x( t .2) (A) 2 se -2 s s2 + 2 2( s .2 sin 2 t ]u( t) (C) [cos 2 t + 2 sin 2 t ]u( t) sin 2 t ö æ (B) ç cos 2 t + ÷u( t) 2 ø è sin 2 t ö æ (D) ç cos 2 t ÷u( t) 2 ø è (C) L ¬¾® 31.3 23. Y ( s) = ( s + 1) X ( s) (A) [cos 2 t .t u(1 .3) u( t) (C) (D) e2 ( s + 1 ) .2 ) u( t . Y ( s) = X ( s + 2) (A) cos 2( t .

5 -1 > Re ( s) > 1 -1 < Re ( s) < 1 -0.0. ( s + 1)( s2 + 9) s .0. s+1 39. s 36.5 < Re ( s) < 1 t 43. x( t) = e u( t) + e u( t) + e u( -t) t -t (A) (B) (C) (D) 6 s2 + 2 s .s) 1 1 .1) + 4 s + 1 s .5 s + 1 s .0.t u( t) -s . ( s + 1)( s 2 + 9) Re ( s) > 0 -1 < Re ( s) < 0 -1 < Re ( s) < 0 Re ( s) > 0 (C) e .1) 2 + 4 e 2 ( s -1 ) . x( t) = u( -t + 3) 1 . Re ( s) < 0 s 41.1 Re ( s) > -1 Re ( s) > 1 Re ( s) < 1 Re ( s) > 1 Re ( s) < 1 38.1) 6 s2 + 2 s . ( s . 44.1 1 1 1 .5 Statement for Q. s-3 e 3( s -1 ) .1 Re ( s) < .5 ( s . -1 < Re ( s) < 1 + + ( s . (A) ( s + 1)( s2 + 9) (B) (C) -s .1) 2 + 4 s + 1 s . 0. (2 s + 1)( s 2 .1) 1 1 1 .5 < Re ( s) < 1 + + ( s . Re( s) > 0 s s (B) e .5 ( s . (1 + s 2 ) (D) None of above Re ( s) < 0 (D) Re ( s) > 0 Re ( s) < 0 Re ( s) > 0 -1 (C) .44–49: Determine the corresponding time signal for given bilateral Laplace transform. x( t) = cos 3t u( -t) * e .2 .com . s-3 Re ( s) > 3 Re ( s) < 3 Re ( s) > 3 Re ( s) < 3 1-e (C) s (D) .t u( t) + e 2 u( t) (A) (B) (C) (D) (1 . (1 + s 2 ) t 2 42. + + s + 0. s+1 s -1 . x( t) = e t (A) (B) (C) (D) 1-s . y( t) = d( t + 1) (A) e . + s + 0. x( t) = e t cos 2 t u( -t) + e .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 35.1 Re ( s) > -1 Re ( s) < . x( t) = e t sin (2 t + 4) u( t + 2) (A) (B) (C) (D) e 2 ( s -1 ) . s -3s (A) Re ( s) > 0 (B) Re ( s) < 0 (C) e 3s .0. (2 s + 1)( s 2 .1) 1 1 . 0. ( s .2 .e -3s .1) 2 + 4 s + 1 s .0.1) 1 1 . s-3 e 3( s -1 ) .2 ) . (1 + s 2 ) (D) -1 . Re ( s) < 0 (D) Re ( s) > 0 -e -3s .5 s + 1 s .1) 2 + 4 s + 1 s . s-3 e 3s . ( s .gatehelp. x( t) = e ( 3t + 6 ) u( t + 3) Page 272 (A) e -2 ( t + 5) u( t + 5) www. ( s . s+1 s -1 .2 ) .1) 2 + 4 e( s . s+1 1-s . -1 < Re ( s) < 1 + + ( s .1) 2 + 4 e( s . X ( s) = e 5s with ROC: Re ( s) < -2 s+2 40. (A) (1 + s 2 ) (B) 1 . ( s + 1)( s 2 + 9) s . x( t) = sin t u( t) 1 . all s 37. (A) s (B) -e -3s .1) 2 + 4 d -2 t [ e u( -t)] dt Re ( s) < .s) 1 1 .5 < Re ( s) < 1 + + 2 ( s .5 (1 .

5 u( t . 63.( e -2 t cos t + e -2 t sin t) u( t) (B) d( t) .1) + 2 e .1 H ( s) = 2 s + 2s + 1 The impulse response is (A) 2 u( -t + 1) .5 e -2 t + e -3t ú u( t) 3 ë3 û 5 é5 ù (B) ê .com .t u( t) + ( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( t) (B) -e . .1) .2 e. x( t) = 10 e -2 t 58.3) 3 3 59.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System (A) 1 -t e sin t u( t) 2 (B) 2e.( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( -t) (C) -e .t ) u( t) (C) 2 u( t + 1) .t .3te. The transfer function H ( s) of a stable system is 2s .t sin t u( t .2) + u( t .t + et ) u( t) 60.t u( t) .( e.t + 2 e 2 t ) u( t) (C) 3e .1) 2 d 3 y( t) d 2 y( t) dy( t) +4 +3 = x( t) 3 2 dt dt dt All initial condition are zero.2 y( t) = -4 x( t) + 5 2 dt dt dt The impulse response of system is (A) 3e .t u( t) .5 e .t .3tu( t + 1) (D) (2 e.t u( t) + 2 e 2 t u( -t) (B) ( 3e .t .3tu( -t + 1) (B) ( 3te. The transfer function H ( s) of a stable system is H ( s) = s2 + 5 s .2) + u( t .1) + 5 u( t .( e 2 t cos t + e 2 t sin t) u( t) (D) d( t) .gatehelp.( e + e ) u( t) t -t 64.e u( -t) t -t (D) 2d( t) + ( e.3) 3 3 5 5 u( t) + 5 u( t . The impulse response of the system (C) 2 e .2 e 2 t u( -t) (D) ( 3e . A stable system has input is (A) d( t) .t + et ) u( -t) (B) 2d( t) .5 u( t .2) (C) d( t) .t + 5 e -2 t + e -3t ú u( t) 3 ë3 û (C) (D) 5 5 u( t) .t ) u( t) 61.( e -2 t cos t + e -2 t sin t) u( t .1 The impulse response is (A) 2d( t) . The relationship between the input x( t) and output y( t) of a causal system is defined as d 2 y( t) dy( t) dx( t) .t cos t u( t) + (D) 1 -t e cos t u( t . The transform function H ( s) of a causal system is 2 s2 + 2 s .9 ( s + 1)( s 2 .2 e 2 t ) u( -t) ******* (C) 2d( t) + e u( t) . The relation ship between the input x( t) and output y( t) of a causal system is described by the differential equation dy( t) + 10 y( t) = 10 x( t) dt The impulse response of the system is (A) -10 e -10 t u( -t + 10) (C) 10 e -10 t u( -t + 10) (B) 10 e -10 t u( t) (D) -10 e -10 t u( t) 5 é5 ù (A) ê + 5 e .( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( t) (D) -e .2 H ( s) = s2 .t u( t) .t cos t u( t) 1 -t e sin t u( t) 2 62.t .t u( t) + ( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( -t) Page 274 www.( e 2 t cos t + e 2 t sin t) u( t + 2) x( t) and output y( t) = e -2 t cos t u( t).2 s + 10) The impulse response is (A) -e .

(C) p( t) = tu( t) q( t) = .3te . (C) X ( s) = ò x( t) e .1) P ( s) = e.e .com .t .e -2 t ]u( t) 14. C = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = -3 x( t) = [2 + e .( s + 2 ) s2 e -2 s s ¥ v( t) = e -2 t u( t .st dt = ò e 2 t u( -t + 2) e .tq( t) t n u( t) P ( s) = 1 s2 B = (2 s .t . (B) X ( s) = ò e .1 A B = + s 2 + 2 s + 1 ( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 1 s( s + 4 p2 ) L ¬¾® 9. B = ( s + 1) X ( s) s = -1 = 1.t cos t u( t) q( t) = d p( t) dt L ¬¾® P ( s) = s+1 ( s + 1) 2 + 1 5.tp( t) x( t) = .1) x( t) = q( t) * v( t) 1 s Þ e X ( s) = s+2 -2 ( s + 1 ) L ¬¾® L ¬¾® V ( s) = X ( s) = Q( s) V ( s) 2.gatehelp. (B) p( t) = e -3t cos 2 t u( t) ¬¾® P ( s) = 3. B = = -1 s + 2 s = -1 s + 1 s = -2 8.e -2 s s L ¬¾® Q( s) = X ( s) = - s( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 + 1 d Q( s) ds x( t) = tq( t) 6.2) s = -1 = -3.3 SOLUTIONS 1.The Laplace Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. (B) X ( s) = A= X ( s) = s ( s + 1) 2 1 s2 s s + 4 p2 2 s+3 s+3 = 2. (B) X ( s) = ò x( t) e .e -2 ( 2 .st e dt = 2 2j s + 25 0 1 . (C) X ( s) = ò 2 ¥ 5 ( e j 5t . (A) X ( s) = ò x( t) e -3t dt = ò u( t + 2) -3t dt = ò e -3t dt = 0 0 0 ¥ L 11.s ) = 2-s s -2 12. (A) p( t) = e .3 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 1) L ¬¾® Q( s) = A B C + + ( s + 2) ( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 Page 275 www. (A) p( t) = tu( t) q( t) = cos 2 pt u( t) x( t) = p( t) * q( t) Þ X ( s) = 2 L ¬¾® P ( s) = Q( s) = x( t) = [2 e .j 5t ) .1 1 .s ) dt = 0 2 e 2 (2 .st dt = 0 L ¬¾® Þ P ( s) = 1 ( s + 1) 2 X ( s) = -( s 2 + 4 s + 2) ( s 2 + 2 s + 2) 2 s+3 A B = + ( s + 3s + 2) s + 1 s + 2 2 7. (C) X ( s) = = s2 .e-3t ) u( t) 15.t ]u( t) 16.t u( t) x( t) = d p( t) dt L ¬¾® 13. (B) p( t) = te .st dt = 0 2 ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ r ( t) = e -2 t u( t) L ¬¾® R( s) = 1 s+2 e.st dt = 0 ¥ 1 s+2 ¥ s+3 ( s + 3) 2 + 4 -¥ ò t p( t) dt X ( s) = L ¬¾® 1 P ( s) ò p( t) dt + s s -¥ 0 4. (A) X ( s) = ò e -2 t e . A = 2 x( t) = x( t) = [2 e .st dt 0 0 Þ ( s + 3) s[( s + 3) 2 + 4 ] L ¬¾® = ò e t ( 2 .s s2 1 s 17. (D) p( t) = u( t) q( t) = u( t .3e -2 t ]u( t) L ¬¾® n! sn + 1 L ¬¾® 10. (A) X ( s) = 2 1 1 1 =2 + ( s + 2) ( s + 3) ( s + 2) ( s + 3) L ¬¾® L ¬¾® X ( s) = P ( s)Q( s) x( t) = 2 d( t) + ( e-3t . (C) X ( s) = 2s . (B) X ( s) = 5s + 4 A B C = + + 2 s + 3s + 2 s s s + 1 s + 2 3 L ¬¾® Q( s) = X ( s) = d -2 P ( s) = 3 ds s L ¬¾® d 6 Q( s) = 4 ds s A = sX ( s) s = 0 = 2.s ) .st dt = ò e .t .

(A) x( t .2) L ¬¾® p( t) = x( t . (B) P ( s) = e-2 t x( t) Þ C = -6 -3t + 2e -3t cos t .t sin 3t ú u( t) 3 ë û 19. (A) sX ( s) + X ( s) Þ dx( t) + x( t) dt x( t) = [2 e -2 t + 2 e . Y ( s) = L ¬¾® q( t) = ( -1) 2 t 2 p( t) = d q( t) .2) 22.2) L ¬¾® 25. (C) P ( s) = e -3s X ( s) = cos 2( t .t u( t) q( t) = -tp( t) = -t 2 e .e . (D) X ( s + 2) 28.2 ) u( t .2) A B( s + 1) C = + + 2 2 ( s + 2) ( s + 1) + 2 ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2 A = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = 2 A + B=4 Þ B =2 Þ C = -2 5 A + 2 B + 2 C = 10 X ( s) = e -2 sQ( s) Þ x( t) = .e -3( t .3) d L Q( s) = P ( s) ¬¾® ds = -t cos 2( t .e-3t ]u( t) + [ e -2 ( t .3) x( t) = 2 d( t) + [2 e -2 t .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System A = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = 1.te ]u( t) 3s + 2 3( s + 1) 1 = 2 2 ( s + 1) 2 + 32 s + 2 s + 10 ( s + 1) + 3 2 æsö L 23.q(0 .t cos 2 t . C = ( s + 1) 2 X ( s) A + B =1 x( t) = [ e -2 t Þ -t B =0 s = -1 = -2 . (C) X ( s) = 4 s 2 + 8 s + 10 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 5) 24.cos 2 t dt = u( t).t x ( t) L ¬¾® Y ( s) = P ( s) X ( s) = s( X ( s)) 2 X ( s + 1) = 2( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 + 2 L ¬¾® www. 2 4 0 t L ¬¾® 29.5t e sin t u( t) 4 1 ( s + 1) 2 L ¬¾® L ¬¾® L ¬¾® 1 é ù x( t) = ê3e .3). (A) p( t) = d x( t) dt L ¬¾® P ( s) = sX ( s) 2t sin 3t u( t) + t 2 cos 3t u( t) 3 1 L V ( s) = ¬¾® v( t) = e -3t u( t) s+3 é2 t ù x( t) = v( t) + r ( t) = ê sin 3t u( t) + t 2 cos 3t u( t) + e -3t ú u( t) ë3 û Page 276 y( t) = x( t) * p( t) 32.2) e ( t . (D) X ( s) = 2 s 2 + 11s + 16 + e -2 s ( s2 + 5 s + 6) P ( s) s L ¬¾® ò cos 2 t u( t) dt = sin 2 t 2 A B e -2 s e -2 s =2 + + + ( s + 2) ( s + 3) ( s + 2) ( s + 3) A= B= ( s + 2)(2 s 2 + 11s + 16) =2 ( s2 + 5 s + 6) s = -2 ( s + 3)(2 s + 11s + 16) = -1 ( s2 + 5 s + 6) s = -3 2 ò sin 2 t 1 .p( t) p( t) = 1 sin 3t u( t) 3 t2 sin 3t u( t) 3 e -2 s X ( s).t sin 2 t ]u( t) 3s 2 + 10 s + 10 20. (C) P ç ÷ ¬¾® ap( at) èaø 1 1 -t L ¬¾® e sin 2 t u( t) ( s + 1) 2 + 4 2 x( t) L ¬¾® 18.) dt 2 se -2 s s2 + 2 R( s) = sQ( s) = L ¬¾® r ( t) = 31. A + B = 3 10 A + 6 B + 2 C = 10 x( t) = [ e -2 t y( t) = ( -2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t ) u( t) L ¬¾® æsö 26. (B) X ( s) = ( s + 2)( s 2 + 6 s + 10) A B( s + 3) C = + + ( s + 2) ( s + 3) 2 + 1 ( s + 3) 2 + 1 A = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = 1. 30.t u( t) x( t) = q( t .2 ) .e .( t .3) u( t . (B) X ç ÷ èaø X ( 3s) Þ B =2 L ¬¾® ax( at) 1 æ2 ö cos ç t ÷ u( t) 3 è3 ø L ¬¾® 27.2 ) ]u( t .gatehelp. (C) P ( s) = Q( s) = d2 P ( s) ds 2 1 s2 + 9 L ¬¾® q( t) = .com .6 e sin t ]u( t) X ( s) s L ¬¾® -¥ L ¬¾® t ò x( t) dt -¥ t 21. (A) e . (C) P ( s) = Q( s) = d P ( s) ds p( t) = te .3) u( t . (A) X ( s) = 1 -0 .t cos 3t .

3) r ( t) = -tq( t) = -tu( t . Re ( s) > 0. x( t) = 3e .st dt 2j 0 0 jt .st dt = ò e .1 s+1 3 -3s e 2 s e -2 .3) v( t) = s -1 1 1 + + ( s . (A) x( t) = e -2 e t + 2 sin (2 t + 4) u( t + 2) p( t + 2) X ( s) = L ¬¾® e 2 s P ( s).s ) dt e .e L ¬¾® -2 ( t + 5) 37.1 thus left-sided .e ) .t e .2 s+2 34. P ( s) = Q( s) = e-3s P ( s) d R( s) = Q( s) ds V ( s) = Þ 1 R( s) s t L ¬¾® L ¬¾® 1 s L ¬¾® p( t) = u( t) Re ( s) < 1. (C) x( t) = e -3e -3( t + 3) u( t + 3) p( t) = e u( t) 3t v( t) = -ò tdt = 3 1 2 ( t .5 < Re ( s) < 1 q( t) = p( t . Re ( s) < .st e dt + ò e . (B) p( t) * q( t) -s æ 1 ö X ( s) = 2 ç ÷ s + 9 è s + 1ø Re ( s) > -1.st dt = s -¥ -¥ 36.8 X ( s) = 2 ds ( s + 2) 2 42.st dt + 0 0 ¥ t 2 ¥ u( -( t + 5)) -¥ òee 0 t . (B) X ( s) = ò u( -t + 3) e .3 33.jt 47.t ( s + 1 ) dt = -2 -2 ¥ 43.e ) .1) = 1-s 1+ s x( t) = e t q( t) L ¬¾® -¥ ò d( t + 1) e jt .t e. Re ( s) > -1.st dt 45. ( s .st dt e2 ( s + 1 ) .1) 2 + 4 = ò e . (B) 2 tx( t) L ¬¾® -2 d 4 s2 . (A) p( t) = e -2 t u ( -t) q( t) = Re ( s) < 0 d p( t) dt L ¬¾® L ¬¾® P ( s) = -e 35. (D) X ( s) = ò e e .t u( -t) . (B) X ( s) = P ( s)Q( s) 41. Re ( s) < 0 Þ -1 < Re ( s) < 0 Left-sided. (A) X ( s) = -¥ òe 0 t ( e . Re ( s) > 1 -1 .com 5 1 ( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 x( t) = -5 u( -t) + te .3) X ( s) = d2 P ( s) ds 2 L ¬¾® p( t) = e 3t u( t) x( t) = t 2 e 3t u( t) = 1 1 1 + s + 0. All s Re ( s) < . www.t u( -t) Page 277 .9) 2 -¥ t ¬¾® L L ¬¾® 1 P ( s) = s-3 Q( s) = e 3s P ( s) = e 3s s-3 X ( s) = Þ 1 v( s) s L ¬¾® q( t) = p( t + 3) X ( s) = e 3( s -1 ) .5 L ¬¾® -¥ ò r( t) dt t 40. (A) X ( s) = Left-sided.5 < Re ( s) < 1 Re ( s) > -0.2 e -2 t u( -t) 49. (B) X ( s) = ò ¥ ¥ ( e . (A) Right-sided 1 L P ( s) = ¬¾® ( s . (C) Left-sided 1 L P ( s) = ¬¾® s+2 X ( s) = e 5s P ( s) Re ( s) > 0 Þ x( t) = .st dt = e s .t e . 44.1 -0.jt p( t) = -e -2 t u( -t) x( t) = p( t + 5) 1 1 1 .27) + ( t .3) 6 2 ë û -s . (D) Left-sided x( t) = -u( -t) + u ( -t + 1) + d( t + 2) ¥ ¥ t 2 39. (C) Y ( s) = ¥ Q( s) = sP ( s) X ( s) = Q( s .0.st + ò e .The Laplace Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. (A) X ( s) = ¥ ¥ ¥ -¥ ò x( t) e . s-3 Re ( s) > 3 L ¬¾® 9 é -1 ù x( t) = ê ( t 3 .4 -3 2 = + s 2 + 3s + 2 ( s + 1) s + 2 48.5 Therefore X ( s) = 0.5 s + 1 s . (C) Right-sided.st dt + ò e e . Re( s) > .gatehelp. Re ( s) > -1.9) 2 x( t) = 1 2 ò ( t .3) = u( t .1) 2 + 4 ( s + 1) s .t ( j + s ) dt = = 2j ò 2j ò 1 + s2 0 0 38. e t ( j .st dt = ò e . Re ( s) < 1 Þ 46.5.3) ú u( t .st e dt 2j 0 ¥ .

( e-2 t cos t + e-2 t sin t) u( t) 63. System is stable s + 1 ( s + 1) 2 www.t u( t) + (2 e t cos 3t + et sin 3t) u( -t) 62.com 60.3 52.2 2 h( t) = (2 e .t + 5 e -2 t + e -3t ú u( t) 3 3 ë û h( t) = 0 for t < 0 5 3 59. 61.5 e .2 3 2 53.2 s + 1 s .t u( t) + 2 e 2 t u( t). (C) s Y ( s) .s . (B) Y ( s)( s 2 . (B) s 3Y ( s) + 4 s 2 Y ( s) + 3sY ( s) = Y ( s) = 10 A B C D = + + + s( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) s ( s + 1) ( s + 2) s + 3 5 A = sY ( s) s = 0 = .t .t ) u( t). 3 C = ( s + 2) Y ( s) s = -2 = 5.2 Þ y( t) = u( t) 2 h( t) = 3e . B = ( s + 1) Y ( s) s = -1 = -5.1) 3 + + ( s + 1) ( s .t + e t ) u( t) 2 3 . s+1 Y ( s) = ( s + 2) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 e -2 s (6s + s ) =0 s2 + 2 s .2) = X ( s)(5 s . X ( s) = s 10 1 1 Y ( s) = + = s( s + 1) ( s + 1) s - h( t) = 10 e-10 t u( t) 64.4 3 2 = = + X ( s) s 2 . (C) x( ¥) = lim sX ( s) = 2 =2 s ®0 s + 3s + 1 55.3te .gatehelp.t cos t u( t) + 1 -t e sin t u( t) 2 10 ( s + 2) *********** 58.4) H ( s) = Y ( s) 5s .y(0 ) + 10 Y ( s) = 10( s) 1 y(0 ) = 1. (A) x( ¥) = lim sX ( s) = s ®0 2 s3 + 3s =0 s2 + 5 s + 1 Y ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2) = X ( s) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 s+2 54.1) 2 + 32 s2 + 2 s 51.2 s + 2 sY ( s) . 57.1) 2 + 32 ( s . D = ( s + 3) Y ( s) s = 0 = Þ 5 é5 ù y( t) = ê . (A) X ( s) = H ( s) = =1 1 . (D) For a causal system H ( s) = 2 + Þ 1 1 + s + 1 s -1 h( t) = 2d( t) + ( e.s .2 + 5 Y ( s) = 1 ( s 2 + 2 s + 5) Y ( s) = 3 + 2 s 2s + 3 2( s + 1) 1 Y ( s) = 2 = + s + 2 s + 5 ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2 ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2 Þ y( t) = 2 e . (B) sY ( s) + 10 Y ( s) = 10 X ( s) H ( s) = Þ Y ( s) 10 = X ( s) s + 10 e -3s (2 s2 + 1) 1 = s2 + 5 s + 4 4 56.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 50. (D) x(0 + ) = lim sX ( s) = x ®¥ s =0 s + 5s . (D) x(0 + ) = lim sX ( s) = s ®¥ System is stable h( t) = . (B) x( ¥) = lim sX ( s) = s ®0 - ( s + 2) 1 ( s + 2) 2 + 1 ( s + 2) 2 + 1 h( t) = d( t) . (A) x(0 + ) = lim sX ( s) = 2 =1 s ®¥ s + 2s . (D) H ( s) = Page 278 . (A) H ( s) = -1 2( s . (C) sY ( s) .e .

0. |z|> 1 .k . 1 -1 1 -1 1. . x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ n] + ç ÷ u[ -n . 1.5 ]) è4ø (A) (C) z .z 2 4 (D) None of the above www. (C) z .k .gatehelp.2) 3 3 5z 3 2 . <|z|< (2 z . <|z |< (2 z . .z -1 (C) (D) æ1ö 4.com Page 279 . x[ n] = 3n u[ -n .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5. z >0 z 4 ( z . k > 0 (A) z .25) 5 5 (B) (D) z .z 2 4 1 1 + .1 4 1 1 . z ¹ 0 (D) z k . |z|> 4z .1 4 1 1 .25 5 .0.1] z (A) .2) 2 3 n n (B) (B) (D) 1 .k] . |z|> 3 3-z (C) 3 .<z <(2 z . |z|< 4z . |z|< 1 . x[ n] = u[ n] 1 (A) .25 z 4 ( z .25 . all z 3. 1 -1 1 -1 1.z -1 n æ2 ö 7.z 4 2 1 1 <|z|< 4 2 1 1 <|z|< 4 2 z 5 . z >0 z ¹0 2. k k 6.4z 4 (B) (D) 4z 1 . |z|< 1 1 . |z|< 3 3-z z >0 z ¹0 (B) z (D) z -k -k .3)( 3z .z 1. .25 .z 1. all z z 4 ( z .25 z 3( z . |z|< 3 3-z 3 .25) æ1ö 5.0.<z <(2 z . all z -5 z 3 2 .0.0. z > 0.z -1 z . |z|> 3 3-z |n| (B) (D) z .1] è2 ø è4ø (A) 1 1 . x[ n] = ç ÷ ( u[ n] .2) 2 3 -5 z 2 3 .25) 5 5 æ1ö æ1ö 8. |z|> 1 1 .1-12: Determine the z-transform and choose correct option. z ¹ 0 (C) z .25 5 .3)( 3z . x[ n] = d[ n . x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ -n] è4ø (A) (C) 4z 1 .u[ n .z -1 (C) z . x[ n] = ç ÷ è 3ø (A) (B) z k .2) 3 2 5z 2 2 .3) ( 3z .0. x[ n] = d[ n + k] . k > 0 (A) z .4z 4 (B) (C) 1 1 1 . |z|> 1 -1 1 -1 2 1.0. |z|< 1 1 . |z|> 1 1 .4 THE Z-TRANSFORM Statement forQ. z < 0.0.z 1.25) 4 z 5 .3)( 3z .

4.4. If z-transform is given by ( -1) k (D) d[ n + 1] k X ( z) = cos ( z -3).4. Im z .1] (A) x1 [ n] (C) x3[ n] (B) x2 [ n] (D) All three é -1 æ -1 ö 1 .1] 3 Correct solution is x2 [ n] = .4z 4 37. x[ n] = ê n -1 .1] + n u[ -n .å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ -n .plane R2 R3 2 Re 1 2 34.2( k + 1)] k=0 Fig.4. Consider three different signal n é æ1ö ù x1 [ n] = ê2 n .5. x[ n] = . |z|< -2 1 .5.2 n u[ n .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 33.1] + x3[ n] = .5.com .å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ n . |z|> 0. X ( z) = ln (1 + z -1 ) .ç ÷ u[ n] 3 2 2 è 3 ø Correct solutions are (A) (a) and (b) (C) (b) and (c) (B) (a) and (c) (D) (a). P5.ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø û ê ú ë (A) . X ( z) of a system is specified by a pole zero pattern in fig. (c) Page 282 www.36.37 R3 x3[ n] x1 [ n] x2 [ n ] x1 [ n] x2 [ n ] x3[ n] x3[ n] x2 [ n ] 36.36 solution of signal x[ n] : (a) |z|> n é 1 1 æ -1 ö ù . X ( z) = ¥ 1 1 .1] . The value of x[12 ] is (A) (C) 1 24 1 6 (B) (D) 1 24 1 6 (A) (B) (C) (D) R1 x1 [ n] x2 [ n ] x1 [ n] x3[ n] R2 Fig.1] k 35. |z|> 0 ( -1) (A) k k -1 d[ n .2 n u[ -n . (b). Choose the correct option for the ROC of signal Im R1 z .gatehelp.plane Re 2 38.1] - 1 u[ -n . P.n -1 u[ -n .ç ÷ ú u[ n] è 3ø ú ê ë û (b) |z|< 1 u[ n] 3n 1 x3[ n] = .2( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ (B) .ç ÷ ú u[ n] 2 è 3 ø ú ê2 ë û Consider three different solution of x[ n] n é æ1ö ù x1 [ n] = ê2 n .1] 2n 1 u[ n] 2n (C) .2 n u[ n .37 shows the three different region.å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ n + 2( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ (D) .z ÷ç 1 + z ÷ 2 3 è øè ø 1+ For three different ROC consider there different 1 3 Fig. P.å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ -n + 2( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ x2 [ n] = -2 n u[ -n . x[ n] = ê n -1 + ç ÷ 3 è 3 ø ê2 ë n ù ú u[ -n + 1] ú û n (c) 1 1 1 æ -1 ö <|z |< . P.1] ( -1) (B) k k -1 d[ n + 1] ( -1) k (C) d[ n . Given 7 -1 z 6 X ( z) = 1 -1 öæ 1 -1 ö æ ç 1 .

Let x[ n] = d[ n .5 ] Page 283 .1] .ç ÷ ú u[ n]. The transfer function of a causal system is given as H ( z) = 5z2 z2 .ç ÷ u[ n] è2 ø æ -1 ö (B) 2 n u[ -n . 4 1 (B) n u[ n] .1] .4 39.1] + ç ÷ u[ n] è 2 ø æ1ö (D) 2 n u[ n] .gatehelp. (B) z 2 (D) 2 z 2 The unilateral n n n n (D) 1 é æ1ö æ1ö ê5ç ÷ + 2ç ÷ 3 ê è2 ø è4ø ë ù ú u[ n] ú û 46.2 z -1 ) (1 + (C) 1 3 n é æ 1 ön æ -1 ö ù 5ç ÷ . X ( z) has a signal pole.4 ].com (B) 2 d[ n + 4 ] .d[ -n + 5 ] www.1] + ç ÷ u[ n] è 2 ø æ -1 ö (C) -2 n u[ -n .1] 2 (C) (D) 1 2 n -1 u[ n] + u[ -n + 1] 1 u[ n] + u[ -n + 1] 2n 40. If time signal x[ n] is (A) 1 u[ n] .1] 2 n -1 x [1] = 1 44. A causal system has input x[ n] = d[ n] + y[ n] = d[ n] 1 1 d[ n . x[2 ] = 1 2.2 ] + d[ n + 2 ].( -1) n u[ -n . The The impulse response is (A) ( 3n + ( -1) n 2 n + 1 ) u[ n] (B) ( 3n + 1 + 2 ( -2) n ) u[ n] (C) ( 3n -1 + ( -1) n 2 n + 1 ) u[ n] (D) ( 3n -1 .10ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø û ê ú ë n é æ1ö ù (D) ê10 (2 n ) . x[ n] is u[ -n] (A) n -1 2 (C) u[ -n] 2n +1 u[ n] (B) n -1 2 (D) u[ -n] 2n +1 The impulse response of this system is (A) n n 1 é æ -1 ö æ1ö ù 5ç .z -1 The output y[ n] to the input x[ n] is given by y[ n] = 2 d[ n .4 ] .5 ] (C) 2 d[ -n + 4 ] . The z-transform function of a stable system is given as 23 -1 z 2 1 -1 z ) 2 (B) 1 é æ1ö æ -1 ö ÷ ê5ç ÷ + 2ç 3 ê è2 ø è 4 ø ë n n ù ú u[ n] ú û H ( z) = (1 . The input x[ n] is (A) 2 d[ -n .( -1) n u[ -n . and the ROC includes the point z = 3 4. è2 ø ú ê ë û The impulse response of this system is n é æ 1 ön æ1ö ù (A) ê7ç ÷ .The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.ç ÷ u[ n] è2 ø 42.( -2) n + 1 ) u[ n] 45.d[ n .4 ] . X ( z) has poles at z = 1 2 and z = -1.2ç ÷ ú u[ n] ê è 4 ø û ê ú ë è2 ø n n The impuse response h[ n] is æ1ö (A) 2 n u[ -n + 1] .7(2) n ú u[ n] ê è2 ø ú ë û 47. and x[0 ] = 2. A causal system has input x[ n] = ( -3) n u[ n] and output n é æ1ö ù y[ n] = ê4(2) n .2ç ÷ ú u[ n] ÷ ê 3ë è 2 ø è4ø û ê ú 41.7ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø ú ê ë û z-transform is (A) z -2 (C) -2 z -2 é æ 1 ö2 ù (C) ê10ç ÷ .10ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø û ê ú ë è2 ø n é æ1ö ù (B) ê7(2 n ) .d[ n + 5 ] (D) 2 d[ n .2 ] and output 4 8 3 d[ n . The unilateral z-transform of signal x[ n] = u[ n + 4 ] is (A) 1 + z + z 2 + 3z + z 4 (C) 1 + z -1 + z -2 + z -3 + z -4 (B) (D) 1 1-z 1 1 .z .6 x [ -1] = 1.d[ -n .d[ n . x[ n] is right-sided. A system has impulse response h[ n] = 1 u[ n] 2n 43.

5 ] The difference equation representation for this system is (A) y[ n] = x[ n] .3 x[ n .1].÷ç z .z 4 The system is (A) Causal and Stable (B) Causal.2 ] + d[ n . The impulse response of a system is given by h[ n] = 3 u[ n . The correct option is (A) (i) is true (B) (ii) is true (C) Both (i) and (ii) are true (D) Both are false 56. 4n (C) 3n + 3 u[ -n .2 u[ n . The impulse response of a system is given by æ -1 ö æ -1 ö h[ n] = 10ç ÷ u[ n] . The transfer function of a system is given as H ( z) = 4 z -1 1 -1 ö æ ç1 .d[ n .d[ n . |z|> 1 4 The h[ n] is (A) Stable (C) Stable and Causal (B) Causal (D) None of the above The difference equation representation for this system is (A) 4 y[ n] .x[ n .y[ n .5 ] (B) y[ n] = x[ n] . A system is described by the difference equation y[ n] 1 y[ n .2 ] 2n -2 u[ n] - 3n + 3 u[ -n .d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n + 4 ] . The transfer function of a system is given as 1ö æ 2ç z + ÷ 2ø è .gatehelp.6 ] The impulse response of system is (A) d[ n] .5 ] (C) y[ n] = x[ n] + 5 x[ n .2 ] (D) -1 u[ n . The transfer function of a system is given by H ( z) = z( 3z .4 ] + 6 d[ n . Stable and minimum phase (C) Minimum phase (D) None of the above Page 284 Statement (ii): Inverse system is causal and stable.x[ n .1] (B) 4 y[ n] .4 ] .d[ n .d[ n + 6 ] 50.2 ] + x[ n .6 ] (C) d[ n] . The impulse response of a system is given by h[ n] = d[ n] .1] 2 53.9ç ÷ u[ n] è 2 ø è 4 ø For this system two statement are Statement (i): System is causal and stable www.z ÷ 4 è ø 2 .5 x[ n + 5 ] 55.2) 1 z2 .6 ] (D) d[ n] .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 48.4 ] .4 d[ n . Statement(ii) : Inverse system is causal and stable.6 d[ n + 6 ] (B) d[ n] + 2 d[ n .2 u[ n + 1] (A) n .1] = .1] 2 2 (C) 1 2 n -2 If X ( z) converges on the unit circle.1] 8 u[ n] u[ n] - 49.÷ 2 øè 3ø è Consider the two statements Statement(i) : System is causal and stable.1] = 2 x[ n . The z-transform of a signal x[ n] is given by X ( z) = 3 10 -1 1z + z -2 3 The impulse response of the system is -1 1 (B) n . x[ n] is (A) (B) 1 3n -1 8 1 3n -1 8 1 3n -1 8 1 3 n -1 u[ n .2 d[ n + 2 ] + 4 d[ n + 4 ] .1] = 3 x[ n . A system is described by the difference equation y[ n] = x[ n] .1] 8 3n + 3 u[ -n] 8 3n + 3 u[ -n] 8 (D) - 8 u[ n] - 54.2 ] .1] (D) 4 y[ n] + y[ n + 1] = 3 x[ n + 1] 51. H ( z) = 1 öæ 1ö æ ç z .x[ n + 5 ] (D) y[ n] = x[ n] . .y[ n + 1] = 3 x[ n + 1] (C) 4 y[ n] + y[ n .x[ n .com n n 52.

1] y3[ n] = 0.0.7z + 3 (B) 2 (D) 0 www.com Page 285 .1] + x[ n . The system y[ n] = cy[ n . 1 .5 z -2 + + z-1 z-1 Fig.1 x[ n .The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.63 (A) Correct solution 60. (B) (ii) is true (D) Both are false 62. (C) 1. The z-transform of a anti causal system is X ( z) = 12 .5 (B) 2 (D) 0 .4.0.7) 4z2 .4.7 z + 12 z 2 (B) Not correct solution (C) Correct and unique solution (D) Correct but not unique solution The value of x[0 ] is 7 (A) 4 (C) 4 61.4 The correct option is (A) (i) is true (C) Both are true 57. The z-transform of a causal system is given as X ( z) = The x[0 ] is (A) -15 . Given the z-transforms X ( z) = The limit of x[ ¥ ] is (A) 1 (C) ¥ (B) 0 (D) Does not exist ***************** z( 8 z . (C) |c < 112 | .1] + 0.0.62 æn ö ç -2÷ ç ÷ ø (A) 2 è 2 (B) (1 + ( -1) n ) u[ n] + 1 d[ n] 2 2n 1 (1 + ( -1) n ) u[ n] + d[ n] 2 2 æn ö ç -2÷ ç ÷ ø 58.62 is X(z) + z-1 z-1 Y(z) z-1 Fig.15 z -1 . This system diagram is a X(z) + Y(z) 59.2 y[ n .2 ] is stable if (A) c < 112 .4 x[ n] .5 y[ n .3 x[ n .2 ] y2 [ n] = x[ n] . P5.12 y[ n . P5. 2 . (B) c > 112 . Consider the following three systems y1 [ n] = 0.1] + x[ n] .0.63.1] The equivalent system are (A) y1 [ n] and y2 [ n] (C) y3[ n] and y1 [ n] (B) y2 [ n] and y3[ n] (D) all (C) 2 è 2 (D) (1 + ( -1) n ) u[ n] - 1 d[ n] 2 2n 1 [1 + ( -1) n ] u [ n] .15 z -1 + 0.2 ] + x[ n . The system diagram for the transfer function H ( z) = z z2 + z + 1 is shown in fig.d [ n] 2 2 63.1] .4. (D) |c > 112 | .21z 3 . P5.3 x[ n .4. The impulse response of the system shown in fig.1] + 0.gatehelp.02 x[ n . P5.

ç ÷ u[ n] 2n è 3 ø n æz z +ç ç 4 4 è -2 -2 ö æ1 ö ÷ = å ç z -2 ÷ ÷ k=0 è 4 ø ø ¥ 2 k æ1ö x [ n] = å ç ÷ d[ n .8 ] 28.1) u[ n + 2 ] ìæ 1 ö 2 ï .3z 1 . =í î 0. So all are the solution.. (B) x[ n] is right sided. (A) X ( z) = 1 + Þ ¥ k x2 [ n] is left-sided signal 1 1 z 2 < 2.. (A) x[ n] = d[ n + 6 ] + d[ n + 2 ] + 3d[ n] + 2 d [ n .com é -2 æ -1 ön ù x[ n] = ê n + ç ÷ ú u[ -n .z -1 4 32 32 = + X ( z) = 1 . (B) X ( z) = 2 -1 .. n even and n ³ 0 n odd ¥ ¥ 33.z 1 + z -1 2 z x[ n] = 2 æ -1 ö u[ n] .1] + + . n even and n ³ 0 = íç 4 ÷ è ø ï n odd î 0 . (C) X ( z) = -4 z 2 å (2 z) 2 k = .4 ] 31. k = 2..n u[ n] 2 24. 2! 3! 1 x [ n] = d [ n] + n! 32. 37..1] . (D) x[ n] is right sided signal X ( z) = 1 + 3z Þ -1 ( -1) k 2 k a k = 0 (2 k) ! ¥ å k d[ n . (B) cos a = å X ( z) = å ¥ 27. (C) x1 [ n] is right-sided signal z1 > 2 .6 ] + 4 d[ n .1] è 3 ø û ê ú ë2 Page 287 .1 z -1 2 2 1 Þ x[ n] = -2(2) n u[ -n ..... ROC : <|z|< 2 = 1 + 2 z -1 1 ..k] k=5 10 1 ( -1) k -3k 2 k (z ) k = 0 (2 k) ! k=0 Þ x [ n] = Þ å (2 k) ! d [ n .The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5...3z -1 = 3 3 z 2 + z -1 1 + z -1 .2 k] k=0 è 4 ø |z|> |z|< 1 (Right-sided) Þ 2 1 (Left-sided) Þ 3 www..2 ] d[ n .16 z -1 1 + 4 z -1 1 . z1 > 1 gives z1 > 2 2 30.... (A) d[ n] + 2 d[ n .å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) z 2 ( k + 1 ) k=0 k=0 Þ x[ n] = . 2! 3! d[ n ... z 2 < gives z 2 < 2 2 x3[ n] is double sided signal 1 1 z 3 > and z 3 < 2 gives < z3 < 2 2 2 38. + 3z -2 +z -3 x[ n] = d[ n] + 3d[ n . x[ n] = 29..6 k = 0... +1 + + + 2 z 2!z 3! z3 d[ n + 2 ] d[ n + 3] x[ n] = d[ n] + d[ n + 1] + + ..1] k k =1 ¥ x [ n] = å 35.6 k] ¥ ( -1) k n = 12 12 .. + 1 -1 1 1.. (A) X ( z) = 25. n ì2-n .1] + 3d[ n .3] ( -1) 2 1 x[12 ] = = 4! 24 36. 2 ! 3! 1 1 1 . (C) x[ n] is right sided 1 -1 ö 2 æ X ( z) = ç 2 + + ÷z -1 1+ z 1 .z -2 2 2 2 1 1 ....3] + d[ n ..z -1 ø è Þ x[ n] = 2 d[ n + 2 ] + (( -1) n . (A) x[ n] is right sided 1 49 47 z . (A) ln (1 + a) = X ( z) = å Þ ¥ å ( -1) k -1 ( a) k k k =1 ¥ ( -1) k -1 ( z -1 ) k k k =1 ( -1) k -1 d[ n . (B) X ( z) = 1 + z + z2 z3 + + ..4 z -1 47 n ù é 49 Þ x[ n] = ê ( -4) n + 4 ú u[ n] 32 ë 32 û 26. (D) All gives the same z transform with different ROC.gatehelp.3] +d[ n] + d[ n .4 z 2 .å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ n + 2 ( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ 34.2 ] + d[ n .

2ç ÷ ú u[ n] ê 3ë è 2 ø è4ø û ê ú 46.3z 1 + 2 z -1 h[ n] is causal so ROC is |z|> 3.gatehelp.z -1 50.z -5 H ( z) x[ n] = 2[ d .2 z -1 1 . x[0 ] = 2 = C x[2 ] = 1 = 2 p2 2 n n -2 5 Y ( z) 3 3 .com .z -2 + z -4 .5 ] é z -1 ù 48.n u[ -n . (A) X ( z) = 1 + 3 -1 z Y ( z) 4 H ( z) = = X ( z ) 1 . (A) Y ( z) ê1 = 2 z -1 X ( z ) 2 ú ë û H ( z) = Y ( z) 2 z -1 = z -1 X ( z) 12 n -1 h[ n] is stable.z -1 ÷ 2 2 è ø 10 Y ( z) -7 = + X ( z ) 1 .1 z -1 1 + 1 z -1 4 2 Þ h[ n] = n n 1 é æ -1 ö æ1ö ù 5ç ÷ .z 2 A Þ x[ n] = n u[ n] × B ( -1) n u[ -n . 2 x[ -1] = 1 = ( -1) B( -1) Þ B = 1 1 Þ x[ n] = n -1 u[ n] .2z 1 + z -1 2 Y ( z) = 2 z -4 . (A) X + ( z) = n =0 ¥ å x[ n]z å x[ n]z ¥ -n = d[ n . Y ( z ) = 2 z -4 1 -1 1.1 z -1 4 1 3 Y ( z ) .7ç ÷ ú u( n) è2 ø û ê ú ë 47.z -1 Y ( z) = z -1 X ( z) 4 4 1 3 Þ y[ n] . 2 X ( z) = Þ 1 .y[ n .1] 4 4 Page 288 www.2 ] + d[ n .d[ n . Þ h[ n] = [ 3n + 1 + 2 ( -2) n ]u[ n] z -1 z -2 3z -1 .2 z -1 )ç 1 .2 ]z .d[ n . Y ( z) = 1 4 8 4 45. so ROC includes |z|= 1 1 ROC : <|z|< 2 .n = z -2 ¥ 49.z 2 æ1ö x[ n] = 2ç ÷ u( n) è2 ø 41.ç ÷ u[ n] 3 2 2 è 3 ø So (b) is wrong.4 ] . (B) H ( z) = 1 1 + -1 1 1 .1] + ç ÷ u [ n] è 2 ø n n Þ æ1ö h[ n] = 2ç ÷ è2 ø u[ n . 2 æ -1 ö h[ n] = (2) u[ -n .1] 2 A 1= Þ A =2 .6 ] 3æ1ö ç ÷ 4è4ø n -1 43. ROC is 4 1 <|z|< 1. 3 39.1 z -1 2 H ( z) = Þ n é æ1ö ù h[ n] = ê10(2) n .1] 2 40. (A) h[ n] = u[ n . 2 A B X ( z) = + 1 -1 1 + z -1 1.z -1 (1 . (B) x[ n] = Cpn u[ n] . (A) Since the ROC includes the z = .( -1) n u[ -n .1] = x[ n . H ( z) = = + X ( z ) 1 . (C) H ( z) = Þ h[ n] = d[ n] .1] 3 2 44.d[ n . (D) H ( z) = Þ p= 1 .2z æ ö 1 .1] . (D) X ( z) = Y ( z) = 1 1 + 3z -1 4 1 3 = -1 1 1 1 .4 ] .z -6 ) X ( z) 42.1] Y ( z) = (1 . (D) X ( z) = + -n = n =0 n =0 åz -n 1 = 1 . (B) H ( z) = + -1 1 .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 1 1 2 æ -1 ö <|z|< (Two-sided) x[ n] = .

(A) Y1 ( z) = 1 . x[0 ] = lim X ( z) = 4 z ®¥ (i) Not all poles are inside |z|= 1.1z -1 .1] 3 8 8 1 æ1ö 54.0.2 z -1 1 + 2 z -1 1 1 d[ n] + {( 2 ) n + ( . (C) h[ n] = 16 nç ÷ u[ n].1) X ( z) = ( z .z 3 Since X ( z) converges on |z|= 1. (C) Pole of system at : z = 1 1 .2 z -2 Þ =- 1 1 1 4 4 h[ n] = .5 z -1 www. So system is both stable and è4ø causal. the system is not causal and stable.2 z -1 1 -1 öæ 1 -1 ö æ ç 1 + z ÷ç 1 + z ÷ 2 4 è øè ø Pole of this system are inside |z|= 1. (B) Causal signal x[0 ] = lim X ( z) = 2 z ®¥ y[ n] = x[ n] .+ + 2 1 . 58. 3 27 8 8 53.3z -1 1 .0. 3 3n + 3 x[ n] = .0. (D) Y ( z) = X ( z) z -1 . .n -1 u[ n] u[ -n . 7 ) 4 =1 lim x( n) = lim( z . So the system is stable and causal. (A) H ( z) = 10 9 1 -1 1 1+ z 1 + z -1 4 2 *********** = 1 .1z -1 Y3( z) = 0. So ROC must include this circle. (D) Zero at : z = 0.1) ç z .4 51.z -5 X ( z) So y1 and y2 are equivalent.÷ 4ø è z(2 z 62. For the inverse system not all pole are inside |z|= 1. (A) The function has poles at z = 1.gatehelp.{ Y ( z) z -1 + Y ( z) z -2 } Y ( z) z -1 z = = 2 -1 -2 X ( z) 1 + z + z z + z +1 So this is a solution but not unique.12 < 1. (C) [2 Y ( z) + X ( z)] z -2 = Y ( z) H ( z) = z -2 1 . (A) H ( z) = Þ Y ( z) = 1 .5 ] 1± 2 2 . (C) |a2|= 0. 56. a1 =| c < 1 + 0.x[ n . 60. Many other correct diagrams can be drawn. (A) X ( z) = + 1 -1 1 . (ii) Not are poles and zero are inside |z|= 1.1) n ®¥ z ®1 3ö æ ( z . poles at z = 2 3 52. |c < 112 -| | .12.0. So inverse system is not stable and causal. 55. Thus final 4 value theorem applies. Y2 ( z) = 1 . 57. ROC includes z = 1. For this system and inverse system all poles are inside |z|= 1. So both system are both causal and stable. 2 3 1 Pole of inverse system at : z = 2 n 3 61.The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. (C) Anti causal signal.com Page 289 .3z -1 1. 1 ROC : <|z|< 3. the system is not minimum phase.2 ) n } u[ n] 2 4 63. 59.4 .

x[ n] = a|n| .d[W .jW 3 4 ) ) 4 (B) ( 3 4 e jW 3 1 .5W sin W n æ1ö 5.e . ì 1.4 ] è4ø (A) ( ( 3 4 e . 1.cos W) (D) -2(2 cos 2W .1–9: Determine the discrete-time Fourier Transform for the given signal and choose correct option. . x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ n . x[ n] = 2 d[ 4 . x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ -n .2 n] (A) 2 e .p 2 ]) 2 (B) 2(2 cos 2W .a2 1 .e .cos W) (1 . 1.e jW (B) (D) 2 e jW 2 . 2} ­ (B) (D) 1 1 .2 a sin W + a 2 2 (B) (D) e -2 jW(1 .6 ] (A) e 3 jW + e 3 jW + e 4 jW + e 5 jW (C) e -2 jW + e -3 jW + e -4 jW + e -5 jW 4.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5.jW (C) pd(W) + (C) e .2 a cos W + a 2 2 (B) 1 .4 e jW ) (A) pd(W) 4 1 1 + e .jW 3 1 .2 ja sin W + a 2 (D) None of the above (C) 2 p( d[W . x[ n] = u[ n] (B) 2 e j 2 W (D) None of the above (D) None of the above æ 3ö 2.1.jW e jW 2 .jW 0.com . |a|< 1 (A) (C) 1-a 1 . x[ n] = u[ n .jW 1 1 . x[ n] = sin ç n ÷ è2 ø (A) p( d[W .2 ] .4 e .p 2 ] .e .jW 3 4 4 1+ e jW (D) None of the above 8.jW -3 jW (B) 1-a 1 .d[W + p 2 ]) j ( d[W + p 2 ] .d[W . x[ n] = {-2. 3.jW 1 1 + e .e 3 jW) 1 . sin 5W (A) sin W (C) sin 2.1] è2 ø (A) (C) e jW 2 . x[ n] = í î 0.d[W + p 2 ]) (D) jp( d[W + p 2 ] .e 1 .j 2 W (C) 1 7.gatehelp.e jW -n |n|£ 2 otherwise (B) sin 4W sin W 6.6 THE DISCRETE-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM Statement for Q.jW 2 e jW 2 .e jW e -2 jW (A) 2 j(2 sin 2W + sin W) (C) -2 j(2 sin 2W + sin W) ) æp ö 9.e .e .u[ n .p 2 ] .p 2 ]) Page 300 www.

|a|< 1 (1 .n + 1 [1 + ( -2) .jW) 2 (B) ( n + 1) a n u[ n] (D) None of the above (A) ( n .n [( -1) n + 2 .1 ) 2 for -p £ W £ p (B) 2pd[ n .n ]u[ n] 19.( -1) n ]u[ n] 20.jW 3 1 .d[ n .1 e -2 jW 4 8 n 14.4 ] .1) a n u[ n] (C) na u[ n] 11.2 ]) (D) 1 2 n -e .com æ2 (D) ç ç9 è 7 æ 1ö æ1ö ç ÷ .jW .sin ç ÷÷ nè è 4 ø è 4 øø 1 æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö ç sin ç ÷ . X ( e jW) = 2 e .2 pd[ n] (B) 2 d[ n + 4 ] .n ]u[ n] (B) 2 .jW + 1 e .2 ]) n +1 æ ö ç ( -1) n + æ 2 ö ÷u[ n] ç ÷ ÷ ç è 3ø ø è ì 2 j.d[ n] (D) None of the above 17.1 e .The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.j 2 W 8 e .ç ÷ ç è 3 ø è (C) 2-n 5 ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n] + d[ n .1 e.÷ + ç ÷ ÷u[ n] ç9 è 2 ø 9 è4ø ÷ è ø æ 2 æ 1 ön 7 æ 1 ön ö (C) ç ç .n ]u[ n] (D) 2 .n [1 . 0 <W £ p 12.n [1 + ( -2) .j2 W n +1 æ ö ç 1 + æ -2 ö ÷u[ n] ç ÷ ÷ ç è 3 ø ø è n +1 æ æ -2 ö (B) 2 . 10.ae .j 2 W 4 ì ï 1.jW + 6 transform given in question.÷ 2ø 9 è 4ø è n n ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø Page 301 .1 e .÷ .1 2 ] (C) æ 2 æ 1 ön 7 æ 1 ön ö (B) ç ç .sin ç ÷÷ pn è è 4 ø è 4 øø (A) 2 n -1 [1 + ( -1) n ]u[ n] (B) 21 .n ç 1 . X ( e jW) = j 4 sin 4W .jW + 1 4 1 4 (A) 2 .2 j.p < W £ 0 4 æ pn ö (A) sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø (C) 8 æ pn ö sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø 4 æ pn ö (B) sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø (D) 8 æ pn ö sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø (D) None of the above 18. X ( e jW) = (A) 5 2-n 2 + e . . X ( e jW) = í î . X ( e jW) = e ( -1) n + 1 p(n .1 (A) 4 pd[ n + 4 ] .4 ] .n + 1 [( -1) n + 2 .2 d[ n .6 Statement for Q. X ( e jW) = cos 2W + j sin 2W (A) 2 pd[ n + 2 ] (C) 0 (B) d[ n + 2 ] (D) None of the above www.n ]u[ n] (C) 2 .1 e.ç ÷ ÷u[ n] ç9 è 2 ø 9 è4ø ÷ è ø 15.÷ 2ø 9 è 4ø è ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (A) pd[ n .4 ] . X ( e jW) = 8 cos 2 w (A) (d[ n + 2 ] + 2 d[ n] + d[ n . X ( e jW) = 2+ . X ( e ) = í ï 0.ç.1 2 ] (D) None of the above 7 æ 1ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç.gatehelp. X ( e jW) = æ2 (A) ç ç9 è n (B) 2æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö (C) ç cos ç ÷ + cos ç ÷÷ nè è 4 ø è 4 øø (D) 1 æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö ç cos ç ÷ + cos ç ÷÷ pn è è 4 øø è 4 ø jW 2 1 .2 ]) (C) -4(d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n] + d[ n .10–21: Determine the signal having the Fourier 16.( -1) n ]u[ n] (D) 2 n -1 [1 . X ( e jW) = 1 .d[ n] (C) d[ n + 4 ] .2 ]) (B) 2(d[ n + 2 ] + 2 d[ n] + d[ n . £|W|£ p 4 4 2æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö ç sin ç ÷ .4 pd[ n . î (A) 3p p £|W|< 4 4 p 3p 0 £|W|< .jW 1 .n [1 + ( -1) n ]u[ n] (C) 21 . jW 13.

n [( -1) n + 2 . (C) Since x[ n] is real and odd. (C) X ( e jW) = = ( b .ae .jW 1.j 2 WY ( e jW).½ If Y ( e ) is real.jn2 ç ÷ . 25.a) e jW .e jW 3 20.2ç . (e). (D) X 2 ( e jW) = X ( e j 2 W) X ( e j 2 W) DTFT ¬ ¾¾® x[0 ] = 0 is for signal (c). 0.( -1) n ]u[ n] = 21 . (f) and (g). 0. .jW 1 . 36. 0.n [1 .jW 1 .4) ç ÷ è4ø |n . (C) Ev{x[ n]} ¬ ¾¾® Re{X ( e jW)} e j2 W Ev{x[ n] = ( x[ n] + x[ -n]) 2 ( b . (D) X ( e jW) is always periodic with period 2p. then y[ n] is real and even (if x[ n] is real.e -2 jW 4 8 2 7 9 9 = + 1 . Only signal ( h) is real and odd.jW 2 2 19.com |n| ì æ 3ö .e 1+ e 2 4 2æ1ö 7æ 1ö x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ n] + ç . This is true for signal (b) and (h). Page 306 www.e . (A) y[ n] = x[ n + 2 ] Y ( e ) is real and even. (D) 35. 28. 1.jW 1 .j 2 W 1 .jW 1. Therefore all signals satisfy the condition.a) e 1 -1 = + 1 . . Y ( e jW) = e j 2 W X ( e jW) Þ jW Since Y ( e jW) is real.This is true for signal (a). (A) Y ( e jW) = e . 26. (C) -p ò X (e p jW ) dW = 2 px[0 ] = 4 p ¥ 31.. 22.( -1) n ]u[ n] 2 1 . (c). ¥ 29. 1. This condition is satisfied only ¥ if the samples of the signal add up to zero.( a + b) e .jW 1ü 1 1 ì 1 . 23. (C) X ( e ) = = 1 .÷ u[ n] 9 è2 ø 9è 4ø 21. X ( e jW) is purely imaginary.gatehelp. Thus y[ n] = 0. 2 2þ 2 2 î ­ p x[ n] = bn u[ n] + a n u[ -n .jW 1. 0. 0.1] .jW .j2 W 1 . This imply arg{ Y ( e jW)} = 0 Thus arg{X ( e jW)} = -2W 30. (C) nx[ n] p DTFT ¬ ¾¾® j d X ( e jW) dW y[ n] = x[ n + a ] ¥ 2 ½dX ( e jW)½ 2 òp½ dW ½ = 2 pnå|n| x[ n] = 316 p = -¥ ½ .j 4 W X ( e jW) æ 3ö y[ n] = x[ n .4| -p ò X (e p jW ) dW = 2 px[0 ] .be .( a + b) e jW + ab n n n n n = -¥ å x[ n] = 6 is an even signal. (D) X ( e j 0 ) = n = -¥ å x[ n] . Only signal (c) and (e) are real and even.jW + abe.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System æ 1ö æ1ö x[ n] = ç . (A) X ( e jp) = n = -¥ å ( -1) n x[ n] = 2 DTFT 32.e 1+ e 4 2 2 jW n n 27. Therefore x [ n + a ] is even and x [ n] has to be symmetric about a. otherwise î . (g) and (h). (A) X ( e j 0 ) = æ1ö æ 1ö x[ n] = 2ç ÷ u[ n] . (D) The signal must be read and odd. 2. (f). 1. 37. (A) The signal must be real and even.ý = í .4 ] = ( n .÷ u[ n] + ç ÷ u[ n] = 2 . Therefore X ( e jW) = e . (A) Y ( e jW) = e jaW X ( e jW).÷ u[ n] è2 ø è 2ø 1 = n -1 [1 . 24.e 1.). jW 33. ì x[ n] .n ]u[ n] 2ø è è4ø 2 e . n even x 2 [ n] = í otherwise î 0. n even ï y[ n] = í è4ø ï0 . 0. 1.jW . (A) X ( e ) = 1 1 1 . (D) -p ò | X ( e )| jW 2 = 2 p å | x[ n]| = 28 p 2 n = -¥ ¥ 34.

jW æ ö n e ÷ d ç 1 æ1ö DTFT 4 ç ÷= nç ÷ u[ n] ¬ ¾¾® j 2 dW ç 1 .gatehelp.6 38.jW e Y ( e jW ) 47.jW 1.jW | | | | | | www.2 e . X ( e jW) = 1.d[ n + 2 ] For n < 0 Using Parseval’s relation 1 2p 3= ¥ DTFT ¬ ¾¾® æ2 ö nç ÷ u[ n] è 3ø ¬ ¾¾® DTFT -¥ ò | X ( e )| jW 2 dW = n =.jW è 4 ø 1. (A) For all pass system H ( e jW) = 1 for all W H ( e jW) = b+ e .2 a cos W Page 307 . (B) Y ( e jW) = X ( e jW ) + X ( e .jW ö 2 .jW = 1 .2 e . X ( e jW) 1 2 .¥ 2 å | x[ n]| ¥ 2 2 .1) 45.e 3 æ1ö h2 [ n] = ç ÷ u[ n] è 3ø n 40.com 1 + b2 + 2 b cos W = 1 + a 2 .2 e 3 jW n = -¥ å | x[ n]| -1 2 = ( x [0 ]) + 2 But x[0 ] = 0.e .jW 1 -2 = + 1 .jW 3 .e ÷ Y ( e jW) = e X ( e jW) 3 3 è ø jW Þ Þ y[ n] - 2 2 y[ n .1) e jW ( n -1 ) dW = 2 p -òp p( n .The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. p p æ 3ö ç ÷ è4ø 2|n| dX ( e jW) =0 dW e jWn dW 39.1] .1] = 2 x[ n .e 1 .d[ n + 2 ] æ1ö 42. x[ n] = d[ n] + d[ n + 1] .jW + e .jnx[ n] = .a e .7 e . 1 . (C) For a real signal x[ n] od{x[ n]} DTFT ¬ ¾¾® jIm{X ( e jW)} jIm{X ( e jW)}= j sin W .1] 3 3 1 .jW æ 3ö y[ n] = .jW 3 4 H 2 ( e jW) = 1 .e 3 d j dW æ ç 1 ç ç 1 .1] = x[ n . (C) ç ÷ u[ n] è4ø n DTFT ¬ ¾¾® 1 æ1ö ç ÷ 1 .e 2 jW + e -2 jW 2 ( ) 46. x[ n] = 2od{ x[ n] } = d[ n + 1] .e .jW 1 12 .jW 2 1 . h[ n] = = p x[ n] .jW e 2 e .jW ÷ æ è2 ø ç ÷ ç 1 .2 y[ n . (B) Y ( e jW) = X ( e jW ) * X ( e j ( W.2 e . (D) H ( e jW) = æ2 ö ç ÷ u[ n] è 3ø n n Y ( e jW) .jW H( e ) = 3 = .jW 3 2 .ae. 1 jW = e .jW 1 .e 4 n 2 .x[ -n] Od{ x[ n]} = 2 Since x[ n] = 0 for n > 0.jW . ç ÷ å næ 2 ö è ø 1 ¥ n = n = -¥ å x[ n] = X ( e ¥ j0 )= 4 9 ********* 43.d[ n .jW ç è 3 2 .jW 1.jW æ Þ ç 1 .jW ö ÷ è 4 ø è 4 ø n =0 3 y[ n] .jW ÷ ø 3 Therefore od{x[ n]} = F -1 { jIm{X ( e jW)}} 1 = ( d[ n + 1] . Hence x[0 ] = 1 x[0 ] = ± 1. x1 [ n] = e Þ y[ n] = 2 pn2 e jpn 2 jpn 2 This is possible only if b = -a. (C) Y ( e jW) = Þ d X ( e jW) dW |n| 1 2p -p ò Y (e jW ) e jWn dW = 1 2p -p òe .j W .1 e .jW ö e ÷ ÷= 3 ÷ 1 .1 e .p 2 ) ) y[ n] = 2 px[ n] x1 [ n].d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n .1] .jn2 ç ÷ è4ø 1 sin p( n .2 ]) 2 x[ n] .e . 44. b + e . (B) H ( e ) = = 3 X ( e jW) 1 .j 2 W 1. (B) H ( e jW) = H1 ( e jW) + H 2 ( e jW) -12 + 5 e .jW) Þ y[ n] = x[ n] + x[ -n] = 0 41.j sin 2W. (A) For x[ n] = d[ n].

7.d[ k + 1] 4 2 4 1 1 1 d [ k .2 (A) (C) A æp ö sin ç k ÷ jpk è2 ø A æp ö sin ç k ÷ pk è2 ø (B) (D) A æp ö cos ç k ÷ jpk è2 ø A æp ö cos ç k ÷ pk è2 ø (A) (B) (C) (D) - 1 1 1 d[ k .1÷ ÷ ø (A) 1 æp ö (C) sinç k ÷ è2 ø 2.2 ] + d[ k] . P5.1 ) k ) kp A (D) (1 + ( .1-5: Determine the Fourier series coefficient for given periodic signal x( t).GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5.d[ k + 1] 2 2 1 1 d[ k .d[ k + 2 ] 2 2 3.2 ] + d[ k] .( .jç 3 ÷ è ø ç e ç ÷ .1÷ ÷ ø (D) .1 x(t) 10 -2p 3 x(t) A 0 -4p 3 2p 4p t Fig.7 THE CONTINUOUS-TIME FOURIER SERIES Statement for Q.( . x( t) as shown in fig. P5.7.7.4 -T 0 T 4 T 2 T t A (A) (1 . P5.2 x(t) A æp ö (B) cosç k ÷ è2 ø (D) 2 4.d[ k + 2 ] 4 2 4 1 1 d[ k . P5. P5. P5.jç è çe ç 2 pk ç è æ 4 pk ö ÷ ÷ 3 ø ö .jç è çe ç 2 pk ç è æ 4 pk ö ÷ ÷ 3 ø ö .1] + d[ k] . x( t) as shown in fig.3 æ 4 pk ö ö A æ .j Fig.1] + d[ k] .1÷ ÷ ø -10 -5 0 5 10 t (C) .gatehelp.1÷ (A) ÷ 2 pk ç è ø (B) j A æ .1 ) k ) kp A (C) (1 . x( t) as shown in fig.com .3 Page 308 www.1 ) k ) jkp 5. P5.7. x( t) as shown in fig.1 ) k ) jkp Fig.7.4 x(t) A 1 -1 -A t Fig.jç è çe ç 2 pk ç è æ 4 pk ö ÷ ÷ 3 ø ö . P5.7.A æ . x( t) = sin 2 t (B) A (1 + ( . 1.1 A æ .7.7.

X [ .k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ . y( t) = Ev{x( t)} (A) X [ k] + X [ .7. X [ k] as shown in fig. wo = p X [k] 3 2 1 (B) -2(cos 3pt .to X [ k] + e to X [ -k] X [ -k] + e to X [ k] 13.6-11: In the question.com Page 309 .7. wo = p |{X [k]}| 2 1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ð{X [k]} p 4 Statement for Q.to pö pö æ æ (A) 6 cos ç 2 pt + ÷ . wo = 2 p |{X [k]}| 1 k -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 æ 2p ö (B) 2 sin ç kto ÷ X [ k] T è ø (D) e .sin 2 pt) æ -1 ö 8.7 Statement for Q.3 cos ç 3pt .to ) + x ( t . P5. 7. the FS coefficient of time-domain signal have been given.X [ .k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ .k] 2 (C) (D) Ð{X [k]} 8p 6p 4p 2p 14. X [ k] = jd[ k .7. X [ k] As depicted in fig.2 cos ç 3pt . wo = 2 p (A) 2(cos 3pt .sin 2 pt) 5 (B) 4 + 3 sin t 4 (D) 5 + 3 cos t k -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig.7.10 .7.11 (A) 3 cos 3pt + 2 cos 2 pt + cos pt (B) 3 sin 3pt + 2 sin 2 pt + sin pt (C) 6 sin 3pt + 4 sin 2 pt + 2 sin pt (D) 6 cos 3pt + 4 cos 2 pt + 2 cos pt k 9. P5. X [ k] As shown in fig. y( t) = x( t . 12. period T and the Fourier Fourier series series -p 4 coefficients Determine Fig. Determine the corresponding time domain signal and choose correct option.7.k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ .k] 2 (B) X [ k] .÷ . P5.jd[ k + 1] + d[ k + 3] + d[ k .11.÷ 4ø 4ø è è pö pö æ æ (D) 4 cos ç 4 pt + ÷ + 2 cos ç 3pt . P5.The Continuous-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ .to ) æ 2p ö (A) 2 cos ç kto ÷ X [ k] T è ø (C) e .sin pt) (C) 2(cos 6 pt .sin pt) (D) -2(cos 6 pt .9 coefficient of the signal y( t) given in question and choose correct option.1] . wo = 1 3 ø 4è (A) 5 + 3 sin t 5 (C) 4 + 3 cos t |k| (A) (C) sin 9pt sin pt sin 18 pt 2 sin pt (B) sin 9pt p sin pt (D) None of the above 11. X [ k] = ç ÷ .12-16: Consider a continuous time periodic signal x( t) k with fundamental X [ k].÷ 4ø 4ø è è pö pö æ æ (B) 4 cos ç 4 pt . P5.9 .gatehelp.10 www.2 cos ç 3pt + ÷ 4ø 4ø è è pö pö æ æ (C) 2 cos ç 2 pt + ÷ .÷ 4ø 4ø è è 10.k] 2 (C) (D) Fig. P5. y( t) =Re{x( t)} k (A) -2p -4p -6p -8p X [ k] + X [ .3].k] 2 (B) X [ k] .

y( t) = d 2 x( t) dt 2 2 Statement for Q. X [5 ] (C) X [0 ].jw 1 k (B) ( X1 [ -k] .20-21: æ 2 pk ö (B) . X [ -4 ]. The continuous-time periodic signal is given as æ 2p ö æ 5p ö x( t) = 4 + cos ç t ÷ + 6 sin ç t÷ è 3 ø è 3 ø The nonzero Fourier coefficients are (A) X [0 ]. X[7 ] (B) X[ -1].1) 8p (A) X [ k] T (C) e æ 8 pö . X [ 4 ].gatehelp.22-23: Consider three continuous-time periodic signals whose Fourier series representation are as follows. X[ 4 ]. Suppose the periodic signal x( t) has fundamental period T and Fourier coefficients X [ k]. Consider a continuous-time signal x( t) = 4 cos 100 pt sin 1000 pt 1 with fundamental period T = . X[11] 18. X [ 3] = X *[ -3] = 4 j The signal x( t) would be æp ö æ 3p ö (A) 4 cos ç t ÷ + 4 j sin ç t÷ è4 ø è 4 ø æp ö æ 3p ö (B) 4 cos ç t ÷ . The even signals are (A) x2 ( t) only (C) x1 ( t) and x3( t) (B) x2 ( t) and x3( t) (D) x1 ( t) only 23. X [2 ].jX1 [ -k]) e .jk t x1 ( t) = å ç ÷ e 50 k=0 è 3 ø k 2p 17. X [ -10 ]. X[ -11]. The (C) (D) www. X [ -1].jw 1 k (D) None of the above Statement for Q.jX1 [ k]) e . A real valued continuous-time signal x( t) has a fundamental period T = 8. X[1]. X[ -7 ]. Given that x2 ( t) = x1 ( t .jk 50 t j sinç ÷e è 2 ø 2p 22. Let Y [ k] be the Fourier coefficient of y( t) where Fourier coefficient X [ k] will be (A) TY [ k] . X[ 4 ] (D) X[ -9 ]. 100 æ 1 ö .jk ç ÷ ç ÷ èTø 2 Let x1 ( t) and x2 ( t) be continuous time periodic signal with fundamental frequency w1 and w2 . y( t) = x( 4 t . X [1].ç ÷ X [ k] è T ø æ 2 pk ö (D) .jw 1 k (C) ( X1 [ k] + jX1 [ -k]) e . The Fourier coefficient X 2 [ k] will be (A) ( X1 [ k] . X[ -4 ]. X [5 ] (B) X [0 ].1) + x1 (1 .t) 20. The nonzero Fourier series coefficients for x( t) are X [1] = X [ -1] = 4. X [10 ] (D) None of the above Page 310 x2 ( t) = x3( t) = 100 k = -100 100 å cos kp e .jç ÷ X [ k] è T ø 2 2 æ 2 pk ö (A) ç ÷ X [ k] è T ø æ 2 pk ö (C) jç ÷ X [ k] è T ø 16. X[9 ]. The nonzero FS 50 coefficient for this function are (A) X[ -4 ]. X [ -5 ]. The real valued signals are (A) x1 ( t) and x2 ( t) (C) x3( t) and x1 ( t) (B) x2 ( t) and x3( t) (D) x1 ( t) and x3( t) 24. The relation between w1 and w2 is 4p (B) X [ k] T (D) e æ 8 pö jk ç ÷ ç ÷ èTø (A) w2 = w1 2 2 (B) w2 = w1 (C) w2 = w1 (D) w2 = w1 X [ k] X [ k] 21.4 j cos ç t ÷ è4 ø è 4 ø pö æp ö æ 3p (C) 8 cos ç t ÷ + 8 cos ç t + ÷ 2ø è4 ø è 4 (D) None of the above 19. X [ -5 ]. X[ 3]. Fourier series coefficients X1 [ k] and X 2 [ k] respectively. X [ -2 ].jk 2p t 50 k = -100 å æ kp ö .k¹0 j2 pk TY [ k] . X[10 ] (C) X[ -3].k¹0 jk (B) TY [ k] j2pk TY [ k] jk y( t) = dx( t) dt .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 15.com . X[ -10 ].

1]) ( d[ k + 1] . z( t) = x( t) y( t) 29. The Fourier series coefficient of z( t) .d[ k + 2 ]) ( d[ k . Z [ k] will be (A) 1 4j 1 2j 1 2j ( d[ k . x( t) is real.d[ k .2 ]) 27. dx( t) is even dt k =0 otherwise The largest value of|k. is (A) (B) 2 sin pt and unique 2 sin pt but not unique (C) 2 sin pt and unique (D) 2 sin pt but not unique 26.d[ k + 1]) -¥ ò h( t) e . î è ø Consider the statements signal has a 1. Consider a continuous-time LTI system whose frequency response is H ( jw) = ¥ ( d[ k + 1] + d[ k . 2.2 ] . Consider a periodic signal x( t) whose Fourier series coefficients are ì 2. Suppose we have given the following information about a signal x( t) : 1. 2. |w £ 80 H ( jw) = í | 0. that satisfy these condition.1]) ( d[ k . |w > 80 î When the input to this filter is a signal x( t) with fundamental frequency wo = 12 and Fourier series S coefficients X [ k]. ï X [ k] = í æ 1 ö|k| ï jç 2 ÷ . is | (A) 6 (C) 7 28. 2 1 ò x( t) dt = 1 20 2 The signal will be æp ö æp ö (A) 4 cos ç t ÷ .com (C) only 1 . The output y( t) will be æ pt ö (A) 1 + sin ç ÷ è4ø 2 (D) None of the above 30. 4 £ t £ 8 with period T = 8.d[ k . Fourier coefficients X [ k] = 0 for |k > 1 | 4.1] .d[ k + 2 ]) d[ k + 2 ] .gatehelp. y( t) = sin 2pt .d[ k + 1]) ( d[ k + 1] + d[ k + 1]) æ pt ö (B) 1 + cos ç ÷ è4ø 2 æ pt ö æ pt ö (C) 1 + sin ç ÷ + cos ç ÷ è4ø è4ø 1 2j (D) 0 31. it is found that x( t) ¬¾® y( t) = x( t).1]) ( d[ k .The Continuous-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.d[ k .29-31: Consider the following three continuous-time signals with a fundamental period of T = 1 x( t) = cos 2pt .2 sin ç t ÷ è4 ø è4 ø æp ö æp ö (B) 2 cos ç t ÷ + 4 sin ç t ÷ è4 ø è4 ø æp ö æp ö (C) 2 cos ç t ÷ + 2 sin ç t ÷ è4 ø è4 ø (D) None of the above Statement for Q. X [5 ] = X [ -5 ] = 2. x( t) is even 3. 0 £ t £ 4 x( t) = í î -2. (B) (C) (D) None of the above 32. The Fourier series coefficient of y( t). Consider a continuous-time ideal low pass filter having the frequency response | ì 1. for which X [ k] is nonzero. Y [ k] will be (A) (B) (C) (D) j 2 j 2 j 2 ( d[ k + 1] + d[ k + 1]) ( d[ k + 1] . X [1] = X [ -1] = j .2 ] . x( t) is periodic with T = 2 3.jwt dt = sin 4 w w (B) (C) The input to this system is a periodic signal ì 2. The nonzero Fourier series coefficients are as.1] .7 25. * The true statements are (A) 1 and 2 (B) only 2 (D) 1 and 3 Page 311 www. A continuous-time (B) 80 (D) 12 periodic fundamental period T = 8. The Fourier series coefficient X [ k] of x( t) are (A) 1 2 1 2 1 2 The signal. x( t) is real and odd.

.sin 3pt + sin 5 pt -.com ..) 2 p 9 25 (D) 3 + t ***** Fig.) 2 p2 9 25 12 1 1 (cos pt + cos 3pt + cos 5 pt +....cos 2 t + cos 3t...7.....7.33 2 1 1 1 (A) (cos t + cos 2 t + cos 3t + cos 4 t +... ÷ p è 3 5 ø 4A æ 1 1 ö ç cos t + cos 2 t + cos 3t +.cos 2 t + sin 3t +.) 2 p 3 5 A 2A 1 1 + (cos t .. ÷ 2 p è 3 5 ø 4A æ 1 1 ö ç sin t + sin 3t + sin 5 t + ..7.) p 2 2 3 -1 -1 1 t Fig..sin 4 t +. x(t) A -p -p 2 p 2 p t Fig... P5.... ÷ 2 p è 2 3 ø A 4A æ 1 1 ö + ç cos t + cos 3t + cos 5 t +.) 2 p 3 5 A 2A 1 1 + (sin t + cos t + sin 3t + cos 3t ..) p2 9 25 (B) 3 + (C) 1 12 1 1 + (sin pt ... x(t) A -p p -A 1 12 1 1 + (cos pt + cos 3pt + cos 5 pt +.) p 3 3 5 34. x(t) 2 Fig..36 (A) 2 1 1 1 (D) (sin t + cos t + sin 3t + cos 3t + sin 5 t + .gatehelp.. 33...sin 3t + sin 5 t.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System Statement for Q... P5.sin 2 t + sin 3t .. ÷ p è 2 3 ø 35.) 2 p 3 3 (B) (C) (D) -p p -1 t 36.) 2 p 2 3 A 2A 1 1 + (cos t .. P5...) p 2 3 4 2 1 1 1 (sin t + cos t .33-36: A waveform for one peroid is depicted in figure in question...cos 3t + cos 5 t.) 2 p2 9 25 12 1 1 (sin pt .34 (A) (B) (C) (D) A 4A æ 1 1 ö + ç sin t + sin 2 t + sin 3t +.. x(t) 1 (A) A 2A 1 1 + (sin t ....sin 2 t ...sin 3pt + sin 5 pt -.. Determine the trigonometric Fourier series and choose correct option.35 Page 312 www. P5...) p 2 3 4 (B) (C) 2 1 1 1 (sin t ...7..

-4 £ k £ 4 A = 10 . the FS X [ k] + X [ -k] Y [ k] = 2 coefficients of Ev{ x( t)} are 7.3 £ k £ 3 |.p 4) 10.jkt ò x( t) e dt = 0 = 3e j ( -3) pt + 2 e j ( -2 ) pt + e j ( -1 ) pt + e j (1 ) pt + 2 e j ( 2 ) pt + 3e j ( 3) pt = 6 cos 3pt + 4 cos 2 pt + 2 cos pt 12.1 < t < 0 2p 4.j ( 4 pt + p 4 ) + e j ( 4 pt + p 4 ) ) + ( e . . T = 5.com X [ k] + X *[ .jkpt ò Ae dt ÷ ÷ 0 ø 1 A æ 1 . wo = = p. (C) Re{ x( t)} = æ -1 ö jkt = åç ÷ e + k = -¥ è 3 ø -1 -k x ( t) + x *( t) . (A) sin 2 t = ç ç 2j è ö -1 2 jt ÷ = ( e . (D) x( t) = = 2e .1ú ú û series coefficients X1 [ k] of x( t .jkpt dt + 2 -1 2 ç -1 è = e .k] 2 Page 313 .jkw ot dt = ò x( t) e jkw ot dt = X [ -k] TT T T Therefore.2 sin 2 pt + 2 cos 6 pt 8. (C) x( t) = k = -¥ å X [ k]e ¥ ¥ j 2 pkt = je j 2 p t .jkw ot 1 dt = T T 4 -T 4 ò Ae . The Fourier ù .1] + d[ k] .to ) are X1 [ k] = 1 T ej kw o to 1 2p 4p 3 ò 0 Ae.jt 1 + e j t 5 + 3cos t 3 3 The FS coefficient of x *( t) is 1 X1 [ k] = ò x *( t) e .jkw t ò Ad( t) e o dt = -T 2 9. the FS coefficients of x( t + to ) are X 2 [ k] = e jkw oto X [ k] The FS coefficients of x( t . 2p 3.jkw ot dt x( t) = k = -4 åe 4 . T = 2( e . (A) X [ k] = e . (B) T = 2p .e .jkw ot dt = T ò x( t) e T .Ae .j 2 pk ( t -1 ) = sin 9 pt sin pt A = T é e .jkw ot dt ì .gatehelp. (D) X [ k] = 1 T T 2 . x( t) = 4p 0<t< 3 4p < t < 2p 3 jA é êe 2 pk ê ë æ 4 pk ö ÷ jç ç ÷ è 3 ø k = -¥ å X [ k]e ¥ jpkt ì ï A.jkw oto X [ k] Similarly.t) . 2 k = -¥ å X [ k]e jkt -1 ö ç å æ 3 ÷ e jkt k=0 è ø ¥ k -1 . p 2 The fundamental period of sin 2 ( t) is p and wo = X [ k] = -1 1 1 d[ k .j 2 pk . 2 ö . (D) x( t) = 14.( -1) ) ÷ 2è ø æ e jt . (C) X [ k] = T T T 2 -T 2 ò x( t) e .jkt dt = ç ò . X [ k] = 2 1 2. (A) x( t .The Continuous-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.jt e 4 1 = 3 + = 1 1 1 + e .A. (C) T = 2.to ) is also periodic with T. x( t) = í 2p ï0.T = pk sinç 2 ÷ è ø o û ë 4 11.to ) + x( t + to ) are Y [ k] = X1 [ k] + X 2 [ k] = e . wo = = 1.2 + e -2 jt ) ÷ 4 ø 2p =2 .e jkp e .j ( 3pt .jt 5. 1 0 1 1æ X [ k] = ò x( t) e .jkp ÷ = jkp (1 .jkp -1 ö A k = ç ç jkp + .d[ k + 1] 4 2 4 The FS coefficients of x( t) are 1 1 X1 [ k] = ò x( -t) e .jkw ot dt = X1*[ -k] TT X1*[ k] = 1 T ò x( t) e T jkw ot dt = X [ -k] X1 [ k] = X *[ -k] Y [ k] = www. î X [ k] = 1 2p 2p . (A) Ev{ x( t)} = x( t) + x( .j p 4 k = -¥ å X [ k]e j p ¥ jpkt e j ( -4 ) pt + e 4 e j ( -3) pt + e - jp 4 e j ( 3) pt + 2 e 4 e j (4 )pt j p A .jkt dt = ò x( t .j 2 pk e jpkt = k = -4 åe 4 .je - j 2 pt + e j6 pt + e - j6 pt = .p 4 ) ) = 4 cos ( 4 pt + p 4) + 2 cos( 3pt .jkw oto X [ k] + e jkw oto X [ k] = 2 cos ( wo kto ) X [ k] 13. x( t) = í 0< t<1 2 î A.p 4 ) + e j ( 3pt .jkw ú .jkw o t ù 4 A æ pk ö ê . (D) X [ k] =|k .7 SOLUTIONS 1.t ) e o T .

1ú 2 ë û æ pk ö 14. Also y[ n] = x[ n] .e è N ø ÷ X [ k] ç ÷ è ø (D) -kX [ k] (B) æ 8 pö .4 ]).5 ]) + 9(d[ n + 2 ] .4 ]). X [ k] = cos ç k ÷ + 2 j sin ç k÷ è 19 ø è 19 ø (A) (B) 19 ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n .1]. (assume that N is even) (A) (1 . y[ n] = x[ n] .no ] (A) e æ 2 pö ÷ n ok jç ç ÷ è Nø X [ k] (B) e æ 2 pö ÷ n ok .|n £ 9 | 2 1 ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n .|n £ 9 | 2 (D) 1 ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n .j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø sec ç ÷ Y [ k] 2 è 10 ø www. (assume that N is even) æN ö (A) 2 X [2 k .X *[ k ] (C) X *[ k ] (B) .gatehelp. Page 318 (B) ç ÷ j .1÷ è 2 ø (B) 2 X [2 k .|n £ 9 | 2 18. (D) 2 X [2 k].|n £ 10 | 2 Statement for Q. 8 £ n £ 9 with period N = 10.|n £ 10 | 2 1 (d[ n + 4 ] .2 ]).UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System æ 10 p ö æ 4p ö 13. X [ k] = cos ç ÷ è 21 ø (A) (B) (C) (D) 21 (d[ n + 4 ] + d[ n .e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø (D) 1 10 æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ . for 0 £ k £ ç .2 ]).15-20: Consider a periodic signal x[ n] with period N and FS coefficients X [ k].x[ n . y[ n] = x[ n] + x[ n + N 2 ] .5 ]) + (d[ n + 2 ] . The FS coefficients of x[ n] are (A) ç ÷ j . The fundamental period of y[ n] is (A) 9 (C) 11 (B) 10 (D) None of the above N ù é (B) X êk + 2 ú ë û N é ù (D) X êk + .2 ] æ 4p ö (A) sin ç k ÷ X [ k] è N ø æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ .d[ n .jç ç ÷ (C) ç 1 . The FS coefficients of y[ n] are X [ k] (A) æ 8 pö jç ÷ k ö 1 æ è ø ç1 . y[ n] = x *[ -n] (A) .5 ]) + 19(d[ n + 2 ] .x[ n .j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø cosec ç ÷ Y [ k].jç ÷ k ö 1 æ è ø ç1 .|n £ 10 | 2 1 (d[ n + 4 ] + d[ n .e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ÷ 10 ç è ø æ 4p ö (B) cos ç k ÷ X [ k] è N ø æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ jç ç ÷ (D) ç 1 .2 ]).( -1) k ) X [ k] (D) (1 .2 ]).e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø 23.1 ] 21. k ¹ 0 2 è 10 ø ç ÷ 1 . for 0 £ k £ (C) 2 X [2 k].e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ÷ 10 ç è ø (C) kX [ k] 16.1÷ è 2 ø for 0 £ k £ N 2 (D) ç ÷ 1 . 0 £ n £ 7 x[ n] = í î 0.( -1) k + 1 ) X [2 k] (C) (1 .4 ]).j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø cosec ç ÷ Y [ k].N 2 ] . y[ n] = x[ n .com .d[ n .( -1) k + 1 ) X [ k] 19.d[ n .|n £ 9 | 2 20.d[ n .21-23: Consider a discrete-time periodic signal ì 1.x[ n . Determine the FS coefficients Y [ k] of the signal y[ n] given in question. k ¹ 0 2 è 10 ø æ pk ö æ pk ö 17.jç ç ÷ è Nø 22.1].j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø sec ç ÷ Y [ k] 2 è 10 ø æ pk ö æ pk ö N 2 (C) - æN ö for 0 £ k £ ç .e è N ø ÷ X [ k] ç ÷ è ø (C) 1 10 æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ jç è ø ç1 . y[ n] = ( -1) n x[ n]. (assume that N is even) N ù é (A) X êk 2 ú ë û N é ù (C) X êk + 1ú 2 ë û Statement for Q.X *[ -k ] (D) X *[ -k ] (B) (1 .jç è ø ç1 . y[ n] = x[ n] .|n £ 10 | 2 21 (d[ n + 4 ] .d[ n .4 ]).d[ n . 15.( -1) k\ ) X [2 k] 9 (C) ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n .5 ]) + (d[ n + 2 ] .

4. .0.6 ]). . j. The sequence would be. Y [ 3] = 1 The FS coefficient Z [ k] for the signal z[ n] = x[ n] y[ n] will be (A) 6 (C) 6|k| (B) 6|k | (D) e p j k 2 (C) ( x[ n]) 2 27. 1 10 n =0 å X [ k] 9 2 = 50 The signal x[ n] is æ p ö (A) 5 cos ç n÷ è 10 ø æp ö (C) 10 cos ç n ÷ è5 ø æ p ö (B) 5 sin ç n÷ è 10 ø æp ö (D) 10 sin ç n ÷ è5 ø (B) 1 ( x[ n + 2 ] + x[ n . . The Fourier series coefficients of this function are 1 (A) ( u[ k + 5 ] . .. The values of X [0 ]. x[ n] has the minimum power per period among the set of signals satisfying the preceding three condition. Consider a sequence x[ n] with following facts : 1. Given that X [15 ] = j. -2..u[ k .5 ] + X [ k + 5 ] æp ö (A) 2 sin ç n ÷ x[ n] è5 ø æp ö (C) 2 sin ç n ÷ x[ n] è2 ø æ pk ö 25.. . x[ n] ¬¾ ¾ ® ¾ p DTFS . |k £ 10 | (D) ( u[ k + 5 ] . 1. . . X [ k] X [16 ] = 2 j..24-27: Consider a discrete-time signal with Fourier representation. -3 (B) 1. 1. |k £ 10 | 20 (B) 1 ( u[ k + 5 ] .ý î 3 6 3 6 3 þ ­ (D) { 0.. 2 j. Y [2 ].. Consider a signal x[ n] with following facts 1.x[ -n] 2 x [ n] + x[ -n] 2p 32. x[ n] is periodic with N = 6 2. -3 j In question the FS coefficient Y [ k] is given. Y [ k ] = X [ k .ý 2 3 4 þ î ­ (C) ( u[ k + 5 ] . Determine the corresponding signal y[ n] and choose correct option. ì 1 1 1 1 1 ü (A) í . ....u[ k .. . Consider a discrete-time periodic signal æ 11p ö sin ç n÷ è 20 ø x[ n] = æ p ö sin ç n÷ è 20 ø with a fundamental period N = 20.2 ]) 2 1 ( x[ n + 10 ] + x[ n + 10 ]) (D) None of the above 2 31... .com Page 319 . Y [1]. 2. n =0 7 å x[ n] = 2 å ( -1) n 5 x[ n] = 1 n -2 4. Y [ k] = X [ k] * X [ k] (A) ( x[ n]) 2p 2 (B) j2 p( x[ n]) 2 (D) 2 p( x[ n]) 2 Y [0 ]. . -2 j. -1. X [ -2 ].u[ k . x[ n] is a real and even signal 2. .. The FS coefficient are X [0 ] = X [ 3] = 1 1 X [1] = X [2 ] = 1 and 2 2 26. . . ­ ************ www. X [17 ] = 3 j.6 ]). . |k £ 10 | ì 1 1 1 1 1 ü (C) í .gatehelp. and X [ -3] will be (A) 0. 3.j . . 3. 1.8 Statement for Q. 3 j (C) 1. X[11] = 5 4. Y [ k] = Re{ X [ k]} x [ n] + x[ -n] (A) 2 (C) x [ n] ..The Discrete-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. Y [ k] = cos ç ÷ X [ k] è 5 ø 1 (A) ( x[ n + 5 ] + x[ n + 5 ]) 2 (C) æp ö (B) 2 cos ç n ÷ x[ n] è5 ø æp ö (D) 2 cos ç n ÷ x[ n] è2 ø 30. 3 (D) 0.u[ k + 6 ]). |k £ 10 | 20 28. 10 29. 2. The period of x[ n] is N = 10 3.. X [ -1]. A real and odd periodic signal x[ n] has fundamental period N = 7 and FS coefficients X [ k]. 24. .x[ -n] 2p (B) (D) x [ n] .} . Each of two sequence x[ n] and y[ n] has a period N = 4.5 ]).. ..ý (B) î 2 6 2 6 2 þ ­ 1 1 1 ü ì í .

j ç N ÷ kn o e è ø N æ 2 pö å x[ n . S5. X [ k] = e è 6 ø 6 æ pö = 2 X [2 k] for 0 £ k £ ( N 2 .21 period of 10.j ( -2 ) 19 k 1 æ . S5.jç ÷ k ç ÷ p 12. W o = x[ n] = 2p . otherwise n Î { -10.jç ç ÷ è 10 ø ö 1 ÷= ÷ 10 ø æ ç1 .N 2] 21.e ç è X [ k] Þ X [ k] = Y [ k] 1-e æ pö .e 10 ç è 1 10 n =0 å y[ n]e 9 æ 2 pö ÷ kn . By inspection N n=N ì 21 ï .jç ÷ k ç ÷ è6 ø e æ pö j ç ÷ kn ç ÷ è6 ø = k = -6 åe 6 æ pö j ç ÷ k ( n -1 ) ç ÷ è6 ø p j ( -4 ) ( n -1 ) 6 p j ( n -1 ) ö æ ÷ ç 1-e 6 ÷ ç ø è æ ç 1-e ç è 9p j ( n -1 ) 6 ö ÷ sin æ 3p ( n . (B) Y [ k] = = 1 æ ç1 .x [ n .jç ç ÷ è Nø 23.1] ö ÷ X [ k] ÷ ø Y [ k] = X [ k] .jkWon .jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 5ø www.N 2 ] æ 2 pö N ÷ kö æ .9. W o = 2p 21 2p . n = ±4 x[ n] = í 2 ï 0.÷ .1 è 7 ø . k odd î 19. It has fundamental y[n] 1 9 -1 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 10 11 n ö æ 8p ö 1 æ ÷ X [ k] = cos ç k÷ = ç e +e ÷ 21 ø 2 ç è è ø 1 Since X [ k] = å x[ n]e. 10} î 1 N N -1 n =0 Fig.jç ç ÷ ç ÷ 2 ø è Nø è = X [k . (A) With N even y[ n] = ( -1) n x[ n] = e jpn x[ n] = e Y [ k] = = 1 N 1 N N -1 n =0 æ 2 pö N ÷ jç ç ÷ è Nø 2 æ 10 p ö æ 10 p ö X [ k] = cos ç k ÷ + 2 j sin ç k÷ 19 ø è è 19 ø = 2p 2p 2p 2p ..jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 5ø ö ÷ ÷ ø N -1 n =0 å x[ n]e =e æ 2 pö ÷ kn o .e ç è æ 8 pö .21.1) 18.jç ç ÷ è Nø æ 2p ö = 4 cos ç n÷ .j ( 5) kö .n ]e o æ 2 pö ÷ kn .j(2 ) kö æ . =í 2 X [ k]. (A) N = 21.1 + 2e æ 2 pö ÷n j (1 ) ç ç ÷ è 7 ø n = -3 å X [ k]e 3 æ 2 pö ÷ kn jç ç ÷ è 7 ø of N 2 and N has been assumed to be even.e è N ø 2 ÷ X [ k] = (1 .jç ç ÷ è Nø X [ k] æ 4 pö ÷k . W o = 2p 19 20.gatehelp.e æ 2 pö ÷2k . .. 2 Where |n £ 9 | 14..8. . (D) N = 7. (A) y [ n] = x [ n] .5 ]) + 19 ( d[ n + 2 ] .jpk ) X [ k] ç ÷ è ø x[ n] = e = k = -6 åe 6 æ pö . (C) N = 12. (B) y[ n] is shown is fig.2 ]).9.e .j ( -4 ) k 21 2p .d [ n .The Discrete-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. Y [ k] = 2 N N 2 -1 n =0 å ( x[ n] + x[ n + N 2 ]) e æ 4 pö ÷ kn .jç ç ÷ è Nø = X *[ k] 13.x [ n ..1) ö ç ÷ ÷ ø = è 4 ø æ p ö sin ç ( n . (B) Y [ k] = = ç ÷ 1 .j(4 ) k 21 N -1 n =0 å x[ n]e æ 2 pö æ Nö ÷ n ç k.8 11. (B) y[ n] = x[ n] . 22.e æ 2 pö ÷k .jç ç ÷ è Nø æ X [ k] = ç 1 . (A) N = 19.jç ç ÷ è 10 ø 16. W o = .jç ç ÷ è Nø æ 2 pö ÷ kn .com Page 321 . 7 = 2e æ 2 pö ÷n j ( -1 ) ç ç ÷ è 7 ø 17.j ( -5) 19 k 19 ÷ 19 ÷ çe +e + çe +e ÷ ç ÷ 2ç è ø è ø x[ n] åe æ 2 pö N ÷ jç ç ÷ è Nø 2 x[ n]e æ 2 pö ÷ kn .jç ç ÷ Y [ k] = ç 1 .jç ç ÷ è Nø By inspection 19 x[ n] = ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n .1) ÷ è 12 ø k even ì 0. (C) Note that y[ n] = x[ n] + x [ n + N 2 ] has a period . (C) Y [ k] = X [ k] .jç ç ÷ è 10 ø 15. (C) y[ n] = x *[ -n] 1 Y [ k] = N N -1 n =0 å x [ -n]e * æ 2 pö ÷ kn .jç ç ÷ è Nø æ 2 pö ÷ k8 .8..

1] + 2 Y [ k . (C) Y [ k] = X [ k] * X [ k] Þ y[ n] = x[ n] x[ n] = ( x[ n]) 27.X [2 ].. X [ 3] = 6 6 7 n =0 åe 5 æ 2 pö ÷ ( 3) k jç ç ÷ è 6 ø By Parseval’s relation.. X [11] = X [1] = 5 Since x[ n] is real and even X [ k] is also real and even. .3 ] n =0 åe 5 æ 2 pö ÷ (0 )k jç ç ÷ è 6 ø = Y [ k] + 2 Y [ k . (B) Y [ k] = cos ç k ÷ X [ k] = ç è5 ø ç è j ( -2 ) kö 1 æ j(2 ) k 10 ÷ = ç e 10 + e ç ÷ X [ k] 2è ø p p +e 2 ö ÷ ÷ X [ k] ÷ ø å X [ k] N k=2 2 = 50 = = 50 k = -1 å X [ k] 8 2 X [ -1] + X [1] + X [0 ] + X [0 ] + 2 2 2 2 å X [ k] 8 2 k=2 å X [ k] 8 2 =0 Þ 1 y[ n] = ( x[ n .ý î 2 6 2 6 2 þ ­ ********* Page 322 www. 8.. Therefore X[0 ] = 0 X [ -1] = . Thus Z [ k] = 6. (C) Since N = 10.1 ] + X [ 2 ] Y [ k .X [1]. (A) z[ n] = x[ n] y[ n] Þ Þ 3 k =< N> å X [ l ]Y [ k . (D) Since the FS coefficient repeat every N. Thus X [1] = X [15 ]. x[ n] = å X [ k]e N æ 2 pö ÷ kn jç ç ÷ è Nø = k = -1 æ 2 pö ÷n jç ç ÷ è 10 ø å X [ k]e 8 æ 2 pö ÷ kn jç ç ÷ è 10 ø 26.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System Þ X [ k] = e e æ pö jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø Y [ k] æ pö . Þ 1 6 5 n =2 å ( -1) n x[ n] = 1 1 1 x[ n] = . W o = 5 Z [ k] = å X [ l ]Y [ k . X [2 ] = X [16 ].X [ 3] Therefore (D) is correct option.5 ] + X [ k + 5 ] 10 p j ( -5) n ö æ j ( 5) p n æp ö y[ n] = ç e 10 + e 10 ÷ x[ n] = 2 cos ç n ÷ x[ n] ç ÷ è2 ø è ø p j k 5 p -j k 5 æ çe æp ö 25.com .jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø æ pö jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø = -e Y [ k] æ pk ö 2 j sin ç ÷ è 10 ø e æ pö jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø 29. X [ -2 ] = . (D) W o = Þ p . . . Therefore X [1] = X [ -1] = 5. (A) Y [ k] =Re{ X [ k]} Þ y[ n] =Ev{ x[ n]} = 2p . X [ -3] = . (A) N = 20 We know that |n £ 5 | ì 1.jç ÷ n ç ÷ è 10 ø +e ö ÷ = 10 cos æ p n ö ç ÷ ÷ è5 ø ø DTFS ¬ ¾¾® 31. 6 x[ n] + x[ -n] 2 æ = 5ç e ç è æ 2p ö . í | î 0. 5 <|k £ 10 ì 1 1 1 1 1 ü x[ n] = í . 5 <|n £ 10 ¬¾ ¾ ® ¾ DTFS . X [ 3] = X [17 ] The signal real and odd. for all k. Þ 1 6 n =0 å x[ n] = 2 1 x[ n] = 3 1 Þ X [0 ] = . . 3 Z[ k ] = X [ 0 ] Y [ k ] + X [ 1 ] Y [ k .. 2 k=0 æ 11p ö sin ç k÷ è 20 ø æ p ö sin ç k÷ è 20 ø The value of P is minimized by choosing X [1] = X [2 ] = X [ 4 ] = X [5 ] = 0 Therefore x[ n] = X [0 ] + X [ 3]e æ 2p ç ç è 6 ö ÷ 3n ÷ ø = 1 1 1 1 + ( -1) n = + ( -1) n 3 6 3 6 Using duality æ 11p ö sin ç n÷ p DTFS .l ] l= 0 From fact 2. . è 20 ø ¬ ¾ ¾10 ® ¾ æ p ö sin ç n÷ è 20 ø |k £ 5 | 1 ì 1..2 ] + Y [ k . .. the average power in x[ n] is P = å X [ k] . Using Parseval’s relation = -j e 2 æ p ö .jç k ÷ ç ÷ è 10 ø æ p cosec ç è 10 ö k ÷ Y [ k] ø 24.. 30. the FS coefficient X [ k] will be purely imaginary and odd.. 32. 2. 3.3] Since Y [ k] is 1 for all values of k.l ] 28. p 10 From fact 3. .2 ] + x[ n + 2 ]) 2 2 Therefore X [ k] = 0 for k = 0.2 ] + X [ 3 ] Y [ k .gatehelp. í | 20 î 0. Y [ k] = X [ k . (A) N = 6.

G3( s) = G1 ( s) = s+2 s+5 s+3 are cascaded. The equivalent transfer function is (A) (B) ( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 37 s 2 + 31) ( s + 2)( s + 3)( s + 5) s+1 ( s + 2) ( s + 3) ( s + 5) 4.3 3 2.1.1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6.4. A feedback control system is shown in fig. G2 ( s) = .6. The block having transfer function 1 1 s+1 . For a negative feedback system shown in fig.3 G( s) = s+1 s+3 and H ( s) = s( s + 2) s+4 (A) (B) G1 G2 1 + H1 G1 G2 G3 G2 G3 G1 (1 + H1 G2 G3) G2 G3 1 + H1 G1 G2 G3 G2 G3 G1 (1 + H1 G2 G3) (C) (D) The equivalent transfer function is www. The equivalent transfer function of three parallel blocks G1 ( s) = 1 1 s+3 .1.gatehelp. P.6.6.3 ( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 34 s + 37) (A) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) (B) (C) (D) ( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) -( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 34 s + 37) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) -( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) s( s + 2)( s + 3) s + 5 s2 + 4 s .4 -( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 37 s 2 + 31) (C) ( s + 2)( s + 3)( s + 5) -( s + 1) (D) ( s + 2)( s + 3)( s + 5) 3. The transfer function for this system is R 1 G1 + G2 G3 C H2 Fig. P. G2 ( s) = and G3( s) = is s+1 s+4 s+5 (A) (B) (C) (D) s( s + 2)( s + 3) s + 7 s 2 + 12 s + 3 3 R(s) + G(s) C(s) H(s) Fig.3 3 ( s + 1)( s + 4) s + 7 s 2 + 12 s + 3 3 ( s + 1)( s + 4) s + 5 s2 + 4 s .com Page 325 .1.1 TRANSFER FUNCTION 1.6. P. P.

P. A feedback control system shown in fig.1. N(s) R(s) G1 Fig.9 are equivalent if G is equal to R(s) s+2 s+1 C(s) 6.1. The transfer function fig.10 G2 (A) 10% and 1% (C) 10% and 0% (B) 2% and 10% (D) 5% and 1% C R + H2 11. The block diagrams shown in fig.6.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 5.P6.G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 Page 326 + + H2 + + R(s) G2 C(s) 1 s+1 G + C(s) + Fig.7. then the variation in C1 and C2 will be respectively R1 16 3 C1 (D) None of the above R2 + 10 C2 Fig. P.6. Consider the systems shown in fig. P.gatehelp.6.6.9 (A) s + 1 (C) s + 2 (B) 2 (D) 1 10. P. Consider the system shown in fig.1.11 www. P6.1.com .6.1.10.6. P.1. P6.1.6.6 C ( s) The noise transfer function N is N ( s) (A) G2 1 + G1 G2 H (B) G2 1 + G1 H G2 (C) 1 + G2 H 7.1. P.1.6. The closed loop gain of the system shown in fig. P.1.1.6.5 R + + 6 C The input output relationship of this system is R(s) G1G2 C(s) R(s) 1 + G1 + G1G2 C(s) 1 3 Fig.6 is subjected to noise N ( s).1.8 is Fig. P.8 (A) R(s) G1 + G2 C(s) R(s) (B) 1 + G2 + G1G2 C(s) (A) -2 (C) -6 (B) 6 (D) 2 (C) (D) 9.11 is R 1 H1 + of the system shown in the C H2 G1 G2 Fig. A system is shown in fig. The transfer function for this system is H1 R(s) C(s) G1 Fig. P. P. P.7 (A) (B) (C) G1 G2 1 + G1 G1 H 2 + G2 H1 G1 G2 1 + G1 G2 + H1 H 2 G1 G2 1 .G1 H1 .6. If the forward path gain is reduced by 10% in each system.1.1.6.5. R(s) G1 + + G2 + C(s) + (D) G1 G2 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 8.

1.6.1.6.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.12 (B) (A) t32 t23 + t44 (C) t24 t43t32 + t44 (B) t23t32 + t34 t43 (D) t23t32 + t34 t43 + t44 (C) 13. In the signal flow graph shown in fig.cigj + bcfg (C) 1 + bc + fg + cig j .14 1 1 2 1 (A) af + be + cd + abef + bcde (B) af + be + cd (C) af + be + cd + abef + abcdef (D) af + be + cd + cbef + bcde + abcdef (A) a (C) b and c Fig.1.1. P6.13 is 1 a f b e c d 1 (D) 17.6.13 G 1 + H2 G 1 + H1 + H 2 (A) 1 .1 (A) G1 H 2 H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) G2 G1 1 + H1 H 2 G1 G2 (B) G1 G2 H 2 H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) G1 G2 H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) 15. The overall transfer function in fig.6.6.6.17 (B) b (D) a.1.1. A closed-loop system is shown in fig.15.1.bcfg + cigj (B) 1 . P.6.1. P.12 the sum of loop gain of non-touching loops is t32 t12 x1 x2 t23 x3 t24 t25 t43 t34 x4 t44 t45 x5 t56 x6 Fig.fg . P.6. P. P.bc . The noise transfer function Cn ( s) N ( s) is approximately R(s) 1 -H2 G1 C(s) H1 1 N(s) (C) (D) 12. The sum of the gains of the feedback paths in the signal flow graph shown in fig.16 will be -H1 R 1 of the system shown a 1 -H2 G C e j h Fig.6. b and c www.fg . P.1.com Page 327 .bcfg (D) 1 + bc + fg + bcfg . P. P. P. Consider the signal flow graphs shown in fig. For the SFG shown in fig. P6.bc .1.gatehelp. The transfer 2 is of the graph 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 Fig.14 the graph determinant D is -c b d 1 i f -g (D) 16. P.1.cigj 14.16 (A) G (C) G (1 + H1 )(1 + H 2 ) (B) Fig.6.1.15 (A) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| << 1 G1 ( s) H1 ( s) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| >> 1 -H1 ( s) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| >> 1 H1 ( s) H 2 ( s) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| << 1 G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s) C R Fig.17.

-H3 R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 -H2 -H2 R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 -H1H2 H3 R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 H2 -H1 3 3 3 -H2 4 G2 1 C(s) S.6.22 transfer C(s) function C( s) R( s) is G3 + H1 H2 G1 G2 H3 Fig.22 Page 328 + R(s) + R(s) G1 + G2 G3 C(s) H2 Fig.1.21.6.20 H1 For this system the signal flow graph is www.21 + + C(s) .6.6. P6. P. P.20 R(s) 1 + 2 + G2 3 + (D) block diagram shown in figure 4 G2 22.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 18. P. ab a 3.gatehelp. For the signal flow graph shown in fig.1.6.19 ta + tb e1 e3 tctd e4 e1 tatb e3 tc+ td e4 (A) (B) G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 G3 H1 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 G3 H1 H 2 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G2 G3 H 2 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G1 G3 H 2 + G2 G3 H1 (A) ta + tb e1 e2 tctd e4 e1 (B) tatb e2 tc+ td e4 (C) (D) (C) 20. P. Consider the List I and List II List I (Signal Flow Graph) xi xi a a b xi 1 1 b a xo b xo xo -H3 List II (Transfer Function) 1. a 1-b (A) R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 3 -H2 G2 4 1 C(s) -H1H2 P. P.6.1. Consider the P.ab) 4. The closed loop transfer function of this system is H1 19. Q.1.com H2 Fig. xi 1 a b 1 xo (C) 4 G2 -H3 1 C(s) (D) S 4 3 3 4 G2 4 1 C(s) The correct match is P (A) (B) (C) (D) 2 2 1 1 Q 1 1 2 2 R 3 4 4 3 21.19 an equivalent graph is tc e1 tb e2 e3 ta td e4 Fig. P6.1.1.1. (1 . a + b (B) 2.1. The block diagram of a system is shown in fig. R. For the system shown in fig.

P.H1 G2 .24 the gain C R is R 1 2 3 5 4 -1 -1 -1 1 C G4 + G5 + + + G6 Fig. P.1.6.1.1. P.1.23 ‘(A) 3.24 44 (A) 23 (C) 44 19 (B) (D) 25.6.G1 G2 H 2 G1 G2 1 .27 transfer function C( s) R( s) is G8 R(s) + G1 G2 G3 C(s) -3 Fig.H1 G2 .com + G6 G7 + + Page 329 . In the signal flow graph shown in fig. P. For the block diagram shown in fig.G1 G2 H1 H 2 27. P.6. The gain C( s) R( s) of the signal flow graph shown in fig.H 2 G3 . P6. The transfer function of the system shown in fig.H 2 G3 .1.75 (C) 3 (B) -3 (D) -3.6.1.G4 G1 G3 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 + G2 G3 H1 + G4 G3 + G4 Fig. P6.6.26 G3 (D) 1 .25 is G3 R(s) 1 G1 -H1 G2 G4 1 C(s) 28.25 + G2 + + G5 (A) (B) (C) (D) G1 G2 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G2 G3 H1 + G4 G1 G2 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 + G2 G3 H1 . P.1 (A) G3 1 . P.6.75 24.1.27 (A) 29 19 29 11 (B) (C) (D) G1 G2 1 + G1 G2 + G1 G7G3 + G1 G2 G8 G6 + G1 G2 G3G7G5 G1 G2 1 + G1 G4 + G1 G2 G8 + G1 G2 G5G7 + G1 G2 G3G6 G7 G1 + G2 1 + G1 G4 + G1 G2 G8 + G1 G2 G5G7 + G1 G2 G3G6 G7 G1 + G2 1 + G1 G2 + G3G6 G7 + G1 G3G4 G5 + G1 G2 G3G6 G7G8 Fig.G1 G2 H 2 G3 + G1 G2 1 + H1 G2 + H 2 G3 + G1 G2 H 2 G3 1 + H1 G2 + H 2 G3 + G1 G2 H 2 26.G1 G2 H1 G1 G2 1 .1. P.G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 (B) (D) G1 G2 1 .1.G2 H 2 .G1 G2 H 2 23.6.6.28 the numerator of transfer function is G1 R(s) C(s) Fig.23 the transfer function is R 5 3 2 C (A) (C) G1 G2 1 .6.1. P.G4 G1 G3 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 + G2 G3 H1 . In the signal flow graph shown in fig.6.G1 G2 H1 .1.gatehelp.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. For the block diagram shown in fig. P.1.26 is G1 + + R(s) + G2 C(s) (B) (C) H1 H2 Fig.28 (A) G6 [ G4 + G3 + G5( G3 + G2 )] (B) G6 [ G2 + G3 + G5( G3 + G4 )] www.

For the block diagram shown in fig. P6. The transfer function of the system shown in fig.100 3 2 33.29 the transfer function C( s) R( s) is 50( s .2G2 G 1 .G2 G3 G2 G3 + G1 G3 1 .31.G3 H1 . P.31 (A) 1 + G1 H1 + G2 G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H 2 (B) 1 + G1 H1 .1.6.1.32 is G2 G3 + G1 G3 (A) 1 .34-37 Fig.1.G2 G4 H 2 H 3 (D) 1 + G1 H1 + G2 G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H 3 + G2 G4 H 2 H 3 32. P.34-37: A block diagram of feedback control system is shown in fig.100 s + s 2 + 150 s (C) 50 s s + s + 150 s .33 (A) (B) (C) (D) G1 + G2 + G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 G1 + G2 + G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 (A) (B) (C) (D) G1 G2 G3 + G2 G3G4 + G1 G4 1 + G1 G3G4 H1 H 2 H 3 + G2 H 4 H1 H 2 + G4 H1 G2 G4 + G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 H 2 H 3 + G4 H1 + G3G4 H1 H 2 G1 G3G4 + G2 G4 1 + G3G4 H1 H 2 + G4 H1 + G1 G3 H 3 H 2 G1 G3G4 + G2 G3G4 + G2 G4 1 + G1 G3G4 H1 H 2 H 3 + G3G4 H1 H 2 + G4 H1 31.G1 G3 H 3 + G2 G4 H 2 H 3 (C) 1 + G1 H1 + G2 G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H 3 .30 the transfer function R C R G2 R + + + + C is G1 G2 G3 1 C + G1 G3 G4 -H1 -H2 -H3 H3 H2 H1 Fig.G2 (B) (D) Page 330 www.6.6.32 shown in fig.6.1. For the SFG shown in fig.6.2) (A) 3 (B) 3 2 s + s + 150 s . Consider the SFG shown in fig.gatehelp. P.33 is 30.1.6. P.1.30 Fig. P6.1.G2 G3 R2(s) 34.2) 50( s .G2 G3 H 3 .34-37 C1 R1 is R2 = 0 (B) (D) G(1 . The D for this graph is G4 -H3 R 1 G1 -H1 -H2 G2 G3 1 C Statement for Q.2 G) 1 .G) 1 . P.6.2G2 G(1 .com + + + + + R1(s) G C1(s) G C2(s) Fig.1. The transfer function (A) (C) G 1 .1. The closed loop transfer function of the system G1 R + + C + G2 G3 H1 (D) 50 s + s + 150 2 Fig.1. P6.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems (C) G6 [ G1 + G2 + G3( G4 + G5)] (D) None of the above 29.G2 .G3 H1 + G2 G3 (C) G2 G3 + G1 G3 1 + G3 H1 + G2 G3 G2 G3 + G1 G3 1 + G3 H1 . P. P.1.6. P.

G2 ******** Statement for Q. The transfer function 2 R2 G(1 + G) (A) 1 .2G2 (D) G 1 .1.39 (C) -0.09 (D) -0. P6.40–41.38-39 38.41.1.1 35.38–39: A signal flow graph is shown in fig. The transfer function for this system is 5 (B) (D) G2 1 . .2G2 (D) G 1 . The pole of this system are (A) -0. P.2G2 (C) G 1 .2G2 (C) G 1+ G G (B) 1 .G2 2 36.75 ± j1.1.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. P.25 ± j0.1. The transfer function G (1 + G) (A) 1 .5.6. G4 Y1 1 Y2 G1 -H1 Y3 G2 -H2 -H3 Y4 G3 Y5 1 Y5 Fig.67 (B) -0.6.88 C 37.G2 is R1 = 0 (A) (C) 2 s(2 s + 1) 2 s 2 + 3s + 5 2 s(2 s + 1) 4 s 2 + 13s + 5 41.G2 2 C2 R1 is R2 = 0 Fig.com + + G 1 .38–39. www. The transfer function (A) (C) G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 D G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 G1 G2 G3 Statement for Q.6.G2 R1(s) + 1 s 2s C2(s) (B) (D) 2 s(2 s + 1) 2 s 2 + 13s + 5 2 s(2 s + 1) 4 s 2 + 3s + 5 Page 331 .6.2G2 C1 R2 is R1 = 0 40.2G2 G2 1 .40-41 G2 (B) 1 . P. The transfer function (A) (C) 1 D G1 G2 G3 D Y2 is Y1 (B) 1 + G2 H 2 D (D) None of the above Y5 is Y2 (B) G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 (D) G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 1 + G2 H 2 39. .1.gatehelp. The transfer function (A) (C) G 1 .40–41: A block diagram is shown in fig.

T = a + b a R. P1 = a. L = Dk = 0. P2 = b . L1 = . that means that node is in both loop.b.6 ´1 3 8. 18. P1 = ab. If subscript is common. there are two parallel path.H 2 . (B) P. T = ab Q.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems SOLUTIONS 1. L1 L2 = H1 H 2 . 9 + 1 10 1 1 s+3 + + ( s + 1) ( s + 4) ( s + 5) s 2 + 9s + 20 + s 2 + 6s + 5 + s 3 + 5s 2 + 4s + 3s 2 + 15s + 12 (s + 1)(s + 4)(s + 5) 11.H 2 G1 -1 = G1 H 2 H1 H1 5. abef is not a feedback path because between path x2 is a summing node. (A) Between e1 and e2 . G1 15. T = a-b a S. P1 = a. (D) For system (b) closed loop transfer function G G + s+1 G + s+1 s+2 . (A) In this graph there are three feedback loop. D1 = 1 T( s) = G G = 1 + H1 + H 2 + H1 H 2 (1 + H1 )(1 + H 2 ) 1 1 1 1 + + + =1 4 4 4 4 7.fg + cigj) + bcfg = 1 + bc + fg . D1 = 1. So option (B) is correct. L1 L3 = bcfg D = 1 . P1 = a. C2 is reduced by 1%.H 2 G1 . L1 = b. (B) Ga = 1. (A) Open-loop gain = G2 Feed back gain = HG1 TN ( s) = G2 1 + G1 G2 H 16.( -bc . L = 0 . (B) Ge ( s) = G1 ( s) G2 ( s) G3( s) = C( s) G( s) = R( s) 1 + H ( s) G( s) subscript refers to node number. Hence G = 1 +1= = s+1 s+1 s+1 s+1 10. (C) For positive feedback 9. Tn ( s) = Tn ( s) = .gatehelp. 13. (B) By putting R ( s) = 0 P1 = . (D) Apply the feedback formula to both loop and then multiply æ G1 T( s) = ç ç1 + G H 1 1 è = öæ G2 ÷ç ÷ç 1 + G H øè 2 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø 17. (C) P1 = G .H1 .G1 H 2 H1 . T = 1 . Hence option (A) is correct. H1 æ 1 ö ( H 2 G1 ) ç ÷ çH ÷ C H 2 G1 è 1ø = = R H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) 1 + H 2 G1 G2 12.com . (A) Ge ( s) = G1 ( s) + G2 ( s) + G3( s) = = C2 = 10 10 . D1 = 1. = 10 + 1 11 ¢ C2 = 9 9 = . L1 = .H 2 G1 1 + G1 H 2 H1 . (D) T( s) = G2 (1 + G1 ) + 1 = 1 + G1 + G1 G2 6.fg. D = 1 . D = 1. if |G1 H 2 H1 | >> 1. Gb = 1 + 1 = 2. 3. Between e2 and e4 there is a path given by total gain tc td . G1 G2 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 C 6 = =-6 R 1 . (B) Multiply G2 and G3 and apply feedback formula and then again multiply with T( s) = G2 G3 G1 (1 + G2 G3 H1 ) 1 . So remove node e3 and place gain tc td of the branch e2 e4 .ab. D = 1 . (A) Apply the feedback formula and then multiply 1 by . L2 = . L3 = jgic. (C) s+1 ( s + 1)( s + 4) s( s + 2) = = 3 ( s + 3) ( s + 1) s + 7 s 2 + 12 s + 3 1+ ( s + 4) s( s + 2) 4. (A) There cannot be common subscript because = s 3 + 10 s 2 + 34 s + 37 ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) ( s + 1) ( s + 2)( s + 5)( s + 3) 2. D1 = 1. L2 = .cig j + bcfg 14. Gc = There are no loop in any graph. . Combining them gives ta + tb . (A) In open loop system change will be 10% in C1 also but in closed loop system change will be less Page 332 www. D = 1. L1 = ab. (D) L1 = -bc.ab 19.

L1 = -G1 G2 H1 H 2 .G1 G2 G8 . P2 = G3G5G6 .G3 H 3 ) + G1 G3 H1 H 3 D = 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 D1 = 1 C G1 G2 G3 = R 1 + G1 H! + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 Fig. (B) There is one forward path G1 G2 .G1 H1 . The signal flow graph of option (A) has feedback from 4 to 1 of gain -H1 H 2 . S6. P4 = G4 G6 If any path is deleted. R(s) 1 G1 1 -H1 H2 G2 1 C(s) D =1 + D1 = D2 = 1 C P1 + P2 50( s .3 . There are two feedback loop -G1 G2 H1 and -G2 G3 H 2 and one forward path G1 G2 G3 . (C) P1 = 5 ´ 3 ´ 2 = 30. In block diagram there is feedback from 4 to 1 of gain -H1 H 2 .G2 H 2 27.G1 G2 G5G7 and -G1 G2 G3G6 G7 .29 P1 = P2 = 1 50 50 × ×s= s2 ( s + 1) s( s + 1) 1 50 -100 × × ( -2) = 2 s2 s + 1 s ( s + 1) 50 -2 -100 × = s+1 s s( s + 1) 1 50 -50 × × s × ( -1) = s2 s + 1 s( s + 1) 1 50 100 × × ( -2) × ( -1) = 2 s2 s + 1 s ( s + 1) 100 50 100 + s( s + 1) s( s + 1) s 2 ( s + 1) L1 = -G3G2 H1 . (A) P1 = 2 ´ 3 ´ 4 = 24 . So (B) is correct.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.G3 H 2 . D2 = 1 .G2 H 2 . there would not be any loop. L2 = G2 H 2 C( s) G1 G2 = R( s) 1 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 .( -3) = 4. C 24 + 5 ´ 4 44 = = R 24 23 25. 22. (A) R 1 1 s2 -2 s 50 (s + 1) -1 -2 1 s C Fig. L2 = -3. (B) Consider the block diagram as a SFG.27 There is no nontouching loop. 21. So (D) is correct option. P3 = G3G6 . L3 = -4. (D) P1 = G1 G2 G3 L1 = .gatehelp. www. (C) P1 = G1 G2 . L1 = L2 = L3 = P1 D1 + P2 D2 G1 G2 + G2 G3 T( s) = = 1 .4 .1 20.2) = = 3 R D s + s2 + 150 s .28 P1 = G2 G5G6 . L3 = .1. P2 = G3G2 L3 = G4 .G3 H 3 L1 L3 = G1 G3 H1 H 3 D = 1 . 23. D1 = D2 = 1 28.( -2 . .G4 26.G1 H1 . So (B) is correct.1. S6.1. .3) = 10 C 30 D1 = 1 . (A) Option (A) is correct. Two forward path G1 G2 and G3 and three loops -G1 G2 H 2 .G2 H1 . There are no nontouching loop.( . L4 = -5. . L2 = -G1 G2 H1 . (B) P1 = G1 G2 .( L1 + L2 + L3) 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G2 G3 H1 .G2 H 2 .com Page 333 . D1 = 1. = =3 R 10 24. L1 L3 = 8. (A) SFG: G3 G4 G3 R 1 G2 -G1 G5 G6 1 C -1 Fig.5) + 8 = 23. D = 1 .( 3 ´ . (C) Consider the block diagram as SFG. L2 = . . Four loops -G1 G4 . D = 1 .100 30. Best method is to check the signal flow graph. S6. Hence D1 = D2 = D3 = D4 = 1 C G4 G6 + G3G6 + G3G5G6 + G2 G5G6 = D R 29. There are no nontouching loop. P2 = 1 ´ 5 ´ 1 = 5 L1 = -2 .

2)( s . The open-loop transfer function with ufb are given below for different systems. The forward transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = K ( s 2 + 1) ( s + 1)( s + 2) 6. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system is (C) (D) 4.com K ( s 2 .2.gatehelp.7) The system is stable for (A) K < .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6.2 STABILITY 1. P6.2s + 2) C(s) The range of K to ensure stability is 6 3 (A) K > (B) K < .1 or K > 8 4 (C) K < . The range of K for the stable system is R(s) + E(s) K(s2 .1 (A) -1 < K < (C) -1 < K < 1 1 2 (B) - (D) Unstable The system is stable for the range of K (A) K > 0 (C) K > 1 (B) K < 0 (D) Always unstable control 2.4) s2 + 3 Page 335 .2 (B) K > -1 (D) K > -2 G( s) = 3.1. Consider a ufb system with forward-path transfer function 1 < K <1 2 G( s) = K ( s + 3) s 4 ( s + 2) Fig.2. The open-loop transfer function of a ufb system is K ( s + 2) ( s + 1)( s . Consider a ufb system with forward-path transfer function G( s) = K ( s + 3)( s + 5) ( s . Consider the system shown in fig.1 (D) -1 < K < 3 4 1 s2 + 2s + 1 5. P6. The unstable system is (A) 2 s+2 2 s( s + 2) (B) 2 s 2 ( s + 2) 2( s + 1) s( s + 2) For K > 6. the stability characteristic of the open-loop and closed-loop configurations of the system are respectively (A) stable and unstable (B) stable and stable (C) unstable and stable (D) unstable and unstable 7.4) G( s) = www.1 (C) K < .

if (A) T = 0 (C) T > 1 (B) T < 0 (D) 0 < T < 1 1 s+1 10.12 become marginally stable if the constant K is chosen to be (A) 30 (C) 10 (B) -30 (D) -10 (A) 4 (C) 2 www. P6.2.com Fig.14–15: A feedback system is shown in fig.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System For the system to be stable the range of K is 3 (A) K > -1 (B) K < 4 (C) -1 < K < 3 4 (D) marginal stable 13. P6.2. A ufb system have the forward-path transfer function G( s) = K ( s + 6) s( s + 1)( s + 3) (B) -6 < K < 0 (D) K > 6 G( s) = Fig.12 K ( s + 10)( s + 20) s 2 ( s + 2) The system is stable for (A) K < 6 (C) 0 < K < 6 K is (A) 2 (C) 4 9. P6.15. The closed loop transfer function for this system is (A) (B) (C) (D) s 5 + s 4 + 2 s 3 + ( K + 2) s 2 + ( K + 2) s + K s3 + s2 + 2 s + K 2 s 4 + ( K + 2) s 3 + Ks 2 s3 + s2 + 2 s + K s3 + s2 + 2 s + K s 5 + s 4 + 2 s 3 + ( K + 2) s 2 + ( K + 2) s + K s3 + s2 + 2 s + K 2 s + ( K + 2) s 3 + Ks 2 4 11.2. the range of K is 1 3 (A) K > (B) K < 54 40 (C) 1 3 <K < 54 40 (D) Unstable 15.gatehelp.2)( s + 4)( s + 5) ( s 2 + 3) For system to be stable. The closed loop system shown in fig. The poles location for this system is shown in fig. P6.2. 2 s Fig. Consider a ufb system with forward-path transfer function K G( s) = ( s + 15)( s + 27)( s + 38) The system will oscillate for the value of K equal to (A) 23690 (C) 144690 (B) 2369 (D) 14469 Fig. The value of K is jw 12. The open-loop transfer function of a ufb system is R(s) + K 1 s(s + 1)(s + 5) C(s) 8. P6. R(s) + K(1 + Ts) s2(1 + s) C(s) The closed loop system will be stable if the value of (B) 3 (D) 5 Statement for Q. The feedback control system shown in the fig.15 Page 336 + + (B) -4 (D) -2 + s R(s) K s2 C(s) s2 .8.14-15.9 is stable for all positive value of K . The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = K ( s .14–15 14.2. P6. P6. P6.2.2.

34.2. The location of pole on RHP.35 30. 2 ************ .355 (C) 0. 4 (D) 1.2 s 4 + 3s 3 . 1 (C) 1. 4 (B) unstable (A) 4. 1. For the open loop system of fig. The closed loop transfer function of a system is T( s) = ( s + 8)( s + 6) s 5 .2)( s 2 + s + 0. 3.35 location of poles on RHP. 6. 29. LHP. 1. 0 (C) 2.44 (B) 0.6s4 + s2 + s . in RHP. 1. 2. 0 (D) 1. P6.6) (A) 2.44 (B) unstable G( s) 2 s4 + 5 s3 + s2 + 2 s axis are (A) 2.35 (A) 3. 2. The closed loop transfer function of a system is T( s) = s + 4 s + 8 s + 16 s + 3s 4 + 5 s 2 + s + 3 3 2 5 The number of poles in right half-plane and in left half-plane are (A) 3.6 s 2 + 2 s . 3 33. P6. 4 (D) 2. 0. 2 The number of poles in RHP and in LHP are (B) 1. P6.com (B) 1. 2 34. 2 The range of K for stable system will be (A) K > 0.0. 0 (D) None of the above s5 s4 ö ÷ ÷ ø (A) 1. P6. and an jw-axis are R(s) -8 s6 + s5 .2. 2.4 s 2 + 3s . 3 (D) 4. 2 (D) 3.36. 1.2. and imaginary axis are R(s) + 507 s4 + 3s3 + 10s2 + 30s + 169 C(s) 1 s Fig. For the system shown in fig. 6 For the system to be stable the range of K is æ 1 1 (A) 0 < K < ç çT + T è 1 2 (C) 0 < K < T1 T2 ö ÷ ÷ ø æ 1 1 (B) K > ç çT + T è 1 2 (D) K > T1 T2 36. 2 (C) 1.236 < K < 0. 3. 1. The open loop transfer function of a system is as G( s) H ( s) = K ( s + 0.2. 0.6 C(s) 31. 2 (C) 1.4 5 The number of poles in LHP. 0 (B) 2.1) s( s . LHP.2 (D) More information is required. 27. 2 35. P6.34 (B) 3.s 4 + 4 s 3 . The open-loop transfer function of a ufb control system is given by G( s) = K s( sT1 + 1)( sT2 + 1) 2 2 4 -1 (B) 1.355 (D) K > 0. 4 (C) 1. and on jw (B) 0. The forward path transfer of ufb system is 1 G( s) = 2 2 4 s ( s + 1) The system is (A) stable (C) marginally stable (D) More information is required 28. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = The system is (A) stable (C) marginally stable (D) more information is required. the number of poles on RHP. LHP and imaginary axis are s7 s5 1 1 3 1 Fig. 3. 4 www. A Routh table is shown in fig. 4 Page 338 Fig. The closed loop transfer function of a system is T( s) = s 3 + 3s 2 + 7 s + 24 s .2. 2.149 < K < 0.gatehelp.2. 1 (C) 3. P6.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System (A) stable (C) marginally stable (B) unstable 32.

.6. S. (B) Routh table is as shown in fig. 5 satisfy this condition.13 7 K K Fig.K 5 K ( s + 10)( s + 20) 13. (B) For inner loop K K . (C) Denominator = s 3 + s 2 + 2 s + K Routh table is as shown in fig.13 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 K +2 30 K 2 .40 K 3 .6. (C) T( s) = = G( s) 1 + G( s) K ( s . S.17 Þ K < 35 18.6.212 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 6 30 .6. s 2 + 2 = 0. S. Gi ( s) = = ( s . j 2 .a)( s + 3a)( s + 4 a) P ( s) For outer loop.6.2. (D) Applying the feedback formula on the inner loop 5 K and multiplying by K yield K .K K Fig. (A) T( s) = 1 s + 6s + 5s + K 3 2 Routh table is as shown in fig.6.K >0 7K + 1 3 . S.6.2. (D) T( s) = 3 s + ( K + 2) s 2 + 30 Ks + 200 K Routh table is as shown in fig. S.40 K ) 3 K 2 æK 2ö + .40 K Fig. 30 K 2 .211 s3 s2 s1 s0 K > 0.17 s3 s2 s1 30K 200K K >0 . P ( s) + K Page 340 www.ï 7 ï 1 ï K > ý 54 ï 3 ï K < 40 ï þ K 7K + 1 54 K . S. 3 14.K 7K + 1 2 2K 3 .6.6. Ge ( s) = s( s 2 + 5 s + 7) T( s) = K s + 5s + 7s + K 3 2 17. Auxiliary equation 5 s 2 + 35 = 0.2. (B) First combine the parallel loop K 2 and giving 2 s s 19. Þ s = -1.2.40 K > 0 Þ Þ Þ 1ü K >.gatehelp.12 16.2)( s + 4)( s + 5) Ks + (7 K + 1) s 2 + 2 Ks + ( 3 . S.11 5 K Þ 1 3 <K < 54 40 s1 s0 Row of zeros when K = 2.6. (C) At K = 35 system will oscillate.140 K > 0 14 Þ K > . S.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 11. ( s + 1) æK 2ö s2 ç 2 + ÷ 2 s 4 + ( K + 2) s 3 + Ks 2 sø ès T( s) = = 1 æK 2ö s3 + s2 + 2 s + K 1+ ç 2 + ÷ s + 1è s sø 15.2. Þ s=± j 7 200 K > 0 ® K > 0.2. S. and then multiply with s 2 . S.140 K 200K Fig.j 2 12.2. 7K + 1 > 0 54 K 2 .com . Then apply feedback formula with ç 2 + ÷ and 2 s s sø ès 1 . Go( s) = Ti ( s) = Ti ( s) = K P ( s) + K K . s0 35 .15 Routh table is as shown in fig.2.15 s3 s2 1 1 2-K K Fig.K >0 5 1 5 35.

24 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 . 3 sign change 2 sign change K -1 .gatehelp.4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 9 180 . S. But for K > 1 third term is always -ive. S.4 2K .3s + ( K + 3) s + (2 K .4) 2K .4 Fig.1 > 0 Þ K >1 .4 K Fig.2.24 0 1 Fig.21 s 4 Routh table is as shown in fig.6.6.6.K + 12 3 K ( K + 33) K + 12 -3 K +3 2K .2.( K +312 ) K ( K + 33) K + 12 20 K K K -3 K +3 2K . (D) Routh table is as shown in fig.99) K -180 Routh table is as shown in fig. 1 sign change For -12 < K < 0.6. These condition can not be met simultaneously. (B) Characteristic equation s4 + 9 s3 + 20 s2 + Ks + K = 0 Routh table is as shown in fig. (D) T( s) = K ( s + 2) s 4 + 3s 3 .20 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 .Stability GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.2. P ( s) + 2 K Therefore if inner loop is stable for X < K < Y . (D) Routh table is as shown in fig. 25.23 s4 2K . S.4 1 K K -1 K K -1 .2.12.12. (B) Routh table is as shown in fig.6.6. then outer loop will be stable for X < 2 K < Y X Y . S.4) 4 2 2 -( K + 12) > 0 Þ K < . K -1 K > 0.2.33.2. S.K 2 K -1 1 1 1 1 s 3 s2 s s 1 2K . (C) T( s) = K ( s + 2) s + 3s . S.25 4+K 9 25 25 8 20 15 15 ROZ 25 Fig.com Page 341 .23 2K .4 Fig.2. System is unstable for any value of K .6. S.1 Þ Þ 1 ü 2 ï ý 109 ï K > 18 þ K > Þ K > 109 18 23.109 >0 2K . S. 2 K . K . 21.6. 22. For K > 2.22 www. S. 1 sign change For 0 < K < 2.2.2.2.6.20 For stability 0 < K < 99 24.3s 2 + ( K + 3) s + (2 K .6. Þ <K < 2 2 20.2.1 >0 2 18 K .25 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 4 3 6 15 Fig. Thus the three condition cannot be fulfilled simultaneously. S.6.K 9 K ( K .K2 > 0.21 For K < .2. S. S.22 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 2 2 K -1 2 18 K -109 2 K -1 Therefore K > 2 yield two RHP pole.6.2 To( s) = K . 1 sign change For -33 < K < .4 > 0 3 Þ K > 2 and K > -33.

S. (A) Characteristic equation 1 ROZ s( sT1 + 1)( sT2 + 1) + K = 0 T1 T2 s 3 + ( T1 + T2 ) s2 + s + K = 0 Routh table is as shown in fig.6.2.12 0.27 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 4 16 2 46 1 Fig.6.4 s 2 + ( K .25K 2 + 0 .29 K > 0.27 4 8 1 ROZ 1 K s1 s0 P ( s) = 4 s 4 + 4 s + 1.2. (B) Closed loop transfer function 1 G( s) T( s) = = 4 3 1 + G( s) 2 s + 5 s + s 2 + 2 s + 1 Routh table is as shown in fig. In LHP -3 poles.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System P ( s) = 3s 2 + 15.55 .67 4 -2. So system is marginally stable.T1 T2 K > 0 Þ æ 1 1 ö 0 < K <ç ÷ çT + T ÷ è 1 2 ø 31.2.149)( K .1K Fig.com In RHP -2 poles.6.125 K .6. 26.0. S. (B) The characteristic equation is 1 + G( s) H ( s) = 0 Þ s( s .6. (C) Closed loop transfer function G( s) 1 T( s) = = 1 + G( s) 4 s 4 + 4 s 2 + 1 Routh table is as shown in fig.63K .26 s 4 0. -125 K 2 + 0.T1 T2K T1 + T2 Two sign change.29 s4 2 0.2. S. 0.44 . -1 .0.0.2.31 s5 1 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 3.2.28 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 2 5 1 5 K > 0.2. 0.0.55-1 .355 30. dp( s) = 16 s 3 + 3s ds K Fig. 28.125 K > 0 Þ K < 0. (B) Closed-loop transfer function is G( s) 240 T( s) = = 4 3 s + 10 s + 35 s 2 + 50 s + 264 1 + G( s) Routh table is as shown in fig. System is not stable.066 0 .0. So all pole are on jw–axis.0.6) + K ( s + 0.2.1) = 0 s 4 + 0.6.6. 27.1K 1 1 10 30 -386 264 Fig.6.55 .75 3 5 4 0 3 1 3 1 2 1 -23 1 Fig. S.2. (B) Routh table is as shown in fig.26 35 50 264 264 s3 s2 s1 s s 3 2 s1 s 0 ROZ s0 0. RHP 0.2)( s 2 + s + 0. ( K .30 s3 s2 T1 T2 T1 + T2 ( T1 + T2 ) .30 There is no sign change. S.6.6. S. RHP-2 poles.4 K .25K on jw-axis 2 roots. 2 RHP poles so unstable.8 s 3 + 0. 29.63K . S.1K = 0 Routh table is as shown in fig. No sign change from s 2 to s 0 ds LHP 2. S.12) s + 0.gatehelp.0 .28 Page 342 www.355) < 0.6.8 0. . ( T1 + T2 ) . S.2. S.149 < K < 0. S.066 > 0 .2. d P ( s) = 6 s.

.33 10 30 60 507 69 57 ROZ s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 www.2 32. Rest 1 pole is on LHP.2 have been entered.33 s5 s 4 1 -2 -2 -3 1 3 3 -6 -3 -4 2 -4 ROZ s6 s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 1 -6 -24 e . Thus. (D) Closed loop transfer function G( s) T( s) = 1 + G( s) + H ( s) = 507 s s 5 + 3s 4 + 10 s 3 + 30 s 2 + 169 s + 507 Routh table is as shown in fig. (C) Routh table is as shown in fig. From s6 to s 4 there is 1 sign change so 1 on RHP and 1 on LHP. 3 -2 s5 s 4 1 -1 e 1-4e e 2e2 +1-4e 1-4e 4 -4 1 -2 dP ( s) = 12 s 3 + 60 ds From s 4 row down to s 0 there is one sign change. -2 .6.6 s 4 .6.32 3 RHP. S.2.6.com Page 343 . the even polynomial does not have RHP poles.33 + 0 dP ( s) = . Corresponding to this pole there is a pole on LHP. 33.36 e + + + + + + - -2 Fig.2. Therefore because of symmetry all four poles must be on jw-axis. RHP 3 root.36 -6 0 0 0 -6 s s 3 2 s s 1 ROZ 0 -4 Fig. From s6 to row down to the s 0 row.32 e + + + + + + + - P ( s) = 3s 4 + 30 s 2 + 507. there is one sign change. Because of symmetry rest two roots must be in LHP. 34.2.6. 36. Corresponding to this pole there is a pole on LHP.2. S. So there is one pole on RHP. In this row coefficient of dP ( s ) ds . 35.6. jw-axis RHP LHP 4 pole 1 pole 0 pole (1 sign change) 4 - P ( s) = . S. dP ( s) = -24 s 3 .2.8 s 3 .34 s 5 *********** 1 3 12 15 -345. So LHP–1 + 1 = 2 pole.6. S.6. (A) Routh table is as shown in fig. S.s 2 . S. RHP–1 pole.6 507 Fig. where P ( s) = s6 + 2 s 4 .2 s .144 e -6 Fig. jw-axis -2 pole. S. So two roots are on RHS. -3 P ( s) = . (B) Routh table is as shown in fig.2.gatehelp.- s 3 s2 s1 s0 2 LHP poles. Rest 4 out of 6 poles are on imaginary axis. S.Stability GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. (A) Notice that in s 5 row there would be zero.6.12 s . ds There is two sign change from the s 4 row down to the s 0 row. ds 4 2 No sign change exist from the s row down to the s row.6 s .2.6.2. Total LHP 3 root.

gatehelp. 0.63 ± j0. The forward-path transfer of a ufb control system is G( s) = 1000 (1 + 0. 250.46 ± j0. 0.1s)(1 + 2 s) 14.3. velocity and acceleration error constants are respectively (A) 0. and parabolic error constants are (A) 0.92 ± j0. 0.12s. The rise time and settling time for this system is R(s) 1 s 10 (s + 10) C(s) d. Consider the following system a.047 (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 a b c c 2 c a a b 3 d d e e 4 e e d d 10. velocity and acceleration error constants are respectively (A) 0. ¥ (B) ¥ .e 3 3 (B) 1 (D) 1 + 4 -100 t 1 -400 t e + e 3 3 2 -50 t 5 -150 t e . The open-loop transfer function of a unit feedback system is G( s) = 50 (1 + 0.67 ± j9. 250 (C) 0. 1000 16. 0. P6.4s.6 s.63 (C) -0. 0 (D) ¥. T( s) = e. Under damped 4.12s The correct match is 9. K .46 (D) -0. Overdamped 3.92 (B) -0.8 Consider the following response 1.69 (C) -1. T( s) = 5 ( s + 3)( s + 6) The position.4s (C) 0. The response of the system to a unit step input is (A) 1 + (C) 1 + 5 -50 t 2 -150 t e . The open-loop transfer function of a ufb control system is G( s) = K (1 + 2 s)(1 + 4 s) s 2 ( s 2 + 2 s + 8) The position.047 ± j0. a natural frequency of 200 rad/s and DC gain of 1.46 Statement for Q.97 (D) -0. T( s) = ( s + 10)( s + 20) 20 c.com 10( s + 7) b.1s)(1 + 10 s) 11. 0. ¥ www. 0 (C) 0. 4K (C) 0. ramp. 0 Page 345 .4s.25. 0 8 K 8 (D) ¥.Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.38 The step. The location of poles are (A) -0. 4 K .e 3 3 (B) -6.69 ± j0. 0. T( s) = 2 s + 6 s + 144 (B) 50. 1000. For a second-order system overshoot = 12 % and settling time = 0.88 ± j6.38 ± j6. 0 (D) 0.22s. A system is shown in fig. Undamped 2. The system is (A) overdamped (C) critically damped (B) under damped (D) None of the above 17.74 15.571 ± j1. Critically damped. 13. For a second order system settling time is Ts = 7 s and peak time is Tp = 3 s. For a second order system overshoot = 10% and peak time Tp = 5 s.22s (D) 0. (A) 0.74 ± j0.67 (C) -4. 12. 0. 0.e 3 3 1 -100 t 4 -400 t e .12–13: A system has a damping ratio of 1.88 (D) -6.46 ± j4.571 (B) -0. 0. P6. 50. The location of poles are (A) -9.3.4s (B) 0.3 8. 0 (B) 1000. ¥.97 ± j0. The location of poles are (A) -0. T( s) = s+2 s2 + 9 ( s + 5) ( s + 10) 2 Fig. 0.8.

20 steady state error is (A) 4 ´ 10 -4 (C) ¥ (B) 0 (D) 2 ´ 10 -5 (A) 16.67 (C) ¥ (B) 2 (D) 0 K v = 10 4 is (A) 4 (C) 8 (B) 0 (D) 16 22.gatehelp. P6.003.com .3. P6.4. The value of K is (A) 237 ´ 10 3 3 (A) (C) (B) 144 (D) 237 49 11 63 11 (B) (D) 49 11 63 11 (C) 14.14 (B) 6.016 3 (B) 1250.3. The steady state error for input of 8tu( t) is (A) 2.4 ´ 10 23. 2.4 ´ 10 G( s) = 20. 0. P6. The values of K 1 respectively and K 2 are If a unit ramp is applied. The transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = 10 5( s + 3)( s + 10)( s + 20) s( s + 25)( s + a)( s + 30) The value of a to yield velocity error constant The steady state error due to unit step input is 6 6 (A) (B) 7 5 2 (C) 3 (D) 0 26.22 the total steady state error due to a unit step input and a unit step disturbance is Page 346 www.4 (D) 463. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system D(s) is K2 s(s + 4) C(s) R(s) + K1(s + 2) (s + 3) + + G( s) = 1000( s 2 + 4 s + 20)( s 2 + 20 s + 15) s 3( s + 2)( s + 10) The system has r ( t) = t 3 applied to its input.3.000012 and steady state error component due to unit ramp input is 0. 3 3 (B) 237 (D) 144 (C) 14.18–19: The forward-path transfer function of a unity feedback system is G( s) = K s ( s + a) n D(s) R(s) + 1 (s + 5) + + 100 s(s + 2) C(s) Fig. A system has position error constant K p = 3. For the system shown in fig. 18. 1684 (C) 125 ´ 10 . The Fig. The transfer function for a single loop nonunity feedback control system is G( s) = 1 1 .25 (D) 7. The forward path transfer function of a ufb system is K s( s + 4)( s + 8)( s + 10) 19. For the system of fig.20 the steady state error component due to unit step disturbance is 0.22 The system has 10% overshoot and velocity error constant K v = 100. 3981 21. H ( s) = s2 + s + 2 ( s + 1) 25. The value of a is (A) 237 ´ 10 . the minimum possible steady-state error is (A) 0.3. P6.25 24.16 (C) 0.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems Statement for Q.

P6. then the value of K a and K t are (A) 86. t > 0.3.8 (B) 49.3.9 + Fig. P6.3.33–34: (B) 0.com Page 347 .3 27. The system shown in fig. P6. then steady state error is (A) 0.0 G( s) = 20( s + 3)( s + 4)( s + 8) s 2 ( s + 2)( s + 15) If input is 30 t 2 . In the system shown in fig.30.5.0 Statement for Q.3.3.28 (A) 0.3 (D) 43.4 (C) 24.3. r ( t) = 1 + 2 t. P6.1 (C) 1. 12.P6.Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.2 (D) 0 30.1s + 1) C(s) 28.1 to unit step input.9 (D) 9. P6. If the damping ratio of the system is increased to 0.5s + 1) C(s) 29.33–34. The forward path transfer function of a unity feedback system is G( s) = 1000 ( s + 20)( s 2 + 4 s + 10) If the 1 2 system is subjected to an input r ( t) = 1 + t + (A) 0 (C) 10 t 2 . A ufb control system has a forward path transfer function G( s) = 10(1 + 4 s) s 2 (1 + s) The type and order of the system are respectively (A) 7 and 5 (C) 4 and 7 (B) 4 and 5 (D) 7 and 4 www. The value of K is R(s) + K (s + 1)(0.1 (D) ¥ system will be For input of 60u( t) steady state error is (A) 0 (C) ¥ (B) 300 (D) 10 32. R(s) 1 s(0.33–34 The steady state errors for the test input 37tu( t) is (A) 0 (C) ¥ (B) 0. P6. P6.3.28 the transfer function is R(s) + E(s) G(s) C(s) Fig. For ufb system shown in fig. If K t = 0 and K a = 5. 6. 3.9375 (C) ¥ (B) 0 (D) 64 Block diagram of a position control system is shown in fig. A system has the following transfer function G( s) = 100( s + 15)( s + 50) s 4 ( s + 12)( s 2 + 3s + 10) (C) 0 31. 9. then the steady state error to unit ramp input is (A) 5 (C) ¥ (B) 0.7 without affecting the steady state error.061 (D) 609 33.30 (A) 1 5 (B) 5 (D) ¥ 35.32 has steady-state error 0. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb control system is G( s) = 450( s + 8)( s + 12)( s + 15) s( s + 38)( s 2 + 2 s + 28) + Ka + sKt Fig.3. The steady state error e( t) is equal to r(t) e(t) 10(s + 1) s2(s + 2) c(t) 34.32 Fig.gatehelp. t > 0 the steady state error of the (B) 0.

4 p = 0.8 9.88 Note : 32 .x2 = = 1047 . wn = 4 = 1192 .( -3 + j 4)}{ s . xTs 2 xwn = 2.e -10 t Rise time Tr = 4 = 0.6.j 4)} = ( s + 3) + 4 .59 Þ wn = 5 rad/s wn = p Tp 1 . xp 1 .6 2´5 Poles = .45 (1 . Therefore x = 106.8 x = 0.5 Therefore Poles = .25. . For 0 < x < 0.047 10. 14.6 = K 2 + 1 7. (A) T( s) = w2 = 4 n Þ 16 4 = ( 4 s 2 + 8 s + 16) ( s 2 + 2 s + 4) wn = 2 .571 ± j1. 2 xwn = 9 2 n a = 10. 5 = 0.Critically damped (e) Poles : Two real and same on negative real axis. For xwn x > 0. 6.com . (A) Characteristic equation is Ds = { s .05. w = 25 2 2 n Þ x = 0. Hence wn = 1.571.0.12 = e Þ x = 0. (A) T( s) = wn = 4.Undamped response (d) Poles : Two imaginary.22s a 10 c( t) = 1 .6 . n wd = 0. x= 6 = 0.x2 = 0. So response is over damped. (D) xwn = wn 1 .x2 r ( t) = 1 - 13. Page 349 2 xwn = 1 + K 2 x = 0. 2.69 2 ) R( s) = But the peak time Tp given is 1 sec. (B) 0.2 2. At x = 0.56. 2 8.45 0. 2.5 .6.10. 4.69.2 = = 0.46 ± j0. 100 x = 0.69 40000 w2 n = 2 2 s + 2 xwn s + wn s + 500 s + 40000 5.63 xp 1 . .4s a w = 18. Overdamped response (a.x2 = .xwn ± jwn 1 . (A) System has two different poles on negative real axis.779.( -3 . 1 K = 2 1 + G( s) s + 2 s + K wn = 1 = 1.x2 = . b) Poles : Two real and different on negative real axis.6 2 = 10 K 1 = 156. = s + 6 s + 25. (A) C( s) = Þ 10 1 1 = s( s + 10) s s + 10 2.0.5 ´ 0.Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. (D) Characteristic equation is s + 9 s + 18.69 12.x2 = 0.3 SOLUTIONS 1. Ts Tp Poles = . (A) 0. Þ K 2 = 14 M p = 1 = 100% .gatehelp. (B) T( s) = = 2 xwn = 2.x2 3. K1 . (D) M p = e xp 1-x T( s) = 2 = =3 Þ x = 0.x2 4.x2 11.0.0.6) 2 xwn = 0. 2 xwn = 6 . Underdamped response (c) Poles : Two complex in left half plane 3.1 = e 2 2 xp 1 . (A) 1.x2 1.24 rad/s Settling time Ts = 1 0. (C) T( s) = 2 s + ( K 2 + s) + K 1 w2 = K 1 . Hence these two specification cannot be met.xwn ± jwn 1 . wn = 12. www. wn 1 .69 Ts = xwn Ts = 4. wd = wn 1 . Tp = 40000 ( s + 100)( s + 400) 40000 1 4 1 = + s( s + 100)( s + 400) s 3( s + 100) 3( s + 400) 4 -100 t 1 -400 t e + e 3 3 p p p = = = 3 sec wd wn .6 6 ( s + 0.5 Þ 2 wn 3 = K 2 + 1 2 ´ 12.8) 2 + (0. Peak time. (A) M p = e xp 1 .67 ± j9.

system is stable for 0 < K < 2000 maximum K v = lim sG( s) = s ®0 20.6 22.016 16. K = 14400. (C) E( s) = R( s) .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 15.16 K v 6. (A) ess = lim s ®0 sR( s) . 25 4 ´ 8 ´ 10 1 1 = = 0. If D( s) = 1 . (D) ess K = 100. 0. s® ess = lim s ®0 K v = lim sG( s) × H ( s) = ¥ K a = lim s 2 G ( s) × H ( s) = s ®0 K 8 6 = 0 . (A) Using Routh-Hurwitz Criterion.x2 Þ x = 0.1 = = e T( s) = xp 1 .sD( s) G2 ( s) 1 + G1 ( s) G2 ( s) 1 s+5 and G2 ( s) = 100 s+2 G( s) K = 2 1 + G ( s) s + as + K w2 = K n Þ Þ 2 ´ 0. (D) H ( s) = 1. s s ®0 6s s4 = lim 2 s ®0 1000 ( s + 4 s + 20) ( s 2 + 20 s + 15) 1+ s 3( s + 2) ( s + 10) = lim s ®0 essD = lim sE( s) = lim s × s ®0 1 3 × TD( s) = lim TD( s) = s ®0 s 2 K1 3 = 0.000012 2 K1 Þ K 1 = 125 ´ 10 3 = 0+ 6 1000 ( s 2 + 4 s + 20) ( s 2 + 20 s + 15) s + ( s + 2) ( s + 10) 3 6 1000 ´20 ´15 2 ´10 = 4 ´ 10 -4 Error due to ramp input Page 350 www. s ®0 K p = lim G( s) × H ( s) = 50 s ®0 21.C( s) H ( s) = R( s) R( s) G( s) H ( s) R( s) = 1 + G( s) H ( s) 1 + G( s) H ( s) s s 2 3 K v = lim sG( s) × H ( s) = 0 K a = lim s 2 G( s) × H ( s) = 0. s4 E( s) = Error in output due to disturbance E( s) = TD( s) D ( s).25 R( s) 1 + G ( s) 24.com . R( s) = D( s) = 1- K ´ 0.003 125 ´ 10 3 K 2 17. a Þ a = 144 100 -49 2 = = 1 100 11 1+ ´ 5 2 14400 = 100 a 23.6 K = a K = 14400 where G1 ( s) = 1 s 2 xwn = a . (B) K p = lim G ( s) = 1000 s ®0 ess = lim sE( s) = lim s ®0 s ®0 K v = lim sG( s) = 0 K a = lim s 2 G( s) = 0 s ®0 s ®0 sR( s) . (A) R( s) = ess = lim sE( s) s ®0 6 .6 K = 100 2 19. (C) System type = 1. s ®0 18. (C) If R ( s) = 0 K2 s( s + 4) TD( s) = K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) 1+ s( s + 4)( s + 3) = K 2 ( s + 3) s( s + 3)( s + 4) + K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) minimum possible error 2000 = 6. G( s) = s2 s( s + 3)( s + 4) 1 6 = K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) K1 K 2 s+ ( s + 3)( s + 4) Þ K 2 = 0. (B) H ( s) = 1. 1 + G ( s) R( s) = K p = lim G( s) × H ( s) = ¥ s ®0 1 K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) .gatehelp. so n = 1 K v = lim sG( s) = s ®0 ess = lim sE( s) = lim s ®0 s ®0 K = 100 a 1 1 1+ 2 ( s + s + 2) ( s + 1) = For 10% overshoot.

. (C) System is type 2..5 s + 1 + K t ) ø è 1 + Kt = = 0.1 1 + Kp 1 + K Þ K = 9.7 2K a ess = lim s ®0 ess = 37 = 0.5 . = 10( s + 10) 11s + 132 s + 300 The system is of Type 0.0607 Kv . (C) The s has power of 4 and denominator has order of 7.G( s) 1 + 2 10 ( s + 10 ) s (s + 2 ) 10 ( s + 10 )( s + 3) s (s + 2 ) Note that you may calculate error from the formula ess ( t) = lim sE( s) = s ®0 sR( s) 1 + G( s) 32. H ( s) = 1.5 s + 1 + K t ) 1+ s(0. (A) K v = lim sG( s) s ®0 G( s) = Þ a=4 ess 1 = ¥ K v = 0.5 s + 1) s s× 26. R ( s) = 2 1 + Ge ( s) s G( s) R( s) 1 + G ( s) = R( s) 1 + G( s) ess = lim s ®0 ess 1 1 + Kt = Ka ö æ Ka ÷ s ç1 + ÷ ç s(0. (C) System is zero type 27. (C) The equivalent open-loop transfer function Ka Ka s(0. (A) K a = lim s 2 G( s) = 64 s ®0 ess = 30 ´ 2 = 0. Therefore error due to 1 + t t2 1 would be . 31.. ess = 60 = 10 1 + Kp 34. (D) K p = lim G( s) = 5 s ®0 1 1 s2 = lim = = 0. Hence step input will produce a sR( s) 1 + G( s) H ( s) constant error constant.. E( s) = R( s) .Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.1 10 For 8tu( t).5 s 2 + s(1 + K t ) + K a 28. s ®0 35.com Page 351 . 2 Ka .02 s ®0 w2 = 2 K a Þ wn = n 2 x wn = 2(1 + K t ) Kt x =1 + = 0.3 25.C( s) = R( s) 1 2 s+2 + = s s2 s2 s+2 E( s) = 10( s + 1) s2 + ( s + 2) R( s) = ess ( t) = lim sE( s) = 0 s ®0 sR( s) 1 . ess = ¥.2 s ®0 5 5 1+ s(0. would be zero and due to 2 Ka K a = lim s 2 G( s) = 10.gatehelp. 36. R( s) = 2 s(0.5 s + 1) Ge = = sK t s(0. 37. ess = 8 = 2. (A) For equivalent unit feedback system the forward transfer function is Ge = G( s) = 1 + G( s) H ( s) . ess = Kv 10 4 = 10 4 ´ 3 ´ 10 ´ 20 25 ´ a ´ 30 5 1 .(ii) Solving (i) and (ii) K a = 24. (D) For 8u( t). 1 + Kp ess ( t) = 1 = 0. K t = 39 . (B) ess = lim e( t) = lim sE( s) = lim t ®¥ s ®0 s ®0 When K t = 0 and K a = 5 www. since the system is type 0.5 s + 1 ) For input 60u( t). (C) The system is type 2. 33. So Type 4 and Order 7.5 s + 1) T( s) = = G( s) Ka = 1 + G( s) 0.9375 64 2K a s 2 + 2 s(1 + K t ) + 2 K a 2K a 29. (B) K v = lim sG( s) = 609. (D) K p = lim G( s) = K s ®0 1 1 ess ( t) = = = 0. (i) 30. Thus to step and ramp input error will be zero.

5 ÐG ( jw) -119° -128° -142° -156° -164° -172° -180° the phase cross-over frequency is (A) 0.com 2. P6.5 -270o -225o -20 dB -30 dB -135 o -90o -45o 1. P6.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6. A. D (D) A. B.1–2: An under damped second order system having a transfer function of the form T( s) = Kw2 n 2 s + 2 xwn s + w2 n 4. P6.4 Fig.8 3.4 1.5.4 |G ( jw)| 8.63 Fig.8 2. P6. The correct sequence of the increasing order of stability of these four system will be dB A 40 dB 30 dB 20 dB 10 dB B C D has a frequency response plot shown in fig.0 wn w Fig.5 rad/sec (C) 1.5. The gain-phase plots of open-loop transfer function of four different system are shown in fig.732 rad/sec Page 362 (B) 0. The system gain K is (A) 1 (C) 2 (B) 2 (D) 1 2 5.56 1. D (B) A.00 0. C.gatehelp.5.1-2 (A) D. The open-loop frequency response of a feedback system is shown in following table w 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 www.4.707 rad/sec (D) 2 rad/sec . For the transfer function G( s) H ( s) = 1 s( s + 1)( s + 0. P6.5 FREQUENCY-DOMAIN ANALYSIS Statement for Q.4 4. The damping factor x is approximately (A) 0. A (C) B. C. B.5.5) (B) 0.2 (D) 2. |T( jw )| 2.5 6. C unity 1.5.6 (C) 1. B.1–2. C. D.

19. P6.18 Fig. P6.20 0d dB / B/ de (A) (C) Fig.20 represent dB 100 dB 17. P6. P6.1s) 3 100 s 2 (1 + 0.1s) 3 1000 s 2 (1 + 0. The transfer function is 16.17 100 s 2 (1 + 0. P6.com . P6.1 2 5 25 (C) Fig.1 T 1 T w 0 dB 0.1 T 1 T w (C) (D) None of the above -40 dB/dec 19.5. P6.gatehelp.1 w2 10 -40 dB/dec w -60 dB/dec 8 s( s + 2) (A) ( s + 5)( s + 10) w Fig.1s) 5 (B) (D) 1000 s 2 (1 + 0.5. Its transfer function is dB 54 dB -40 dB/dec -60 dB/dec -40 dB/dec dB 32 -20 dB/dec 6 w1 -20 dB/dec 0.1 T 10 T w -45 w °/d ec Fig.5. P6. P6.5. For the Bode plot shown in fig.16 4( s + 2) s( s + 5)( s + 10) 50( s + 5) (A) 2 s ( s + 2)( s + 25) (C) 10 s 2 ( s + 5) ( s + 2)( s + 25) (B) (D) 20( s + 5) s 2 ( s + 2)( s + 25) 20( s + 5) s( s + 2)( s + 25) 20. Consider the asymptotic Bode plot of a minimum (C) (D) phase linear system given in fig.21-22 Page 364 www. The asymptotic approximation of the log-magnitude versus frequency plot of a certain system is shown in fig. The Bode plot shown in fig. Bode plot of a stable system is shown in the fig.5. P6.5.1s) 5 -2 0 100 s (A) ( s + 4)( s + 10) 2 (C) 100 ( s + 4)( s + 10) (B) (D) 100( s + 4) s( s + 10) 2 100 s ( s + 4)( s + 10) 2 18. P6. The open-loop transfer function of the ufb system is dB c Statement for Q. dB Phase -20 dB/dec 20 dB -20 dB/dec 1 T w 0.5.5.5. P6.5.19 (B) (D) 4( s + 5) ( s + 2)( s + 10) 8 s( s + 5) ( s + 2)( s + 10) 0.18.21–22.21–22: The Bode plot of the transfer function K (1 + sT) is given in the fig.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System dB -20 dB/dec dB (A) -20 dB/dec 100 s + 10 1 s + 10 (B) 10 s + 10 0 dB 0.17 the transfer function is dB 4 10 w -60 dB/dec 40 dB/dec 0 dB w = 10 w -4 de c Fig.3.5.16.

gatehelp. P6. the Nyquist plot will cross the negative real axis at the point (A) s = -0. P6. which the Nyquist plot approaches as w ® 0.com .1 (B) s = -0.483 (B) 0. j0) point.1) 36. Consider a ufb system whose open-loop transfer function is G( s) = K s( s 2 + 2 s + 2) (C) (D) 31.2 (D) s = -0.05 (C) s = -0.29–30: Consider the Bode plot of a ufb system shown in fig. The gain margin of the system is (A) less than zero (C) zero 32.01 w= 0 Re w=¥ Re w= 0 (C) (D) 34.639 (B) 0.29–30.063 (C) 0.2 (D) ¥ 35. dB 32 dB 18 dB 0 dB 0.1 Im 2 2 Im w=¥ w= 0 Re w=¥ w= 0 Re -20 dB/dec -40 dB/dec w1 w (A) Im 2 2 (B) Im Fig. is (A) -90 ° (C) 180° (B) 90° (D) -45 ° w=¥ 33.5. The Nyquist plot of a open-loop transfer function G( jw) H ( jw) of a system encloses the ( -1.29-30 w= 0 w=¥ Re w= 0 w=¥ Re 29.25 (C) 0 30.5. The damping ratio is (A) 0. The open loop transfer function of a system is G( s) H ( s) = K (1 + s) 2 s3 The Nyquist plot will be of the form The Nyquist plot for this system is Page 366 www.179 (D) 0. If the gain margin of a certain feedback system is given as 20 dB. The steady state error corresponding to a ramp input is (A) 0.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System Statement for Q. The transfer function of an open-loop system is G( s) H ( s) = s+2 ( s + 1)( s . Consider a ufb system G( s) = K s(1 + sT1 )(1 + sT2 )(1 + sT3) (B) greater than zero (D) infinity The Nyquist plot for this system is Im Im w=¥ Re w=¥ Re w= 0 w= 0 (A) Im Im (B) The angle of asymptote.

5.5.gatehelp. The Nyquist plot of a system is shown in fig.Frequency-Domain Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.38. The Nyquist plot for this system is Im w= 0 w=¥ w=¥ Re w=¥ Re Re w=¥ Re w= 0 w= 0 (A) Im Im (B) (A) Im (B) Im w=¥ w=¥ Re w=¥ Re Re w=¥ Re w= 0 w= 0 w= 0 w= 0 (C) (C) (D) 38.5 Im Im w= 0 w= 0 Im w=¥ Re w=¥ Re 10.com Page 367 . One closed-loop poles is lying on the RHP www.64 w=¥ w= 0 Re (A) Im Im (B) Fig. P6. The open-loop transfer function is G( s) H ( s) = 4s + 1 s ( s + 1)(2 s + 1) 2 (D) 40. Regarding the system consider the statements 1. Closed-loop system is unstable 3. P6.39–40: (D) The open-loop transfer function of a feedback control system is -1 2 s(1 . Open-loop system is stable 2.20 s) (C) 37. For the certain unity feedback system K G( s) = s( s + 1)(2 s + 1)( 3s + 1) The Nyquist plot is Im Im Im w= 0 G( s) H ( s) = 39.38 The no. of poles of closed loop system in RHP are w=¥ w=¥ Re Re (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 D) 4 w= 0 w= 0 Statement for Q.

The Nyquist plot shown in the fig.414 rad/sec. The Nyquist plot for the system is Im w= 0 w=¥ 2 3 Im w=¥ Re w= 0 3 2 Re (A) (B) www.38 rad/sec 46.42–43: The open-loop transfer function of a feedback system is G( s) H ( s) = K (1 + s) (1 .s) (B) type–1 system (D) type–3 system w= 0 w= 0 (C) (D) 45.6 ° (A) Im Im (B) **************** w= 0 w=¥ Re w= 0 w=¥ Re (C) 43. -168.5 ° (B) -3.com Page 368 . The Nyquist plot of this system is Im Im (D) 0.6 ° (D) 3.414 rad/sec. 0.52 dB.gatehelp.5 ° (C) 3. 11. -168.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System The correct statements are (A) 1 and 2 (C) only 2 (B) 1 and 3 (D) All -2 3 Im w=¥ -3 2 Im w=¥ Re Re 41. 0.707 rad/sec. The system is stable for K (A) K > 1 (C) any value of K Statement for Q. P6.52 dB.57 rad/sec 42.41 is for (A) type–0 system (C) type–2 system Statement for Q. The gain margin and phase margin are w= 0 w=¥ Re w= 0 w=¥ Re (A) -3.52 dB.38 rad/sec (C) 0.707 rad/sec. 1. 11. The phase crossover and gain crossover frequencies are (A) 1.5. 1.52 dB.57 rad/sec (B) 1.44–46: (B) K < 1 (D) (D) unstable A unity feedback system has open-loop transfer function G( s) = 1 s(2 s + 1)( s + 1) 44.

7. 9.Frequency-Domain Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. = 15 = 35 dB 3. . = 180 ° + ÐGH ( jw1 ) = 180 °-120 ° = 60 ° 15. (B) The peak value of T( jw) occurs when the denominator of function |T( jw)| is minimum i.M.tan -1 w At phase cross over point f = -180 ° . P6. Gain cross over frequency w =10 rad/sec.63 At unity gain phase is -172 °.w2 = 0 n 2 Þ 2 4 n 4 n w = wn Þ K |T( jwn )| = = 2.tan -1 w . 5. Phase margin = 180 °-172 ° = 8 ° 6. Slope increases to -40 T 1 dB/decade. |T( j0)| = 1 |T( j0)| 2 = Þ K =1 For 20 dB gain Nyquist plot should intersect at b.04 Kw2 n T( jw) = -w2 + 2 jxwn w + w2 n |T( jw)| 2 = K w ( w . (D) For 28 dB gain Nyquist plot intersect the real axis at a.w ) + 4 x2 w2 w2 n 2 4 n 2 n 2 2 4 K 2 wn = K2 =1 4 wn From the fig. Thus phase margin is ¥. More magnitude more stability. (B) G( jw) H ( jw) = 1 jw( jw + 1)(0. T2 = -1 2.1 = 2. = 1 1 = =2 GH ( jwp) 1 2 14.5. for any value of w.tan -1 2 wp . Hence phase margin is 180 °-140 ° = 40 °. At 0 dB gain phase is -140 °. T1 = 1.com in dB < 0. Page 369 . At w = . 8.M.5. Hence gain margin is 1 = 20 log = 4 dB 0.2 5 1 2 -1 é KT1 T2 ù é(2)(0.5 + jw) 11.tan -1 2 w .41 rad/s 12. T over frequency wp = 100 rad/sec. (A) At w = 100 rad/sec phase is 180°.(2 w)( w) 1 .707 rad/sec -90 °. 1 20 log = 28 a Þ a = 0. (B) For a stable system gain at 180° phase must be negative in dB. |G( jw)| » KT < 1 .5 SOLUTIONS 1.5 ú û ë û . when 2 w2 . (A) At ÐG( jw) = 180 ° gain is -2 dB. Hence gain margin is 2 dB. (A) G.tan -1 2 w . At s = jw = .gatehelp.5) ù Gain Margin = ê =ê T1 + T2 ú ë 1 + 0. 1 20 log = 20 Þ b = 0.6 w2 = 0 p Þ wp = 0. (B) Here K = 2. b This is achieved if the system gain is increased by factor 0. (A) T( s) = Kw2 n s + 2 xwn s + w2 n 2 At w = 10 rad/sec gain is 0 dB. (D) Due to pole at origin initial plot has a slope of 1 -20 dB/decade. Phase cross- s+1 s+1 = s(1 + 0.tan -1 3wp = -180 ° tan -1 2 wp + tan -1 3wp = 90 ° 2 wp + 3wp = tan 90 ° 1 .04 10. These are the corner frequencies. 0. Thus K = 2.5 2x K w K2 |T( jwn )| = 2 = 2 4x w 4x x= K = 0. (D) |GH( jw)|¹ 1.90 ° = -180 ° tan -1 2 w + tan -1 w = 90 ° 2w + w = tan 90 ° = ¥ 1 .5.(2 w) w = 0 Þ w= 1 2 = 0.63.(2 wp)( 3wp) 1 .Gain www.e. (B) P. (C) At 180° gain is 0. 13.5 s) æs ö sç + 1 ÷ è2 ø The Bode plot of this function has break at w = 1 and w = 2.1. (C) For phase crossover frequency ÐGH ( jw) = -180 ° GH ( jw) = K jw(1 + 2 jw)(1 + 3 jw) f = -90 °. (D) G( s) = 4.1–2.

90 °.Frequency-Domain Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. j0). (C) Initially slope is -20 dB/decade.90 ° w ®0 w ®0 jw w ®0 w Hence. K p = 100.com Page 371 . 1 1 .Z . GH ( jw) = 0 Ð . S6. (B) GH ( s) = 2 ( s .360 °. 20 log K = 6 Þ K = 2. Nyquist path enclosed 2 times the point ( -1 + j0).270 ° ÐGH ( jw) = 180 °-90 ° .4 4 At w = ¥ At w = 1.w2 K w (2 .1 GH ( jw) = 2. N = P .270 ° For w = 1 . -2 = 0 .01 GH ( jw) = 49 Ð9115 ° . 35.270 °. GH ( jw) = 2 Ð .tan -1 2 w . For w = ¥.90 °. 2 s(1 .1) jw + 2 GH ( jw) = ( -1 . 20 log K p = 40.5.tan -1 3w . GH ( jw) = ¥Ð . Hence (C) is correct option. phase goes -270 ° to -90 °. S6. estep ( ¥) = = 1 + K p 101 29. www.5.6 °. 33.4) 31. 5 K 2 18 Ð . 1 -1 .24 Ð153. (B) G( s) H ( s) = GH ( jw) = 1 2 w 1 + 400 w2 -20 w . 37. s+2 34. Taking clockwise encirclements as negative N = -2. (A) |GH ( jw)| = K 1 + w2 1 + 4 w2 1 + 9 w2 .25 Kv 4 |GH( jw)| = K (1 + w2 ) w3 ÐGH ( jw) = -270 °+ 2 tan -1 w For w = 0.29 x = 2 = = 0.5.5 1. (A) The Bode plot is as shown in fig.43° At w = 0. 28.1 0. GH ( jw) = -20 dB/dec -40 dB/dec Due to s there will be a infinite semicircle.w2 ) 2 + 4 w2 GH ( jw) = ¥ Ð . At w = 2. GH ( jw) = 0 Ð .tan -1 GH ( jw) = At w = 0.1. the system is unstable and gain margin is negative. 39.90 ° As w increases from 0 to ¥.20 s) Since system is stable. (B) GH ( jw) = K (1 + jw) 2 ( jw) 3 Fig.29 K v = 4. (C) 20 log 1 = 10 GH ( jw) 1 = 20 GH ( jw) Þ GH ( jw) = 0. Z = 2 which implies that two poles of closed-loop system are on RHP.29 32 dB 18 dB 0 dB 0. Hence there is a pole at origin and system type is 1.1 ÐGH ( jw) = -90 °.w2 ) At w = 0 .(A) GH ( jw) = jw(1 + jwT1 )(1 + jwT2 ) (1 + jwT2 ) K K lim GH ( jw) = lim = lim Ð . Due to s 3 term there will be 3 infinite semicircle. Hence (A) is correct option.5 w 30. ÐGH ( jw) = . For type–1 system position error coefficient is ¥. w 36.tan -1 w . (B) From fig.179 2 w3 2(1. At w = ¥. (C) GH ( jw) = K jw( -w + 2 jw + 2) 2 At w = 0. ÐGH ( jw) = -180 ° For w = ¥. it will cross at s = -0. eramp ( ¥) = 1 1 = = 0.Z. For w = 0.tan -1 At w = 0 GH ( jw) = ¥Ð90 ° At w = ¥ GH ( jw) = 0 Ð180 ° Hence (B) is correct option. the asymptote of the Nyquist plot tends to an angle of -90 ° as w ® 0. 2w . GH ( jw) = ¥Ð .gatehelp. K GH ( jw) = Ð . 0.206.43°.5 27.180 ° GH ( jw) = 0 Ð . (C) The open-loop poles in RHP are P = 0. (A) If Nyquist plot encloses the point ( -1. 38. K 32. GH ( jw) = 0 Ð .S6.153.90 ° 2 . (B) The system is type –0.

270 ° 2( jw) 3 lim GH ( jw) = lim w w ®¥ w ®¥ The intersection with the real axis can be calculated as Im{ GH ( jw)} = 0. Hence phase crossover frequency is at w = 2 wp = Page 372 1 2 = 0.57 .57) = -168.42 ° Phase margin = -168. w = 0. 42. 2 43.326. Z = P . (C) The Nyquist plot crosses the negative real axis 1 rad/sec.S6.tan -1 2(0. . -w 1 w (1 + w ) (1 + 4 w ) = 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 w2 = 0.90 ° jw 1 = 0 Ð .1) = 0 i. Thus open-loop system is unstable and P = 1.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 40. Hence there are 2 closed-loop poles on the RHP and system is unstable. 1 s(2 s + 1)( s + 1) 1 jw(2 jw + 1)( jw + 1) w ®0 *************** GH ( jw) = lim GH ( jw) = lim w ®0 1 = ¥Ð . At w = ¥ GH ( jw) = KÐ180 °.6 ° Note that system is stable.42 °+180 ° = 11.57 rad/sec 46. Which represent single pole at origin. The condition gives w (2 w2 . Hence only possible option is (D). (D) |GH ( jw)| = K 1 + w2 1 + w2 =K The frequency at which magnitude unity is Im -2 3 -1 wp w1 Re Phase Margin Fig. s(2 s + 1)( s + 1) H ( s) = 1 ÐGH ( jw) = -90 °.com . = 20 log Gain Margin = 20 log 1 |GH( jwp)| . There is one clockwise encirclement.( -1) = 2.tan -1 At w = 0 GH ( jw) = KÐ0 °. (C) One open-loop pole is lying on the RHP. (B) There is one infinite semicircle. Phase at this frequency is ÐGH ( jw1 ) = -90 °.N Þ N =1 There must be one anticlockwise rotation of point ( -1 + j0). 45. It is possible when K > 1. www. Z = 0. 44.tan -1 w . (C) G( s) = GH ( s) = 1 . Z = P .N . (A) RHP poles of open-loop system P = 1.44 ÐGH ( jw) = tan -1 w . For closed loop system to be stable. At w = 1 GH ( jw) = KÐ90 °.tan -1 0.gatehelp. At unit gain w1 = 0. æ 1 ö -2 GH ç j ÷= 2ø 3 è With the above information the plot in option (C) is correct. So system type is1. 1 2 .e. w1 = 0. 41.M.707 rad/sec. (D) G. At w = 2 GH ( jw) = KÐ127 °. 0 = 1 . Hence N = -1.5.57 rad/sec.tan -1 2 w . So gain margin and phase margin are positive value.N = 1 . |GH( jwp)| = 2 3 3 = 352 dB.

PD–controller 4. Q. Derivative control (A) has the same effect as output rate control (B) reduces damping (B) b and c (D) all (A) (B) (C) www. Consider the List–I (Transfer function) and List–II (Controller) List I P. A lag compensation network (a) increases the gain of the original network without affecting stability. Less stable 4. More damping (B) PI controller (D) PID controller 1 + 0. The transfer function (A) Lag network (B) Lead network (C) Lag–lead network (D) Proportional controller 4. R.com List II 1. which are correct (A) a and b (C) b. Rate feed back control S. the suitable controller will be (A) P controller (C) PD controller 3. If stability error for step input and speed of response be the criteria for design. (b) reduces the steady state error.5 s represent a 1+ s The correct match is P (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 4 2 1 Q 2 3 3 2 R 3 1 1 4 S 4 2 4 3 7. In the above statements. c. S.6 DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS 1. The term ‘reset control’ refers to (A) Integral control (C) Proportional control (B) Derivative control (D) None of the above (C) is predictive in nature (D) increases the order of the system 6.gatehelp.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6. (c) reduces the speed of response (d) permits the increase of gain of phase margin is acceptable. Derivative control Q. and d 5. Improved overshoot response 2. PID–controller The correct match is P 3 4 3 4 Q 4 3 2 1 R 2 1 1 2 S 1 2 4 3 Page 373 (D) . Consider the List I and List II List I P. Proportional control 2. K1s + K2 K 3s K1 K 2s List II 1. Integral control R. Less steady state errors 3. PI–controller 3. P–controller 2.

A Lag network for compensation normally consists of (A) R. The poll–zero jw (B) Two–position controller (C) Floating controller (D) Proportional–position controller 14. the best controller is (A) Single–position controller Page 374 (D) R only . The transfer function of a phase compensator is given by (1 + aTs) (1 + Ts) where a > 1 and T > 0. A lead compensating network (a) improves response time (b) stabilizes the system with low phase margin (c) enables moderate increase in gain without affecting stability. correct are (A) (a) and (b) (B) (a) and (c) (D) All æ a -1ö (B) sin -1 ç ç a + 1÷ ÷ è ø (D) cos -1 (C) (a). band width and undamped frequency are respectively (A) decreased. gain crossover frequency. the advantage of pole– zero cancellation is (A) The system order is increased (B) The system order is reduced (C) The cost of controller becomes low (D) System’s error reduced to optimum levels 11. decreased. A proportional controller leads to (A) infinite error for step input for type 1 system (B) finite error for step input for type 1 system (C) zero steady state error for step input for type 1 system (D) zero steady state error for step input for type 0 system 12. decreased (D) increased. increased (C) increased. decreased configuration of a jw phase–lead (B) increased. The correct statements are (A) (a) and (c) (C) (a) and (d) (B) (b) and (c) (D) (b) and (d) 16. the value of a should be (A) greater than 1 (B) between 0 and 1 (C) exactly equal to 1 (D) exactly equal to 0 9. decreased compensator is given by (A) (B) s s 15. For an electrically heated temperature controlled liquid heater. In case of phase–lag compensation used is system. A process with open–loop model (C) jw (D) s jw s G( s) = Ke . (c) and (d) æ a -1ö ç ç a + 1÷ ÷ è ø æ a -1ö ç ç a + 1÷ ÷ è ø 17. While designing controller.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 8. increased. decreased.com 13. For this purpose 10. The transfer function of a compensating network is of form (1 + aTs) (1 + Ts). The maximum phase shift provided by a such compensator is æ a + 1ö (A) tan -1 ç ç a -1÷ ÷ è ø (C) tan -1 (A) the derivative mode improves transient performance (B) the derivative mode improves steady state performance (C) the integral mode improves transient performance (D) the integral mode improves steady state performance. If this is a phase–Lag network. L and C elements (B) R and L elements (C) R and C elements www.s TD ts + 1 is controlled by a PID controller.gatehelp. increased. (d) increases resonant frequency In the above statements.

18 (A) PID controller (B) PD controller (C) Integrator (D) Lag–lead compensating network 19.6. (D) 4. (A) 14. (D) 7. (D) 21. The pole–zero plot given in fig. (D) 6. insert derivative action (B) reduce gain. P6.Design of Control Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. (A) 8. (C) 20. (D) 19. (C) 18. (A) 12.gatehelp. use negative feedback. 20. (A) 2. The correct sequence of steps needed to improve system stability is (A) reduce gain. An ON–OFF controller is a (A) P controller (B) PID controller (C) integral controller (D) non linear controller ********** 11. reduce gain. (D) Fig.6. (B) 10. (B) 15. (D) 9. (B) 17.P6. reduce gain (D) use negative feedback. (D) 5.18 is that of a jw s SOLUTIONS 1. use negative feedback. use negative feedback (C) insert derivative action. In a derivative error compensation (A) damping decreases and setting time decreases (B) damping increases and setting time increases (C) damping decreases and setting time increases (D) damping increases and setting time decreases 21. insert derivative action. (B) 13.6 18. (D) www. (C) 3. (C) 16.com Page 375 . insert derivative action.

4 Fig. é-1 0 2 ù (B) ê 0 2 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë 3 0 0û é2 0 -1ù (D) ê0 2 0 ú ê ú 3ú ê0 0 ë û 1 s x2 1 1 s 2 x1 5 y 1 1 s -3 x3 1 1 s x2 1 1 s -4 x1 1 y Fig. P6.2–4: Represent the given system in state-space & equation x = A ×x + B× u. Consider the SFG shown in fig. Choose the correction option for matrix A.3 é 1 0 -2 ù (A) ê 0 -2 0ú ê ú 0û ê ú ë-3 0 0 1ù é-2 (C) ê 0 -2 0 ú ê ú 0 -3ú ê 0 ë û 4. P6. P6. 2.1 For this & é x1 ù é3 & (A) ê x2 ú = ê0 ê ú ê ê& ú ê ë x3 û ë 3 system dynamic equation is 1 2 ù é x1 ù é0 ù 1 1ú ê x2 ú + ê0 ú u úê ú ê ú 2 1û ë x3 û ë1 û úê ú ê ú 5 1 s 1 x2 1 x3 5 -2 1 s x1 5 y & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 (B) & 2 0 1ú ê x2 ú + ê0 ú u ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë-3 -2 -1û ë x3 û ë1 û & é x1 ù é0 -1 0 ù é x1 ù é0 ù ê x ú = ê0 0 -1ú ê x ú + ê0 ú u (C) & 2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú & ú ê 1û ë x3 û ë1 û x3 û ë 3 2 ê úê ú ê ú ë (D) None of the above Statement for Q.com .7.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6. 1 u -2 1 s -3 -2 x3 5 u u 1 -2 1 s -3 Fig.7 THE STATE-VARIABLE ANALYSIS 1.7.7.2 Page 376 www.1 u 1 1 s -1 -2 -3 x3 1 s x2 1 s x1 1 y 1 0ù é-2 ê 0 -2 0 ú (A) ê ú 0 -3û ê ú ë 0 1 -2 ù é 2 ê 0 -2 (C) 0ú ê ú 0ú ê ë-3 0 û 3. P6. é2 -1 0 ù (B) ê0 2 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë0 0 3û é0 -1 2 ù (D) ê0 2 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë3 0 0 û Fig. P6.7.7.gatehelp.

C = [1 0 0 ] A= 0 1 ê ú ê ú -1 -2 -3û ê ú ê ú ë ë1 û 11.338 ± j0.cos 2 t ù (D) ê sin 2 t ú ëcos 2 t û 5.5 sin 2 t û ésin 2 t ù (B) ê ú ëcos 2 t û écos 2 t ù (D) ê ú ësin 2 t û écos 2 t .e.662 ± j0.11–13: A system is described by the dynamic equations & x( t) = A ×x ( t) + B ×u( t).338 ± j0.cos 2 t sin 2 t û 9.325.sin 2 t cos 2 t û é sin 2 t cos 2 t ù (C) ê ú ë. (C) écos 2 t . The state equation of a LTI system is é-3 0 ù é0 ù & x =ê ú x + ê1 ú u ë 0 -3û ë û The state-transition matrix F( t) is ée -3t (A) ê ë0 é-e -3t (C) ê ë 0 0 ù ú e -3t û 0 ù ú -e -3t û é-e -3t (B) ê ë 0 ée -3t (D) ê ë0 0 ù ú e -3t û 0 ù ú -e -3t û Statement for Q.t (B) ê ë 0 é1 .662 ± j0.cos 2 t ù (D) ê sin 2 t ú ëcos 2 t û (D) None of the above 13.t 0 ù (A) ê ú 0 1 .sin 2 t) ù (A) ê ú ë 0. where F( t ) is a state transition matrix and q( t ) is a vector matrix. B = ê0 ú.t û ë é 1 (C) ê -t ë1 .8–9: The state-space representation of a system is given & by x( t) = A ×x ( t) + B ×u( t).sin 2 t ù (B) ê cos 2 t ú ësin 2 t û ésin 2 t . 0.5(1 . The output transfer function Y ( s) U ( s) is (A) s( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (C) ( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (B) s( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s . where é0 ù é 0 2ù A =ê ú. 1. then the state transition equation is given by & x( t) = F( t )x (0) + q( t ). the state-transition matrices can be é -e .sin 2 t ù (B) ê cos 2 t ú ësin 2 t û ésin 2 t . B = ê1 ú ë û ë-2 0 û If x(0) is the initial state vector. . + 1 (C) -1.562 12. The F( t ) is é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù (A) ê ú ë.1) -1 (D) None of the above Page 377 www. From the following matrices.t ù ú e.t û e.t ú û é1 .t û 6. The state equation of a LTI system is represented by 1ù é 0 é0 1ù & x =ê x+ê úu -2 -1ú ë û ë1 0 û The Eigen values are (A) -1. The transfer-function relation between X ( s) and U ( s) is (A) é 1ù 1 ê -s ú s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s .e .1 (B) -0.gatehelp. The q( t ) is é0.562 (D) -0.cos 2 t sin 2 t û Statement for Q.e 0ù e.com .562 (C) -2.325.4 1 0 ù (C) ê 0 0 1ú ê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -3û é 0 -1 4 ù (B) ê-1 0 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë 3 0 0û é4 . The Eigen values of A are (A) 0.325.1 ê 2 ú ê ú ës û é 1ù 1 ê -s ú s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 ú ês ú ë û (B) é 1ù 1 ê sú s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 ú ê ú ës û 7.5 ± j1. The state equation of a LTI system is é 0 2ù é0 ù & x =ê ú x + ê1 ú u ë-2 0 û ë û The state transition matrix is é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù (A) ê ú ë. -1.e .t (D) ê ë 0 0ù ú e.cos 2 t) ù (C) ê ú ë 0.325.5(1 . -0. and the component of the input vector u( t) are all unit step function.sin 2 t cos 2 t û é sin 2 t cos 2 t ù (C) ê ú ë. y( t) = C × x( t) where 1 0ù é 0 é0 ù ê 0 ú.7 é 0 1 -4 ù (A) ê 1 0 0ú ê ú 0û ê ú ë-3 0 é.5 cos 2 t û é0.1 0 ù (D) ê0 0 -1ú ê ú 3û ê ú ë0 0 8.562 (B) 2.The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.323 (D) None of the above 10.

0 0 1ú ê 0 ú ê100 ú 7 10 20 ú û ë û 1 0 (D) None of the above 15. The A . For the transfer function Y ( s) s+3 = U ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2) & The state model is given by x = A ×x + B× u. y( t) = C × x( t) where é-1 0 ù é1 ù A =ê ú. y = C × x. C are www.1]x. A system is described by the dynamic equation & x( t) = A ×x ( t) + B ×u( t). and x(0) = ê ú -2 0 ú ë û ë1 û The time response of this system will be 3 (A) sin 2t (B) sin 2 t 2 (C) 1 2 sin 2 t (D) 3 sin 2 t (C) (D) Statement for Q. B = ê0 ú and C = [1 1] ë 0 -2 û ë û The output transfer function Y ( s) U ( s) is (A) (C) ( s + 1) ( s + 2) 2 ( s + 2) ( s + 1) (B) s+1 s+2 & é x1 ù é0 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù ê x ú = ê0 0 (C) & 2 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë9 26 24 û ë x3 û ë24 û & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 (D) & 2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê-9 -26 -24 ú ê x3 ú ê24 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û 18. A state-space representation of a system is given by é 0 1ù é0 ù & x =ê x. Choose the state variable as follows x1 = c = y. x3 = 2 = && . B. d c d c dc & c c = c . y( t) = [1 1]x( t) ë 0 -2 û ë û The transfer function of this system is (A) ( s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (C) s( s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (B) ( s + 2) -1 (D) ( s + 1) -1 é 0 ê 0 & (A) x = ê ê 0 ê100 ë y = [1 0 0 0 ]x 1 0 0 ù é 0 é 0 ù ê 0 ú ê 0 ú 0 1 0 & úx + ê úr (B) x = ê 0 0 1 ú ê 0 ê 0 ú ê-100 -7 -10 -20 ú ê ú ë û ë100 û y = [1 0 0 0 ]x 1 é0 ê0 0 & (C) x = ê ê0 0 ê20 10 ë 0 ù é0 ù ú ê0 ú 0 úx + ê úr 0 1 ú ê0 ú ú ê1 ú 7 100 û ë û 0 1 16. C( s) 100 = 4 R( s) s + 20 s 3 + 10 s2 + 7 s + 100 0ù é 0 ù ú ê 0 ú 0 1 0 úx + ê ú r.17–18: Determine the state-space representation for the transfer function given in question. x4 = 2 = &&& dt dt dt 2 3 C( s) 24 = 3 R( s) s + 9 s 2 + 26 s + 24 & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 (A) & 2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë-24 -26 -9 û ë x3 û ë24 û & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ê x ú = ê 0 0 1ú ê x ú + ê 0 ú r (B) & 2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë24 26 9 û ë x3 û ë24 û Page 378 20.gatehelp. The state-space representation for a system is 1 0ù é 0 é10 ù & x =ê 0 0 1ú x + ê 0 ú u. x2 = 17.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 14.com . y = [1 0 0 ]x ê ú ê ú ê ú ê ú ë-1 -2 -3û ë0 û The transfer function Y ( s) U ( s) is (A) 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 1) s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 2) s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 (B) 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 1) s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 1 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 2) s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 1 y = [100 0 0 0 ]x 1 0 0 ù é 0 é0 ù ú ê0 ú ê 0 0 1 0 & úx + ê úr (D) x = ê 0 0 1 ú ê0 ú ê 0 ê-20 -10 -7 -100 ú ê ú ë û ë1 û y = [100 0 0 0 ]x 19. y = [1 . The state-space representation of a system is given by é-1 0 ù é1ù & x( t) = ê ú x( t) + ê1ú u( t).

x = ê ú ê ú ê ú ê ú ë -1 0 0 û ë1 û estep ( ¥) (A) 0 (B) ¥ (C) 0 (D) ¥ Statement for Q. The controllability matrix for this system is 10 ù 1 -2 ù é 10 -10 é0 (A) ê-10 (B) ê1 -1 0 -20 ú 1ú ê ú ê ú 40 û 4û ê ú ê ú ë 10 -20 ë1 . P6.37-38 4 1 1 s x2 -21 4 -5 1 s x1 5 u -2 1 x1 1 y 1 2ù é0 (D) ê1 -1 1ú ê ú ê1 .0976 (C) 0 (D) ¥ eramp ( ¥) 0 ¥ 1.com u y é 1 2ù (D) ê ú ë-2 -4 û Fig.0976 1. The state and output equation for this system is & éx ù é x ù é0 -1ù é x ù é0 ù (A) ê 1 ú = ê 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u. The system is (A) Controllable and observable (B) Controllable only (C) Observable only (D) None of the above Page 380 www. P6.7.31-33 1 1 s -5 -6 x2 1 s eramp ( ¥) 0.2 4 ú ë û Fig. The observability matrix is é1 0 ù é 1 -2 ù (A) ê (B) ê 0 1ú 4ú ë û ë-2 û é1 0 ù (C) ê ú ë0 -1û 33. The system is (A) Controllable and observable (B) Controllable only (C) Observable only (D) None of the above Statement for Q.0976 Statement for Q. P6.34–36: Consider the system shown in fig.4 .2 ë û ë û 10 ù é 10 -10 (C) ê-10 0 20 ú ê ú ê 10 -10 -40 ú ë û 36.34-36 1 0ù é 0 é0 ù ê-5 -9 7 ú x + ê0 ú r.7. The observability matrix is 10 ù 1 -2 ù é 10 -10 é0 (A) ê-10 (B) ê1 -1 0 -20 ú 1ú ê ú ê ú 40 ú 4ú ê 10 -10 ê1 . P6. y = [1 0 0 ]x & 30.0976 (B) 1. y = [5 4 ]ê 1 ú & x2 û ê5 x2 û ë1 û ë ë x2 û ú ë 4 ûë . 1 s 1 u 1 -1 1 s -2 x3 -10 10 x2 1 -1 1 s x1 10 y Fig.2 10 ù é 10 -10 (C) ê-10 0 20 ú ê ú ê 10 -20 -40 ú ë û 1 -1ù é0 (D) ê1 6 -1ú ê ú ê1 .34-36.86 34.86 4. The controllability matrix is é1 0 ù é 1 -2 ù (A) ê (B) ê ú 4ú ë0 1û ë-2 û é1 0 ù (C) ê ú ë0 -1û é 1 2ù (D) ê ú ë-2 -4 û 32.7.37-38 37.4 ú ë û 35.gatehelp. P6.7.7.37–38: A state flow graph is shown in fig.714 0.7.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System -4 -2 ù é-5 é1 ù ê -3 -10 ú x + ê1 ú r. x = 0 ê ú ê ú -1 1 -5 û ê ú ê ú ë ë0 û estep ( ¥) (A) 1. P6. y = [ -1 2 1]x & 29.714 4.31-33 31.31–33: Consider the system shown in fig.

25 0 ú ê iL ú ê 1 ú û ûë û ë ë ë iL û & év ù é1 0. iR = [1 4 ]ê 1 ú & v2 û ë-1 6 ú êv2 ú ê-1ú ûë û ë û ë ëv2 û Statement for Q. P6.25 ù év ù (B) ê & C ú = ê + vs .5 0 ú ê iL ú ê0. iL Fig.39. This system may be represented in state space & representation x = A × x + B × u iC iR1 iL 1 2F iR2 1W 4vL 39. P6.40. The matrix B is é 3ù (A) ê ú ë-1û é-3ù (C) ê ú ë 1û Statement for Q. i = [1 4 ]ê 1 ú + & 2 û ë1 6 ú êv2 ú ê-1ú i R ûë û ë û ëv ëv2 û & é v ù é 1 3ù é v1 ù é 1 ù év ù (D) ê 1 ú = ê + vi . For the network shown in fig.ú ë x2 û ë1 û ëx ë x2 û ë 4û & éx ù é x ù é0 -1ù é x ù é1ù (C) ê 1 ú = ê 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u.25 ù évC ù é0.40 i3 i2 1W i5 i4 1W iR ( t). The output is i1 42.41–43: Consider the network shown in fig.25 ú û ûë û ë ë ë iL û & év ù é -0.7. P6.The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. y = [ 4 5 ]ê 1 ú (D) ê 1 ú = ê & x2 û ê-5 . The system is (A) Observable and controllable (B) Controllable only (C) Observable only (D) None of the above & év ù é-1 -1ù év1 ù é1 ù év1 ù (B) ê &1 ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê0 ú vi .44-47 www. y = [ 4 5 ]ê 1 ú 5 & 1 ë x2 û ë x2 û ë ê ú x 4 û ë 2û ë û 1ù é x ù é1ù & éx ù é 0 éx ù 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u.5 0 ]ê C ú iL û ë -0.25 ù évC ù (D) ê & C ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê 0 ú vs .ú ë x2 û ë1û ë ë x2 û ë 4û 38.41-43 41. iR = [0. iR = [ 4 1]ê i ú ë i3 û ë-3 -1û ë 3 û ë û ë 3û & é v ù é1 -3ù é v1 ù é 1 ù év ù (C) ê 1 ú = ê v .5 1ù évC ù é0.39 & év ù é-0.25 ù évC ù (C) ê & C ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê 0 ú vs . If state variable are chosen as in previous question.5 û ë L û ë ë Lû & év ù é-1 0.25 1ù évC ù é 1 ù év ù (A) ê & C ú = ê + vs .25 ù évC ù é0.44-47 i1 1W Fig. P6. iR = [0. Consider the network shown in fig.7 1ù é x ù é0 ù & éx ù é 0 éx ù 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u. The state space representation is & év ù é 1 -1ù év1 ù é1 ù év1 ù (A) ê &1 ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê0 ú vi .com Page 381 . iC (D) None of the above (C) vC . P6. then the matrix A is é 1 -1ù (A) ê ú ë-1 3û é-1 3ù (C) ê ú ë 1 -1û 43.7. y = [5 4 ]ê 1 ú (B) ê 1 ú = ê & 2 û ê-5 . The state-space representation for this network is iL 4H is 1W iR vs 2W iC 1F Fig.5 0 ]ê C ú iL û ë-0. P6.7.7. iR = [0. iR = [ 4 1]ê i ú ë i3 û ë-3 1û ë 1 û ë û ë 3û vi 1H 1H 1F + vo - Fig.41-43.5 0 ]ê i ú û ë iL û ë0 0.5 0 ]ê i ú û ë iL û ë 0 -0.7.44–47: é 1 -3ù (B) ê ú ë-1 1û é 3 -1ù (D) ê ú ë-1 1û é-1ù (B) ê ú ë 3û é 1ù (D) ê ú ë-3û 1W v1 i2 1H i3 v2 iR vi 1F 4v1 1W Consider the network shown in fig.7.7.gatehelp.7.5 û ë L û ë ë Lû 40. iR 2 (B) iL . P6. The state variable may be (A) iR1 . iR = [0. P6.

UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 44.A|= s + 4 ë2 s û Page 382 www.2 .3ú ê 1 2 2ú (C) ê ú 3 3ú ê 3 1ú ê.5 ± j1.A )} = ê ú ë.x3 + u & x2 = x3 & x1 = x2 45. (A) ( sI .1 .3 .3 .A) -1 é s 1 é s 2 ù ê s2 + 4 = 2 = s + 4 ê-2 s ú ê -2 ë û ê ë s2 + 4 2 ù s2 + 4 ú s ú ú 2 s + 4û é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù F( t ) = L-1 {( sI . i5 SOLUTIONS 1. x2 = x3 + 2 u .A) = ê ú.0.1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û 1 1ù é 2 ê 3 . (A) ( sI . |sI . x3 = .3 x3 + u & é x1 ù é-4 1 1ù é x1 ù é0 ù êx ú = ê 0 0 & 1ú ê x2 ú + ê2 ú u ê 2ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê 0 0 -3ú ê x3 ú ê1 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û 5.3 .1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û & & & 2. (B) From the SFG & x3 = -3 x1 . x3 = -3 x3 + u & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é0 ù é x1 ù é-2 ê x ú = ê 0 -2 0 ú ê x ú + ê0 ú u &2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú & ú ê x3 û ë 0 0 -3û ë x3 û ë1 û ê úê ú ê ú ë & & & 3. If output is vo . i4 (C) i1 .2 x1 + x3 . (A) ( sI .A) = ê | ú. |sI . (B) Ds = |sI . In state space representation matrix A is 1 1ù é 2 ê. i3 .1 . The matrix B is é 2ù ê 3ú ê 1ú (A) ê.sin 2 t cos 2 t û é s -2 ù 2 8. (A) x1 = .gatehelp.ú 3 3ú ê 3 ê.A|= 3ú ( s + 3) 2 û é 1 ê = ês + 3 ê 0 ë ù 0 ú 1 ú ú s + 3û 0 ù ú e -3t û ée -3t F( t ) = L-1 {( sI . (C) x1 = .1 .A) -1 é2 ù ê3ú ê1 ú (B) ê ú ê3ú ê1 ú ê ú ë3û é2 ù ê3ú ê1 ú (D) ê ú ê3ú ê2 ú ê ú ë3û 47.323 0 és + 3 6. x3 = -3 x3 + u y = 5 x1 + 5 x2 + 5 x3 & 0 1ù é x1 ù é0 ù é x1 ù é-2 ê x ú = ê 0 -2 0 ú ê x ú + ê1 ú u &2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú & û ë 0 -3ú ê x3 ú ê1 ú ê x3 ú ê 0 ë ûë û ë û & & & 4. i4 .2 ê 3 3 3ú ë û 46.A )} == ê ë0 ************************ é s -2 ù 2 7. then matrix C is (A) [-1 0 0] (C) [0 0 -1] (B) [1 0 0] (D) [0 0 1] ù 1 .1 ú ê ú ë 3û é 1ù ê.1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û 1 2ù é 1 ê.2 x2 x x2 = 3 Þ s x x1 = 2 Þ s .2 .A|= s + 4 ë2 s û ( sI .2 .A| = s 2 + s + 2 = 0 Þ s = .com . x2 = .3 3ú ê 1 2 2ú (A) êú 3 3ú ê 3 ê.3 3ú ê 2 2 1ú (D) êú 3 3ú ê 3 ê.ú ê 3ú ê 1ú ê ú ë 3û 1 2ù é 1 ê 3 . x2 = . vo (D) i1 .3 ú ê 1ú (C) ê.2 x1 + x3 . i3 (B) i2 .3 .A) = ê s+ ë 0 ( sI . (C) x1 = -4 x1 + x2 .1 .2 x2 + u .ú ê 3ú ê. Ds = sI .2 x2 + u .3ú ê 2 2 1ú (B) ê . The state variable may be (A) i2 .

& 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 &2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê-a0 -a1 -a1 ú ê x3 ú êb0 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û a0 = 24 .5(1 .a2 && . .A) -1 B U ( s) 1 ù é0 ù s+2 1 és + 1 = ê 0 s + 1ú ê1 ú ( s + 1) 2 Ds ë ûë û B = [1 1] www. x2 = && = x3 & c x & & x3 = &&& = b0 r .1 s 2 ú ê ë û Substituting the all values. since F(0) ¹ I (B) is not a state-transition matrix since F(0) ¹ I (C) is a state-transition matrix since F(0) = I and [ F( t)]-1 = F( -t) 0 ù é s -1 ê0 s 11.325.a0 x1 .cos 2 t) ù ï ý= ê ú ï ë 0. (C) ( sI . a2 = 9.338 ± j0.562 X ( s) = ( sI .A) -1 ê ú ë0 û ë1û ( sI .com Page 383 .A) -1 10.0. x3 = && c & & 1 = c = x2 .2. (C) (A) is not a state-transition matrix.gatehelp.1 s ú ë1 û ê ë ûê ú é1 ù 1 êsú = 3 s + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 ú ê ú ës û 13.The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.5 sin 2 t û ï þ é 1 ê = ês + 1 ê 0 ë ù 0 ú 1 ú ú s + 2û ù 0 ú é1 ù 1 = 1 ú ê0 ú s + 1 úë û s + 2û é 1 é1ù ê s + 1 T( s) = ê ú ê ë1û ê 0 ë & 16.A) = -1 ú ê ú ê ú ë1 2 s + 3û és 3 + 3s + 2 s+3 1ù 1 ê ú = 3 -1 s( s + 3) s ú s + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê -s -2 s . a1 = 26.a0 c c c = . B = ê 0 ú. (D) T( s) = ê ú( sI . (C) x = A ×x + B× u.A) -1 B U ( s) 12. b0 = 24 & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 &2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê-24 -26 -9 ú ê x3 ú ê24 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û é x1 ù y = [1 0 0 ] ê x2 ú ê ú ê x3 ú ë û 18.sin 2 t cos 2 t û 9. (A) ( s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 ) C( s) = b0 R( s) Taking the inverse Laplace transform assuming zero initial conditions &&& + a2 && + a1 c + a0 c = b0 r & c c & x1 = c = y.a1 c . (C) q( t) = L-1 {( sI .A) -1 BR( s)} ì 1 é s 2 ù é0 ù é1ù 1 ü é2 ù ü 1 -1 ì = L-1 í 2 ê-2 s ú ê1 ú ê1ú s ý = L í s( s 2 + 4) ê s ú ý ûë ûë û þ ë ûþ îs + 4 ë î ì ï ï = L-1 í ï ï î 2 é ù ê s( s 2 + 4) ú ê ú 1 ê 2 ú ë ( s + 4) û ü ï é0.a2 x3 + b0 r .A| = s3 + 3s2 + 2 s + 1. Þ s = .7 ( sI . T( s) = 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 2) s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 C( s) b0 24 = = R( s) s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 ( s 3 + 9 s 2 + 26 s + 24) |sI . D = 0 ê ú ê ú ê-1 -2 -3ú ê0 ú ë û ë û Y ( s) T( s) = = C ( sI . C = [1 0 0 ].A) -1 é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù F( t ) = L-1 {( sI . x2 = c . (D) Y ( s) = C ( sI . (B) 17. (B) Fourth order hence four state variable és 3 + 3s + 2 s+3 1 ù é0 ù 1 ê ú s( s + 3) s ê0 ú = 3 -1 úê ú s + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 -s -2 s .A) -1 é s 1 é s 2 ù ê s2 + 4 = 2 = s + 4 ê-2 s ú ê -2 ë û ê ë s2 + 4 2 ù s + 4ú s ú ú 2 s + 4û 2 é1 ù é1ù 15. y = C × x + Du 1 0ù é 0 é10 ù A =ê 0 0 1ú.A ) -1 B + D U ( s) ( sI . (C) Y ( s) CX ( s) = U ( s) U ( s) 1 ù é ê s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ú ú ê s 1 = [1 0 0 ]ê 3 ú= 3 2 2 + ê s + 3s 2 2 s + 1 ú s + 3s + 2 s + 1 s ú ê ê s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 û ú ë 14.a1 x2 .A )} = ê ú ë.

2 sin 2 t cos 2 t û é sin 2 t ù ê cos 2 t + ú x( t) = F( t )x(0) = 2 ê ú ê. = U ( s) s . y( t) = 1 1 -2 t .e 2 2 X ( s) = 26. y = [1 0 0 0 ]x 1 ú ê0 ú ú ê ú -a 3 û ëb0 û a3 = 20 .25 ú = ê ú -0.5 û 15 .2 For (C).8 1ù é -2 .2 ú ë û |sI .2 = 0.5 ê 0 A= -2 1ú. (B) ( sI . 0.79.A) -1 (x(0) + B × u) Page 384 2 1 + CA -1B = .0.com . (A) estep ( ¥) = 1 + CA -1B. B = ê1 ú. ê ú ê ú ë20 -10 1û A -1 és + 2 ù s+3 1 = [0 1] = ( s + 1)( s + 2) ês + 3ú ( s + 1)( s + 3) ë û So (C) is correct option.10 s 2 + 45 s .= 3 3 ê 1 0 ú ë1 û ë û 28. .A) = ê 0 s .A) -1 (x(0) + B × u) és .25 ú ê0 ú ê úê ú 15 . (D) X ( s) = ( sI .11.2 Y ( s) 1 For (B) . 0 ù é1ù és + 2 Y ( s) 1 = [0 1] s + 1ú ê1ú U ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2) ê 2 ë ûë û 1 é ù ê ú s( s + 2) ê ú 1 ú =ê 2 ê s ( s + 2) ú 1 ê ú ê s 2 ( s + 1)( s + 2) ú ë û Y ( s) = [1 0 0 ].e . ( sI . = 1 . -0.8 s . ê ú ë -2 é-0.105 Y ( s) = [1 2 ] X ( s) = ( s 2 + 5)( s 2 + 9) 24. (C) eramp ( ¥) = lim [(1 + CA -1B) t + C( A -1 ) 2 B] t ®¥ |sI . . (C) A = ê ú.gatehelp.1.t + e -2 t 2 2 25.x2 = 3 2 sin 2 t 1 1 .11s + 8 2 Þ s = 9. a1 = 7.A) = s 2 + 2 ê-2 sú ë-2 0 û ë û é sin 2 t ù cos 2 t ú F( t ) = L-1 {( sI .2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t ú ë û y = x1 .25 -0. ë -3 -5 û 0.ú 27.ú é0 ù estep ( ¥) = 1 + [1 1] ê 3 ê ú =1 .UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System é 0 ê 0 & x =ê ê 0 ê -a ë 0 1 0 0 -a1 0 1 0 -a 2 0 ù é0 ù ú ê0 ú 0 ú x = ê ú r. C = [ -1 2 1] ê ú ê ú 1 -5 û ê ú ê ú ë -1 ë0 û www. .1 -2 ù =ê s + 1ú ë 3 û 2 -1 æ é2 ù é1ù 3 ö ç ê ú+ê ú 2 ÷ ç 1 ÷ è ë û ë1û s + 9 ø 3 2 é2 s + 4 s + 21s + 45 ù 1 2 ( s + 5)( s + 9) ê s 3 . ( s + 1) é ù ê s( s + 2) ú =ê ú 1 ê ú ë s( s + 1)( s + 2) û Y ( s) = [0 1] X ( s) = Þ y( t) = 1 s( s + 1)( s + 2) é 0 1ù 1 é s 1ù -1 19. 3 é2 ù eramp ( ¥) = lim ê t + C( A -1 ) 2 Bú = ¥ t ®¥ ë 3 û 29.7 s 2 + 12 s . a2 = 10. (B) estep ( ¥) = 1 + CA -1B -4 -2 ù é-5 é1 ù A = ê -3 -10 0 ú.5 ú ê1 ú ê -2 ë ûë û s = -5. b0 = 100 = 0 ùæ és + 1 1 ç ( s + 1)( s + 2) ê -1 s + 2 ú ç ë ûè é1 ù é1ù 1 ö ê0 ú + ê1ú s ÷ ÷ ë û ë û ø a0 = 100. é-2 -1ù 21. A -1 = ê 3 ê 1 0ú ë û 1ù é 1 2 -2 .05 ù é-0.A| = s 3 .53. (D) For a unit step input estep ( ¥) = 1 + CA -1B 1 0ù é.64 23.A) -1 (x(0) + B × u) 0 ù és + 2 -1 ê 0 = -1 ú s ê ú 0 s + 1û ê ú ë 0 -1 æ ç ç ç è é0 ù é1 ù ö ê0 ú + ê0 ú 1 ÷ ê ú ê ú s÷ ê ú ê ú ÷ ë0 û ë0 û ø 1 s( s + 2) 20.05 -0. (C) Find the transfer function of option Y ( s) 1 For (A) .05 ù é0 ù estep ( ¥) = 1 + [ -1 1 0 ]ê -1 0. (B) A = ê ú.A)} = ê 2 ú ê ê ú ë. (B) X ( s) = ( sI .A| = s2 + 7 s + 7 Þ -2 -3 ù és 22.4 0.6 -5 ú ê ú ê-1 -4 s .4 ê -1 -0. (B) X ( s) = ( sI . = U ( s) s .05 -0.25 -0.121 .7 ú ë û 4 s 3 .

(C) det CM = 0. A = ê 0 -1 0 ú . (B) x1 = x2 + u .gatehelp. y = 5 x1 + 4 x2 4 C( A -1 ) 2 B = 0. ê ú 4û ê ú ë1 -2 Since the determinant is not zero. eramp ( ¥) = 0.286 0.232 û -1 -1 2 é-1 1 0 ù A = ê 0 -1 0 ú.25 vs dt & évC ù é -0.286 0.134 0. ë-6 -5 û ë û éé 1ù CM = [B AB] = êê ú ëë-2 û 1ù é 0 é 1ù A =ê ú. C = [1 0 ]. Thus system is controllable.2 u 1ù é 0 é 1ù & x =ê ú x + ê-2 ú u.776 -0.vC 2 dvL v Hence equations are = iL .714.714 ú ë û 0 -1 ù é0 ù é 0 ê 1 0 0 ú ê0 ú = 0 estep ( ¥) = 1 + [1 0 0 ] ê úê ú ê úê ú ë1.5 x2 . y = [1 0 ]x . (B) x1 = .2 2 35.2 x3 + u é-1 1 0 ù é0 ù é-1 1 0 ù é0 ù & = ê 0 -1 0 ú x + ê1 ú u.21 ú ê x ú + ê1 ú u.714 û ë1 û . (B) O M = ê ú =ê ú ëCA û ë-20 1 û det O M = 0.091 -0.25 vC + 0.7 A -1 0. ê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -2 û é-1 1 0 ù CA = [10 .20 ] ê 0 -1 0 ú = [10 .714 ù ê 0 0 -1 ú (A ) = ú ê ê ú ë-0.055 -0. det O M = 1. Hence system is observable.C = .vC ) = .10 x2 + 10 x3 .776 û -1 2 é-1 1 0 ù 0 .143 -0. (B) x2 = .143 0.25 vL dt dt 4 33. û ûë Lû ë ë Lû ë Page 385 . OM = ê ú =ê ú ëCA û ë0 1 û 1ù é x ù é0 ù & é x1 ù é 0 é x1 ù 1 ê x ú = ê-5 .102 -0. Hence system is observable.140 -0. (A) y = x1 .25 ù & ê i ú = ê-0. & & & 34.10 10 ]. x3 = . v iL = iC + iR . Hence system is not controllable. é -1286 -0. iC = iL .x2 + u . the 3 ´ 3 matrix is nonsingular and system is controllable 10 ù é 10 -10 det O M = detê-10 0 -10 ú = -3000 ê ú 40 ú ê 10 -20 ë û The rank of O M is 3.10 10 ] ê 0 -1 0 ú = [10 ê ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ë û CA 2 = [10 0 . x1 = x2 . & 37. x2 = .The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.0976 = 10976 eramp ( ¥) = lim [(1 + CA B) t + C( A ) B] = ¥ t ®¥ -1 ù 0 é 0 30. (A) det Cm = det ê1 -1 1ú = -1.com vC and iL are state variable. estep ( ¥) = 1 + 0.5 1ù évC ù é0.5 x1 21 & x2 + u .305 ê 0. B = ê1 ú x ê ú ê ú ê ú ê ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ê1 ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ê1 ú ë û ë û ë û ë û é-1 1 0 ù é0 ù é 1ù AB = ê 0 -1 0 ú ê1 ú = ê -1ú ê úê ú ê ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ê1 ú ê-2 ú ë ûë û ë û é-1 1 0 ù é 1ù é-2 ù A 2B = ê 0 -1 0 ú ê -1ú = ê 1ú ê úê ú ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -2 û ë-2 û ë 4 û 1 -2 ù é0 ê1 .5 vC + iL dt 2 diL = 0. (B) A -1 = ê 1 0 0 ú ê ú ê1. CA = [1 é C ù é1 0 ù 0 ] . y = [10 .x1 + x2 .25 0 ú ê i ú + ê 1 ú vs .iR = iL .122 ù é-0.0.6 x1 . x2 = .037 ú = ê ú ê ú ë -0.25( vs .10 10 ]x www. Thus system is not observable 1ù é0 21 ú CM = [B AB] = ê 1 ê ë 4ú û det CM = -1.10 ê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -2 û 40 ] 10 ù é C ù é 10 -10 ê CA ú = ê-10 OM = 0 -20 ú ê ú ê ú 2 40 û ê ú ê ú ëCA û ë 10 -10 1 -2 ù é0 36. L = L = 0. y = [5 4 ]ê x ú ë&2û ë ë 2û ê ú 4 û ë 2û ë û é C ù é 5 4ù 38.1 1ú Cm = [B AB A B] = ê ú 4û ê ú ë1 . C = [10 . B = ê-2 ú ë-6 -5 û ë û 1ù é 1ù ù é 1 -2 ù é 0 ê-6 -5 ú ê-2 ú ú = ê-2 4ú ë ûë ûû ë û 32.0.714 & & 31.143 -0.C . (A) y = 10 x1 .079 -0.20 ] . 39. (B) dvc di v = ic . vL = vs .

= i5 dt dt dt i1 1W v2 i3 i2 1W v4 i5 i4 1W 40.1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û é2 ù ê3ú ê1 ú 46.i4 = . (A) B = ê ú ë-1û 44.1 .i2 .i3..v1 ) . (B) dv1 di = i2 . y = iR = 4 v1 + i3 dt dt & év1 ù é-1 -1ù év1 ù é1 ù év1 ù & ê i ú = ê-3 -1ú ê i ú + ê0 ú vi . 3 3ú ê 3 ê.7.is dvC di = vC . Hence vC and iL are suitable for state-variable. . (D) vo is state variable y = vo .v2 = v1 .iC ) = vC + iC . (B) There are three energy storage elements.i2 ) + ( i3 . é i2 ù y = [0 0 1] = ê i4 ú ê ú ê ú ëvo û ******** Page 386 www.5 vC .vo + vi 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 v2 = vi . (C) Energy storage elements are capacitor and inductor. 2 év ù iR = [0.3iL + 3is .3 . (A) di2 di dvo = v2 .3 3ú ê 1 2 2ú A = êú.v1 .3iL + 3is -3vL = vC + is . 42.L .i4 ) + vo = 0 2 1 1 1 i1 = i2 + i4 .gatehelp. (B) B = ê ú ê3ú ê1 ú ê3ú ë û + vC iR2 + vR2 1W 4vL Fig.vC + iL .( i3 + 4 v1 ) = -3v1 .iL .3 .45 Now obtain v2 .vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 v4 = i5 + vo = . i2 = i1 . S6.5 0 ] ê C ú ë iL û 45.iR . L = . S6. iC = is .(ii) 47. i2 .3 3úê ú ê3ú êvo ú ê 1 & ê ú 2 1 ëvo û ê 1 ú ë û ê.i4 .vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 i5 = i3 . = v1 .(i) .i3 . v4 and i5 in terms of the state variable -vi + i1 + i3 + i5 + vo = 0 But i3 = i1 .iL .i3 + vi vL = v1 .. iR = [ 4 1]ê i ú û ë 3û ë û ë 3û ë ë 3û 41. hence 3 variable.2 .7.vC + iL .i3 = ( vi . 3 = vL dt dt Hence v1 and i3 are state variable.ú ê 3 ê3ú 3 3ú û ë û ë 1 1ù é 2 ê.. 2vL = .i2 .iR1 .iL .is dt dt & évC ù é 1 -3ù évC ù é 3 ù & ê i ú = ê-1 1ú ê i ú + ê-1ú is ûë Lû ë û ë Lû ë é 3ù 43.i4 + vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 1ù é2 ù é 2 & é i2 ù ê 3 3 3 ú é i2 ù ê 3 ú ê& ú ê 1 2 2 ú ê ú ê1 ú ú i4 + ê ú vi ê i4 ú = ê. i4 and vo are available in differentiated form hence these are state variable.i2 = .i2 . i2 = . (B) 1 dvC dvC = iC Þ = 2 iC 2 dt dt 1 diL diL = vL Þ = 2 vL 2 dt dt iC iR1 is 1W + vL iL 1 2F vi 1H 1H 1F + vo - Fig.3v1 .iL 1 Solving equation (i) and (ii) -3 ( is .i1 = .i2 + i4 . 3 = .UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System iR = vC = 0.com .i3 dv1 di = .i4 + vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 i3 = i1 . iC + 4 vL = iR 2 vL = vC + iC + 4 vL .v1 . 2 iC = vC . -3vL = vC + iC v iC = is .vL .i4 -vi + i1 + ( i1 . 4 = v4 . vC and iL are available in differential form and linearly independent.42 vL = vC + vR 2 = vC + iR2 ..i3 + vi .i2 and i5 = i3 .

The probability.346 (B) 0. The probability that the system lifetime will exceed (B) T + 40 m and 30 m (D) T + 30 m and 40 m in year is (A) 0. 13. A gaussian random voltage X for which a X = 0 and s X = 4. while 5.249 (C) 0.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 10.0432 (C) 0. F(15) = 0. The distribution function of X is 1 æ x -aö (A) tan -1 ç ÷ p è b ø (B) (C) (D) 1 æ x -aö cot-1 ç ÷ p è b ø 1 1 æ x -aö + tan -1 ç ÷ 2 p è b ø 1 1 æ x -aö + cot-1 ç ÷ 2 p è b ø Statement for Question 13 -14 : Assume that the time of arrival of bird at Bharatpur sanctuary on a migratory route. .0) = 0.6687 (C) 0. The probability that the system will not last a full week is (A) 0. If machine is not properly adjusted.12% (B) 0.246 (B) 0.2 ø 17.43% Statement for Question 15-16: The life time of a system expressed in weeks is a Rayleigh random variable X for which ì x -x e 400 ï ï 200 f X ( x) = í ï ï î0 2 0£x x <0 11.a) 2 For real numbers 0 < b and -¥ < a < ¥.15% of shell falls 11.01% (C) 0.2 ø æ 5 ö (D) 1 . It is found that 15.2 ø æ 5 ö (B) Qç ÷ è 4.57% (D) 6.18% (B) 10.6 m beyond the target. Cannon shell impact position. as measured along the line of fire from the target point is described by a gaussian random variable X.8531 th Statement for Question 18 .135 www.60% sx for X is (Given that F(103) = 0.22% F(1. the product resistance change to the case where ax = 1050 W.8531.6915.1123 (D) 0.05% (D) 0.64) = 0.9773.8485 and .01% (C) 0. The value of ax and 15. Given that : F(0. What is the probability that bird will arrive after 231st day ? (A) 0. is approximated as a gaussian random variable X with a X = 200 and sx = 20 days. F(155) = 0.gatehelp. The cauchy random variable has the following probability density function f X ( x) = b/ p b2 + ( x .25% (D) 0.5) = 0.2 V appears across a 100 W resistor with a power rating of 0. .0732 19. as measured in days from the first year (January 1 is the first day). 16. The probability that more than 3 cars will arrive during any 10 min period is (A) 0.2 m or farther from the target in a direction toward the cannon.Qç ÷ è 4.543 day ? (B) 0. 18. that the voltage will cause an instantaneous power that exceeds the resistor's rating. F(10) = 0.2 ø æ 5 ö (C) 1 + Qç ÷ è 4.8413 (D) 0. is æ 5 ö (A) 2Qç ÷ è 4.9773 14.com . Now the rejected fraction is (A) 5046% (C) 2.25 W.05% fall farther from the 95. The probability that no car will arrive is (A) 0.19 The number of cars arriving at ICICI bank drive-in window during 10-min period is Poisson random variable X with b = 2.516 (C) 0.40% (B) 0.9495) (A) T + 40 m and 50 m (C) T + 10 m and 50 m 12.. .9394 and F(2.143 (D) 0.8413.459 (D) 0.0606 Page 390 (B) 0. What is the probability that birds arrive after 160 days but on or before the 210 (A) 0.

667 (D) 2.y ÷u( y).e -1 (B) e -1 (D) 1 . The probability of the event{ X £ 2. 0. 0. 4). The value of E[ Y ] is (A) 2 (B) 0. 3. 1).1.05 and 0.com Page 391 .. 8.45 (C) 0.Random Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. ( 3. The variance of random variable X is (A) 1/10 (C) 5/16 (B) 3/80 (D) 3/16 where W0 is the average amount of received power. 21.85 (C) 3. 0 £ x £ 4 ï ç ç ÷ x+1 ï4è ø ï FX . Probabilities of these elements are 0. Y ( x. (2. A random variable X has X = -3. Y and s2 Y are (A) 0.35 (D) 1.4 (C) 2. 2 0.55 (B) 0. 81.gatehelp. 89. Y £ 6} is (A) 0. A discrete random variable X has possible values xi = i .25.1 20. 8 (C) . 4 £ x and any y ³ 0 ï1 + e 4 4 ï î www.387 5 Statement for Question 21-23: Delhi averages three murder per week and their occurrences follow a poission distribution.2461 (D) 0.w W0 e ï fW ( w) = í W0 ï0 î ü w > 0ï ý w < 0ï þ 26.1. The mean of random variable X is (A) 1/4 (C) 1/3 (B) 1/6 (D) 1/5 27.9 (D) 3.50 (D) 0. the Y .( x + 1 ) y2 2 ö . The probability that the received power is larger than the power received on the average is (A) e -2 (C) 1 . 0.4. A Random variable X is uniformly distributed on X the interval (-5. The density of W is ì 1 . 30.35. 4 which occur with probabilities 0. 2). The probability that there will be five or more murder in a given week is (A) 0.4 Statement for Question 31-32 : A joint sample space for two random variable X and Y has four elements (1. y) = í 0 x < 0 or y < 0 ï 1 -5 y 2 5 . 2.e -2 28.1847 (C) 0. On the average. The random variable X is defined by the density 1 f X ( x) = u( x) e 2 2 x The expected value of g( X ) = X 3 is (A) 48 (C) 36 (B) 192 (D) 72 ì 5 æ x + e. 8 (B) .5 respectively. How many weeds per year (average) can the Delhi expect the number of murders per week to equal or exceed the average number per week ? (A) 15 (C) 25 (B) 20 (D) 30 31.60 24.15.e . 0. The mean value X = E[ X ] of X is (A) 6. how many weeks a year can Delhi expect to have no murders ? (A) 1.e . Another random variable Y = e is formed. i = 1.4167 29.60 23.42 Statement for Question 32-34 : Random variable X and Y have the joint distribution 25.50 (D) 0. The power reflected from an aircraft of complicated shape that is received by a radar can be described by an exponential random variable W . 3) and (4.3.5.6.9.967 (C) 1.96 (B) 4.y 2 .6 (B) 1.55 (B) 0. 15).3927 (B) 0. x 2 = 11 and s2 = 2 X For a new random variable Y = 2 x . The probability of the event { X £ 3} is (A) 0.45 (C) 0. 89 (D) None of the above 2 22.

e .u( x .y ].( x + 1 ) y2 2ù . The marginal distribution function FY ( y) is ì 5 .y 2 . x³4 î 37.e . The probability P { 3 < X £ 5.y2 ï.003 (B) 0.e .e .( x + 1 ) y2 2ù .y ]u( y) 2 (D) None of the above y >0 ì 0. y £0 ï1 + 4 e î 4 ì -5 .( x + 1 ) y 4 35. ï ê ï 8 x+1 û (C) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï .e -5 y ]u( y) y 2 [ e . ï 5x ï (D) í . The marginal distribution function FX ( x) is (A) 5 1 [ 4( x) . 0 £ x<4 ï 4( x + 1) ï 1. ï ê ï4 x+1 û (A) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï . ï1 + 2 [e î ì 5 é x + e.y ú. Y ( x.e .y ].y ]. The marginal distribution function FX ( x) is x. y <0 ï (C) í 4 2 2 ï 1 + 1 e -5 y . x³4 î x <0 ì 1.y ]. î 4 y >0 y £0 (B) 5 2 [1 .y ú.u( x . ï ê ï4 x+1 û (D) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï .4( x . y ³0 ï1 + 4 e î 4 34.e -5 y ]u( y) y[ e .e .com . ï 5x ï (B) í .004 39.4)] 2 ( x + 1) 2 5 1 [ 4( x) . y ³ 0 î 4 4 y <0 ì 0.y . ï ê ï 8 x+1 û (B) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï . > 0 ì 0.002 (D) 0.y ]u( y) 2 [1 . ï1 + 4 [e î ì 5 é x + e.y ]u( y) (C) 5 4 2 33.4) u( x) .4) (D) 4 ( x + 1) 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 36.u( x .y ú. ï 1 + 2 [e î 40.( x + 1 ) y2 2ù . y) = a ép æ x öù é p æ y öù + tan -1 ç ÷ú ê + tan -1 ç ÷ú 2 ê2 2 øû ë2 è è 3 øû ë 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 Statement for Question 35-39 : Two random variable X and Y have a joint density 2 10 FX . 0 £ x<4 ï 4( x + 1) ï 0. Y ( x.y .4)] 4 ( x + 1) (B) (C) (D) None of the above 38. ï 1 + 4 [e î ì 5 é x + e. (A) í 4 2 ï 1 + 4 e -5 y .y 2 e .gatehelp.u( x . ï 5x ï (C) í .4) (A) 5 (B) 5 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 5 u( x) .e .4)] 4 ( x + 1) 2 5 1 [ 4( x) .y .y 2 .5 e . 1 < y £ 2} is (A) 0.4)]u( y) y 3e . ï (B) í 1 -5 y 2 5 .e .e -5 y ]u( y) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 is a valid joint distribution function for random variables X and Y if the constant a is 1 2 (A) 2 (B) 2 p p (C) 4 p2 (D) 8 p2 www.5 e . ï 5x ï (A) í .u( x . x £ -4 î x >0 ì 1. The marginal density fY ( y) is (A) (B) (C) (D) Page 392 5 4 5 2 5 4 5 2 y 2 [ e .e .5 e . The marginal distribution function FY ( y) is (A) [1 .e -5 y ]u( y) y[ e .y ú.( x + 1 ) y2 2ù . ï (D) í 1 -5 y 2 5 .y .5 e .001 (C) 0. -4< x£4 ï 4( x + 1) ï 1. x £ -4 î x <0 ì 0. The marginal density f X ( x) is u( x) . y) = [ u( x) .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 32.e .5 e . The function FX . .4) (C) 4 ( x + 1) 2 5 u( x) .4 < x £0 ï 4( x + 1) ï 0.4( x . The joint distribution function is ì 5 é x + e.y .4( x .

Let Z = X + Y .3168 (D) None of the above (C) 0.e. The pX ( x) is (A) 2 xe . Y ( x.e -5w ]u( w) 44.1936 (C) 0 (B) 6.13 (C) 0.y u( y) y2 2 2 (B) ye . A random variable Y is defined as y = ax + b where a < 0.bö f Xç ÷ b è a ø 10 8 10 13 10 2 50. The function ì be f X . y) = xye 42.e. 0 < Y £ 0.x u( x) 43. The probability density function of a random variable X is given as f X ( x) .Random Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. The PDF of random variable Y is æ y . < y £ -2} is (A) 0. ÷ ø 0 £ x < 1 and 0 £ y < 1 1 £ x and 1 £ y of (B) 0.e 5w ]u( w) [ e -2 w .2964 (D) None of the above Random variable X and Y have the joint density x y .2349 (B) 0.y u( y) (D) 1 2 2 fY ( y) = 24( y) e -2 y The density of the sum W = X + Y is (A) ((B) (C) (D) 10 6 (C) ye u( y) ye - y2 2 u( y) [ e -2 w . 1) and (-2.69 X and Y have the joint (A) (C) a2 1 .5. The probability of the event {2 < X £ 4.1 < Y £ 5} æ x2 y2 ç xyç 1 27 è probability {0 < X £ 0. The density function of two random variable X and Y is ì 1 0 < x < 6 and 0 < y < 4 ï f X .com (B) 96 (D) 48 Page 393 is a valid joint density function if b is . y) = í î0 .bö (A) bf X ç ÷ è a ø (C) 1 æ y . . The probability density function of two statistically independent random variable X and Y are f X ( x) = 5 u( x) e -5x ye .e -5w ]u( w) [ e -2 w .24 (D) 1 47. î The (A) 0.1 41. y) = í ï 26 ï 27 ï ï 26 ï 1. Y ( x.a (B) a 1 . Y ( x.1 f X .e. The pY / X ( y/x) is (A) 1 2 2 2 48. xç 1 ç 27 ÷ ø è 2 æ y ö yç 1 ÷. Let X and Y be two statistically independent random variables uniformly distributed in the ranges ( u( x) u( y) -1.a 1 1 . Then the probability that ( Z £ -2) is x2 2 x 2 - ( x 2 + y2 ) (B) xe u( x) (A) zero (C) 1/3 (B) 1/6 (D) 1/12 2 (D) 2 xe 2 u( x) 49.bö f Xç ÷ a è a ø æ y .gatehelp. The probability of the event {0 < X < ¥. 1) respectively. ç 27 ÷ ø è 2 (D) None of the above 0 £ x < 1 and 1 £ y Statement for Question 46-47 : 1 £ x and 0 £ y < 1 ö ÷.bö (B) af X ç ÷ è a ø (D) 1 æ y .x u( x) (C) xe .25} is Statement for question 42-43 : The joint probability density function of random variable X and Y is given by pXY ( x. ï ï 27 ï 26 ï ï 27 FX .e 5w ]u( w) [ e -2 w . y) = ( XY ) 45. y) = u( x) u( y) e 4 3 2 46. y) = í 24 ï0 else where î The expected value of the function g( x.a x < 0 or y < 0 æ y ö ÷. Y ( x.( x + y) 0 < x < a and 0 < y < ¥ else where is (A) 64 (C) 32 www.4946 the event is (A) 0. Random variable distribution function ì 0.

UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 51. Y ( x. y) = í 9 ï0 î The X and Y are (A) Correlated but statistically independent (B) uncorrelated but statistically independent (C) Correlated but statistically dependent (D) Uncorrelated but statistically dependent Page 394 www. The second moment of W is (A) 145 (C) 97 (B) 49 (D) 0 54. The mean value of the random variable W = ( X + 3Y ) 2 + 2 X + 3 is (A) 98 + 3 (C) 49 . The mean value of the function g( X . and 3 33 4 2 2è 3ø 1 2 9 11 1 æ 1 ö .Y . The value of s2 . ç2 ÷.3 (D) 49 + 3 X 2 = E[ X 2 ] = 8 and Y 2 = E[ Y 2 ] = 25.ç 2 + ÷.com 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 3 elsewhere . ç2 ÷. .3 (B) 98 . and -3 2 4 2 2è 3ø 1 2 9 11 1 æ 1 ö . s2 . y) = 2 ps2 (B) with s2 a constant. . Y ( x. Y ) = X 2 + Y 2 is (A) s2 (C) 2s2 (B) s (D) 2s (C) (D) Statement for Question 52-54 : The statistically independent random variable X and Y have mean They values have X = E[ X ] = 2 second and Y = E[ Y ] = Y . and -3 2 4 2 2 è 3ø 33 11 11 1 æ 1 ö . 52. The density function of two random variable X and Y is e æ x 2 + y2 ö ÷ -ç ç 2 s2 ÷ ø è 56. moments 57. and 3 33 4 2 2è 3ø f X . Two random variable X and Y have the density function ì xy .gatehelp. Consider a random variable W = 3 X . R XY and r are respectively X Y (A) 33 11 27 1 æ 1 ö . ç2 + ÷. The variance of the random variable is (A) 4 (C) 49 (B) 45 (D) 54 55. ï f X . The mean value E[W ] is (A) 2 (C) 8 (B) 4 (D) 25 *********** 53.

(A) 0..0505 æ T + 95.F ( x) Thus P ( X > 2)= 1 .F (2.e 2 ú u( x) 0 2 ë û x Solving (i) and (ii) we get ax = T + 30 and sx = 40 12. sx .ù é 1 5.P { x £ 2} + P { x < -2} = 1 ..gatehelp.F (125) 40 è ø = 1 . P {resistor rejected} = P { X < 900} + P { X < 1100} www.012 or 1.9495 ÷ ø . FX ( x) = ò e 2 dx = ê1 .F (125) .Fç ÷ + 1 . ÷ = F ( -375) + 1 .x dx 2 2 0 æ 900 .0456 9.P { X £ 231} = 1 .2(0. T .5 2 7.2 ø è 4.Fç .Fç ÷ = 2ç 1 .(i) =1 - 1 3 = 0.e 2 ..5) = 2 .1 SOLUTION 1.(ii) -¥ x x .9999 .0.x dx = 0.9772) = 0.1515 .2 F(2.112} = 0.ax This occurs when = 1.5} P ( C) = FX (2. (C) P { -1 < X £ 2} = ò -1 1 x 1 xe dx + ò xe .6915 + 0.6687 14.1000 ö æ 11000 .5) .ax ( T + 95. Fraction rejected corresponds to probability of rejection..2 ø ø è è è è 4.2 ø è 4.e. = 2 . (C) -¥ ò r( v) = 1 Þ kv v Thus r( v) = = 4 8 Mean Square Value = ¥ 2 2 ò x r( x) dx = ò x 0 4 P { x £ T .2 ø 4.200 ö = 1 .5) = 2 .Fç ÷ + Fç ÷ è 4.7135 100 > 0.6 .368 2ò 1 0 ¥ æ 900 .0.0 ö æ 5 ö æ -5 ö = 1 . (D) P { x > T + 95. (D) P ( B) = FX (2.9394 = 0.F ç ÷ ÷ = 2Qç ÷ 4. (B) P(resistor rejected) = F ç ÷+1 40 è ø æ 1100 .x) = 1 .64 sx =1 . =F =1 .F(155) = 1 . ÷ = 1 .112 .1000 ö = Fç ÷ + 1 .2 ø è 4.2 % 2 2.com Page 395 .3200 8.Pç ÷ + Pç ÷ = 1 .200 ö = Fç ÷ .FX (1100)] æ 900 .5 2 = 0. .5) + F (2) .112 . (A) Test 1: f X ( x) ³ 0 is true l 3x 1 é l 3b 1 ù Test 2: area must be 1 i.ax = Fç ç sx è æ 1100 .F ö ÷ = 0. ò dx = ê .5) = 1 . (A) P {160 < X £ 120} = FX (210) .57 % 11.FX (1) = e 1 2 -e 2 .F (2) = 2 .F (2.F = 8485 sx sx x dx = 8 8 This occur when .21 or x > 5 v P(0.F (2) + F ( -2) We know that for gaussian function F ( .1050 ö .9773 .2 ø è 4.6} = 0.FX (1) = e - 1 2 -e - - 3 2 = 0.1 = 0.Fç ÷ 20 20 è ø è ø = F (0.2 F(2) = 2 .9938) = 0. (A) P { X > 1} = ò pX ( x) dx 1 ¥ = FX (900) + [1 .F ( 375) + 1 .ax ) .2 ø æ 5 ö æ 5 ö æ æ 5 öö æ 5 ö = 1 . ( T .5) + 1 . (D) C = A Ç B = {1 < X < 2.2 ø 13.200 ö æ 160 .ax = 103 .8944 = 0. (A) P ( X > 2) = P {2 < x} + P { x < -2} = 1 .Fç ÷ 40 40 è ø è ø = F ( -2.1 = 0.1050 ö 10.FX (231) æ 231 .429 e 2 e2 3.F (2) + 1 .ú =1 4 4ë 3 3û 0 b Thus b = ¥ 1 ln 13 3 1 1 4k = 1 Þ k = 2 2 4. (C) Rejected resistor corresponds to { x < 900 W} and { x > 1100 W}.1057 or 20.25 W exceeded) = P { x > 5} = P { x > 5} + P { x < -5} = 1 . .3834 = 0.5) = 1 .6 .ax ) .Random Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.25 exceeds when x 2 P ( A) = FX ( 3) . (C) P { X > 231}= 1 .FX (160) æ 210 .5) + 1 . ( T .5) .Fç . (B) For x = 0.F ( -2) = F (0.0606 20 è ø 6.ax ) = Fç ç sx sx è T + 95.Fç ç ÷ sx è ø ö ÷ ÷ ø =ò 1 ¥ x 2 e -x dx = 1 x e .112 .2(0.0.6 .P ( x £ 5) + P { x < -5} æ5 -0 ö æ -5 .ax ö ÷ + 1 .F (2.

com .135 0! 0 x .15) + 16(0.5u (x . = 0.P (1) .2)u ( y .1 + 0.P ( x = 0) .9 = 4(11) .P { x £ 3} = 1 .3 = 2( -3) .ù é 1 1 -3 5 ê-5 e ú = [ e . (B) FX ( x) = FX .( x + 1 ) y lim ç .1429 0 ! 2 ! 2 ! 3!þ è 3 ø î -2 -¥ ò g( X ) g X ( x) dx = ò e -5 1 dx 15 .P (2) . (A) E[ g( X )] = E[ X 3 ] = ò x ¥ x 1 3 -2 1 é 6 ù xe = ê ú = 48 2 ê(1 2) 4 ú 0 2 ë û 17. (D) P ( x = 0) = e -2 2 = 0.12 % ê ú ë û 2 2 17 -3 ö æ = 52ç 1 e ÷ = 29. 6.5889 week.994 weeks 2 è ø 24.FX (52) 52 52 ù é = 1 .35u (x . (B) E[ X ] = X = å xi P ( xi ) i =1 4 - 1 400 = 10(0.4) + 4(0.e -2 ç ÷ = 0. Y ( ¥.e = 0. y) = 0.12( -3) . (A) Mean of X = -¥ 2 ò xf X ( x) dx = ò x 3(1 . (B) Here Y = g( X ) = e So E[ Y ] = E[ g( Y )] = = 1 20 15 ¥ X 3 15 x 5 P { x > 0} = 1 .e -3 ê + + + + ú = 1 .3)u ( y .3) 2 ] = 4 X 2 . (C) P(0) = e = 0. 25. (A) F XY (x. (C) E[ Y ] = E[2 X .9 2 = 8 Y 30.e . ¥) 2 ö 5x 5 æ x + e.35 + 0.0} = f XY (2.P ( 4) é 30 31 32 33 34 ù 131 -3 = 1 .m 2 x x E[ X 2 ] = s2 = x ¥ -¥ 1 1 æ x -aö + tan -1 ç ÷ 2 p è b ø òx 2 f X ( x) dx = ò x 2 3(1 . ¥) . (B) P { X £ 30}= FX ( 30) = FXY ( 30.a and dv = du to get b FX ( x) = p = x -a -¥ ò dv b é1 æ v öù = tan -1 ç ÷ú b2 + v 2 p ê b è b øû -¥ ë 27.0498 average number of week.3] = 2 X .x) dx = 0 1 1 4 Let v = u .5768 2ú 2 ë û -3 -3 P { X £ 2. .y)u ( y .P ( x = 1) . (C) P { X ³ 52} = 1 .5.a) 2 x -a 26.Y = 89 . y) Page 396 www.P (2) é 32 ù 17 -3 = 1 .45 31.0025 or 0.ê1 .35 = 0.e í + + + ý = 1 .P (0) .0) = 0.gatehelp.P ( x = 2) . Y ( x. (B) Variance of X is s2 = E[ X 2 ] .e W0 ÷ = e -1 ç ÷ è ø W0 29.y ÷u( y) = ÷ y ®¥ 4 ç x+1 4( x + 1) è ø 2 2 2 ö 1 5 æ limç 1 + e -5 y .k) ç ÷ k=0 è k! ø 1 æ1ö 3 -ç ÷ = 10 è 4 ø 80 Hence B is correct option 28.y ÷ = 1 y ®¥ 4 4 è ø Average number of weeks per year that number of murder exceeds the average 33.1) + 0.e . (B) P {W > W0 } = 1 .1) = 4.P (0) .1 + 0.667 5 ë û -5 20.P (1) .P {W £ W0 } = 1 .3) + 0.25 % 16.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 15.( -5) 19. (B) We use the Rayleigh distribution with a = 0 and b = 400 For probability P { X £ 1}= FX (1) = 1 .2) +0.05 = 0.1847 ë 0 ! 11 2 ! 3 ! 4 ! û 22.25) + 9(0. . (B) Here f X ( x) = e -2 å ç ÷d( x .e ] = 0.35 .1)u ( y .4) 2 21.5.FW (W0 ) æ ö = 1 .05u (x . per year with no murder 52 e -3 = 2. 23.8 e = 0.e 400 ú = 1 . (B) FY ( y)= FX .00116 or 0.3 = -9 E[ Y 2 ] = E[(2 X .e 400 = 0. (D) P {3 or more}= 1 .12 X .5 32.P ( x = 3) ì 2 0 21 2 2 2 3 ü æ 19 ö =1 .e ê1 + 3 + =1 e = 0.ç 1 . (C) FX = -¥ òf x X ( u) du = -¥ òb x 2 ( b p) du + ( u .9 = 89 s2 = Y 2 . (A) P {5 or more}= 1 . Y £ 6.x) 2 dx = 0 2 1 1 10 ¥ æ 3k ö 18.1u (x .

(B) s2 = E[(W . we have X and Y 3 è 3ø 3 3 E[ Y ] = ò ò 0 0 3 2 Since R XY = uncorrelated form From marginal densities f X ( x) = ò 0 xy x dy = .X = X 5 æ1ö 9 -ç ÷ = 2 è2 ø 4 2 11 11 2 . (A) E [( XY ) 2 ] = = -¥ -¥ òòx ¥ ¥ 2 y 2 f X . the second factors equal 1 because they are area of a gaussian density.4 = 45 55. 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 3 9 we have f X ( x) fY ( y) = Page 398 www. (B) W = ( X + 3Y ) 2 + 2 X + 3 = 3 + 2 X + X 2 + 6 XY + 9 Y 2 1 ö æ1ö 5 æ 1 öæ æ 19 ö = 3 + 2ç ÷ + + 6ç ÷ç 2 ÷ + 9ç ÷ = 98 .y) u( w .Y ] = 3 X . (B) E[W 2 ] = E[( 3 X . (A) E[W ] = E[ 3 X . (C) s2 = X 2 .Y = 6 .6(2)( 4) + 25 = 49 54.y) u( y)2 e -2 ydy = 10 ò e -5w+ 3 ydy. Y ( x.com . w > 0 -¥ 0 ¥ w Thus f X . The first factor equal s2 because they are second moment of gaussian density with zero mean and variance s2 .6 X Y + Y 2 = 9( 8) .(2) = s2 = Y 2 . y) = f X ( x) fY ( y) and X and Y are statistically independent. Y ( x.gatehelp.4 = 2 53. Y ) ] = ¥ ¥ ¥ -1/2 3 -1 2 C XY = = s X sY ( 914 )( 11/2 ) 3 33 -¥ -¥ ò ò(x 2 + y2 ) y2 e 2 s e 2 ps2 2 57. 56. (C) E[ g( X .2W W + W ] W = W 2 . y)]= E[( x 2 + y 2 )]2s2 52.6 XY + Y 2 = 9 X 2 .e -5w ] 3 50.6 XY + Y 2 ] = 9 X 2 .W = 49 .y2 -¥ 2 ps2 dy + ¥ -¥ ò 2 ps2 dy ò ¥ e2s 2 -¥ 2 ps2 dx Both double integral are of the same form.( w. y) dx dy y= 0 x = 0 ò ò 4 6 x y dx dy = 64 24 æ x 2 + y2 ö ÷ -ç 2 ÷ ç è 2s ø 2 2 R XY = XY = C XY + X Y = r= dx dy -x 2 1 2 3 + 1 1æ 1 ö (2) = ç 2 ÷ 2 2è 3ø 51. Y ( x.3 3ø è2 ø 2 è 2 øè è 2 ø = -¥ ò x2 e - x2 2 s2 2 ps2 dx ò ¥ e - y2 2 s2 . (B) R XY = E[ X ] = ò ò 0 0 3 2 2 ¥ ¥ 2 2 -¥ -¥ ò ò xy f X . 0 < x < 2 9 2 fY ( y) = ò 0 2 xy 2y .W ) 2 ] = E[W 2 . Thus E[ g( x. y) dxdy = ò ò 0 0 3 2 x2 y2 8 dx dy = 9 3 4 x y dx dy = 9 3 x2 y dx dy = 2 9 8 æ4ö 8 = E[ X ] E[ Y ] = 2ç ÷ = .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System = ò 5 e .Y = Y 2 2 2 2 10 = u( w)[ e -2 w . 0< y<3 dy = 9 9 xy .Y ) 2 ] = E[9 X 2 .

The first order density function is 2t ì T .A)] T AT 0£x<A else where 2t ì T + 2 t0 ï d( x) + 0 (C) í T AT ï 0 î (D) T .2. The true statement is/are (A) 1. X ( t) is first order stationary.1-4 1. Consider following statements : 1. 3.4 : A random process X ( t) has periodic sample functions as shown in figure where A. X ( t) has total average power of 36 W. T).gatehelp. P7. X (t) 3. For random process X = 6 and R XX ( t. The value of E[ X 2 ( t)] is (A) (C) t0 A 2 T 2 t0 A 2 3T (B) t0 A 2 3T (D) 0 4. 3.2 t0 ï d( x) + 0 (A) í T AT ï 0 î (B) 0£x<A else where 5.u( x .com (B) 2. An ergodic random power x( t) has an auto-correlation function R XX ( t) = 18 + The X is (A) ± 18 (C) ± 17 (B) ± 13 (D) ± 18 ± 17 - 2 1 + 4 cos(12 t) 6 + t2 T . and 4 (D) only 3 Page 399 (C) 2 and 3 .2 t0 2 t0 + [ u( x) .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7.2 t0 2 T0 d( x) + T AT 6.2 RANDOM PROCESS Statement for Question 1 . X ( t) has a periodic component. 2. 2. T and 4 t0 £ T are constant but Î is random variable uniformly distributed on the interval (0. 2. t + t) = 36 + 25 e -|t|. X ( t) is a wide sense stationary. The value of s2 is X (A) 0 t t0 A é2 t0 ù T ê3 T ú ë û t0 A T é2 t0 ù ê3 + T ú ë û (B) (D) t0 A 2 t0 T T t0 A 2 T é2 t0 ù ê3 + T ú ë û (C) Fig. and 4 www. The value of E[ X ( t)] is t A (A) 0 2T (C) t0 A 4T t A (B) 0 T (D) 0 4.

1) T < t < nt and the levels A and -A occur with equal probability. ± 1.1).31 (D) 0 0 2 (C) 4.17-19 50 12.P7. P7.17-19 . s3) = 3 sin t.5 T. 8. The autocorrelation function of Y ( t) is 1 (B) R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) (A) R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) 2 (D) None of the above (C) 2 R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) Statement for Question 10 . www. The E[ Y ( t)] is (A) E[ X ( t)] (C) 1 (B) -E[ X ( t)] (D) 0 e (B) 2 ps A e (C) 0 (D) 1 Statement for Question 14-15 : The two-level semi-random binary process is defined by X ( t) = A or -A where ( n .2. The auto correlation function R X ( t) is (A) 2 NB sinc (2pbt) (C) NB sinc (2pbt) 11. The auto correlation R XX ( t1 = 0.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 7.9 : A random process is defined by Y ( t) = X ( t) cos( w0 t + q) where X ( t) is a wide sense stationary random process that amplitude modulates a carrier of constant angular frequency w0 with a random phase q independent of X ( t) and uniformly distributed on ( -p / p). The density function of X(0) p (A) 1 2 ps A x2 2 s2 A x2 2 s2 A Statement for Question 8 .10-11 (B) Second order stationary (C) Wide-sense stationary 10.2. X ( t. A random process consists of three samples function X ( t. The auto correlation function and mean of the process is (A) 1/2 & 1/3 (C) 1 & 1/2 (B) 1/3 & 1/2 (D) 1/2 & 1 (A) 1 The variance of random variable Y = ò X ( t) dt will be (B) 2.2. 15. A random process is defined by X ( t) + A where A is continuous random variable uniformly distributed on (0.P. The process is (A) First order stationary Fig. T is a positive constant and n = 0.2. If X ( t) is a stationary process having a mean value E[ X ( t)] = 3 R XX ( t) = 9 + 2 e Page 400 20 -10 10 and -|t| autocorrelation function .19 : The auto correlation function of a stationary ergodic random process is shown in fig. s1 ) = 2.54 13. t2 = 0.11 : Consider a low-pass random process with a white-noise power spectral density S X ( w) = N/2 as shown in fig.P7.com Fig. The power PX is (A) 2 NB (C) NB (B) pNB D) D NB 2p (B) pNB sinc (2pbt) (D) None of the above (D) Not stationary in any sense Statement for Question 17 . s2 ) = 2 cos t1 and X ( t.each occurring with equal probability. A random process is defined by X ( t) = A cos( pt) where A is a gaussian random variable with zero mean and variance s 2 . The mean value E[ X ( t)] is (A) 1/2 (C) 1 (B) 1/4 (D) 0 9.10-11.7.7 T) will be (A) 1 (C) A 2 (B) 0 (D) A 2/2 16. ± 2 14.gatehelp.

d( w . If the controller takes a 2 . is (A) 0. Consider random process X ( t) = A0 cos( w0 t + q) where A0 and w0 are constant and q is a random variable uniformly distributed on the interval (0.44 (D) 0. It is know that s 2 = 5 and s2 = 10.w0 ) (C) d( w) + w2 w + 16 2 w2 w2 + 25 w2 (D) 2 w + 16 (B) 27. The non valid power spectral density function of a real random process is (A) d( w + w0 ) .2 17.( w -1 ) w2 w + 3w2 + 3 6 28.R XX (0) 25. A power spectrum is given as P é r XX ( w) = ê1 + ( w / W ) 2 ê 0 ë w < KW w > KW 22. A complex random process Z ( t) = X ( t) + jY ( t) is defined by jointly stationary real process X ( t) and Y ( t). The variance s2 is X (A) 20 (C) 70 (B) 50 (D) 30 (B) (D) 10 50 (B) (D) 50 20 24.66 (C) W where P .33 (C) 0. and K are real positive constants. Air craft of Jet Airways at Ahmedabad airport arrive according to a poisson process at a rate of 12 per hour. A stationary zero mean random process X ( t) is ergodic has average power of 24 W and has no periodic component.minute coffee break.Random Process GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.gatehelp. The sums bandwidth of power spectrum is (A) W tan + k -1 k tan -1 k +1 k (B) W (D) ¥ k -1 tan -1 k 29. 2 The E[|Z ( t)| ] will be (A) 2 R XY (0) + R XX (0) + RYY (0) (B) R XX (0) + RYY (0) (C) R XX (0) . W . what is the probability that he will miss one or more arriving aircraft ? (A) 0. The E[ X 2 ( t)] is (A) 10 (C) 50 19. The rms bandwidth of the power spectrum is W 2 W 3 (B) (D) W2 3 W 2 Page 401 www.29 (D) 0.55 (B) 0.32 (B) 0.d( w) w +1 4 (C) e . Assume that a poission process describes the number of passengers that arrive for check-out. Delhi airport has two check-out lanes that develop waiting lines if more than two passengers arrives in any one minute interval. The power in X ( t) is (A) A 2 (C) 1 4 (B) 1 2 A2 A2 (D) 1 20.com . The X Y function. p). Consider the power spectrum given by ìP r XX ( w) = í î0 w <W w >W 23. The probability of a waiting line if the average rate of passengers is 2 per minute. The valid power density spectrum is (A) w2 1 + w2 + jw2 2 (B) (D) 21.16 (C) 0. Two zero mean jointly wide sense stationary random process X ( t) and Y ( t) have no periodic components. The valid auto correlation function is (A) 16 + 18 cos( 3t) e ( -6 t ) (C) (1 + 3t 2 ) (B) 24 da 2 (2 p) (D) 24d( t . The mean value E[ X ( t)] is (A) 50 (C) 20 18.49 (A) (C) where P and W are real positive constants.RYY (0) (D) RYY (0) .t) w2 . All aircraft are handled by one air traffic controller. that can apply to the process is (A) R XX ( t) = 6 u( t) e -3t (C) R XY ( t) = 9(1 + 2 e 2 ) -1 ésin( 3t) ù (B) RYY ( t) = 5 ê ë 3t ú û (D) None of the above 2 26.

e jwt (C) 2 je . The cross correlation of X ( t) with the output Y ( t) is known to have the same form R XY ( t) = u( t) te . If E[ X ( t)] = 2.gatehelp. The cross correlation (D) 18d( w) of jointly wide sense . The auto correlation of Y ( t) is 4 + at .a|t| e 8a2 (D) 1 + at .Wt 0 < t h( t) = í î 0 t <0 where W is a real positive constant.jwt/ 2 cos Page 402 wt 2 system.a|t| (A) (B) e e 3 4a 3a 2 (C) 4 + at .Wt sin( w0 t) 0 < t h( t) = í 0 t <0 î where W and w0 are real positive constants.jwt/ 2 sin (D) 1 + e . A deterministic signal A cos( w0 t). A stationary random process X ( t) is applied to the input of a system for which h( t) = 3u( t) t 2 e -8 t .w2 2 (B) (D) A W + w2 2 A W + jw A W .at 40.a|t| e 4 a3 stationary process X ( t) and Y ( t) is R XY ( t) = Au( t) e where A > 0 and W > 0 are constants.X ( t .jwt wt 2 41. A random process X ( t) is applied to a linear time invariant function is (A) 1 . The r XX ( w) is (A) (C) A W . The system's transfer (B) 2 je . the valid power density spectrum f XX ( w) is (A) 6 6 + 7 w3 (B) 4 e -3|t| 1 + w2 (B) (D) 1 64 1 32 (C) 3 + jw2 35.Wt Statement for Question 40-41 : A random process X ( t) is applied to a network with impulse response h( t) = u( t) te .jw 36. where A and w0 are real constants is added to a noise process N ( t) for which r NN ( w) = W2 W2+ w2 and W > 0 is a constant. the mean value of the system's response Y ( t) is (A) (C) 1 128 3 128 -4 t 2 (D) None of the above 34. The autocorrelation function of a random process X ( t) is R XX ( t.at where a > 0 is a constant. the mean value of response is (A) (C) Aw0 w + W2 2 0 of average signal power to average noise power is (A) 1 (C) 2A W 33. For a random process R XX ( t) = P cos 4 ( w0 t) where P and w0 are constants.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 30. which X ( t) is its input. The mean value of the response is A A (B) (A) W 2W (C) 2A W (D) 0 31.com .a|t| 1 + at . The average power in Y ( t) is 1 1 (A) (B) 3 a 4a3 (C) 1 3a 2 (D) None of the above www. A response Y ( t) = X ( t) . If X ( t) and Y ( t) are real random process. The ratio A (B) W A2 (D) W 38. The power in process is (A) P (C) 3P (B) 2P (D) 4P 37. A random process has the power density spectrum r XX ( w) = (A) 1/4 (C) 5/8 6w2 [1 + w 2 ] 3 . A random process X ( t) has an autocorrelation function R XX ( t) = A 2 + Be -|t| Where A and B are constants. t + t) = 12 e Yt cos 2 (24 t) The R XX ( t) is (A) 6 e -4 t (C) 48 e 2 2 2 (B) ö ÷ ÷ ø 2A æ 1 ç 2 ç w + W2 w0 è 0 æ ç 2 çw è 0 A æ (D) ç 2 2 w0 ç w0 è A 2 w0 1 + W2 ö ÷ ÷ ø ö 1 ÷ 2 ÷ +W ø (B) 12 e -4 t 39. In previous question if impulse response of system is ì e . The average power in process is (B) 3/8 (D) 1/2 32.t) occurs when t is a real constant. A system have an input response ì e .

2 t0 ö =ç ÷d( x) + 0 . e) de e . The power spectrum of Y ( t) is (A) (C) 4 w2 ( 49 + w2 ) 3 42 w3 ( 49 + w2 ) 2 (B) 12 w2 ( 49 + w2 ) 4 (D) None of the above 44.2 t0 ö Thus FX ( x Î= e) = ç ÷u( x) + 0 .0 £ x < A and 0 < e < T =ç ÷d( x) + 2 AT 2 è T ø f X ( x) = ¥ is applied to a differentiator that has a additional time interval or fraction of time where X £ x 43. (C) E[ X 2 ( t)] = -¥ òx 2 f X ( x) dx = ò A 2 t0 x 2 2 t0 A 2 = 3T AT 0 4. 2.4 50 8p -¥ òf X .2 T0 ) / T} u( x). 2t x æ T . (A) We know that ( i) if X ( t) has a periodic component then R XX ( t) will have a periodic component with the same period.43 : A random noise X ( t) having a power spectrum r XX ( w) = transfer function H ( w) = jw. the value of N0 is (A) 12. It has a noise bandwidth of 2 MHz.Random Process GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.0 £ x < A AT è T ø = 0 elsewhere. Now P { X £ x Î= e} = FX ( X|Î= e) and for any Î must be zero for x < 0 because x( t) is never negative. This happens during the fraction of time ( T . The event { X £ 0} is satisfied whenever x( t) is zero. (B) E[ X ( t)] = = ¥ ¥ -¥ ò xf X ( x) dx A 46.2 t0 ö . The noise bandwidth of the system is (A) (C) 1 3 1 6 é2 t0 ù ê3 . becomes 2 to 2 t0 x / AT. (A) Let Î have value e.w 2 /8 .1 W in a 1 .5 mW/Hz (D) 25 mW/Hz 45.2 t0 ö f X ( x Î= e) = ç ÷d( x) + 0 . The output is applied to a network for which h( t) = u( t) t 2 e -7t 42.T ú ë û pW 2 pW 2 (B) 1 4 pW 2 5.Î ( x.2 Statement for Question 42 .{ E[ X ( t)]} 2 X = 2 2 t0 A 2 t0 A 2 t0 A 2 = 3T T T2 47.5 ´ 10 -6 (C) 5 ´ 10 -6 (B) 2. (ii) if E[ X ( t)] = X m 0 and X ( t) is ergodic with no periodic components then lim R XX ( t) = X |t|®¥ 2 - (D) None of the above ************ Thus we get X = 18 or X= ± 18 www.9773) (B) 90.W resistor. e) = f X ( x Î= e) fÎ( e) 2 T0 æ T . 0 £ x < A T ø AT è = 1.2 the network's output is ( F (2) = 0.5 p ´ 10 -6 (D) p5 ´ 10 -6 2 2 t0 x t A æ T .x < 0 By differentiation 2t æ T .gatehelp. An ideal filter with a mid-band power gain of 8 and bandwidth of 4 rad/s has noise X ( t) at its input with power spectrum r XX ( w) = (A) 60. The noise power at 2t æ T . the bandwidth W is (A) 2.A £ x = 0.com 2 Page 403 .8 (C) 20.3 (D) 100. For 0£x<A Hence the FX ( x|Î= e) = [( T . White noise with power density N0/2 is applied to a lowpass network for which H(0) = 2. If the average output noise power is 0. (D) s2 = E[ X 2 ( t)] .2t ö ò xç T 0 ÷d( x) dx + ò AT dx = 0T è ø 0 -¥ ¥ 3. e ( x.2 t0 ) / T. The average power in X ( t) is (A) 5/21 (C) 5/42 (B) 5/24 (D) 3/14 3 49+ w 2 SOLUTION 1.5 nW/Hz (C) 25 nW/Hz (B) 12. A system have the transfer function H ( w) = 1 + ( w1/W ) 4 where W is a real positive constant. 0 £ x < A AT è T ø = 0 else where f X . White noise with power density N0/2 = 6 mW/Hz is applied to an ideal filter of gain 1 and bandwidth W rad/s. If the output's average noise power is 15 watts.

2 Thus X = 20 2 or X = 20 18.u|dt du = 4(10 + e -2 ) 0 0 2 2 s2 = E[ Y 2 ] . t2 )= A 2 A A .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 6.P(miss 0) = 1 .gatehelp. 7. (C) E[ Y ] = E[ ò X ( t) dt = ò E[ X ( t)]dt = 3ò dt = 6 0 0 0 2 2 2 For (A) : Function does not have even symmetry For (B) : Function does not satisfy RYY (0) = 10 For (C) : Function does not satisfy |R XY ( t)|£ R XX (0) RYY (0) = 50 21.u| ]dt du 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 = 36 + 2 ò ò e -|t . (D) s2 = X 2 . Thus 4 is false. For (B) .5 T.=0 2 2 1 3 If both t1 and t2 are in the same interval ( n .com . t + t) = E[ X ( t) X ( t + t)] = E[ A 2 ] = ò a 2 da = 0 1 13. (C) PX = X = R X (0) = NB since sinc (0) = 1 12. (C) Here R XX ( t1 .. (D) We know that for ergodic with no periodic component |t|®¥ We know that R X ( t)¬ ® S X ( w) ¾ W æ w ö ¾ sin(Wt)¬ ® rect ç ÷ p è 2W ø Here W = 2pB Hence R X ( t) = 2 lim R XX ( t) = X . PXX = R XX (0) = 36 + 25 = 61.x ) + 3 d( x . and R XX ( t1 . (A) For t = 0. (B) R XX ( t. (D) E[ Y ( t)} = E[ X ( t) cos( w0 t + q)] = E X [ X ( t)] ò cos( w0 t + q) -X X 1 dq = 0 2p where E X [×] represent expectation with respect to X only 9. (C) X = Constant and R XX ( t) is not a function of t.20 = 30 X 2 20.X(0)= A. t2 < nT. t2 ) = 0 otherwise Hence R XX (0. (C) R XX (0) = E[ X 2 ( t)] = R XX (0) = 50 = X 2 19.P (0 arrive) = 1 ( lt) 0 e .x2 ) + d( x . (D) E[ X ( t)] = AP ( A) + ( . (A) P (miss/or more aircraft)= 1 .x1 ) + d( x . Here X = 0. It is not even in t. For (C) It depends on t not even in t and average power is ¥.A) = 15.x ) + 3 d( x .u) dt du = ò ò [9 + 2 e -|t . (D) For (A) : It has a periodic component. R XX (0) = 5. n = 0. So f X ( x) = 1 2 ps A - x2 2 2 sA e 14.541 Y Page 404 www. then R XX( t) will have a periodic component with the same period.X = 50 . Thus 2 is false if X ( t) has a periodic component.x3) 2 3 3 and E[ X ( t)] = = = ¥ ¥ X= E[ X ( t)] = E[ A ] = ò a da = 0 1 1 2 8. x2 = 2 cos t and x3 = 3 sin( t) 1 1 1 Then f X ( x) = d( x .( E[ Y ]) 2 = 4(1 + e -2 ) = 4. Y = 0. ±. 0. t + t) = E[ X ( t) cos( w0 t + q) X ( t + t) cos( w0 t + q + w0 t)] 1 = R XX ( t) [cos( w0 t) + cos(2 w0 t + 2 q + w0 t)] 2 1 = R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) 2 10.7 T) = A 2 16.. 22. so X ( t) is a wide sense stationary.A) P ( . sY = RYY (0) = 10 2 2 pB N sin (2pBt) = NB sinc (2pBt) p 2 11. (D) Let x1 = 2. 17. So 1 is false & 3 is true. (B) RYY ( t. ±2. (C) S X ( w) = N æ w ö rectç ÷ 2 è 4 pb ø -¥ ò xf X ( x) dx 1 ù -¥ ò x ê 3 d( x .1) T < t.lt 0! E[ Y 2 ] = E[ ò X ( t) dt ò X ( u) du]] = ò ò E[ X ( t) X ( u) du dt ] 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 = ò ò R XX ( t . total power is also incorrect.x ) ú ë û 1 2 2 é1 1 1 [2 + 2 cos t + 3 sin t ] 3 The mean value is time dependent so X ( t) is not stationary in any sense.

Wt Aw sin( w0 t) dt = 2 0 2 w0 + W 47.1) (2) 2 2 p ´ 2 ´ 106 .F ( -2)] = [2 F (2) .at ¥ ¥ -¥ òR XY ( t + x)h( x) dx 2 -2 ax ********* -¥ ò u( x)u( x + t)( tx + x ) e dx There are two cases of interest t ³ 0 and t < 0 Since RYY ( t) is an even function we solve only the ease t ³ 0 RYY ( t) = e .gatehelp.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System E[ Y ( t)] = A ò h( x)dx = A ò e . (B) Noise bandwidth Wn = ¥ 2 ò H( w) 0 ¥ 2 dw H (0) 2 Wn = ò H ( w) dwsince H(0) = 1 = ò 0 dw pW = 1 + ( w/W ) 4 2 2 0 3 39. (A) X = A E[ Y ( t)] = Y = X ò h( t) dt = A ò e -¥ 0 ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ . (D) PXX = dw 1 3 3 ò r XX ( w) dw = 2 p -¥ 49 + w2 = 14 ò 2p -¥ 2 = H 2 ( w) (7 + jw) 3 2 43. (B) PYY = = Page 406 W 1 6 ´ 10 -6 W 6 ´ 10 -6 W = 6 ´ 10 -6 dw = = 15 2 p -ò p p W www.Wt dt = -¥ 0 ¥ ¥ A W So W = 2.1) H (0) Wn = 2 p(0. (D) RYY ( t)= = e .at ò ( tx + x2 )e -2 ax dx = 0 ¥ 1 + at .com . (B) Power in y( t) = RYY (0) = ¥ 42.1)] = 60.1 2 p(0. (C)Y = X ò h( t) dt = 2 ò 3t e dt = 128 0 -¥ 2 -8 t 40.5 nW/Hz 45. = 125 ´ 10 -8 W/Hz = 12.5 p ´ 106 ¥ 38. (A) PYY = So N0 = = 0. (B)h2 = 49 t) t 2 e -7t ¬ F ® ¾ sYY ( w) = s XX ( w) = H1 ( w) H 2 ( w) = N0 H (0) Wn 2p 2 2 12 w2 ( 49 + w2 ) 4 44.ax e 4 a3 1 4a3 ¥ 41. (A) PYY = 4 2 1 ò r XX ( w) H( w) dw 2 p -¥ w2 4 w2 2 (u) ¥ 1 50 = ò 8pe 8 2p 4 = (8 ) dw 200 = p ò 4 e 2 p( 4) 200 200 [ F (2) .8 p p 2 1 ò r XX ( w) H( w) dw 2 p -¥ ¥ 46.

Assume that n( t) is a sample function of an ergodic random process N ( t) and T is very large. while the internal noise at the input is 10 mV.1 6.3 NOISE 1.4 mV (D) 12. The power spectral density are as follows Sm ( w) = 6 . With amplification the output signal is 2 V. A mixer stage has a noise figure of 20 dB. The power spectral density of a bandpass white noise n( t) is N / 2 as shown in fig.7. This mixer stage is preceded by an amplifier which has a noise figure of 9 dB and an available power gain of 15 dB. The overall noise figure referred to the input is (A) 11.8 mV (C) 4. the value of n is 2 5.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7. In a receiver the input signal is 100 mV. The noise figure of receiver is (A) 2 (C) 0.48 B) 18. The transistor used in the receiver have an average output resistance of 1 kW. www. Distance R is given by vt R / 2 where v is the speed of the sound wave in water and t R is the time it takes the reflected version of n( t) to return. the overall noise figure is (A) 1.33 (B) 6.43 NB p (A) NB (C) 2pNB (B 2 NB (D) 2.6 mV (D) None of the above Statement for Question 8-9 A sonar echo system on a sub marine transmits a random noise n( t) to determine the distance to another targeted submarine.5 (D) None of the above 7.07 (C) 56.38 Fig.8 (D) 10. while the output noise is 0.gatehelp.4 V.38 (C) 4.23 (D) 97.3.3 mV (B) 8.1. A receiver is operated at a temperature of 300 K.2 (B) 0. A signal process m( t) is mixed with a channel noise n( t). The rms noise voltage generated in a bandwidth of 10 kHz is (A) 16 ´ 10 -14 V (C) 4 m V (B) 0.P. The Johnson noise voltage for a receiver with a bandwidth of 200 kHz is (A) 1. A system has three stage cascaded amplifier each stage having a power gain of 10 dB and noise figure of 6 dB.3. A resistor R = 1 kW is maintained at 17 o C. Sn ( w) = 6 9 + w2 1 w + 10 2 The optimum Wiener-Hopf filter is w2 + 9 (A) 2 w + 10 (C) w2 + 10 w2 + 9 (B) 3. P7.4 m V (D) 16 ´ 10 -18 V Page 407 .com 4.

and Te 3 = 1000K (last stage).3 dB cascade if the attenuator's (B) 10.6 dB (C) (D) 17. If the available power gain of the second stage is 5.3 dB Statement for Question 14-16 An amplifier has an operating spot noise figure of 10 dB when driven by a source of effective noise temperature 225 K.4 dB (D) 13.9 dB 13. what gain must the first stage have to guarantee an effective input noise temperature of 250 K ? (A) 10 (C) 16 (B) 13 (D) 19 19. The cascade's standard spot noise figure is (A) 1. What is the cascade's operating spot noise figure when used with a source of noise temperature Ts = 50 K (A) 1.3 dB (C) 14.2 dB is placed between the source and the amplifier's input. The available power gain of the second stage is (A) 12 (C) 16 (B) 14 (D) 18 12. that is used to amplify the output of an antenna have antenna temperature of Ta = 180 K 11. In previous question what is the standard spot noise figure of the cascade ? (A) 10. Two resistor with resistance R1 and R2 are connected in parallel and have Physical temperatures T1 and T2 respectively.3 dB (C) 4. Omega Electronics sells a microwave receiver (A) having an operating spot noise figure of 10 dB when driven by a source with effective noise temperature 130 K Digilink (B) sells a receiver with a standard spot noise figure of 6 dB.com . The best receiver to purchase is (A) A (C) C (B) B (D) all are equal Statement for Question 11-12 : An amplifier has a standard spot noise figure F0 = 6.2 dB (D) 17. If a matched attenuator with a loss of 3. An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 200 K (first stage).3 dB physical temperature is 290 K ? 10. www.t T ) (B) R NN ( t R .81 dB (B) 3. The standard spot noise figure of amplifier is (A) 4 dB (C) 7 dB (B) 5 dB (D) 9 dB R NN ( t R . Page 408 20. The effective input noise temperature of this amplifier is (A) 2520 K (C) 2710 K (B) 2120 K (D) 1540 K Statement for Question 18-20 : An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 150 K (first stage).34 dB (C) 6. what is the operating spot noise figure of the attenuator amplifier (A) 9 dB (C) 11.8 dB (B) 6.96 dB (D) None of the above. The effective noise temperature Ts of an equivalent resistor is (A) T1 R1 + T2 R2 R1 + R2 T1 T2 ( R1 + R2 ) 2 ( T1 + T2 ) R1 R2 (B) T1 R1 + T2 R1 R1 + R2 ( T1 + T2 ) R1 R2 T1 + T2 ( R1 + R2 ) 2 16.2 dB (C) 9.t T ) (C) R NN ( t R . The amplifier. Available power gain of the first stage is 10 and overall input effective noise temperature is 190 K 18.gatehelp. Te 2 = 450 K.4 dB (D) 11. and Te 3 = 600 K (output stage). What value of the delay t T will cause v to be maximum ? (A) t R (C) 3t R (B) 2t R (D) None of the above 15.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 8.t T ) 9. The operating spot noise figure is (A) 3.2 dB (D) 5.9 dB (B) 12.2 t T ) (D) 1 2 14.0 dB). The V will be (A) 2 R NN ( t R .3 dB (B) 2. Te 2 = 350 K. Microtronics (C) sells a receiver with standard spot noise figure of 8 dB when driven by a source with effective noise temperature 190 K.31 (8.

5 p(10 -6 ) (C) 4.5 p(106 ) (D) 4. If the average output noise power is 8. An ideal filter with a mid-band power gain of 8 and bandwidth of 4 rad/s has noise X ( t) at its input with power spectrum ( F (2) = 0. The excess noise power of unit 1 and unit 2 are respectively (A) 15.35 mW (D) 0.8 nW and 27. White noise with power density N0/2 = 6(10 -6 ) W/Hz is applied to an ideal fitter (gain= 1) with bandwidth W (rad/sec). White noise with power density N0/2 is applied to a low pass network for which H(0) = 2.5 / W (B) 2.8 when used with a 60 W broadband source having average source temperature of 80 K. The T 2 s for this (B) (D) None of the above 38. An engineer of RS communication purchase an amplifier with average operating noise figure of 1. A system have an impulse response ìe e<t h=í 0 t <0 î where W is a real positive constant.4 K and 256.Wt 43. The average noise temperature of the source is (A) 125 K (C) 256 K (B) 156 K (D) 292 K (A) 1 / W (C) 4.gatehelp.9 K and 126. the W must be (A) 2. White noise with power density 5w/Hz is applied to this system.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 33.25 ´ 108 W/Hz (C) 125 ´ 108 W/Hz .2 K (D) 864.9 K (B) 256.8 K and 864.8 nW and 21. The Te for unit 1 and 2 unit are. It has a noise bandwidth of 2 MHz.com .1 nW 36.5 / W (D) 6 / W 39. respectively (A) 126.8 r XX ( w) = ç ÷e è 8p ø w2 The noise power at the network's output is 164 343 (B) (A) p p (C) 211 p (D) 191 p 42.1 nW (D) 15.4 nW and 21.55 mW (B) 0.4 K (C) 527.95 mW 34.25.25 ´ 10 -8 W/Hz (D) 125 ´ 10 -8 W/Hz . For output's average noise power to be 15 W.1 is the best to purchase. www.1 nW (C) 23. for which R XX ( t) = 10 -2 8( t) is applied to a network with impulse response h( t) = 4( t) 3 .2 K and 527. correct statement is (A) S1 (C) both S1 and S2 (B) S2 (D) None 40. White noise. A system has the power transfer function H( w) = 2 1 æ wö 1+ç ÷ èW ø 4 37. The mean-squared value of response is Page 410 .15 mW (C) 0.8 K 35.5 p(10 -2 ) (B) -2.1 nW (B) 23. When used with a different 60 W source the average operating noise figure is 1.9773) æ 50 ö . The noise bandwidth of the system is pW (A) 2 2 pW 2 pW 2 ( 8 10 + jw ) .5 p(106 ) 41.1 W in a 1 W resistor. A source has an effective noise temperature of available power gain of Ga ( w) = source is (A) 10 K (C) 30 K (B) 20 K (D) 40 K (C) 800 Ts ( w) = 100 + w 2 and feeds an amplifier that has an where W is a real positive constant. (B) 6. the N0 is (A) 6. Consider following statement S1 : If the source noise temperature T s is very small. unit-2 is the best to purchase S2 : If the source noise temperature T s is very small unit .4 nW and 27.te-4 t The network's output noise power in a 1 W resistor is (A) 0.

t T ) Since N ( t) is ergodic.t T ) n( t . 100 . Its operating spot noise figure Fop is (A) 5.94 + = 1107 F = F1 + 2 31.4m V 5.38 ´ 10 -23 J/K 2 vn = 4 ´ 1.t T )n( t .23 R = 1000W. The amplifier's available output noise power is 0.8m V 2 4.16 (C) 11.1 F -1 . 9.t R ) dt = A[ n( t . k = 1.t R )] V » R NN ( t R . (B) Use the current form of equivalent circuit 2 kT1 dw 2 kT2 dw 2kTs dw 2 2 2 where in = .94.3 Statement for Question 44-46 : An amplifier has a narrow bandwidth of 1 kHz and standard spot noise figure of 3. 4 45.8 at its frequency of operation.t T )n( t . V will be maximum if t R = t T 10.38 ´ 10 -23 ´ 290 ´ 10 3 ´ 10 4 = 16 ´ 10 -14 V 2 vnrms = 0.3 ´ 10 -12 vnrms = 1. (C) V = 1 2T T T -T ò n( t .1 4 -1 4 -1 + =4+ + = 4. (C) Gain of each stage A1 = A2 = A3 = 10 dB Noise figure of each stage F1 = F2 = F3 = 6 dB or F1 = F2 = F3 = 4 db F . in = i12 + i2 = + pR1 pR2 pR æT T Thus Ts = ç 1 + 2 çR è 1 R2 ö T R + T2 R1 ÷R = 1 2 ÷ R1 + R2 ø Page 411 www.38 ´ 10 -23 ´ 300 ´ 200 ´ 10 3 ´ 10 3 = 3.com . = 7.t R ) dt Since T is very large V = lim 1 T ®¥ 2 T -T ò n( t . B = 10 Hz.1 mW when its input is connected to a radio receiving antenna having an antenna temperature of 80 K.62. (B) n2 = 2 fc + B ò N df = 2 NB 2 S/N i 100/10 i = =2 2/0. (A) F1 = 9 dB = 7. (A) vn = 4kTBR = 4 ´ 1.1 F3 . (A) NF = SOLUTION fc + B 1.33 F = F1 + 2 A1 A1 A2 10 100 7. (A) Because R NN ( t) £ R NN (0) for any auto correlation function. (B) vn = 4kTBR. 44.Noise GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. (B) H op ( w) = Sm ( w) = Sm ( w) + Sm ( w) 6 9+ w 2 6 9+ w 2 +6 = 1 10 + w2 8. The amplifier's input effective noise temperature Te is (A) 812 K (C) 421 K (B) 600 K (D) 321 K 2.15 (B) 7.gatehelp.4 So/N o 2 3. F2 = 20 dB = 100 46.62 A 6.98 (D) 16. Its available power gain Ga is (A) 2 ´ 1012 (C) 8 ´ 1012 (B) 4 ´ 1012 (D) 11 ´ 1012 A1 = 15 dB = 31. T = (273 + 17) K = 290 K.

1) = 1 + (10 .1) 290(1585 . (C) F o = 1 + Te 240 =1 + = 1.Ta 820 .0 dB BAC 120 + CBA150 + Ts 225 ( Fop .467 (or . (A) Sequence Te 120 150 ABC110 + + = 146. (C) Fop = 1 + e = 1 + = 4.089 .2 K For C: Fo = 6.1) = 263 K .1) = 1007 K.1) = 290( 6.81 dB Ts 50 T Te 3 100 280 21.1) T0 290 120 110 + = 161528 . (B) Te = Te1 + 2 1 1 ù Te 2 Te 3 é = Te1 ê1 + + + G G2 ú G1 G1 G2 ë û or ( Te1 . TR = We know that [ T sys . (B) Here Ta = 60 K. and T sys = 820 K.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 11. (D) T e = T s ( F op .2 dB. (B) Te = 250 = Te1 + 450 1000 250 = 200 + + G1 5 G2 14.25 = 0 or G = 5 23.Ta .155) G 2 + 125 G + 125 = 0 6 G 2 . = 651110 -5 or 6. TL = 290 K Te = Te1 + Te 2 T ( F .1) = 60(5 .31 . Fop = 1 + 225 16.25 4 4( 6) ACB110 + 150 120 + = 150. (A) Te = T0 ( F .54 dB 30 Ts dw dw = kTs 2p 2p Te 190 =1 + = 1.60 .3(or 8 dB) when Ts = 190 K TeC = 190( 6. (B) F0 = 1 + 4544.9 K 12.98 .4 dB).1 = 290[(2.8 or 6. (D) Here F0 » 1585 (or 2.19 dB T0 290 T 190 20.3 dB . TeB = 290( 398 . .Te ) G + Te1 G + Te1 = 0 Page 412 32. (A) Here GR ( w0 ) = 1011 (or 110 dB) and WPV = 2 p(10 7) Hz kT sys GR ( w)Wn 1.1) = 364.5 dB) Ts = T0 ( F0 .3 .467 . ) = 12 N clo = .8276 290 290 Te 240 =1 + = 9 or 9.1) + 0 0 G1 1/ L 24.1 F op . 12 (12)( 6) 15. (B) is better as TeB is less.089 or 3.56 or 9.25 G .60 =1 + =1 + 60 Ts Ts = 13.0 dB) and F OP » 4.gatehelp.38(10 -23)( 820)(1011 )(10 7) = 2 pL 1738 .655 or 2.1) = 240 K 31. (C) dN ao = k[ Ta + TL ( L . 25.00 4 4(12) 110 150 + = 144. (B) For A: Fop = 10(or 10 dB) when Ts = 130 K TeA = 130(10 . L = 1738 (or 2.1) . = = 48.583 ¬ Best 6 6( 4) 13.51 mW 29. 6.Te1 19. (A) Te = Te1 + e 2 + = 40 + + = 58.1) .2 dB 290 26.089)(7.8 dB Ta 180 Te 2 Te 3 + G1 G2 or G1 = 13 (125 .1) £ 290(17 .4 = 212 or 13. (A) F op = 1 + www.TL ( L .67 or 12.98 or 9.67 or 11.275(1738 . (B) F0 = 1 + Te1 Te 3 + G1 G1 G2 600 = Te 2 ) 10(190 . (C) Fop = 1 + Te 1540 =1 + = 9.4 dB 28.93 K 4.com .5 K 27. = L 1738 .1) = 203 K .33 K G1 G1 G2 8 8( 6) 22. 18. 30. TL = 275 K .1)] = 4544. (A) Te = Te1 + Te 3 G2 = G1 ( Te .4 K 4544.1)] 820 .1)] Thus Ts = Ta + TL ( L . (D) Here L = 2. (D) Te = T0 ( F0 .4 = 16.1) = 1170 K For B: Fo = 398(or 6 dB) when Ts = 290 K . (D) F0 = 1 + = 7.1) + (2.1) = 60 + 275(1738 . (B) F op = 1 + Te T sys .1) = 1539. 17.150 G1 350 10 = 320.1) = TL ( L .

35 6.5 (B) 0.25 kW AM signal has x( t) = [20 + 2 cos 3000 pt + 10 cos 6000 pt ]cos 2 pfc t (B) . the power of the modulated signal is (A) 2. The total transmitted power would be (A) 3.46 kW (D) 6. The modulation index is (A) (C) 201 400 199 400 9.0 (C) 0. would be the form where (A) 5 kW (C) 12.81 kW (D) None of the above www.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7.62 kW (C) 1.42 kW (B) 31. 4.89 (B) 0.12 kW (D) None of the above 8.18 kW (B) 2.199 400 10.3 An AM signal is represented by x( t) = (20 + 4 sin 500 pt) cos(2 p ´ 10 5 t) V 1. A carrier is simultaneously modulated by two sine waves with modulation indices of 0.23 kW (C) 1.4 kW Page 414 (B) 2. The total sideband power is (A) 4 W (C) 16 W (B) 8 W (D) 2 W Statement for Question 4 .201 400 (D) . for the system to operate at 100% modulation. The aerial current of an AM transmitter is 18 A when unmodulated but increases to 20 A when modulated. If the unmodulated carrier power is 2 kW. An AM broadcast station operates at its maximum allowed total output of 50 kW with 80% modulation.36 kW (D) 1.3.26 kW 5.The modulation index is (A) 0. The modulation index is (A) 20 (C) 0.4 AMPLITUDE MODULATION Statement for Question 1 . A 2 MHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a 500 Hz modulating signal to a depth of 70%.5 : An fc = 10 5 Hz. The ratio of the sidebands power to the total power is (A) (C) 43 226 26 226 (B) (D) 26 226 43 224 11. A 2 kW carrier is to be modulated to a 90% level.4 and 0. The total signal power is (A) 208 W (C) 408 W (B) 204 W (D) 416 W (B) 4 (D) 10 7. The power in the intelligence part is (A) 12.73 (D) None fo the above 3. The required DC input power to the amplifier.7 (D) 0. The resultant modulation index will be (A) 1. A modulating signal is amplified by a 80% efficiency amplifier before being combined with a 20 kW carrier to generate an AM signal.68 (C) 0.5 kW (B) 8.12 kW (C) 6.com .2 2.gatehelp.

where Ac = 500 V. What is the value of the modulation index ? (A) 25% (C) 75% (B) 50% (D) 100% 21. 10 kHz (D) None of the above 24. If DSB is employed. A diode detector has a load of 1 kW shunted by a 10000 pF capacitor.com .2000) t) (C) 50 cos(2 p( fc + 1000) t) + 100 cos(2 p( fc + 2000) t) (D) 50 cos(2 p( fc . A 1 MHz sinusoidal carrier is amplitude modulated by a symmetrical square wave of period 100 m sec. The diode has a forward resistance of 1 W.847 (C) 0. The carrier frequency used for this AM signal is (A) 695 kHz (C) 705 kHz (B) 700 kHz (D) 710 kHz 14.25 kW (C) 15 kW (B) 12. An AM signal is detected using an envelop detector. with modulating signal frequency fo 10 kHz will be (A) 0. The maximum permissible depth of modulation. It is to be transmitted from a source to destination. A message signal m( t) = sinc t + sinc 2 ( t) modulates the carrier signal ( t) = A cos 2pfc t.4.100) t) Statement for Question 23-26 : The Fourier transform M ( f ) of a signal m( t) is 17.734 (B) 0. If USSB is employed. the bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 5 kHz (B) 10 kHz (D) None of the above Page 415 19. An AM voltage signal s( t). the transmitted power (A) increases by 50% (C) increases by 100% (B) increases by 75% (D) remains unaffected 22.2 m sec (B) 20 m sec (D) 1 m sec shown in figure. The total radiated power(is (A) 11. the modulation envelope has a peak value which is double the unmodulated carrier value. An appropriate value for the time constant of the envelope detector is. The expression for the upper side band (USB) signal is (A) 100 cos(2 p( fc + 1000) t) + 200 cos(2 p( fc + 200) t) 16.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.628 (D) None of the above (B) 100 cos(2 p( fc . meaning that -1 £ m( t) £ 1 M( f) -10000 10000 f 18. (A) 500 m sec (C) 0. the bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 5 kHz (C) 20 kHz (B) 20 kHz. The carrier frequency and modulating signal frequency are 1 MHz and 2 kHz respectively. It is known that the signal is normalized.15 GHz has a complex envelope g( t) = AC [1 + m( t)]. In a DSB-SC system with 100% modulation.6 kW Fig.5 kW (D) 6. The bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 2 fc (C) 2 (B) (D) 1 2 1 4 fc 15. the power saving is (A) 50% (C) 75% (B) 66% (D) 100% Which of the following frequencies will NOT be present in the modulated signal? (A) 990 KHz (C) 1020 KHz (B) 1010 KHz (D) 1030 KHz 13. with a carrier frequency of 1.1000) t) + 100 cos(2 p( fc . For an AM signal. If the modulation index of an AM wave is changed from 0 to 1. The signal m( t) = cos 2000 pt + 2 cos 4000 t is multiplied by the carrier c( t) = 100 cos 2pfc t where fc = 1 MHz to produce the DSB signal.gatehelp.8 sin(2 p ´ 10 3 t) appears across a 50 W resistive load.1000) t) + 200 cos(2 p( fc . (C) 20 kHz www. In amplitude modulation. so as to avoid diagonal clipping. What is the actual power dissipated in the load ? (A) 165 kW (C) 3.3 kW (B) 82.4 12. A 10 kW carrier is sinusoidally modulated by two carriers corresponding to a modulation index of 30% and 40% respectively. the bandwidth is 10 kHz and the highest frequency component present is 705 kHz.P7.23-26 23. and the modulation is a 1 kHz sinusoidal test tone described by m( t) = 0.5 kW (D) 17 kW 20.

5 cos q (C) 0.4. This message signals is applied to an AM modulator with modulation index a = 0.com . The modulating signal m( t) has zero mean and its maximum (absolute) value is Am = max m( t) . If an FM signal with kf = 60 kHz is used.333 (D) 3.P7.Law Device y(t) Filter AM Signal cos wct Fig. If an AM modulation scheme with a = 0.2 vi2 ) mA is supplied with a carrier of 1 V amplitude and a sinusoidal signal of 0.gatehelp.4.30-31 26. The message signal is a waveform having zero DC value. the (A) 0.32 (A) 51 % (C) 5. The filter should be a (A) LPP with bandwidth W (B) LPF with bandwidth 2W (C) a BPF with center frequency f0 and BW = W such that f0 .P7. The output of the non-linear device can be filtered by an appropriate band-pass filter.5 cos q 2 p out pu is 2 (B) cos q (D) 1 2 cos 2 q 28. m(t) 45 30 15 t Statement for Question 30-31 Consider the system shown in figP7. A DSB modulated signal x( t) = Am( t) cos 2pfc t is mixed (multiplied) with a local carrier xL ( t) = cos(2pfc t + q) and the output is passed through a LPF with a bandwidth equal to the bandwidth of the message m( t). then the bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 5 kHz (C) 20 kHz (B) 10 kHz (D) None of the above 30.4.4. Then the value of fc¢(in MHz) is (A) 1. Page 416 Fig.0 (C) 0. as shown in figure.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 25. The nonlinear device has a input-output characteristic y( t) = ax( t) + bx 2 ( t). The modulation index is (A) 0. (A) 5 kHz (C) 20 kHz (B) 10 kHz (D) None of the above m(t) S x(t) Square. A message signal is periodic with period T. If the power of the signal at the output of the low pass filter is pout and the power of the modulated signal by pu .8 www.4 (B) 0. It has bandwidth Wm . A DSB-SC signal is to be generated with a carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz using a non-linear device with the input-output characteristic vo = a0 vi + a1 vi3 where a0 and a1 are constants.33 % Statement for Question 33-36 The figure 6. ¢ Let vi = Ac cos(2pfc¢t) + m( t) where m( t) is the message signal.1 % (B) 11.Wm > f0 .0 32.5 V amplitude in series.8 % (D) None of the above 29.54-57 shows the positive portion of the envelope of the output of an AM modulator.33-36 33.5 (B) 0. the bandwidth of the modulated signal is.Wm > f0 .4.6 (D) 0. The modulation index is 2b 2a (B) (A) Am Am a b (C) a Am b (D) b Am a 27.8 is used.5 (C) 0. If at the output the frequency component of AM signal is considered. A non-linear device with a transfer characteristic given by i = (10 + 2 vi + 0.30-31.P7.W > Wm 2 31. The modulation efficiency would be m(t) K1 T t -K1 Fig.W > 2Wm 2 (D) a BPF with center frequency f0 and BW = W such that f0 . the depth of modulation is (A) 18 % (C) 20 % (B) 10 % (D) 33.

200 sin(2 p( fc . 3 ´ 10 .3 % (C) 7.8.4 34. In a broadcast transmitter. The amplitude of the carrier is Ac = 100. The modulation efficiency is (A) 8. The carrier power is (A) 60 W (C) 30 W (B) 450 W (D) 900 W (B) 14.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.sin(2 p1000 t) + 2 cos(2000 pt) (C) sin(2 p1000 t) + 2 cos(1000 t) (D) sin(2 p1000 t) .10.4. 6.1000) t) + 200 sin(2 p( fc . High-side tuning is to be used.5 MHz (D) None of the above 45. P7.32 (C) 0. required to produce modulation index of 0.991 ´ 106 . 1.03 (B) 0.005 ´ 106 and 6. 13. Let W be the bandwidth of message signal m( t). 5. 10 (D) None of the above 44.52 (B) 0.26 (D) 0.1000) t) (B) -100 cos(2 p( fc . A super heterodyne receiver uses an IF frequency of 455 kHz.5 W 37.69 % 35.69-70. .gatehelp. The tuning range of the local oscillator for IF frequency 500 kHz would be (A) 4.1000) t) (C) 100 cos(2 p( fc .2 cos(2000 pt) (B) .10.5 MHz .16 (C) 22. The value of A and B are (A) 14. The image frequency will be (A) 2855 kHz www. 11 ´ 10 . The square-law device is defined by y( t) = 4 x( t) + 10 x( t). \$ 40.1000) t) Statement for Question 42-43 Consider the system shown in figure 6.2 cos(2 p1000 t) (B) 5.1000) t) + 200 sin(2 p( fc .sin(2 p1000 t) .4 ´ 10 4 (D) 1 ´ 10 . The value of M. High-side tuning is to be used. is (A) 0.46 (B) 50. AM signal would be recovered if (A) fc > W (C) fc ³ 3W (B) fc > 2W (D) fc > 4W 39. The receiver is tuned to a transmitter having a carrier frequency of 2400 kHz.1000) t) (D) 100 cos(2 p( fc .14.89 cos 5000 t + 0. The power in sidebands is (A) 85 W (C) 56 W (B) 42.28 % (D) None of the above 41.42-43 42.1000) t) .5 MHz (C) 4.Law Device y(t) Filter AM Signal 36.36. A super heterodyne receiver is designed to receive transmitted signals between 5 and 10 MHz. The signal m( t) is (A) . and 15 ´ 10 .995 ´ 106 .02 (D) 0.5 MHz . S x(t) Square.5 W (D) 37.1000) t) . 6 7 6 7 m(t) cos wct Fig.04 43.5 MHz Statement for Question 40-41 A single side band signal is generated by modulating signal of 900-kHz carrier by the signal m( t) = cos 200 pt + 2 sin 2000 pt. The average value of m( t) is zero and maximum value of m( t) is M.30 sin 9000 t ]cos( 6 ´ 106 t)V What are the sidebands of the signals in radians ? (A) 5 ´ 10 3 and 9 ´ 10 3 (B) 5. An AM modulator has output x( t) = A cos 400 pt + B cos 380 pt + B cos 420 pt The carrier power is 100 W and the efficiency is 40%. the RF output is represented as e( t) = 50[1 + 0. 8.9.01 (C) 0.009 ´ 106 (C) 4 ´ 10 3.5 MHz .16 38.200 sin(2 p( fc . The lower sideband of the SSB AM signal is (A) -100 cos(2 p( fc . An AM modulator has output x( t) = 40 cos 400 pt + 4 cos 360 pt + 4 cos 440 pt The modulation efficiency is (A) 0.com (B) 3310 kHz (D) 1490 kHz Page 417 (C) 1845 kHz .

4. If the noise power is restricted to the message signal .4 kHz. voltage of 1.4 kHz.4. t t sin 2 pt sin pt + cos 0.c.6 kHz 47. Let R = Cmax denote Cmin the required capacitance ratio of the local oscillator and I denote the image frequency (in kHz) of the incoming signal.83.48 (D) 0 (A) 1 kHz and 24 kHz (B) 2 kHz and 24 kHz (C) 1 kHz and 14 kHz (D) 2 kHz and 14 kHz Page 418 www.0 MHz. 999. The y( t) would be (A) 2 y( t) (C) 1 2 (B) y( t) (D) 0 y( t) ~ 10 kHz X(f ) ~ 13 kHz 52. s( t) = cos 200 pt and n( t) = t t Multiplier Adder Multiplier m(t) S LPF 1 Hz |H(jw)|=1 s(t) y(t) s(t) n(t) Fig. Suppose we wish to transmit the signal x( t) = sin 200 pt + 2 sin 400 pt using a modulation that create the signal g( t) = x( t) sin 400pt.P7.10.41.P7. Let x( t) be a signal band-limited to 1 kHz. Let X ( f ) and Y ( f ) denote the Fourier transforms of x( t) and y( t) respectively.P7.49 m( t) = 2 sin 2 pt sin 199pt . technique is illustrated in figure 6.0. I = 1150 (D) R = 9. If AM -SSNB modulation guard band of 1 kHz is used. If the receiver is tuned to 700 kHz.com 53.6 kHz (C) 1 MHz. then (A) R = 4. In fig. 999. I = 1600 (C) R = 3.4.4.46.5 pt + cos 15 pt . Between the terminals 1 and 2 an a.4 kHz. the transformers are center tapped and the diodes are connected as shown in a bridge. voltage source of frequency 400 Hz is connected. The noise spectral density at the receiver input is 10 -18 W/Hz.P7. The positive frequencies where Y ( f ) has spectral peaks are x(t) Balanced Modulator HPF 10 kHz Balanced Modulator y(t) 51.gatehelp.c. In the circuit shown in fig. Another a.75 pt t t Fig.6 kHz (D) 1000.6 kHz (B) 400 Hz.0 MHz is connected between 3 and 4. I = 1600 (B) R = 2.P7. 1. I = 1150 50.4 kHz. Consider a system shown in Figure . A superheterodyne receiver is to operate in the frequency range 550 kHz-1650 kHz. 1000. 1000. The ideal HPF has the cutoff frequency 10 kHz. 999. the signal obtained at the output of the LPF is (A) sin 200pt (C) 2 sin 200pt (B) 1 2 -3 -1 1 3 f (kHz) sin 200 pt Fig. 12 signals each band-limited to 5 kHz are to be transmitted over a single channel by frequency division multiplexing. 999.4.46 (A) 400 Hz.49 3 4 2 6 The output y( t) will be sin 2pt (A) t (B) (C) (D) sin 2 pt sin pt + cos 3pt t t sin 2 pt sin 0. If the product g( t) sin 400pt is passed through an ideal LPF with cutoff frequency 400p and pass band gain of 2. The ideal low pass filter has cutoff frequency 1 kHz and pass band gain 2. with the intermediate frequency of 450 kHz. 1000. Amplitude modulation is performed to produce signal A proposed demodulation g( t) = x( t) sin 2000pt.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 46. The output between 5 and 6 contains components at 1 5 49. In a AM signal the received signal power is 10 -10 W with a maximum modulating signal of 5 kHz. then the bandwidth of the multiplexed signal will be (A) 51 kHz (C) 71 kHz (B) 61 kHz (D) 81 kHz 48.

4 bandwidth only.8 2 ö ÷ 50 ´ 10 3 = Pc ç 1 + ç 2 ÷ ø è Pi = ( Pt . the signals-to-noise ratio at the input to the receiver is (A) 43 dB (C) 56 dB (B) 66 dB (D) 33 dB SOLUTION 1. The AM signal gets added to a noise with Power Spectra Density Sn ( f ) given in the figure below.5 (D) 3. (A) Pt = Pc ç 1 + ÷ ç 2 ÷ ø è Pc = 37. www.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.2) 2 Pt = Pc ç 1 + ç 2 è Statement for Question 54-55 Consider the following Amplitude Modulated (AM) signal.gatehelp. Hence.Pc ) = (50 . The ration of average sideband power to mean noise power would be 25 25 (B) (A) 8 N0 B 4 N0 B (C) 25 2 N0 B (D) 25 N0 B Statement for Question 56-57 A certain communication channel is characterized by 80 dB attenuation and noise power-spectral density of 10 -10 W/Hz. a = 0. (A) Psb = Pt . Since z = is in z =20 400 20 the range of cos (2 p1500 t). 56. The transmitter power is 40 kW and the message signal has a bandwidth of 10 kHz.125 3. 2 æ (0.88) = 12.9 2 ö a2 ö 6.Pc = 204 .37. the predetecion SNR is (A) 108 (C) 10 2 (B) 2 ´ 108 (D) 2 ´ 10 2 57. The average side-band power for the AM signal given above is (A) 25 (C) 6. (C) u( t) = (20 + 4 sin 500 pt) cos(2 p ´ 10 5 t) V = 20(1 + 0. where fm < B x AM ( t) = 10(1 + 0. In case of SSB. (B) Pt = Pc ç 1 + ÷ = 2000ç 1 + ÷ = 2810 W ç ç 2 ÷ 2 ÷ ø ø è è æ a2 ö 7.12 kW Page 419 .5 sin 2 pfm t) cos 2 pfc t.88 kW. (B) x( t) = [20 + 2 cos(2 p1500 t) + 10 cos(2 p3000 t)]cos(2 pfc t) 1 1 æ ö = 20ç 1 + cos(2 p1500 t) + cos(2 p3000 t) cos(2 pfc t) ÷ 10 2 è ø This is the form of a conventional AM signal with message signal 1 1 m( t) = cos(2 p1500 t) + cos(2 p3000 t) 10 2 1 1 = cos 2 (2 p1500 t) + cos(2 p1500 t) 10 2 1 1 The minimum of g( z) = z 2 + is achieved for z10 2 1 201 1 and it is min( g( z)) = . we conclude that the 201 minimum value of m( t) is .com 55.2 ö ÷ = 204 W ÷ ø 2. (B) Pc = 20 2 = 200 W.25 (B) 12. 54.1500) t) = 5 cos(2 p( fc 3000) t) + 5 cos(2 p( fc + 3000) t) The power in the sidebands is 1 1 25 25 + = 26 Psidebands = + + 2 2 2 2 The total power is Ptotal = Pcarrier + Psidebands = 200 + 26 = 226 The ratio of the sidebands power to the total power is Psidebands 26 = Ptotal 226 æ æ 0. (B) x( t) = 20 cos(2 pfc t) + cos(2 p( fc . the predetecion SNR is (A) 2 ´ 10 2 (C) 2 ´ 10 3 (B) 4 ´ 10 2 (D) 4 ´ 10 3 ************* or æ 0.2 sin 500 pt) cos(2 p ´ 10 5 t) V.1500) t) + cos(2 p( fc . the modulation 400 201 index is a = 400 5. In the case of conventional AM modulation.200 = 4 W 4.

fc ) ¹ 0 2 for f .fc ) + P( f + fc ) + L( f .5 The modulated output é 4 ¥ ( -1) n -1 ù x( t) = ê å cos[2 pfm (2 n .8 19.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 1 1 æ æ a 2 ö2 a 2 ö2 8.8 2 ù = 165 kW 1+ ê 2 ú ë û fc = 1000 kHz. 14. Expressing square wave as modulating signal m( t) m( t) = 4 ¥ ( -1) n -1 cos[2 pfm (2 n . 22. Pt = 30 kW. Thus 1020 kHz will be absent. the bandwidth of the bandpass filter is 2. x( t) = c( t) m( t) 10 = 12.1) ] å p n =1 2 n . we obtain X( f ) = = A [ P( f ) + L( f )] * ( d( f . 0.4 2 ÷ = 10ç 1 + + ÷ ç 2 2 ø è ö ÷ ÷ ø 20.1000) t)] 2 + 200 [cos(2 p( fc + 2000) t) + cos(2 p( fc .68 ÷ ç ç 2 ÷ 2 ø ø è è 1ö æ 9. For fm = 10 kHz and n = 1 & 2 frequency present is 990.gatehelp.23 kW Pt = Pc ç 1 + ç ç 2 ÷ 2 ÷ ø ø è è a 2 11. Thus Pt = 500 2 2 é 0. R = 1000 W.1)]ú sin(2 p1000 ´ 10 3 t) ë p n =1 2 n . C = 10000 pF Hence 2pfm RC = 2 p ´ 10 4 ´ 10 3 ´ 10 -8 = 0. 2. . 970. Thus a =1.fc ) ¹ 0 for f . 3. then Pt1 = Ac2 2 æ 0 2 ö Ac2 ÷= ç1 + ç 2 ÷ 2 ø è æ 12 ö 3 2 ÷ = Ac . 3 æ a2 a2 13. (C) x( t) = m( t) c( t) = A(sinc ( t) + sinc 2 ( t) cos(2pfc t) Taking the Fourier transform of both sides. 16. (B) fc + fm = 705 kHz.fc ) + d( f + fc )) 2 A [ P( f .5 2 or a = 0. 1 18.32 0. If carrier is 3 2 suppressed then P or 66% power will be saved. (A) fm = 10 kHz. (A) Pc = 2 kW. (C) Pt = 20000ç 1 + ÷.32 + 0. ç1 + ç 2 ÷ 4 ø è Pt 2 3 = Pt1 2 ö æ 0.1 a = 70% = 0.fc )] 2 1 Since P( f .fc < 1. (A) If modulation index a is 0. (C) c( t) = sin 2p fc t.fc ) + L( f .5 = 700 kHz 21.com Signal Bandwidth BWm = 2 fm = 2 ´ 2 ´ 10 3 = 4 kHz Thus 1 1 or 10 -6 £ RC £ 250 ms £ RC £ 106 4 ´ 10 3 Thus appropriate value is 20 m sec Page 420 .2000) t)] 2 If modulation index is 1 then Pt2 = Ac2 2 Thus Pt2 = 15 Pt1 and Pt2 is increases by 50% . BW = 2 fm = 10 kHz or fm = 5 kHz fc = 705 . Hence.7 æ æ 0.5 kW. 1030 kHz.. therefor modulation index is 1 or 100% modulation.fc < . (B) In previous solution Pc = 2 P.847 Here fc = 1 MHz 1 1 . (A) Pt = 2 a 2 m( t) ù Ac2 é ê1 + ú 2 ê 2 ú ë û Here modulation index a =1. (C) x( t) = m( t) c( t) = 100[cos(2 p1000 t) + 2 cos(2 p2000 t)]cos(2 pfc t) = 100 cos(2 p1000 t) cos(2 pfc t) + 200 cos(2 p2000 t) cos(2 pfc t) 100 = [cos(2 p( fc + 1000) t) + cos(2 p( fc . (B) 1 2 = 0. (A) I t = I c ç 1 + ÷ or 20 = 18ç 1 + ÷ or a = 0. (C) a 2 = a1 + a 2 = 0. £ RC £ fc BWm Thus.7 2 ö a 2 ö2 ÷ = 2ç 1 + ÷ = 2. 12. whereas L( f . 15.1 û So frequency component (106 ± fm (2 n .628 a max = (1 + (0.4 2 = 0..20 = 10 kW The DC input power = 10.628) 2 ) 17. (A) Pt = Pc ç 1 + 1 + 2 ç 2 2 è = 1125 kW .1) will be present where n = 1. Hence WUSSB = W = 10 4 Hz www. (D) x( t) = Ac (1 + a cos 2 pfm t) cos 2 pfc t Here Ac (1 + a) = 2 Ac . the upper sideband (USB) signal is xu ( t) = 50 cos[2 p( fc + 1000) t ] + 100(2 p( fc + 2000) t) 23. 2ø è Pi = 30 .. (B) When USSB is employed the bandwidth of the modulated signal is the same with the bandwidth of the message signal.

67 2 2 or B = 8. So it will contain m( t) cos( nwc t) where n = 1.2 cos(2 p1000 t) sin(2 pfc t)] = 100[cos(2 p1000 t) cos(2 pfc t) + sin(2 p1000 t) sin(2 pfc t)] +200[cos(2 pfc t) sin(2 p1000 t) .1000) t) . m( t) = Mmn ( t) xc ( t) = 4[1 + 5 m( t)]cos wc t y1 ( t) + n( t) = y2 ( t) = y2 ( t) s( t) = y( t) = xc ( t) = 4[1 + 5 Mmn ( t)]cos wc t 5M = 0.. 2 2 Psb 16 Eeff = = Pc + Psb 800 + 16 A2 39. (A) Carrier power Pc = = 100 W.161 f W 2W fc-W fc fc+W 2fc Fig.009 ´ 106 38.43 H(f ) m(t) ( 6 ´ 10 ± 9000) Thus 6. (C) m( t) s( t) = y1 ( t) = 2 sin(2 pt) cos(200 pt) sin(202 pt) .com [sin 202 pt ..14 2 40 Psb Psb or Eeff = = 0.2 40 1 Pc = ( 40) 2 = 800 W 2 The components at 180 Hz and 220 Hz are side band 1 1 Psb = ( 4) 2 + ( 4) 2 = 16 W.sin 198 pt + sin 199 pt ]cos 200 pt t . or f = 1 2p LC 40.1) 2 Cmin fmin or R = 4. 1 1 Psb = B 2 + B 2 = 66.sin 198 pt sin 198 pt + t t The AM signal is.5 = 10.005 ´ 10 ..4. whereas the Hilbert transform of sin (2 p1000 t) is cos (2 p1000 t) \$ Thus m( t)= sin (2 p1000 t) . fLOL = 5 + 0.43 fc . The output of 2nd modulator will be (13 ± 11) kHz.sin(198 pt) = t t sin 202 pt .1) kHz.991 ´ 10 or 5. 47. (B) Since X ( f ) has spectral peak at 1 kHz so at the output of first modulator spectral peak will be at (10 + 1) kHz and (10 .5 MHz 45.4 = 100 + Psb Pc + Psb 100 Psb = 66.005 ´ 106 and 6. capacitance will be maximum R= 2 Cmax fmax = 2 = (2. x l ( t) = Ac m( t) cos(2 pfc t) + Ac m( t) sin(2 pfc t) Substituting Ac = 100. (D) The Hilbert transform of cos (2 p1000 t) is sin (2 p1000 t). fc + W < 2 f or fc > W Therefore fc > 3W 44. 6. (B) fimage = fL + 2 f IF = 2400 = 3310 kHz 46.67 W.991 ´ 10 . A = 14. fLOU = 10 + 0. 3.200 sin(2 p( fc . 49.995 ´ 10 .S7. 5.41 fi = fc + 2 f IF = 700 + 2( 455) = 1600 kHz 48.S7. Therefore there will be only (1 MHz ± 400 Hz) frequency component. m( t) = cos(2 p1000 t) + 2 sin(2 p1000 t) \$ and m( t) = sin(2 p1000 t) .2 cos(2 p1000 t) we obtain xl ( t) = 100[cos(2 p1000 t) + 2 sin(2 p1000 t) cos(2 pfc t)] +100[sin(2 p1000 t) .4.16 www. 5. So Y ( f ) has spectral peak at 2 kHz and 24 kHz. The output is DSB-SC signal..5 = 5. After passing the HPF frequency component of 11 kHz will remain. (B) x( t) can be written as x( t) = ( 40 + 8 cos 40 pt) cos 400 pt 8 modulation index a = = 0. (C) The filter characteristic is shown in fig.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 37.5 MHz.W > 2W or fc > 3W . (D) y( t) = 4( m( t) + cos wc t) + 10( m( t) + cos wc t) 2 = 4m(t) + 4 cos wc t + 10m2 (t) + 20m(t) cos wc t + 5 + 5 cos 2wc t = 5 + 4m(t) + 10m2 (t) + 4[1 + 5m(t)] cos wc t + 5 cos 2wc t frequency is minimum.sin(2 pfc t) cos(2 p1000 t)] = 100 cos(2 p( fc . 2. (D) The expression for the LSSB AM signal is.cos (2 p1000 t) 41.1000) t) 42. (D) The given circuit is a ring modulator.8 Page 422 or M = 0.. (B) 6 Sidebands 6 are 6 ( 6 ´ 106 ± 5000) 6 and 6 43. (B) Since High-side tuning is used fLO = fm + f IF = 500 kHz. (A) fmax = 1650 + 450 = 2100 kHz fmin = 550 + 450 = 1000 kHz.gatehelp.

(A) In SSB modulation B = W = 10 4 SNR SSB = 4 ´ 10 -4 = 2 ´ 10 2 2 ´ 10 -10 ´ 10 4 *********** 54. then P 10 log T = 80 PR or PR = 10 -8 PT = 10 -8 ´ 40 ´ 10 3 = 4 ´ 10 -4 Watts If the noise limiting filter has bandwidth B.cos)( 800 pt) = (sin(200 pt) + 2 sin( 400 pt) 2 1 = [sin(200 pt) . (D) Noise power = Area rendered by the spectrum = N0 B Ratio of average sideband power to mean noise 6.sin( 400 pt)] 4 If this signal is passed through LPF with frequency 400p and gain 2.X ( j( w + 4000 p)) 4j This implies that X1 ( jw) is zero for w £ 2000 p because w < 2 pfm = 2 p1000. (C) Since the channel attenuation is 80 db. whereas in SSB modulation B = W = 10 .sin( pt) 2t sin(2 pt) + 2 sin(0. When x1 ( t) is passed through a LPF with cutoff frequency 2000p. then the pre-detection noise power is fc + After filtering sin(2 pt) + sin(2 pt) . (D) The total signal bandwidth = 5 ´ 12 = 60 kHz There would be 11 guard band between 12 signal.sin( pt)] 55. (C) Average side band power is Ac2 a 2 10 2 (0.[sin(1000 pt) . the pre-detection signal to noise ratio in DSB and conventional AM is SNR DSB. (A) Message signal BW fm = 5 kHz Noise power density is 10 -18 W/Hz Total noise power is 10 -18 ´ 5 ´ 10 3 = 5 ´ 10 -15 W Input signal-to-noise ratio SNR= 10 -10 = 2 ´ 10 4 or 43 dB 5 ´ 10 -15 Pn = 2 fc - ò B 2 B 2 N0 df = N 0 B = 2 ´ 10 -10 B Watts 2 In the case of DSB or conventional AM modulation.25 25 Power = = N0 B 4 N0 B 56.sin(200 pt) cos( 800 pt) + 2 sin( 400 pt) 2 -sin( 400 pt) cos( 800 pt) 1 1 = sin(200 pt) .4 = 1 [sin( 402 pt) + sin(2 pt) . 2t t y( t) = 50. (D) x1 ( t) = g( t) cos(2000pt) 1 = x( t) sin(2000 pt) cos(2000 pt) = x( t) sin( 4000 pt) 2 1 X1 ( jw) = X ( j( w . So guard band width = 11 kHz Total band width = 60 + 11 = 71 kHz 51.4000 p)) . = 2t sin 2 pt sin 0. the output will be sin(200pt) 53.5 pt = + cos 15 pt .{sin( 398 pt) .sin( 6000 pt)] 2 4 1 + sin( 400 pt) . B = 2W = 2 ´ 10 4 4 Hz. the output will be zero.5) 2 = = 6.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.com Page 423 .25 W 4 4 www.AM = PR 4 ´ 10 -4 = = 10 2 Pn 2 ´ 10 -10 ´ 2 ´ 10 4 57.5 t) cos(15 pt) .sin(2 pt)} 2 + sin( 399pt) .gatehelp. 52. (A) y( t) = g( t) sin( 400 pt) = x( t) sin 2 ( 400 pt) (1 .[sin(1200 pt) . Thus.

. i = 1.com -2T -T 0 T 2T t Fig. y( t) (A) 50 kHz (C) 150 kHz 3. All 10 signals are to be time-division multiplexed after each is multiplied by a carrier e( t) shown in Figure.6.P7. the largest value of D would be c(t) D (B) 500 kHz (D) 100 kHz www..6.6.25 ms -2´10-3 -10-3 10-3 2´10-3 w w Fig. Determine the Nyquist sampling rate for the given function in question. .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7.6. x 2 ( t) (A) 100 kHz (C) 250 kHz 4. If the period T of e( t) is chosen the have the maximum allowable value. c(t) 0.10. If X ( jw) satisfies the constraints required. X( jw) Y( jw) t Statement for Question 6-7 A signal x( t) is multiplied by rectangular pulse train c( t) shown in fig..P7. x( t) would be recovered form the product.. y 3( t) (A) 100 kHz (C) 900 kHz 5. Consider a set of 10 signals xi ( t). 2. P7. then the pass band gain A of the ideal lowpass filter needed to (B) 75 kHz (D) 300 kHz recover x( t) from e( t) x( t) is (A) 1 (C) 4 (B) 150 kHz (D) 400 kHz (B) 2 (D) 8 (B) 300 kHz (D) 120 kHz 8.1-5 6.8 .6.1-5 shows fourier spectra of signal x( t) and y(t). 3.P7.gatehelp.P7. x( t) y( t) (A) 250 kHz (C) 50 kHz Page 434 (B) 200 kHz (D) 50 kHz 7.6-7 Fig. x( t) c( t) by using an ideal LPF if X ( jw) = 0 for (A) w > 2000 p (C) w < 1000 p (B) w > 1000 p (D) w < 2000 p 1. Each signal is band limited to 1 kHz.6 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Statement for Question 1-5 Fig. x( t) (A) 100 kHz (C) 300 kHz 2.6-7.

The minimum number of binary digits required to encode the audio signal (A) 450 k bits/sec (C) 980 340 k bits/sec (B) 900 k bits/sec (D) 490 170. If signal is band limited to 3. Ten telemetry signals. Framing and synchronizing requires an additional 1% extra bits.32 k bits/sec (D) None of the above 18. The CD can record an hours worth of music. The multiplexing operating includes provision Page 435 www. The minimum binary digits required to encode a sample is (A) 5 (C) 7 (B) 6 (D) 8 17. The code word used consists of three bits. The tolerable error in sample amplitude is 0. A binary channel with capacity 36 k bits/sec is available for PCM voic transmission.2% of the peak signal amplitude. An analog signal is sampled at 36 kHz and quantized into 256 levels.P7. which are binary coded.5 M Bytes (D) 5. are to be transmitted simultaneously by binary PCM.6 kHz (B) 64.com . A Television signal is sampled at a rate of 20% above the Nyquist rate.Digital Transmission GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. Twenty-four voice signals are sampled uniformly at a rate of 8 kHz and then time-division multiplexed.18 (A) 4 5 1 2 1 3 (C) 6 4 3 1 7 (B) 8 4 3 1 2 (D) 1 2 3 4 5 13.000.P7. A compact disc recording system samples a signals with a 16-bit analog-to-digital convertor at 44.6 (A) 5 ´ 10 -3 sec (C) 5 ´ 10 sec -5 (B) 5 ´ 10 -4 sec (D) 5 ´ 10 sec -6 15.gatehelp.2 kHz Statement for Question 12-13. 12. The approximate capacity of CD is (A) 705.43 M Bytes 16.25 MHz (D) 50 MHz 14.18 shows a PCM signals in which amplitude level of + 1 volt and . The sampling process uses flat-top samples with 1 ms duration.5 MHz (B) 6.16 kHz (C) 136. The American Standard Code for Information Interchange has 128 characters. Fig. k bits/sec 9.2 kHz (D) 32. 7.6 kHz (C) 64. The bit rate of the system is equal to 108 bits/s. The maximum tolerable error in sample amplitudes is 0.1 kbits/s. The signal has a bandwidth of 6 MHz. The minimum transmission bandwidth is (A) 218.6 M Bytes (C) 2. The signals must be sampled at least 20% above the Nyquist rate.43 ms (B) 3.32 kHz (B) 468. The minimum bandwidth required to transmit this signal would be (A) 72 M bits/sec (C) 72 k bits/sec (B) 144 M bits/sec (D) 144 k bits/sec 20.32 k bits/sec (B) 436. 3.4.64 k bits/sec (C) 936.4 M bits/sec (C) 7 M bits/sec (B) 14 M bits/sec (D) 0. A CD record audio signals digitally using PCM.78 ms (C) 6.5% of the peak-to-peak full scale value.1 volt are used to represent binary symbol 1 and 0 respectively. then the appropriate values of quantizing level L and the sampling frequency will be (A) 32.32 kHz (D) None of the above 19. The samples are quantized into 1024 levels.86 ms 11. If a certain computer generates 1. 3. The Nyquist samples are quantized into 32678 levels and then binary coded.54 M Bytes (B) 317. The sampled version of analog signal from which this PCM signal is derived is Fig. The maximum message bandwidth for which the system operates satisfactorily is (A) 25 MHz (C) 12. A PCM system uses a uniform quantizer followed by a 8-bit encoder. The audio signal bandwidth is 15 kHz.47 ms (D) 7.4.2 kHz.000 character per second. the minimum bandwidth required to transmit this signal will be (A) 1. each of bandwidth 2kHz. The minimum possible data rate must be (A) 272. An analog signal is quantized and transmitted using a PCM system.7 M bits/sec 10. The time duration of a bit of the binary coded signal is (A) 5. 7.

3 dB (D) None of the above Statement fo Question 22-23 : Consider a linear DM system designed to 28.4 dB (C) 50.1 dB (B) 70.76 dB 21. If the signal to-quantization-noise ratio is required to be at least 48 dB.08 V (D) 2. (A) 8 (C) 12 (B) 10 (D) 14 accommodate analog message signals limited to bandwidth of 3.12 KBytes (C) 168 KBytes (B) 140 KBytes (D) None of the above 25.3) (A) 20% (C) 40% (B) 30% (D) 50% 31. 22.4 kHz. The signal-to-quantization-noise ratio is (A) 34. The step size d is 100 m V. 26. It is sampled at a rate 50% higher than the Nyquist rate and Page 436 www.08 V (B) 1. A linear delta modulator is designed to operate on speech signals limited to 3.04 V (C) 4.com . The minimum value of the step size to overload is (A) 240 mV (C) 670 mV (B) 120 mV (D) 78. The minimum storage capacity needed to accommodate this signal is -4 (B) 2. The sampling rate of the system is 64 kHz.In this way the fractional increase in the transmission bandwidth would be (assume log 2 10 = 0. It was found that a sampling rate 20% above the rate wou7ld be adequate.0 V fm 8 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz 1 kHz Statement for Question 26-27. The granular-noise power would be (A) 1. that can be realized without increasing the transmission bandwidth. A speech signal has a total duration of 20 sec. the combination of the sinc-wave frequency and the peak amplitude.86 ´ 10 -4 W (D) 112 ´ 10 . The spacing between successive pulses of the multiplexed signal is (A) 4 ms (C) 7. The desired SNR is 42 dB. So the maximum SNR. where slope overload will take piace is Em (A) 0. A signal has a bandwidth of 1 MHz.5 kHz. W W 24.16 V 27. A sinusoid massage signal m( t) is transmitted by binary PCM without compression. The modulator is tested with a this test signal required to avoid slope overload is (A) 2. The number of bits per sample would be.91 dB (C) 42.68 ´ 10 -3 W (C) 2. would be (A) 60.48 ´ 10 -3 30. For a PCM signal the compression parameter m = 100 and the minimum signal to quantization-noise ratio is 50 dB.05 dB (B) 38. The signal-to-quantization noise ratio is required to be 40 dB. The SNR will be (A) 298 (C) 4. A sinusoidal test signals of amplitude Amax = 1 V and frequency fm = 800 Hz is applied to system.2 ms (B) 6 ms (D) 8.06 dB (D) 48.4 ms quantized into 256 level using a m-low quantizer with m = 225.5 V (C) 1. The sampling rate is 10 time the Nyquist rate of the speech signal. The output signal-to-quantization-noise ratio of a 10-bit PCM was found to be 30 dB.gatehelp.628 is a sine wave with frequency fm and peak amplitude Em .5 V (D) 3. The input to a linear delta modulator having fa step-size D = 0.5 mV avoid 29. It can be increased by increasing the number of quantization level. the minimum number of bits per sample will be (A) 8 (C) 12 (B) 10 (D) 14 23.46 ´ 10 3 (B) 1. If the sampling frequency fs = 40 kHz.75´10 -3 (D) 201 (A) 1.3 V (B) 1. It is sampled at the rate of 8 kHz and then PCM encoded.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System for synchronization by adding and extra pulse of 1 ms duration.

2 kbps (C) 57. g1 ( t) and g 4 ( t) have a bandwidth of 4 kHz. (A) 512 kbps (C) 192 kbps (B) 16 kbps (D) 384 kbps 33.2)s so that slope overload is avoided. The theoretical minimum transmissions bandwidth of the channel should be equal to.com Hz. 200 Hz and 400 Hz respectively.8 dB (D) R = 32 kbps. SNR q = 55.125 t)( u( t . Four signals each band limited to 5 kHz are sampled at twice the Nyquist rate.8 dB (B) R = 64 kbps. SNR q = 49. The bit rate for the multiplexed signal is (A) 115. Four independent messages have bandwidths of 100 www. and time division multiplexed. The Nyquist sampling interval. A 1. Assuming SNR q with a bit rate of R is (A) R = 32 kbps. The quantization-noise power is (A) 0. if the code word length is increased form 6 to 8 bits. 600 Hz and 600 Hz. (A) 8/6 (C) 16 (B) 12 (D) 8 43. (A) 5 kHz (C) 40 kHz (B) 20 kHz (D) 80 kHz 37. SNR q = 49. Three analog signals. The minimum 3 2 B) 4 ´ 10 3 (D) 8 ´ 10 3 step-size required for a Delta-Modulator operating at32 K samples/sec to track the signal (here u( t) is the nuit function) x( t) = 125 t( u( t) . would be (A) 2 -10 (B) 2 -8 (D) 2 -4 36. 900 and 1000 Hz components 35. The minimum sampling frequency (in samples/sec) required to reconstruct the following signal form its samples without distortion would be æ sin 2 p1000 t ö æ sin 2 p1000 t ö x( t) = 5ç ÷ + 7ç ÷ pt pt è ø è ø (A) 2 ´ 10 3 (C) 6 ´ 10 3 41.1)) + (250 . A signal x( t) = 100 cos(24 p ´ 10 ) t is ideally sampled with a sampling period of 50 m sec and then passed through an ideal lowpass filter with cutoff frequency of 15 KHz.536 V is quantized into 128 levels using a mid-rise uniform quantizer. g 2 ( t).u( t .8 dB (C) R = 64 kbps.1) . Each sample requires 8 bit for encoding. then the output of the filter contains (A) only 800 Hz component (B) 800 and 900 Hz components (C) 800 Hz and 1000 Hz components (D) 800 Hz.0 kHz signal is flat-top sampled at the rate of 180 samples sec and the samples are applied to an ideal rectangular LPF with cat-off frequency of 1100 Hz.. Which of the following frequencies is/are present at the filter output (A) 12 KHz only (C) 12 KHz and 9 KHz (B) 8 KHz only (D) 12 KHz and 8 KHz (C) 2 -6 42. A signal is sampled at 8 kHz and is quantized using 8 bit uniform quantizer. the correct statement for PCM signal 39.6 kbps (B) 28. g s ( t) and g 4 ( t) are to be multiplexed and transmitted.u( t .6 32. In a PCM system.072 V -6 2 38.gatehelp. The resulting PAM samples are transmitted over a single channel after time division multiplexing. are sampled at their respective Nyquist rates. and the remaining two signals have bandwidth of 8 kHz. A sinusoidal signal with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1. Four signals g1 ( t).8 kbps (D) 38. What is the minimum transmission bit rate of the system.8 dB 34. the signal to quantization noise ratio improves by the factor. encoded with 12 bit words.768 V (C) 12 ´ 10 -6 V 2 (B) 48 ´ 10 V (D) 3. Each is Page 437 . 100 Hz. having bandwidths 1200 Hz.Digital Transmission GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. SNR q = 25.4 kbps 40. for the signal sinc (700 t) + sinc (500 t) is 1 (A) sec 350 1 (C) sec 700 p (B) sec 350 p (D) sec 175 3 for a sinusoidal signal.

If the sampling frequency is8 kHz and each sample is quantized into 256 levels. if the quantization levels are increased form 2 to 8.1 kHz and the samples are quantized using a 16-bit/sample quantizer. The bit transmission rate for the time-division multiplexed signal will be (A) 8 kbps (C) 256 kbps (B) 64 kbps (D) 512 kbps ************ 48. Where ' t ' is in seconds. the sampling rate is 44. Four voice signals. The transmitted sample rate.23 ´ 10 9 (D) 12.. In a CD player. (A) 5 W (C) 20 W (B) 10 W (D) None of the above 47. (A) ( n + 1) n (B) ( n + 1) 2 n2 (C) 2 (D) 4 52. A speech signal occupying the bandwidth of 300 Hz to 3 kHz is converted into PCM format for use in digital communication. time division multiplexed and transmitted. The resulting number of bits for a piece of music with a duration of 50 minutes is (A) 1.39 ´ 10 9 (C) 8.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System sampled at the Nyquist rate. If the number of bits in a PCM system is increased from n to n + 1. each limited to 4 kHz and sampled at Nyquist rate are converted into binary PCM signal using 256 quantization levels.46 ´ 10 9 (B) 4. is given by (A) 200 (C) 800 44. (A) remain same (C) be tripled (B) be doubled (D) become four times 46. then the output bit the rate will be (A) 3 kb/s (B) 8 kb/s (D) 256 kb/s (C) 64 kb/s g( t) = 10 cos(50 pt) cos 2 (150 pt).gatehelp. The minimum required bandwidth for transmission of a binary PCM signal based on this quantization scheme will be. Analog data having highest harmonic at 30 kHz generated by a sensor has been digitized using 6 level PCM.23 ´ 10 9 53.com . A TDM link has 20 signal channels and each channel is sampled 8000 times/sec. the signal-to-quantization noise ratio will increase by a factor. is (A) 150 samples per second (B) 200 samples per second (C) 300 samples per second (D) 350 samples per second 45. the relative bandwidth requirement will. What will be the rate of digital signal generated? (A) 120 kbps (C) 240 kbps (B) 200 kbps (D) 180 kbps 49. In PCM system. The Nyquist (B) 400 (D) 1600 sampling rate for the signal 50. In a PCM system. in Hz. the bit transmission rate is (A) 32 bits/s (C) 32 kbits/s Page 438 (B) 16 bits/s (D) 64 dbits/s www. Each sample is represented by seven binary bits and contains an additional bit for synchronization. the number of quantization levels is 16 and the maximum lsignal frequency is 4 kHz. The total bit rate for the TDM link is (A) 1180 K bits/sec (C) 1180 M bits/sec (B) 1280 K bits/sec (D) 1280 M bits/sec 51. Assuming that the signal is quantized to satisfy the condition of previous question and assuming the approximate bandwidth of the signal is W.

(C) Nyquist Rate = 2 MHz 50% higher rate = 3 MHz. æ S ö L = 2 n ç o ÷ = 10 log( C2 2 n ) çN ÷ è o ødB This equation shows quantization noise power S 25. (B) 3 L2 So = ³ 50 dB. m = 100 N o [ln(m + 1)]2 L = 842. (B) 3 L2 So = = 6394 = 38.1 dB N o (ln 256) 2 In 1st word 001(1) In 2nd word 010(2) In 3rd word 011(3) In 4th word 100(4) In 5th word 101 (5) 19. Thus 10 bits are required. For 1.09 2 Since L is power of 2.com . 2 mp 2 1 20. 17.02( n) = 40 dB. (C) Step size d= 2 mp L = 1536 . Fig. There are 24 8k channels and 1 sync pulse. (C) 128= 2 7. (B) Amax = dfs 0.8 dB . Capacity = 20 ´ 8 k ´ 7 = 112 Mbits = 140 Kbytes .4 MHz. = 2 3 L2 No mp m 2 ( t) 1 = . (A) Sampling interval T. . 3 fs 3 ´ 64000 This is satisfied with Em = 15 V and fm = 4 kHz.6.S.02 n dB = 176 + 6. that increasing n by one bits increase the by 6 dB. L = 2 n = 32.35 . n = 6. = 0. 21.46 ´ 10 3 = N o 112 ´ 10 -4 . 29.2 kHz. (A) o µ L2 . fs = = 7. We take the n = 7. (B) fs = 1800 samples/sec. So 8 bits per sample is required . 31. = wm 2 p ´ 10 3 df s A w 1 ´ 2 p ´ 800 or d = max m = = 78. . (B) ( SNR) q = 176 + 6.06 dB N o [ln(m + 1)]2 27. 32. L = 205. Nyquist rate = 2W Bandwidth = 2W ´ 8 = 16W bit/s 16W= 10 . 6400 5 18.5 = 4.6 3 L2 = 100 000 or [ln 101) 2 Because L is power of 2. (A) So = m 2 ( t). (C) So 0. so we select L = 256 Hence 256 = 28 . The pulse duration is 1 ms.000 character we need 7 Mbits/second.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 16. fm = 1800 = 900 Hz 2 www. New sampling rate is at 20% above the Nyquist rate. We need 7 bits/character.63. we select L = 1024 = 210 . (D) Amax = 23. so the time allotted to each channel is Tc = T 25 since signal is sinusoidal = 5 ms. (B) Message bandwidth= W.012 V 128 24. (D) N o = d2 B (0. or 8 28.7. . (D) fs > 2 fm = 6400 Hz. (B) For slope overload to take place Em ³ df s 2 pfm 22. the time between pulse is 4 ms. L = 256 = 28 Thus transmission bandwidth is 3 MHz ´ 8 = 24 Mbits/s.5 mV wm fs 50 ´ 10 3 30.012) 2 = 12 ´ 10 -6 V 2 = 12 12 = log C + 20 n log 2 = a + 6 n dB.02 ´ 8 = 49. N o = 2 3mp 108 W= = 6.000. Thus minimum bandwidth = 7 Mbits/sec.18 So 3(1024) 2 = = 102300 = 50. So 3 L2 = 48 dB = 63096. Sampling rate= 12 ´ 2 = 2.1 ´ 68 k = 108 V . (D) The transmitted code word are 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 26. bits per second= bits 24 M sec = 10 bits 2. (B) Bit Rate = 8 k ´ 8 = 64 kbps (SNR) q = 176 + 6. nfs £ 63000 36000 36000 n£ = 5.gatehelp. Hence an increase in the SNR by 12 dB can be accomplished by increasing 9is form 10 to 12. n = 5. No = d2 (0..4 MHz Level = 210 = 1024. = = 125 ms.0785) 2 ´ 3500 = = 1122 ´ 10 -4 W . the transmission bandwidth would be increased by 20% Page 440 33.25 MHz 16 So 3 L2 m 2 ( t) . 34.

Since signal are sampled at twice the Nyquist rate so sampling rate = 2 ´ 10 = 20 kHz. (C) Analog signals. Each sample is quantized using 16 bits so the total number of bits per second is 44100´16. 200. æ 1 + cos 300 pt ö 44. Thus 48000 sample/sec bit rate 48000 ´ 8 = 384 kbps 39. 45. Hence 48000 sample/sec bit rate = 48000 sample/sec ´12 = 57. (C) x( t) = 5ç ÷ + 7ç ÷ pt pt è ø è ø Sampling rate = 2 fm = 6 kHz 41.1168 ´ 10 ´ 2 = 4. (D) fs fm 1 2 So a 2 2 n . If PCM is increased form n to n + 1.com Page 441 . (D) fm = 5 kHz. 600 Hz and 600 Hz have 2400. Which is independent of n.sec the resulting number of bits per channel (left 9 9 The frequency passed through LPF are fc . fs . Here n = code word length. *********** www. (C) Nyquist Rate = 2 ´ 4k = 8 kHz Total sample = 4 ´ 8 = 32 k sample/sec 256 = 28 . we have BW = 10 W 125( ) (128)( ) or D £ 2 -8 or D £ 3 32 ´ 10 32 ´ 1024 Nyquist Rate = 2 ´ 5 = 10 kHz 42.fm or 12 kHz. g 2 ( t). having bandwidth 1200 Hz. 50. 8 k. For a music piece of duration 50 min = 3000. Thus fs = 2 ´ 175 = 350 sample per second. 400 and 800 sample/sec thus 1600 sample per second.Digital Transmission GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. Thus rate = 2 = 16 212 16 and right) is 44100 ´ 16 ´ 3000 = 2. (D) Signal will be sampled 200. T 50 ´ 10 -6 fc = 12 kHz x( t) is band limited with fm = 350 Hz. (C) x( t) = sinc 700t + sinc 500t 1 = [sin 700 pt + sin 500 pt ] pt Thus Nyquist 1 rate is 2 fm = 700 Hz. Sampling interval = sec 700 36. Total transmission bandwidth = 4 ´ 20 = 80 kHz 43. (C) P = ( SNR)1 2 . So relative bandwidth will be tripled.6 kbps æ sin 2 p1000 t ö æ sin 2 p1000 t ö 40.2336 ´ 10 9 47. g s ( t) and g 4 ( t) will have 8 k.6 Since the sampling rate is 1800 samples/sec the highest frequency that can be recovered is 900 Hz. Since v = 10. = (SNR)2 2 2 n 1 2n 2 n1 = 61 n2 = 8. (D) Nyquist Rate = 2 ´ 30 k = 60 kHz 2 n ³ 6 Thus n = 3. No the ratio will increase by a factor 4. 52. (B) The sampling rate is fs = 44100 meaning that we take 44100 samples per second. (D) fs = 1 1 = = 20 kHz. Bit Rate = 4 ´ 8 = 32 kbits/sec 2 n = 256 Þ n = 8 Maximum frequency component = 3 ´ 1000 = 3 kHz Bit Rate = 8 ´ 8k = 64 kb/x 51. 8 kHz 37. 1200 samples/sec at Nyquist rate. (B) Here fs = 32 k sample/sec 1 1 fm = = Em = 125. then 2 = 2 n or n = 1 ND If L = 8.1168 ´ 10 and the overall number of bits is 38. (B) Total sample = 8000 ´ 20 = 160 k sample/sec Bit for each sample = 7 + 1 = 8 Bit Rate = 160 k ´ 8 = 1280 ´ 10 3 bits/sec 46. 16 k and 16 k sample/sec at Nyquist rate. 53. (C) If L = 2. (D) Signal g1 ( t). T 2 For slope-overload to be averted Em ³ D£ Em fm fs or D £ 1 2 3 2 2. . (D) g( t) = 10 cos 50 ptç ÷ 2 è ø = 5 cos 50 pt + 5 cos 50 pt cos 300 pt The maximum frequency component will be 150 + 25 = 175 Hz. 35. then 8 = 2 n or n = 3. so that 8 bits are required Bit Rate = 32 k ´ 8 = 256 kbps 48. (C) Nyquist rate= 2 ´ 4 = 8 kHz 2 n = 16 or n = 4. Bit Rate = 60 ´ 3 = 18 kHz 49. (B) The minimum bandwidth requirement for transmission of a binary PCM signal is BW= vW. (C) fs = 8 kHz.gatehelp.

The DS spread spectrum sequence has a chip rate of 10 MHz 8. The period of PN sequance is (A) 15 ms . (C) 6. The system is required to have an average probability of symbol error due to externally generated interfering signals that does not exceed 10 -5 4. The coding gain is (A) 7 dB (B) 12 dB (D) 24 dB (B) 43 dB (D) 93 dB www.4 dB (C) 6 dB 7.5 dB (C) 86.8 SPREAD SPECTRUM Statement for Question 1-3 : A pseudo-noise (PN) sequance is generated using a feedback shift register of length m = 4.1 ms (D) 1 ms (B) 12 (D) 18 A slow FH/MFSK system has the following parameters. The PN sequance length is (A) 10 (C) 15 2.gatehelp.8 dB (D) 12. The modulation is binary PSK.67 ns parameters. Number of bits per MFSK symbol = 4 Number of MFSK symbol per hop = 5 The processing gain of the system is (A) 13.67 ns (B) 15 ms (D) 0. 1.9 dB (B) 93.com (C) 14 dB .1 ms (B) 0.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7. The processing gain of system is (A) 37 dB (C) 57 dB Page 450 (C) 9 dB Statement for Question 8-9: A rate 1/2 convolution code with dfrec = 10 is used to encode a data requeence occurring at a rate of 1 kbps. The Antijam margin is (A) 47. Number of bits per MFSK symbol = 4 Number of pops per MFSK symbol = 4 The processing gain of the system is (A) 0 dB (B) 7 dB (D) 12 dB Statement for Question 4-5: A direct sequence spread binary phase-shiftkeying system uses a feedback shift register of Length 19 for the generation of PN sequence .8 dB (D) 26 dB system has the following 7 5.6 dB 3. The chip duration is (A) 1ms (C) 0. A fast FH/MFSK (B) 37. The chip rate is 10 chips per second 6.

05 (D) 0. The processing gain is (A) 14 dB (C) 58 dB (B) 37 dB (D) 104 dB Statement for question 16-18 : A CDMA system consist of 15 equal power user that transmit information at a rate of 10 kbps.8 9.4 ´ 10 -4 (B) 6.28 dB (C) 17. then number of users will be (A) 27 users (C) 42 users (B) 38 users (D) 45 users processing gain of 500.54 dB (B) 7.93 MHz 19.9 ´ 10 -3 (C) 9. The minimum chip rate to obtain a bit error probability of 10 (A) 1. (A) 10 dB (C) 30 dB www.07 (B) 0.gatehelp.3 ´ 106 chips/sec (C) 19 ´ 106 chips/sec .0 dB Statement for Question 13-15 : A DS spread spectrum system transmit at a rate of 1 kbps in the presets of a tone jammer.5 dB.08 dB (B) 100 (D) 10 10. Each user transmit information at a rate of 10 kbps via DS spread spectrum and binary PSK. If user has equal power and the desired level of performance of an error probability of 10 -6 .46 MHz (C) 4. each using a DS spread spectrum signal operating at chip rate of 1 MHz. The correspond probability of error is (A) 4. The jammer power is 20 dB greater then the desired signal. A CDMA system is designed based on DS spread spectrum with a processing gain of 1000 and BPSK modulation scheme. If the jammer is a pulse jammer. where N is the length (period of the m sequence). 20. then the Jamming margin against a containers tone jammer is (A) 23. the number of user will be (A) 89 (C) 147 (B) 117 (D) 216 18.6 dB (C) 117. In previous question if processing gain is changed to 500.3 ´ 10 -3 (B) 20 dB (D) 40 dB Page 451 . 16. If the required e b/J 0 is 10 and the jammer is a tone jammer with an average power J av.com 15.10 21. The modulation scheme is BPSK. 13. The Processing gain is (A) 0. A total of 30 equal-power users are to share a common communication channel by CDM. A DS/BPSK spread (B) 2.14 dB (D) 14. The spreading bandwidth required to meet the specifications is (A) 10 7 Hz (C) 10 5 Hz (B) 10 3 Hz (D) 106 Hz Statement for Question 20-21 : An m = 10 ML shift register is used to generate the pre hdarandlm sequence in a DS spread spectrum system. How much should the processing gain be increased to allow for doubling the number of users with affecting the autopad SNR (A) 1. -5 (B) 2.14 (C) 0.9 ´ 10 5 chips/sec (D) 1.92 MHz spectrum signal has a 12.07 MHz (D) 2.5 dB (D) 109. The chip duration is Tc = l ms and the bit duration is Tb = NTc .3 ´ 10 5 chips/sec 11.1 17. and the required Îb / J 0 to achieve satisfactory performance is 10 dB. then jamming margin is. The value of e b/J 0 is (A) 8.Spread Spectrum GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.01 (C) 0. If the desired error probability is 10 -5 and ( e b / J 0 ) required to obtain an error probability of 10 -5 for binary PSK is 9.4 dB (B) 17. then pulse duty cycle that results in worst case jamming is (A) 0.3 ´ 10 -3 (D) 8. The processing gain of the system is (A) 10 dB (C) 30 dB (B) 20 dB (D) 40 dB 14.

the information is transmitted via FSK with non coherent detection. the hopping bandwidth for this channel is (A) 6. If the jammer operates as a partial band jammar. The channel is AWGN with power spectral density 1 2 N0 and an SNR 20-13 dB (total SNR over the three hops) 24.2 MHz (D) 18.7 GHz (B) 0. The probability of error for this system is (A) 0.6 MHz (B) 3.27 ´ 10 -5 (B) 196 ´ 10 -7 . 22.gatehelp.6384 MHz *********** Statement for Qquestion 24-25 : In a fast FH spread spectrum system.com . the bandwidth occupancy for worst case jamming is Page 452 www.9 GHz 28. and a bit rate of 10 kbps. The demodulator employ non coherent detection. with hopping bandwidth of 2 GHz.2996 (C) 0. If the hop rate is one per bit.0298 29.049 (B) 0.6 kHz 23. The bit rate is 100 bits/s.1496 (D) 0.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System Statement for Question 22-23 : An FH binary orthogonal FSK system employs an m = 15 stage liner feedback shift register that generates an ML sequence.2 bHz (C) 18. (D) 2.0049 25.2136 MHz (B) 13. Suppose the hop rate is increased to 2 hops/bit and the receiver uses square law combining the signal over two hops. Each state of the shift register selects one of L non over lapping frequency bands in the hopping pattern.0013 (D) 0. (C) 2.5534 MHz (C) 2.0368 (B) 0. The processing gain of this system is (A) 23 dB (C) 43 dB (B) 43 dB (D) 53 dB 27. Suppose there are N = 3 hops/bit with hard decision decoding of the signal in each hop.6943 MHz (B) 9.4369 MHz (D) None of the above (A) 0.1068 MHz (D) 1.4 GHz (C) 0.27 ´ 10 -7 Statement for Question 26-29 : A slow FH binary FSK system with non coherent detection operates at e b / J 0 = 10. The minimum hop rate for a FH spread spectrum system that will prevent a jammer from operating five onives away from the receiver is (A) 3. The probability of error for the worst-case partial band jammer is (A) 0.2767 MHz (C) 26. 26.6 GHz (D) 0. In case of one hop per bit the probability of error is (A) 196 ´ 10 -5 . The hopping bandwidth for this channel is (A) 3.013 (C) 0.

(A) Antijam margin = (Processing gain) . in decibels.1) ÷ ø ö ÷( N u . N u = 30 and Îb / J 0 = 10 Therefore.000 bps each.1 www.1 J 0 æÎ W/R = ç b çJ è 0 æÎ W = Rç b çJ è 0 ö ÷( N u . (B) The processing gain 10 7 W = = 5 ´ 10 3 or 37 dB R 2 ´ 10 3 10. we have Eb / N 0 = 9. R = 1000 bps and (Îb /J 0 ) dB = 10 dB æÎ æJ ö æW ö Hence. (D) We have a system where ( J av/Pav) dB = 20 dB.10 log10 9 = 57 . W = 2. (D) The processing gain is PG = 4 ´ 4 = 16 Hence.1) ÷ ø where R = 10 4 bps.1 ms 10 3. The e b/J 0 is.10 log10 ç ÷ çN ÷ è 0ø The probability of error is 1 Pe = erfc 2 æ ç ç è Eb N0 ö ÷ ÷ ø W/R W/R Î = = b J av/Pav N u . the number of users of the CDMA system is Nu = W/R 1000 +1= + 1 = 89 users Îb /J 0 11. (D) If the processing gain is reduced to W/R = 500.1 = 219 The processing gain is 10 log10 N= 10 log10 219 = 190 ´ 0. To achieve an error probability of 10 . (B) Precessing gain is 17.083 0. PG = 10 log10 16 = 12 dB 8. (C) The duty cycle of a pulse jammer of worst-case 0. Hence.1 = 15 2.gatehelp. Antijam margin = 57 . then N u= 500 + 1 = 45 users 11.9 ´ 106 Hz The minimum chip rate is 1 / Tc = W = 2. (D) To achieve an error probability of 10 -6 . (C) m= 19 n= 2 m . expressed in decibels.3 ´ 10 -3 e b/J 0 10 W 106 = = 100 R 10 4 16.54 dB Page 453 . (A) The coding gain is Rcd min = 9. (C) We assume that the interference is characterized as a zero-mean AWGN process with power spectral density J 0 .14 or 8.Spread Spectrum GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. (A) We have N u = 15 users transmitting at a rate of 10. (B) The chip duration is 1 TC = 7 s = 0.com = 7.1 = 2 4 .8 SOLUTION 1. we obtain ç ÷ = ç av ÷ + ç b ç çP ÷ è R ødB è av ødB è J 0 W = 1000 R W = 1000 R = 106 Hz 14. PG= 10 log10 20 = 26 db 7.1 = 219 . (A) The period of the PN sequence is T= NTC = 15 ´ 0. 4. we æÎ required ç b çJ è 0 ö ÷ = 10. (D) The corresponding probability of error for this worst-case jamming is ö ÷ = 30 dB ÷ ødB 1 ´ 10 = 5 or 7 dB 2 P2 = 0.5 dB 6.5 dB ÷ ødB Then.1 = 15 ms .3 12.5 or =47.3 or 57 dB æ Eb ö 5. in a bandwidth of W = 1MHz.083 = = 8.7 jamming is a = = = 0. (D) The precessing gain (PG) is FH Bandwidth W c PG = = 5 ´ 4 = 20 = Symbol Rate Rs Hence.9 ´ 106 chips/sec 11.9.3 With Pe = 10 -5.07 Îb /J 0 10 15.71 0. the required Îb /J 0 = 10 we have -5 13. (C) The PN sequence length is N= 2 m . e b W/R 106 / 10 4 100 = = = 14 14 J 0 Nu .

1 = 32767 bits For binary FSK modulation. (D) We are given a hopping bandwidth of 2 GHz and a bit rate of 10 kbs.27 ´ 10 -5 2 2 ec 26. Hence. (B) A Jamming margin is æW æ J av ö ç ÷ ç ç P ÷ =ç R è av ødB è b æe ö ö ÷ .14. Since there are N = 32767 states of the shift register and for each state we select one of two frequencies separated by 400 Hz. the minimum frequency separation is 2/T.5534 MHz.4 GHz 28.ç J ÷ = 27.07 MHz Hence the bandwidth must be increased to 2. Hence.367 ´ 10 -5 where J av = J 0W » J 0/Tc = J 0 ´ 10 22. then the total bandwidth for the FH signal is 6.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 18.2 N0 e = 0. where 1/T is the symbol (bit) rate.2 N 0 1 -10 e = e = 2. (C) In the case of one hop per bit. The probability of a chip error with non-coherent detection is Page 454 *********** www.1 = 1023 Since Tb = NTc then the processing gain is T N b = 1023 or 30 dB Tc 21. The minimum frequency separation for orthogonality 2/T = 400 Hz. (D) d= 5 miles = 8050 meters Dd= 2 ´ 8050 = 16100 Dd Dd= x ´ t or t = t Dd 16100 Þ t= = = 5. where a* W = 2/( e b/J 0 ) = 0.63 kHz t 5. the hopping bandwidth is 13. the processing gain should be increased to W/R= (7.5 dB è ødB è 0 ødB è av ødB 20. Since the shift register has L = 32767 states and each state utilizes a bandwidth of 2/T = 200 Hz.(1 . the SNR per bit is 20. Pb = 1 .p2 =e ec 2 N0 ec - 1 . 23. (C) The probability of error with worst-case partial-band jamming is P2 = e -1 e -1 = 3. (A) The bandwidth of the worst partial-band jammer is a* W. (C) The period of the maximum length shift register sequence is N = 210 . 24.95 or 17.2 p + p2 ) = 2 p .gatehelp.367 ´ 10 5 x 3 ´ 108 1 1 f= = = 18.p) 2 = 1 .07 MHz 19.ç b ÷ = 30 . W 2 ´ 10 9 = = 2 ´ 10 5or 53 dB 10 4 R 27. then.68 ´ 10 -2 = ( e b/J 0 ) 10 29. (B) The total SNR for three hops is 20 ~ 13 dB.(1 .2 Hence a* W = 0.10 = 20 dB ÷ ç ÷ ødB è J 0 ødB 6 1 P= e 2 N 0 2 where e c / N 0 = 20 / 3. the jamming margin is æ eb ö æ J av ö æW ö ç ÷ ÷ ç ç P ÷ = ç R ÷ . Therefore the SNR per hop is 20/3.5 dB. The probability of a bit error is Pb = 1 . (A) The length of the shift-register sequence is L = 2 m . The hop rate is 100 hops/sec.14)(29) = 207 W= 207 ´ 104 = 2.1215 .1068 MHz.com . (B) The processing gain is given as W = 500 or 27 dB R The ( e b/J 0 ) required to obtain an error probability of 10 -5 for binary PSK is 9. If the hopping rate is 2 hops/bit and the bit rate is 100 bits/sec. the hop rate is 200 hops/sec.0013 2 ec 25. (B) With N u = 30 and e b/J 0 = 7. Hence.

10 u x + 8 u y + 15 u z .6 u x 11.0.33u z (C) -0. 8 u z (B) 0. A field is given as F = yu x + zu y + xu z The angle between G and u x at point (2. 1.47 u x .05 u z (B) -0. 2 3 ). 0.4 u y .46 19.0.92 u y + 0. 4.03u x .15 (D) 15.0.6 u y (D) 0. z = 1). z = -3) and B(r = 2.1) u y and G = 2 x 2 yu x . At point A(2.82 u x + 0.18 u x + 0. 8 u x + 0. A field is given as G = 25 ( xu x + yu y ) x2 + y2 The field at point (-2.41u x + 0. A field is given as G= 13 ( yu x + 3u y + xu z ) x2 + y2 16.0. 0).6 u z .168 u x + 0.0.82 u y .gatehelp.82 u y + 0.729 u x + 0.82 u y + 0.82 u y + 0. A unit vector at A towards B is (A) 0. Two vector extending from the origin are given as R1 = 4 u x + 3u y .367 u z (B) 0.2 u z and R 2 = 3u x .5.37 u x + 0. 3. 3.2 u z ) (B) -2 u x + 3u y + 4 u z (D) 3u x + 4 u y .02 u z Page 458 .0. A vector field is given as G = 12 xyu x + 6( x 2 + 2) u y + 18 z 2 u z The equation of the surface M on which |G | = 60 is (A) 4 x 2 y 2 + 4 x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 (B) 2 x 2 y 2 + x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 (C) 2 x 2 y 2 + 4 x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 (D) 4 x 2 y 2 + x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 13.0.37 u x . The four vertices of a regular tetrahedron are located at O (0.98 u y + 0. The two vector are R AM = 20 u x + 18 u y . 0.6 u x + 0.02 u z (D) 0. 0). 4) is (A) 13( -2 u x + 3u y + 4 u z ) (C) 13( 3u x + 4 u y .0. -4) a unit vector in the direction of F .57 u z (D) 0. A vector field is given by E = 4 zy u z + 2 y sin 2 x u y + y sin 2 x u z 2 2 17.915 u y .5 3 3.0.18 u z and R AN = .2 u z is The unit vector in the direction of G at P(3. 0) and C . B(0. 2.29 u z 20.003u y + 0.82 u y + 0. The unit vector perpendicular (outward) to the face ABC is (A) 0.92 u y . The vector field E is given by E = 6 zy 2 cos 2 x u x + 4 xy sin 2 x u y + y 2 sin 2 x u z The region in which E = 0 is (A) y = 0 (C) z = 0 (B) x = 0 np (D) x = 2 15.57 u z www.G is (A) 0.0.47 u x + 0. 0) is (A) 45° (C) 60° 12.672 u z (C) 0.003u x .41u x .71u y .6 u y + 0.87 (B) 20.33u z (D) -0.915 u y + 0. The area of the triangle defined by R1 and R 2 is (A) 12.729 u x + 0.0. Two vector fields are F = -10 u x + 20 x( y . A(0.57 u z (C) -0.98 u y . A field is given as F = xyu x + yzu y + zxu x The value of the double integral I = ò ò F × u ydzdx in the plane y = 7 is 0 0 4 2 (B) 30° (D) 90° (A) 128 (C) 190 (B) 56 (D) 0 18.com The surface on which E y = 0 is (A) Plane y = 0 (C) Plane x = 3p 2 (B) Plane x = 0 (D) all 14.0. 0.71u y + 0.29 u z (B) 0.57 u z (B) 0.05 u z (C) -0.5 ( 0 .134 u y + 0.367 u z 21. 8 u y (C) 0.18 u x .672 u z (D) 0.47 (C) 10.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 10. -2) (A) 0.6 u z + 0.5.4 u y + 2 u z .168 u x + 0.134 u y . The unit vector in the plane of the triangle that bisects the interior angle at A is (A) 0. f = 30 ° . f = 70 ° .03u x + 0. Two points in cylindrical coordinates are A( r = 5.

949 u r . f = 130 °.35 u q .81u z (C) -0. f = -110 ° .2 p .25 (C) -0.48 u x + 0.008 u f (C) -6.6. q = 30 ° and 50° and f = 20 ° and 60° identify a closed surface. The surface r = 2.35 u r + 0.46 (D) 6. f = 0.1 22.35 u y .48 u x .433 (D) -0.22 (B) 18. The total area of the enclosing surface is (A) 6. 6. 4. The total area of the enclosing surface is (A) 34.48 u x + 0. f = 135 °.5 define a closed volume.77 u y + 4 u z (D) 7.0.72 u y 30. The surface r = 3. r = 4. 0 ÷ the value of H × u x is 3 è ø (A) 0.48 u q .Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. f = 0. f = 45 °.949 u f The component of D tangential to the spherical surface r = 10 at P(10.5 define a closed surface. A vector is A = yu x + ( x + z) u y.1 (B) 44. The vector B= 10 u r + r cos q u q + u f r (B) .4.81u f (C) -0. 45 ° ) and B ( 30.36 u x In cylindrical form it will be u u uf (B) D = r + (A) D = r r r cos f (C) D = ru r (D) D = ru r + cos f u f in cartesian coordinates at (-3.48 u x .72 u x + 1.81u f 35. The enclosed volume is (A) 11.0.gatehelp.31 (C) 25. The surface r = 3. 30 ° . 3) A in cylindrical coordinate is (A) -0. A vector field H is æ fö H = rz 2 sin f u r + e .26 27.2 u y (C) 1.77 u x .008 u r + 0. f = 20 ° and 80° identify a closed surface.48 u q .14 (B) 7.2u x + u y (D) -2. r = 5.35 u y .35 u y + 0. 0) is (A) u x .36 u x + 2.61 25.48 u r + 0. A field in cartesian form is given as D = xu x + yu y x +y 2 2 29. q = 0. Given a vector field D = r sin f u r 1 sin q cos f u q + r 2 u f r 26.30 u y + 4 u z (B) -4. q = 30 ° and 60°.4 33. .45 (C) 6. q = 0. 160 ° ).0.0. The length of the longest straight line that lies entirely within the volume is (A) 3. The surface r = 2 and 4.81u z 34.949 u r . A vector extends from A(r = 4.0.91 (D) 12. The |R AB | is (A) 22.008 u f (D) 6.21 28.7.35 u r + 0. The expression for u y in spherical coordinates at P( r = 4.0. 115 ° .30 u x . z = 3 and z = 4.com .949 u f (B) 0.z sin ç ÷ u f + r 3u z è2 ø p æ ö At point ç 2.0.28 31. f = 100 °. r = 5.0.29 (C) 32.26 32.35 u y + 0.7 (D) 16.8 p) is (A) 0.81u z (B) 0. f = 130 °.008 u r .13 (D) 4.30 u y + 4 u z (C) -7.0. z = 3 and z = 4 define a closed surface.25 (B) 3.30 u x + 4.77 u y + 4 u z 24. The vector R AB is (A) 4. f = 40 ° . The two point have been given A (20.35 u q . z = 1).4 (D) 33.81u z (D) 0. z = -2) to B( r = 5. At point P(r = 4. 330°) is Page 459 www.3 23.48 u r + 0. The surface r = 2 and 4.81u f (D) -0.15 (D) 8.8 p). f = 100 °. z = 3 and z = 4. At point P(-2.2 p.81u f (B) 0. 150°.27 (B) 20. u r in cartesian component is (A) 0.2 (C) 11.21 (C) 4. The enclosed volume is (A) 480 (C) 360 (B) 5.433 (B) 0.77 u x + 7.6.

30°. The circulation of A = r cos f u r + z sin f u z around the edge L of the wedge shown in Fig. 60°) is 46.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics (A) 0 . in that it must fly is Fig. The gradient of the functionG = r 3 sin 2 q sin 2 f sin q at point P ( 1 . 2.6° L (A) (C) - 1 3 1 6 (B) (D) 37.37 (A) 1 (C) 0 (B) -1 (D) 3 38. P8.043u q . 2 1 2 . . (A) 2.1.u z ) 43.36 (A) 8 u x + 8 u y .043u q + 100 u f (B) -0 .1. 2.y 2 = -4 at the point of intersection (-1.y 2 u z around the path shown in fig.2 z 2 . 1) in the y 1 x 1 auditorium desires to fly in such a direction that it will get warm as soon as possible.3° (D) 53. The direction.100 u f 36.36 is z 1 40. The circulation of F = x 2 u x . The gradient of field f = y 2 x + xyz is (A) y( y + z) u x + x(2 y + z) u y + xyu z (B) y(2 x + z) u x + x( x + z) u y + xyu z (C) y 2 u x + 2 yxu y + xyu z (D) y(2 y + z) u x + x(2 y + z) u y + xyu z 39. 1) is (B) 36. -1. The directional F = xy + yz + zx at point P(3. 2) is (A) 4u f (C) -4u f Page 460 (B) 4 2u f (D) -4 2u f f u r + 2rz cos f u f + z 2 sin f u z r .gatehelp. The gradient of the field f = r z cos 2 f at point 2 A = 2 r cos q cos f u r + r u f at point P(1.4° (C) 16. The angle between the normal to the surface x2 y + z = 3 (A) 73. 3) is (A) 2 (C) 0 45. -1) is (A) -3 (C) -2 (B) 1 (D) 0 42.com (1.4 u z (D) -(2 u x + 2 u y .100 u f (C) 110 u q + 0.xzu y .6 (C) 4.5 the vector Fig.5 (D) -4.37 is y and x ln z . -2. A mosquito located at (2. The divergence of vector A = yzu x + 4 xyu y + yu z at 60 0 o x 2 point P(1.3u q 41. The divergence of the vector A = rz 2 cos f u r + z sin 2 f u z is (A) 2rz 2 cos f u r + sin 2 f u z (B) 2rz 2 cos f u r + sin 2 f u z (C) 2 z 2 cos f u r + sin 2 f u z (D) z sin 2 www.u z (C) 4 u x + 4 u y . P8.3) in the direction toward point Q(4.1. P8. -3.41u r + 3u z (C) 3.46 u r + 9.4 u z 1 6 1 3 (B) 2 u x + 2 u y .043u f (D) 0 . The temperature in a auditorium is given by T = 2 x 2 + y 2 . 45 ° . 1 2 ) is (B) u x + u y + u z (D) All derivative of function (A) 1. P8.043u q .5 The divergence 1 2 (B) -2 (D) 4 of (B) 1.7° 44.1.

the circulation of vector field F around closed path shown in fig.sin q u q + 2 r 2 sin q u f is r 1 (A) cos q u r .2 z) u x .com .2 x sin 2 xz u z (B) z sin 2 xy u y + ( y cos xy . If V = x 2 y 2 z 2 . y 1 S L 0 1 2 x Fig. If F = x 2 yu x .cot q cosec q sin f (C) 2 + 2(1 . The curl of vector field A = rz sin f u r + 3rz 2 cos f u r at point (5.gatehelp.1.2 (C) -12.3 (D) 0 48. 90°. If the scalar field V = r 2 (1 + cos q sin f) then Ñ 2 V is (A) 1 + 2(1 .yz .60 (A) (C) 7 3 7 6 (B) (D) - 7 6 7 3 Page 461 www.60 is.1 47. 3. If V = xy .yu y. the value of the div grad V is (A) 0 (B) z + x 2 + 2 y 2 z (C) 2 y( z 2 . If A = ( 3 y 2 . y. The grad × Ñ ´ A of a vector field A = x 2 yu x + y 2 zu y . -2) is if V = r 2 z(cos f + sin f) (A) -8.2 xzu z is (A) 2 xy + 2 yz .x) (D) 2( z . The curl of vector A = e xyu x + sin xy u y + cos 2 xz u z is (A) y e xyu x + x cos xy u y .2 x 2 z u y + ( x + 2 y) u z . The curl of vector field 1 A = r cos q u r .2 xz sin 2 xz u z 49. If r = xu x + yu y + zu x is the position vector of point P( x.r 2 ) cos q sin f (B) 6 + 4 cos q sin f .4 r sin q u q + ç 2 sin q .2 xz (C) 2 x 2 y + 2 y 2 z . P8. 60°. P8.Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.r sin q ÷u f r è ø (C) 4 r cos q u r . (A) 324 (C) 81 (B) 81p (D) 64p r = 3 is 54.cos q u q r æ 1 ö (B) 2 r 2 cos q u r . The flux of D = r 2 cos 2 f u r + 3 sin f u f over the closed surface of the cylinder 0 £ z < 3. z) and r =|r then Ñ × r n r is equal to | (A) nr n (C) ( n + 2) r n (B) ( n + 3) r n (D) 0 52.xe xy) u z (D) xy e xyu x + xy cos xy u y . The value of Ñ 2 V at point P(3.3 (B) 12. the value of Ñ ´ Ñ ´ A at P(-2. Ñ ln r is equal to (A) Ñ ´ ( fu z ) (C) Ñ ´ (ru f) (B) Ñ ´ ( zu f) (D) Ñ ´ (ru z ) 50.y . If r = xu x + yu y + zu x then ( r × Ñ ) r 2 is equal to (A) 2 r 2 (C) 4 r 2 (B) 3r 2 (D) 0 59.r 2 ) cos q sin f (D) 0 57.6 r sin q u q + sin q u f (D) 0 51. 1) is (A) 0 (C) 6u r (B) 12u q (D) 5u f 56.2 xz (D) 0 53. -1) is (A) -( 6 u x + 4 u y) (C) -8( u x + u y) (B) 8 ( u x + u y) (D) 0 58.1.y) 2 2 60.x 2 y + y 2 z 2 . the laplacian of the field V is (A) 2( xy 2 + yz 2 + zx 2 ) (B) 2( x 2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x 2 ) (C) ( x 2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x 2 ) (D) 0 55.2 x (B) x 2 y + y 2 z .xe xy) u z (C) z sin 2 xy u y + ( x cos xy .

0.79) 4. 0.32 = 9.y2 ) 2 + ( z1 . -4. 1) ( 4. (D) d = ( x1 .2. 4.4 u z ) -( -4 u x + 4 u y + 3u z ) = 15 u x + 8 u y .8 u z ) + 2( 8 u x + 6 u y . (C) Mid point is ç .89 (C) 63. g = 0 (D) a = b = g = 0 ************** |R| = 15 2 + 8 2 + 19 2 = 25. 1) × ( 4. ÷ = (4. If D = xyu x + yzu y + zxu z .gz) u y + ( 3 xz 2 . P8. and L is the contour of fig. (A) R AB = R B .3) = (0.gatehelp.8) + 2( 8. the value of a . 4) uR = uR = 2 2 1 ux + u y + uz 3 3 3 æ 1 + 7 -6 . 2.6.4. 8.3) G = (0. .2 (D) 0 62.5 = 25. 0. (B) R = .2) G2 42 + 42 + 22 = (3. -1 < z < 1. . 0 < f < 2 p is (A) 44 (C) 88 (B) 176 (D) 352 3.1. b and g is (A) a = b = g = 1 (C) a = 0.19 u z is.( 8 u x + 4 u y . 2.1) = (1.1.5 63.( -1)) 2 = 4 + 81 + 16 = 101 2. 4. 8.3(0.. then the value of òò A × dS 64. then circulation ò A. (C) The component of F parallel to G is = F ×G (10. (C) The vector component of F perpendicular to G is F ×G ( 3. b = g =1 (B) a = b = 1. ÷ è 3 3 3ø 8 +8 +4 ( 8.N = 3u x + 4(2 u x + 3u y . . .57 (D) 0 = . 4) 2 2 2 -M + 2N = -( 8. 0. 0. (C) R = 3u x + 4 M . If D = 2rzu r + 3z sin f u r . q < f < 45 °.61.2.z 2 ) 2 = ( 4 . 4. P8. . 2.2 4 + 0 ö 7. 2.26 65.86. 2) = u x + 2 u z 5. .2) 2 + ( -6 . where S is the surface of the cube defined by 0 £ x £ 1. 1. The surface integral of vector F = 2r 2 z 2 u r + r cos 2 f u z over the region defined by 2 £ r £ 5.93.(2. ÷ 3 3 3 è 3 3 3ø æ2 2 1ö =ç . 0.12 + 0. . .1.y) u z is irrotational. 5) × (0.(5 u x . 2) 2 2 ø è 2` uR = Page 462 www.2 2 + 0.1.2. 1). . dL is L SOLUTIONS 1. then the surface integral of D is (A) 24. If A = r sin f u r + r 2 u r .5 (C) 0 (B) 3 (D) 1.61 |R AB | = uR = - 22 + 1 + 22 = 3 2 1 2 ux + u y + uz 3 3 3 (A) 7 p + 2 (C) 7p (B) 7 p .2) = (8.3) 2 + ( 3 . ÷ 3 3 3ø è .M + 2N (B) 131.2) =F G = ( 3.R A = ( 3u x + 0 u y + 2 u z ) .1.u y + 0 u z ) y 2 1 L -2 -1 1 2 x = -2 u x + u y + 2 u z Fig. If the vector field F = ( axy + bz 3) u x + ( 3 x 2 . 2) 4 + 4 +2 2 2 2 2 1ö æ2 =ç .com ( 4. 2.4r cos f u z and S is the surface of the wedge 0 < r < 2.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 61.5 6. . 0 < z < 5. 6. . 0. 0 £ y £ 1.3) 2 G 0.2 u z ) = 8u x + 8u y + 4u z 8u x + 8u y + 4u z uR = 82 + 82 + 42 = 2 2 1 æ2 2 1ö ux + u y + uz = ç . 0 £ z £ 1 (A) 0.x2 ) 2 + ( y1 .

29 u z = 0. è 2 3 ö ÷ . .5.8 u y uG = 32 + 4 2 17. 3p . 0) æ 0.1 = 2 2 1 ux . (A) E = y( 6 zy cos 2 x u x + 4 x sin 2 x u y + y sin 2 x u z ) Hence in plane y = 0.0. (D) For E y = 0. 0. 0) . 8.2 u z -34 u x + 84 u y .5 3 . -2) 25 G= 2 ( 3u x + 4 u y) = 3u x + 4 u y 3 + 42 3u x + 4 u y = 0. 0.37 u x + 0.1) u y) . (C) R = F .5 3 0. (A) Let q be the angle between F and u x . 0) ÷ ø ù uz ú 0 ú ú 2ú ú 3 û æ 1 =ç. ÷ 3 3ø è3 |B . Magnitude of F is |F|= y + z + x 2 2 2 2 2 2 = -34 u x + 84 u y .5. 0. 0.507.0. I = 8(7) = 56 éu x u y u z ù 1 1ê 18.83.712 + 0.4 u y + 2 u z ) At P(2. 15. 2 y sin 2 x = 0 sin 2 x = 0.5 2 ) + u z 3 3 = 0. R = F .406.33u z 20. (D) G = ( 3u x + 4 u y ..92 u y .u z uR = 34 2 + 84 2 + 2 2 = .(0.(24 u x . . .G = ( -10 u x + 20 x( y .A |= 10 2 ö 2 ö 1 ö æ æ æ ç 6 .8 k . Þ é uy ê ux = ê0. p . 0.5 . Þ 2 x = 0. -3.81u y + 0. (B) F × u y = Fy = yz I= ò ò yzdzdx = 0 0 4 2 æ2 ò ç ò yzdz ç 0è0 4 4 ö ÷dx = ò 2 ydx = 2( 4) y = 8 y ÷ 0 ø At y = 7.u y (0.31 2 2 +2 2 2 F × u x = (F)(1) cos q = y y cos q = = 2 y + z 2 + x2 q = 45 ° 12.29 2 = 0. (A) The non-unit vector in the required direction is 1 = ( u AN + u AM ) 2 ( -10.5 3 .9) = -26 u x + 18 u y .u y + uz 3 3 3 8. (D) |G|= 60 = 1 2 area = 40.41u x .G = ( -10 u x + 80 u y) .71u y + 0. (A) G = 24(1)(2) u x + 12(1 + 2) u y + 18( -1) 2 u z = 48 u x + 36 u y + 18 u z 2 1ö æ2 9.(0.k ÷ + ç -2 + k ÷ + ç -4 . 0) = ( -0.(2 x 2 yu x .5 3 .4) . (B) R BA = (0.2 u z 11.41u x + 0. (A) At P(3. 3 3ø è3 = (7.44 = 0 Þ k = 1175. 0. -7.92) 13 10.gatehelp. (A) A = ( 6.5. 2 = u x 0.25 u z R1 ´ R 2 = 26 2 + 18 2 + 25 2 = 40. 15) u AN = = ( -0.u y( -24 + 6) + u z ( -16 . ç 3 è 2 3 ö ÷ ÷ ø (12 xy) 2 + ( 6( x 2 + 2)) 2 + (18 z 2 ) 2 = 60 Þ Þ Þ 144 x 2 y 2 + 36( x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4) + 324 z 4 = 3600 4 x y + ( x + 4 x + 4) + 9 z = 100 2 2 4 2 4 4 x 2 y 2 + x 4 + 9 z 4 + 4 x 2 = 96 Þ y =0 R BA ´ R BC 13.k ÷ = 100 3 ø 3 ø 3 ø è è è k2 .761) 100 + 64 + 225 Page 463 Hence (D) is correct. . www.5 2 0. .15 2 19. ÷ .29 u z The required unit vector is 0. (B) Area = R1 ´ R 2 = 4 3 -2 ú ú 2 2ê ê 3 -4 -6 ú ë û = u x ( -18 . 4. B = k ç .31 = 20.com .6 u x + 0.2 u z ) 2 ( -2) + ( 3) 2 = 3u x + 4 u y . 14.Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.02 u z 16.5 ê ê 1 0 ê ë 3 3p x = 0. .4). 3.83.4 u y + 2 u z ) E = 0..8) .5 R BC = ç ç 3 .412 + 0.71u y + 0.2. 1. 0. 2 1ö æ2 B = 1175 ç .0.47 u x + 0.5.

0.A| = |( -2. .948 = -0.70.6 ú ê0 ú ê úê ú -1 0 ú ê1 ú ê 0 ë ûë û Bx = 2( -0. 3. 2) .0.R A = (173. f = 130 ° . 3) B(r = 5. 5 sin 70 ° .A| B . 21.5.70. .316 = -6.70 2 + 4 2 22.5 u f + 8 u z è 3 ø u x = cos f u r . 3. H = 0.( -0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics u AM = (20.207) (0.69.95. = ( -2.83.70.7.02.6 = 1 Bz = 0 www.3) = B(173. sin f = 0.sin f cos f 0 ú ê A y ú ê ú ê úê ú 0 1 ú ê Az ú ê Az ú ê 0 ûë û ë û ë At P (-2. -0. 0. (A) A(r = 3. f = 100 ° .949.70.82.948 0 ù é6 ù é Ar ù é-0.com ò ò ò rdrdfdz 3 100 ° 3 25.316 0 ú ê1 ú ê fú ê úê ú 0 1 û ë0 û ê ú ê úê ú ë Az û ë 0 Ar = 6 ( -0. . 2. . (D) In cartesian coordinates A (5 cos 70 ° . 0. .5) .( 306.88. 2 sin ( -30 ° ). (A) ê Af ú = ê.sin q ù éBr ù êB ú = êsin q sin f cos q cos f cos f ú êB ú ê yú ê ú ê qú .88.2) . f = tan -1 ç ÷ = 108. z = 4.207) = (0.316. 4.02 2 + 5. 6.gatehelp.02. .7. 0. 1 ( u AM + u AN ) 2 1 = [(0. .A = ( -321. 2) = B ( -171.7. 0. 0.77. (A) x = r cos f . .948) . . 0) r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 32 + 4 2 + 0 2 = 5 q = tan -1 f = tan -1 x2 + y2 p = z 2 y 4 = tan -1 = 126. 4. 4 sin 40 ° .5)ç ç 2 ÷ = -0.R A = ( -171.948 -0.1.5) = B( -321.316) + 0.2) . 2.0.5.sin q 1 ú êBf ú ê Bz ú ê cos q ûë û ë û ë é-0.516.2) = A( 306. . R AB = R B .948 0.516 2 + 0. 4) (0. 3) .6 0 -0. 2) . .21 .627.2612 Hence (A) is correct. (D) Vol = 4 .4. æ p ö 27.69. 29. = ( -4.sin f u f = 1 ( u r . 18.69 2 + 0.3) . Af = 6( -0.516.697.095. 4.4. (B) A( 4 cos 40 ° .915.8 ù é2 ù = ê 0.28 éBx ù ésin q cos f cos q cos f . . .348) 26. .27 è2 ø ë 2 û2è 2 ø Page 464 .697.(B) At P (-3. .6) + 0.87 ° x -3 r cos f u x + r sin f u y 1 D= 2 = (cos f u x + sin f u y) r cos 2 f + r 2 sin 2 f r 1 Dr = D × u r = [cos f ( u x × u r) + sin f ( u y × u r)] r = 1 1 [cos 2 f + sin 2 f] = r r 1 [cos f ( u x × u f) + sin f ( u y × uf)] r Df = D × u f = = 1 [cos f ( . R AB = R B . 0.761) ] 2 = (0. Az = 0 Hence (A) is correct option. .5) . 2. B (2 cos ( -30 ° ). .1.2) . .627.10) 400 + 324 + 100 = (0.3) .8 0 -0. 0. = (0. (C) At P ç 2.3) = A(171.348) + ( -0.095. length = |B . 1) . B (5 cos ( -110 ° ). 1) . y = r sin f |B . . 4.52. 4) = (0.507.095 2 + 0.57.88 2 + 15 2 = 3.(171.3. 0. 15) . 0 ÷.8 = -2 B y = 2(0.57. -0. 4) 24. 2. 0.406.316 ê A ú = ê -0.168.433 è ø é Ar ù é cos f sin f 0 ù é Ax ù 28. 0. 3) æ 6 ö A = 6 u x + u y .52. 0.95. (C) Area is =2 135° 4 45° 2 2 ò ò rdrdf + 4 ò 4 135° 3 45° ò 2 dfdz + ò ò 4 dfdz + 2 ò ò drdz 3 45° 3 2 4 135° 4 4 ér ù æ p ö æ pö = 2 ê ú ç ÷ + (2)(1)ç ÷ = 32. z = 3) = A( -0.sin f) + sin f (cos f)] = 0 r 1 ur r Therefore D = 23.0. 4. .003.5 130 ° 5 B = 2u r + u f = 6. 15)| = 2.008.83.0.367) u bis = 0.3u f) 2 æ 3 ö ÷ H × u x = (0. 5 sin ( -110 ° ). 0.43° è -2 ø cos f = .57) u AB = 0.

-3. -2. g = x ln z . 90°.286 x uz z é ur uf uz ù ê ¶ ¶ ¶ú 1 = ê ú r ê ¶r ¶f ¶z ú êrz sin f 2r 2 z 2 cos f 0 ú ë û = 1 1 u r (-6r 2 z cos f) . r sin q sin f = y . (C) Ñ × A = = 1 ¶(rAr) 1 ¶( Af) ¶( Az ) + + r ¶r r ¶q ¶z = 2 r 2 z cos 2 f u r . Ñ ´ A = 5 u f www.xexy) = z sin 2 xy u y + ( y cos xy . (C) ÑT = u x ¶T ¶T ¶T + uy + uz ¶x ¶y ¶z éu x ê¶ 48. ÑF = -6u x . (A) Let f = x 2 y + z . (C) Ñf = u r ¶f 1 ¶f ¶f + uf + uz ¶x r ¶y ¶z = 1 ( 6 r 2 cos q cos f) + 0 + 0 r2 At P (1. R PQ = ( 4.3. Ñ × A = 4 45. 2).4 ° Page 466 -1 At point P(5.4 u z 43. (D) Ñ ´ A = ê r ê ¶r ê ë Ar uf uz ù ¶ ¶ú ú ¶f ¶z ú Af Az û ú = 2 xu x + 2 yu z . . 30°. ÷ .xe xy) u z éu r 1ê ¶ 49. r cos q = z G = r 3 sin 2 q sin 2 f sin q = r 3(2 sin q cos q)(2 sin f cos f) sin q = 4( r sin q cos f)( r sin q sin f)( r cos q) = 4 xyz ¶( 4 xyz) ¶( 4 xyz) ¶( 4 xyz) ÑG = u x + uy + uz ¶x ¶x ¶z = 4 yzu x + 4 xzu y + 4 xyu z æ1 1 1ö At P ç .u f (-r sin f) u z (6rz 2 cos f . (B) Ñ ´ A = ê ê ¶x ê Ax ë uy ¶ ¶y Ay u z ù éu x uy uz ù ¶ú ê¶ ¶ ¶ ú ú =ê ú ¶z ú ê ¶x ¶y ¶z ú Az ú ê e xy sin xy cos 2 xz ú û û ë u x (0 . (B) r sin q cos f = x .com .u z 17 = 0. (C) ÑF = ( y + z) u x + ( x + z) u y + ( x + y) u z At P(3.4u f 40. ÑT = 4 u x + 4 u y .u y(2 cos xz ( .6 46. 1). . (A) Ñf = u x ¶f ¶f ¶f + uy + uz ¶x ¶y ¶z Ñ× A = 1 ¶(r 2 Ar ) 1 ¶(sin q Aq) 1 ¶(sin q Af) + + r2 r sin q r sin q ¶f ¶r ¶q = y( y + z) u x + x(2 y + z) u y + xyu z 39. Ñ × A = 6(1)(cos 30 ° )(cos 60 ° ) = 2. 2. Ñf = .28 = 73. 2.3) = (1. 45°. ÑG = u x + u y + u z è2 2 2 ø 41.1. 60°). 3). . 1) uf = -4 u x + u y + u z 18 .( 3. (D) Ñ × A = ¶ Ax ¶ A y ¶ Az =0 + 4x + 0 + + ¶x ¶y ¶z ò A × dL L = C1 + C2 + C3 = 1 At P (1. 1).2rz sin 2 f u f + r 2 cos 2 f u z At P (1.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Along 3. .4 z u z At P(2.rz cos f) r r cos q = ± u f × u g = ± q = cos 0. 2) ÑF × u R = ( -6 u x ) × ( u x + 2 u y + 2 u z ) 3 = -2 1 ¶(rrz 2 cos f) ¶( z sin 2 f) = 2 z 2 cos f + sin 2 f + r ¶r ¶z By divergence theorem 47. C3 = ò r cos f dr 0 2 = f=60 ° r2 = -1 2 44.3).2 yu y + At point P (-1. ug = -5 18 ´ 17 -4 u y . (B) The flux is ò D × dS . . 2. (A) 38.1) . . S ò D × dS S = ò Ñ × D dv v Ñ ×D = 1 ¶(rr 2 cos 2 f) 1 ¶( z sin f) 3 + = 3r cos 2 f + sin f r r r ¶r ¶r æ 2 ò Ñ × D dv = ò ç 3r cos ç è v v 3 3 2p 0 0 0 f+ z sin r 3 ö f ÷rdfdzdr ÷ ø 3 2p = ò dz ò zr 2 dr ò cos 2 f df + ò zdz ò dr ò sin f df = 81p 0 0 0 42.0) .3.gatehelp.y 2 + 4 Ñf = 2 xyu x + x 2 u y + u z Ñg = ln z u x .sin xz) z) + u z ( y cos xy .

1 éu r ê¶ 1 50. (C) Ñ ´ A = 2 ê r sin q ê ¶r ê Ar ë ru q ¶ ¶q rAq r sin qu f ù ú ¶ ú ¶f ú r sin q Af ú û 56.cot q cosec q sin f 57.6 r sin q u q + sin q u f ux uy uz ù é ê ú ¶ ¶ ¶ 51. (D) ÑV = u x + uy + uz ¶x ¶y ¶z = ( z .2 y z) + + ¶x ¶y ¶z 2 2 2 2 2 2 = nr n + 3r n = ( n + 3) r n 60.u y(1 .sin q 2 r sin q ú = 1 r 2 sin q u r ( 2r 3 sin q . (A) r = x 2 + y 2 Ñ ln r = u x ¶ ln r ¶ ln r ¶ ln r x y + uy + uz = 2 ux + 2 u y r r ¶x ¶y ¶z é êu x ê¶ y uz = ê x ê ¶x ê 0 ê ë uy ¶ ¶y 0 uz ¶ ¶z tan -1 ù ú ú ú ú yú û xú = 4 r cos q u r .0) + u f ( 0 + r sin q) r sin q r = 6(1 + cos q sin f) - 2 sin q cos q sin f cos q sin f sin q sin 2 q = 6 + 4 cos q sin f .x) dx 3 2 0 1 2 = 4 z(cos f + sin f) . (A) Ñ ´ A = ê ú ¶x ¶y ¶z ú ê 2 2 ê ë( 3 y .x ) dxdy 2 S 1 x ¶ 55.2 xy) ¶(2 yz . Ñ ´ Ñ ´ A = -6 u x .ê .4 u y = -( 6 u x + 4 u y) é ux ê ¶ 52.4ú .y 2 u x + 2 zu y . Ñ 2 V = 3( -2)ç + ç2 2 ÷ è ø é x4 ù 1 ù é2 = ê ú + ê x3 .Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.6 y) é ê Ñ ´Ñ ´ A =ê ê ê ë(2 ux uy ¶ ¶ ¶x ¶y + 2 x2 ) 3 uz ù ú ¶ ú ¶z ú -( 4 xz + 6 y) û ú Ñ ´ f u z = Ñ ´ tan -1 = x y x y ux + 2 u y = ux + u y 2 2 r r x +y x +y 2 = u x ( -6) . 3. 60°.y) ¶2V ¶2V ¶2V 54.(B) Ñ2 V = ¶2 V 1 ¶ æ 2 ¶V ö 1 ¶ æ ¶V ö 1 çr ÷+ 2 ç sin q ÷+ 2 2 2 r ¶r è ¶r ø r sin q ¶q è ¶q ø r sin q ¶f2 é ur ru q r sin q u f ù ú ê ¶ ¶ ¶ 1 = 2 ê ú r sin q ê ¶r ¶q ¶f ú 3 2 ê û ër cos q .x 2 u z Ñ (Ñ ´ A) = 0 ¶V ¶V ¶V 53.2 z) ( -2 x z) ( x + 2 y) ú û = u x (2 + 2 x 2 ) .com 1 é16 1 7 ù é2 1 ù 1 14 + .2 y z) u z 2 2 2 æ ¶ ¶ ¶ ö 2 2 2 58. -2). (C) By Stokes theorem ò F × dL = L = -2 y + 2 z .2 y = 2( z .x ) ¶( x .( -2)) + u z ( -4 xz .x4 ú 4 û0 ë3 4 û1 ë = www.òò ( .z(cos f + sin f) + 0 = 3z(cos f + sin f) æ1 3ö ÷= -8.ú = + -4+ = 4 ê3 3 4 6 ë û ë3 4 û 4 Page 467 .2 At P(3. (B) Ñ 2 V = + + ¶x 2 ¶y 2 ¶z 2 = 2( y z + x z + x y ) = 2( x y + y z + z x ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ò (Ñ ´ F) × dS S Ñ ´ F = -x uz 2 dS = dxdy ( -u z ) ò (Ñ ´ F) × dS = .2 xy) u x + (2 yz . (B) Ñ × r n r = ¶( xr n ) ¶( yr n ) ¶( zr n ) + + ¶x ¶y ¶z n uy ¶ ¶y y2 z uz ù ¶ ú ú ¶z ú -2 xz û ú where r n = ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 -1 æ nö Ñ × r n r = 2 x 2 ç ÷( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 è2 ø -1 -1 æ nö æ nö + 2 y 2 ç ÷( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 + 2 z 2 ç ÷( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 è2 ø è2 ø n n n + rn + rn + rn n = n( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 2 -1 + 3r n Ñ × (ÑV ) = ¶( z .gatehelp.0) 1 1 u q ( 6r 2 sin 2 q .u y( -4 z) + u z (0) = -6 u x + 4 zu y At P(-2. (A) ( r × Ñ ) r 2 = ç x ç ¶x + y ¶y + z ¶z ÷( x + y + z ) ÷ è ø = x(2 x) + y(2 y) + z(2 z) = 2( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 2 r 2 59.x ) u y + ( x . (D) Ñ ´ A = ê ê ¶x 2 ê ëx y = . -1).y . (A) Ñ V = ¶r 2 æ ¶V çr ç ¶r è ö 1 ¶2V ¶2V ÷+ 2 ÷ r ¶f2 + ¶z 2 ø = ò ò x dydx + ò ò x dydx 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 -x + 2 1 = ò x dx + ò x (2 .

gz uz ¶ ¶z 3 xz 2 - ù ú ú ú yû ú = ( -1 + g) u x + ( 3bz 2 . dr = 0. (B) Using divergence theorem ò F × dS Ñ ×F = = ò v Ñ × Fdv 1 ¶ (2r 2 z 2 ) = 4 z 2 = 4 z 2 r ¶r 1 2 2 ò Ñ × F dv = òòò 4 z rdrdfdz = 4 ò z v -1 dz ò rdr ò df = 176 2 0 5 2p 63. (C) ò A × dL = ç ò ç è C æ + ab bc ò + y cd ò + da ò ö ÷A × dL ÷ ø ò D × dS = ò (Ñ × D)dv S v ò D × dS = ò ò ò L 2 1 æ ö 3z cos f ÷ rdrdfdz ç 4z + ç ÷ r è ø 45° 2 5 45° = 4 ò rdr 0 2 ò zdz ò df + 3ò dr ò zdz ò cos f df 0 0 0 0 0 5 c d b a æ 4 öæ 25 öæ p ö æ 25 öæ 1 ö = 4ç ÷ç . ò A × dL b c = ò r df 3 0 p Along cd. f = 0.61 Along ab.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 61. df = 0. (A) Ñ ´ F = ê ¶x ê 2 ê ëax + bz uy ¶ ¶y 3 x 2 . ò A × dL d a = r 3 ò df = (1) 3( -p) = .gatehelp. ÷ = 13157 ÷ç ÷ + 3(2)ç ÷ç è 2 øè 2 øè 4 ø è 2 øè 2 ø x -2 -1 1 2 Fig.com . ò A × dL c d =0 A × dL = r 3df ******* Along da.1. A × dL = 0. S8.p p 0 ò A × dL = 0 + 8 p + 0 .e. 0 ø 1 64.3z 2 ) u y + ( 6 x . a = 1 = b = g.ax) u z If F is irrotational.p = 7 p 62. Along bc. Ñ ´ F = 0 i. (B) Ñ × D = = 4z + Page 468 1 ¶(rDr) 1 ¶( Df) ¶( Dz ) + + r ¶r r ¶q ¶z 3 z cos f r www. =0 A × dL = r 3df = (2) 3 p = 8 p f = p. ò A × dL a b é ux ê ¶ 65. (D) Ñ ×A = ò A × dS = ò (Ñ × A)dv S v ¶( xy) ¶( yz) ¶( zx) + + x =y+z+ x ¶x ¶y ¶z 1 1 1 ò A × dS = ò ò ò S 0 0 0 ( y + z + x) dxdydz æ1 = 3ç ò xdx ç è0 1 ö æ1ö dy ò dz ÷ = 3ç ÷ = 15 ò 0 ÷ è2 ø . df = 0. A × dL = 0. dr = 0.

0). respectively.2 ELECTROSTATICS 1. 8) while (B) 4. 0.93u y .83u r + 64. 15. 7) and a charge 60 nC be at P2 (-3. 0).7 u r + 27. 0.01u f (D) 68. Let a point charge 41 nC be located at P1 (4. 8).gatehelp.33u y . The electric field E at P3(1. 5. The total force on the charge at A is (A) 24.13u x .76 u y mN 6.85 u f (B) 68.46 (C) -6. -1. 0). The magnitude of the total force on this fifth charge is (A) 2 ´ 10 -4 N (C) 0. A fifth 5 nC positive charge is located at a point 8 mm distant from each of the other charge.14.0.32 u x + 5. 2.4 u z (C) 1311u r + 27.12 u z (C) 115 u x + 2. –1).5) and a charge of 2 mC at the origin.4 u f .12 u z (B) -0.01 N 3. The volume charge density r n = r oe -|x|-| y|-|z| exist over all free space.32 u x + 5.33u y + 0. 2) is (A) 131. The force F2 on Q2 will be (A) -( 4.0.7 u f . is Ex = 0. –2). The electric field at P(8.7 u r + 137. 0.32 u x + 5.49.83u r . 11.85 u f (C) 68.76 u y N (D) 4. Charges of 20 nC and -20nC are located at (3. Four 5 nC positive charge are located in the z = 0 plane at the corners of a square 8 mm on a side.4 u z (B) 159. (D) 159. -2. 1) is (A) 68. Let Q1 = 4 mC be located at P1 (3.13u x + 0. 5) in free space.com .49. A charge Q0 located at the origin in free space produces a field for which E2 = 1 kV m at point P(–2. 0) and (-3.93u y + 109 u z .83u r + 14. 1.1u f . Four 40 nC are located at A(1. is (A) -7. 7) and a charge 45 nC be at P2 (–3.11 (D) (B) and (C) 9.49. 4.014 N (B) 4 ´ 10 -4 N (D) 0. .2. 0. 0) and (-3. B(-1. Let a point charge 25 nC be located at P1 (4.4 u z .1u r + 159. -2.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8.64. The point. A 2 mC point charge is located at A (4.76 u y) mN 2. 2.49. The total charge present is (A) 2r o (C) 8r o (B) 4r o (D) 3r o Page 469 www.89 (B) -22. 0.32 u x + 5. -2). 0) and D(0.76 u y) N (C) -( 4. 4.6u x mN (B) -24. (D) -115 u x . The charge Q0 is (A) 2 mC (C) 3 mC (B) -3 mC (D) -2 mC 10. 0) in free space. 3) will be (A) 0. 3. A point charge of -10 nC is located at P1 (0.01u f Q2 = -5 mC is at P2 (6.109 u z . 0. 0.6u x mN (D) 13.76u x mN 8. 2.6u x mN (C) -13. The magnitude of E at y axis is (A) (C) 1080 (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 108 (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 (B) (D) 1080 (9 + y 2 ) 3 108 (9 + y 2 ) 3 4. .4 u z 7. at which on the y axis. 12. The E at P(0.4 u f . C(0.83u r .

r v = 0.23u y . -1) is (A) -192 u x + 2 u y .96 u x + u y .1 V m (D) 20. z = 0. www.8 u z kV m (D) -0.68 C (D) 0. 6) will be (B) 48u y V m (D) 24u y V m (C) y = 23. The E at P(6.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 11.8 u z kV m 22. A uniform volume charge density of 0. y = ± 3 m.2 mC m 2 is present throughout the spherical shell extending from r = 3 cm to r = 5 cm. z = 0. and 0.com 17.36 u z (C) 9 u y .9 u z (D) 18 u y .8 u z kV m (B) 0. and r v = 0 elsewhere. A point charge 10 nC is located at origin. If r v = 1 z 2 + 10 18. 2.f mC m 3 in | |) the region 0 £ r £ 10.54 u z kV m (D) 192 u x .23u y + 2. The electric field E at A(r = 0.54 u z kV m (C) 0. z = 5.4) ( r .9 p < f < 11 p contains the volume charge density of .40 nC m 2 at y = 4 and 50 nC m 2 at z = 2. and is zero elsewhere. . 2. is 3 (B) 4.23u y + 2.56 u x . The D at P(0. The E at that point in the z = 0 plane where the direction of E is given by 1 3 ( (A) 4. 4) is (A) -19. A uniform line charge of 5 nC m is located along the line defined by y = -2.1 pC 12.29 mC (C) 0.23u y + 2.23 C f 2 14. 1) is (A) y = 16.2 . r v = 10 ( r . . A uniform line charge of 6. z = 5.56 u x + 2. The electric field E at P(1.9 u z (C) 10. -p < f < p and all z.4 V m (B) 10. . -2) is (A) 0. A uniform surface charge density of 10 nC m 2 is present in the region x = 0. 0 < q < 25 °.5 u y + 9 u z u y . Page 470 . Uniform line charge of 20 nC m and -20 nC m are located in the x = 0 plane at y = 3 (A) -24u y V m (C) -48u y V m and y = -3 m respectively.2 u y + 108 u z kV m .46 C (B) 0. 3.5 u y . 2.4 m. The charge within the region is (A) 0.2.0.1u y . in the region r < 0.2 u z ). The E at P(-3.56 u x . 0) has (A) x component only (B) y component only (C) x and y component (D) x.25 nC m is located along the line defined by y = -2.5 u z pC m 2 (C) -16. Let E = 5 x 3u x .1 r( p.05 pC (C) 82. The E at (4. (B) -0.56 u x + 2. The surface charge density is r s = 5 nC m 2 .2 < y < 2 and all z if e = e o .92 pC (D) 129. the total charge present is (A) 1.2 V m 13.8 u z kV m (C) 0. The force per unit length acting on the line at positive y arising from the charge at negative y is (A) 9.219 u z pC m 2 .5 u z pC m 2 (B) 19.5) sin q sin .u y + 0.2. Three infinite charge sheet are positioned as follows: 10 nC m 2 at x = -3.0 pC 5 e -0 .645 mC (B) 2. (D) 16. 3) is (A) -9 u y + 4.gatehelp.108 u z kV m .375u y mN (C) 19. If r = 0 elsewhere.17u y mN (B) 37.5 u z (C) -18 u y + 9 u z (B) 9 u y .4 u y .96 u x . the total charge present throughout the shell will be (A) 41. y and z component 20. Outside the region. Uniform line charges of 100 nC m lie along the entire extent of the three coordinate axes.58 mC (D) 0 19. -3.5 u z (D) 18 u y .5u y mN (D) 75u y mN (B) 257.57 C (C) 0.5) is (A) 5. Two identical uniform charges with r l = 80 nC m are located in free space at x = 0.25. 0. .2. The region in which 4 < r < 5. -60 nC m at y = -2 and .4. Four uniform line charge are located in the x = 0 plane as follows : 40 nC m at y = 1 and -5 m.5 V m 21.4 u y + 219 u z pC m 2 . 0. the electric field at P(3.18 u z stream line that passes through P(4. The equation of the 128 x3 64 x2 (B) x = (D) x = 128 y3 64 y2 15.1u y + 25.15 x 2 yu y .

3.7 pC -20|z| nC m . Four 31.1. Let D = 4 xy u x + 2( x 2 + z 2 ) u y + 4 yzu z C m 2 . y = x + 2 z. -1) in the field E = 2 xu x . A spherical surface of radius of 3 mm is centered at P(4.17 V (D) -10.6 (C) 35.gatehelp.34 (D) 0. the incremental amount of work done in moving a 60 mC charge a distance of 2 mm from P(1. The electric flux density is D= 1 [10 xyzu x + 5 x 2 zu y + (2 z 3 . The total charge enclosed in the volume 0 < x. D = 2 xyu x + x 2 u y + 6 z 3u z C m 2 . If D = 2ru r C m 2 .1. -3).2 nC m 2 r 36.89 mC (D) 1. y = 1 and 1. A uniform surface charge density of 30 nC m 2 is present on the spherical surface r = 6 mm in free space. 0 < x .1 mJ (D) 0 charge densities of 20 nC m and -4 nC m .7 nC (C) 270.64 J (B) 34.4 (B) 24. 1.4 (B) 8. 5) in free space. 2.45 nC (D) 9.07 mV . the total electric flux leaving the surface of the cube.28 pC m 2 (C) 0.4 nC uniform line charge are located as follows 40 nC m at y = ± 1 and 50 nC m at y = ± 2. and z = 2 and 2.38 (B) 0.32 (C) 0. Spherical surfaces at r = 2 2 35. 0 < z < 5 m is (A) 360 C (C) 100 C (B) 180 C (D) 560 C 33.33 nC (C) 1. The electric flux that leaves the surface of a sphere. 1. y.32 pC m 2 and 4 carry uniform 2 28.89 mC 32. Given the electric flux density.86 26.28 pC m 2 (D) 0.4 mJ (C) -31 mJ . The total charge enclosed in the rectangular parallelepiped 0 < x < 2.Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. A 10 C charge is moved from the origin to P(3. 1. 4) is (A) -5. centered at origin is (A) 1. The cylindrical surface r = 8 C contains the surface charge density.33 mC (B) 1.com 30. r s = 5 e (A) 270.5 x 2 y) u z ] z2 25. The flux enclosed by volume x = 3 and 3. 5) is (A) 6. 2. The value of Dr on the surface r = 1 mm is (A) 1. q = 35 ° . y .3 nC (D) 452.4 and B (B) 10. The incremental work done in moving 5 C charge a distance of 2 m in the direction u x + u y + u z is (A) -60 J (C) -34. z < 0.1 nC (B) 339. (B) 3. The amount of energy required is (A) -40 J (C) -20 J (B) 20 J (D) 40 J 29.43 (C) 10. Volume charge density is located in free space as rv = 2e -1000 r 34.03 V www.2 24. 1 cm < z < 5 cm The volume charge density r v at (-2. The flux that leaves 30 ° < f < 90 ° is (B) 9. The V AB between A ( r = 2 cm. Let D = 5 x y z u y . f = 90 ° ) is (A) 2. If D = xu x C m 2 the net electric flux leaving the spherical surface is (A) 113. q = 40 ° .64 J (D) 60 JJ nC m 3 for 0 < r < 1 mm and rv = 0 elsewhere. If E = 100 u r V m .17 V Page 471 (C) 4.8 (D) 36. The Dr at 2 < r < 4 is (A) 16 nC m 2 r2 (B) 16 nC m 2 r2 80 (C) 2 nC m 2 r 80 (D) . f = 55 ° ) ( r = 3 cm. If E = 4 u x . A point charge 20 nC is located at origin.45 pC 2 the surface r = 8 cm.36 27.96 (D) 7.4 is (A) 0. 4 m in radius.3 y 2 u y + 4 u z V m along the straight line path x = -3 y.1 mC (C) 113.3u y + 5 u z in the neighborhood of point P(6. 0 < y < 3. 3) toward Q(2.78 pC m 2 (B) 0.1 is (A) 49. z < a is (A) 6 a 5 + 5 4 a 3 (B) a 5 + 6 a 4 (D) 5 5 a + 6a4 3 (C) 6 a 5 + a 4 4 4 4 37.

Four 1. 45 ° . The potential field V = 80 r 2 cos q V.98 kV (D) 3.15 mA 45. A dipole having (B) -4.79 nC m 3 (C) 1. 2. q = p 6 . 2 cm) is (A) 81 mV (C) 63 mV (B) 90 mV (D) 76 mV (C) 2. q = p 3 .96 kV (B) 1.32 mJ (D) 0 (A) -4.75 mJ (C) 3.6 V/m (C) 75 V/m (B) 79.56 nC 46. f = 60 °) in free space is (A) -2.com .21 V m (B) 194. -4) in free space. 0. A dipole located at the origin in free space has a 40. The annular surface.m. The volume charge density at point P(2.2 nC point charge are located in free space at the corners of a square 4 cm on a side. The potential at P(r = 1.31 V (B) 1.45 nC m 3 J = 10 5[sin (2 x) e -2 yu x + cos (2 x) e -2 yu y ] kA m 2 The total current crossing the plane y = 1 in the u y direction in the region 0 < x < 1. 0. z = 23. z < 2 is (A) 1548 pJ (C) 774 pJ (B) 0 (D) 387 pJ 43.46 kV (C) 0. 0.42 nC m 3 (B) 1. The points at which | E|q = 1 mV m on line y = z. If V = 0 at A(0.6 V. -1) is (A) 72. 4) is (A) 1. q = 30 °.22 nC m 3 (B) -1.45 mJ (C) -0.42 nC m 3 (D) 2.6 V/m (D) 70.35 (B) y = z = ± 16.94 nC (C) -5. It is known that the potential is given by V = 70 r 0 . 0 < z < 1 the potential is given by V = 100 + 50r + 150r sin f V.5 mJ 51. If V = 2 xy 2 z 3 + 3 ln( x 2 + 2 y 2 + 3z 2 ) in free space the magnitude of electric field E at P (3.45 nC m 3 (C) -1.3 mA (D) 6.m is located at P(1.21 V m (D) 167. r L = 6 ( z + 1) 2 moment p = 2 ´ 10 -9 u z C. 3) is (A) 10. a uniform line charge density of 8 nC m be located at x = 0. x = 0 are (A) y = z = ± 23. The total energy stored within the cube 1 < x. A point charge is located at the origin in free space. The charge lies within the cylinder is Page 472 www. x = 0 (D) y = 0.78 kV Qd = 100 V × m 2 4 pe o is located at the origin in free space and aligned so that its moment is in the u z direction.35. The total potential energy stored is (A) 1.68 nC 39.6 m is (A) 1.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 38. Within the cylinder r = 2. x = 0 (C) y = z = 16.52 V at P(0.4 V/m 49.79 nC m 3 (D) -1. z = 4 and a point charge of 2 mC be present at P(2.5. 0) in free space is ( V¥ = 0) (A) 0 V (C) 144 V (B) 216 V (D) 108 V 48. The V at Q (2. the V at B(1.62 V 42. 5). y. 1 cm < r < 3 cm carries the nonuniform surface charge density r s = 5r nC m . Let a uniform surface charge density of 5 nC m 2 be present at the z = 0 plane. A dipole having a moment p = 3u x . A non uniform linear charge density. p 6) is (A) 0. The volume charge density at r = 0. f = 0) is (A) 158.5 nC m lies along the z axis. The V 2 nC.86 nC (D) -3. A potential field in free space is expressed as V = 40 xyz .26 V (D) 2. 2.5 u y + 10 u z 41.6 mA (B) 12.37 V m 47. 2. Given the current density (B) 2 mJ (D) 0 44.5. The work done in carrying a charge 10 C from point A ( r = 4. 3.45 mJ (B) 0. f = p 4) to B( r = 4. 0 < z < 2 is (A) 0 (C) 24. 0). 0.22 nC m 3 50. The E at point ( r = 1.11 V m (C) 146.gatehelp.

67 u x .3u y + u z ) V m (D) (1.40 u z ) V m Page 474 www.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 64.9 u y + 8.3 x 2 ********* 68.1.gatehelp.6. A potential field exists in a region where e = f ( x).0 u x .4.200 u z V m (B) 400 u x + 200 u y .50 u z V m (C) 25 u x + 200 u y .5.66.6 u z nC m 2 (C) 1.2 u x .40 u z ) V m (C) ( 48 u x . the Ñ 2 V is 1 dF ¶V (A) f ( x) dx ¶x (C) 1 df ¶V f ( x) dx ¶x df ¶V dx ¶x df ¶V dx ¶x (B) f ( x) (D) -f ( x) 70. If V ( x. If E1 = 80 u x .60 u y . It is know that both Ex and V are zero at the origin. let e r1 = 3.43u y + 8. If E1 in medium 1 is E1 = (2 u x .4 u y + 5 u z nC m 2 .50 u z V m (D) 125 u x + 175 u z V m 67.2.60 u y .1. If E1 = 100 u x + 200 u y . If r v = 0.6. For x > 0. The origin lies in region 1.8 u x + 0.8 u y + 0. Medium 1 has the electrical permitivity e1 = 15 e o .2 u x .24 u z ) V m (D) ( 48 u x . e r1 = 2 is (A) (C) 5000 ur V m r2 2500 ur V m r2 (B) (D) 400 ur V m r2 2000 ur V m r2 for 4 < r < 6 and e r 2 = 5 for 6 < r < 9.3u y + 2.5 e o and occupies the region to the right of x = 0 plane. y) is (A) 3( x 2 .2 u x .89 u x .y 2 ) (C) 4 x 2 . y) = 4 e 2 x + f ( x) .7 u z ) V m (B) (133. The planner interface between them is the surface x . D = 2 u x . Two perfect dielectrics have relative permitivities e r1 = 2 and e r 2 = 8.6 u z ) V m 66. In a certain region where the relative permitivity is 2.4 u x .3u x .3u y + u z ) V m (C) (1.6 u z ) V m (B) (1.100 u z . while er 2 = 5 where x < 0.40 u z V m then E2 is (A) (133.9 u z nC m 2 (D) 3. Medium 2 has the electrical permitivity e 2 = 2.36 u y .50 u z V m then E2 is (A) 400 u x + 800 u y .y + 2 z = 5.8 u x .com .x 2 ) (D) 4 y 2 .6 u y + 7 u z nC m 2 (B) 3.3 y 2 in a region of free space where r v = 0. The surface x = 0 separate two perfect dielectric.3 y 2 (B) 3( y 2 . The polarization is (A) 2. The V ( x.96 u z nC m 2 65. The two spherical surfaces r = 4 cm and r = 9 cm are separated by two perfect dielectric shells. and occupies the region to the left of x = 0 plane.60 u z .3u x .3u y + 1u z ) V m medium 2 is (A) (2. If E1 = 1000 u r then E2 r2 then E2 in 69.

9( u y × u f) + 44.2 u y + 5 u z é 41( -3u x + 4u y .Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. 0.sin q) = -14.5 u z ) 2(2 u y + u z ) ù Ep = 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 10 -8 ê + ú ( 4. y.com To obtain Ex = 0.1u z At P. By symmetry. F= |R BA|= 2 éu x .9( u x × u f) + 148.4 ° and f = 90 ° (5 ´ 10 -9) 2 ´ = 10 -2 N 4 p ´ ( 8. (B) Ep = 2 ´ 10 -6 R AP 3 4 pe o |R AP| first octant Page 475 . 1) .9 sin q sin f + 44. 4). 0. y. |R1 | = |R 2 | = 9 + y2 = 1152 u x + 2.(2 u y + 0.4 . Ez = -49. r = 5 . (C) E = 2 2 ê |R | + |R | ú 4 pe o ë û 13 23 R13 = -3u x + 4 u y .u y . 10 -9 é 41R13 45R 23 ù 4. 0. y.76 u y) mN 2.4) 2 ]3 2 ú ë û 0.9 sin 56.3u y .3 ( u y × u r) = 65. the force on the fifth charge will be z times the z component F= = 4 4 2 ´ q2 4 pe o d 2 directed.7 u z .1[ u z × u q ] = 54.5) =(0.85 ´ 10 ) ë 2 2 8 ú 2 2 û So Er = E p × u r = 54. 0) .(-3.(0.9 u x + 148.9 cos 56. y. (4.gatehelp. q = cos -1 1 5 = 63. Ez = 1 kV m 4 pe o ë 93 2 û Q0 = -4 pe o ´ 9 3 2 ´ 10 3 = -3 m C 10. the fifth charge will be on the z-axis at location z = 4 2. . and will be four Er = Ep × u p = 65. 0) =(0. 0) Ep = 20 ´ 10 -8 4 pe o é R1 R2 ù 3 3 ê-|R | . (D) The point is P3(0. (B) The field at P will be Q é -2 u x + 2 u y .3u z ù ê ú (106) 3 / 2 ë û = 65. 1) -(0.1( u z × u f) =54.4) u y + 2 u z Ex = ù 10 -9 é 25 ´ ( -4) 60 ´ 3 + 4 pe o ê[ 65 + ( y + 2) 2 ]3 2 [13 + ( y . y 0) . (C) Ep = 2 ´ 10 -8 4 pe o é R1 2R 2 ù 3 3 ê. 2. 4).1 ( .89. (D) The force will be ( 40 ´ 10 -9) 2 é R CA R DA R BA ù F= 3 3 3 ê|R | + |R | + |R | ú 4 pe o ë CA DA BA û where R CA = u x . 4).49. 0) R13 = -4 u x + ( y + 2) u y .3 sin 56.83 Eq = E r × u q = 54.9( u x × u r) + 148. R 23 = 4 u x . y. (A) Let a point on y axis be P(0.1[ u z × u r ] = 54.3° + 148. (D) Arranging the charge in the xy plane at location (4. 0.9 cos f = 0 8.3 cos 56.3 = 159. 0) =(-3. (-4. (-4. 5.u z ù Ep = 0 ê ú.11 6. 0).5) R 2 = (0.4u z 45( 4u x + -2u y + 5u z ù E = 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 10 -9 ´ ê + ú ( 41) 3 / 2 ( 45) 3 / 2 ë û R1 = (0. 0.25) 3 2 ( 5)3 2 û ë E p = 54. 0.3° = 27. é -3u x + yu y 3u x + yu y ù + Ep = 20 ´ 10 -9 ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ê ú 2 3 ( 9 + y2 )3 ú ê ( 9+y ) ë û -1080 u x 1080 .93u y + 1089 u z . 2. .7 Ef = E r × u f = 65.9 cos q sin f + 44.85 ´ 10 -12 )( 8 ´ 10 -3) 2 2 3. -4). 2.48 y 2 + 1392 y + 7312 = 0 . |E| = = = (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 9. f = tan -1 12 = 56.9[ u y × u r ] + 44.3°. R12 = 3u x + ( y .9 u y + 44.|R | ú ë 1 2 û = 1376 u x mN .4 u z Then at point P.2 SOLUTIONS 1.4 7. R DA = u x + u y .22.4 u z . (C) This will be 8 times the integral of r n over the www. and z = 2 8 = ( 4.|R | + |R | ú ë 1 2 û R1 = (0.4.1 cos q = 68. 2.u y u x + u y 2u x ù ( 40 ´ 10 -9) 2 + + -9 ê 4 p ´ ( 8. 0) R 2 = (0.9[ u y × u q ] + 44. R BA = 2 u x |R CA|=|R DA|= 2. r = 8 2 + 12 2 = 14. 0) = (3. 1) é . which yields the two value y = -6.32 u x + 5.(3. . (C) F2 = = Q1Q2 R12 3 4 pe o |R12| ( 4 ´ 10 -6 )( -5 ´ 10 -6 ) ( 3u x + 4 u y) ´ 4 pe o 53 = 2 ´ 10 -6 4 pe o é 4 u x + 9 u y .3° + 148.85 Ef = Er × u f = 54.3 ( u y × u f) = -65.

(C) Ep = L 2 pe o R+ Q = (6.1 p 19.05 17.(0. R¢ = ru r . -2. é4u y .2. 10 ú -¥ ë 10 û 13.sin 2 q ú ´ ê-2 cos ú 2 û 0 .yu y .75 u y mN r s dS R .1 p 25° 5 ¥ dF = dqE = r L dzE F= ò 0 1 r 2 dzu y L 2 pe o ( 6) = 18. 0.Q| û 21. (A) E = ò ò é r 5 9 r 4 20 r 3 ù é 1 1 fù é ù = 10 ê + q .4 ò z ù é 1 = 5 ´ 26.f) dz 2 + 10 0 z é 2u y . -1) Similarly R yp = (-3.5 u y . Ez = 20.03 é r3 ù = ê4 p(0.8 u z www.5.(1.05 0. 0.3u y 6 u x + 3u y ù EP = 20nC ´ 2 ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ê 36 + 9 ú ë 36 + 9 û = -48u y V m 11.0266 ][0.18 u z 2 pe o ê 6.57 C Rp r . (B) EP = rL 2 pe o é R xp R yp R zp ù + + ê 3 3 3ú ë|R xp| |R yp| |R zp| û R xp = ( -3.9p 5 4 3 ú 4 ê2 4 ë ë û0 ë û = 10 [ -3.1.zuz r dydz EPA = L ò ò 4 pe o -¥ -2 (9 + y 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 Due to odd function EPA = rL 4 pe o ¥ 2 -¥ -2 òò 3u x dydz (9 + y 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 So there is only x component. (C) At y = 4.25 é2.Q ù ê 2 2ú ë|R + Q| |R . 3) .com r 16. (D) Ep = L 2 2 pe o |R p| R p = (1.1 pC 3 û 0 . 20. 0.4 ´ p2 ê tan -1 = 129 mC . -1).y.u z -3u x .f | |) 2 z + 10 10 ù ( -0.9p 0 4 ò ò ò ( r . Pa = rs 4 pe o 2 p 0 . 6) .101) ú ´ (0.23u y . -2) where R = 3u x and R¢ = yu y + zu z . 0) R. ) = (0. 0) Ep = 100 ´ 10 -9 ´ 2 ´ 9 ´ 10 -9 ¥ òòò ¥ -p 0 5 e -0 .R¢ = zu z .Q = (6.03 ë 12. (D) There will be z component of E only R = zu z . E = rL uy .9 u z 20 ë û 5 ´ 10 -9 Ep = 2 pe o R . 4. é10 ´ 10 -9 40 ´ 10 -9 50 ´ 10 -9 ù EA = ê ux uy uzú 2 eo 2 eo ë 2 eo û = 0.1 . 2. (A) Since charge sheet are infinite.( -3. The field direction will depend on which side of a given sheet one is positioned. -3.2) ú = 82. which is position independent.4)( r .1 r -¥ p 10 0 .x .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Q = 8ò 0 ¥ ò ò 0 0 ¥ ¥ r oe . the field magnitude associated with each one will be r s 2 e o . 5) = (0.56 u x + 2.5 u z ù 2 pe o ê ( y + 2) 2 + 25 ú ë û 1 2 ò ò (z 0 0 zrdrdf 2 + r 2)3 2 0 . 6) = (6. Ez .2 |R | p 2 = 20.R¢ 3 4 pe o |R .u z -3ux + 2u y ù + + E p = 100 ´ 10 -9 ´ 2 ´ 9 ´ 10 -9 ´ ê ú 5 10 13 ë û = -0. at z = 0.R¢| 0 . 2.0.(0. 3. (A) Q = ée =5 ê ë -0 .5 u z ù = 9 u y . ) .2 ù ù 2pr s z é rzé 1 1 1 = ú = s ê 2 ê 2 ú 2 2 eo ê z 4 pe o ê z + r ú z + 0.2 V m ú û we require |E2 | = |2E y| So 2 ( y + 2) = 5 E= Þ y= 6.54 u z kV m 18. 14. -3. the general field is Ez = 0 = r L é( y + 2) u y .25 + 25 ú ë û é R+ Q R.1) ( -0. 0.2u z ù ê ú = 18 u y . (C) With z = 0.04 ê ë ù ú.04 ú û0 ë ë û Ez = rs eo é z ê1 2 z + 0. (C) Q = ò ò ò 0 0 0 .2 r sin q drd qdf 2 0 . . 0) Page 476 .39 ][0.96 u x + u y .1 r( p. 3. 2. R zp = (-3.626 ] = 0.5) sin q × sin 2 r 5 f 2 sin q drdqdf 25° 1 .z dxdydz = 8ro 2p p é 6 u x .gatehelp. 0.1) 2 û0 p2 dz -¥ z + 10 2 ¥ -¥ ò 2ò 2p ( p . 2 pe o Q = 5 ´ 26. 6) . ¥ 2 3u x .ru z 15. 6) = (6. 0. (A) f = 10 1 .

q ò E × dL Page 477 28. h2 = 2 4 2 .u y + u z )(2 ´ 10 -3) ö ÷ = -( 60 ´ 10 -6 )ç 100 u r × ç ÷ 3 è ø 0 . x3 dy 3dx =y 3 C1 43 29.u r × u y) Q = 4 ´ 10 -9nC.(7. At x = 0 plane Dx = 0 and at z = 0 plane Dz = 0.Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (A) Þ dy E y -15 x 2 y -3 y = = = 5 x3 dx Ex x Þ Þ ln y = -3 ln x ln C y = C1 = 128 Þ y = C1 .93 ´ 50 + 20n =1.05) 4 0. whose field will all cancel at that point.3u y + 5 u z ) × =10 3 ( u x + u y + u z )(2) 3 ( 4 . 3. (A) Out of the 6 surface only 2 will contribute to the net outward flux.93 QT = 2 ´ 7. (B) The vector in this direction is (2. This leaves the 2 remaining surfaces at x = 2 and z = 5.001) 2 2 2 -9 æ2 ö At r . Thus D arises from the point charge alone 10 ´ 10 -9 ( -3u y + 4 u z ) . (D) Q = ò ò ò 2e 0 0 0 0 .001 =35.05) 3 (2.05) and Volume 4 4 30. r 2 dr 3 æp pö æ 1 ö -20 z = ç .gatehelp. 2.38 34.894 dW = 31 mJ . 2 = 128 x3 dxdz + ò ò x 2 dxdz + ò ò -6(0) 3 dxdy + ò ò 6a 3dxdy 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 244 14 4 4 3 0 0 2 3 144 44 2 3 14243 4 4 2 Left Right Botoom Top ò ò -x a a a a a a a a 23.1u y + 25.75.45 pC 26.05 1. 2 www. u r × u y = sin 63. 36.08)ç ÷e è2 6 ø è 20 ø 0 . (C) h1 = 2 4 2 .12 ´ 10 -6 3 ( u r × u x .1 = 6. -1.4 ° = 0. (A) W = . (C) Q = ò D × n dS = ò ò 2 aydydz + ò ò -2(0) dydz S 0 0 0 0 14243 14 244 4 3 Front Back a a a a + At P.001 f = 20 ( 305) 4 (105) 3 (2. Dr = 4. D= ( 32 + 4 2 )1 .001 -1000 r r 2 sin q drdqdf ù ú ú û é -r e Q = 8 pê ê 1000 ë 2 -1000 r + 2 e -1000 r ( -1000 r . (A) This point lies in the center of a symmetric arrangement of line charges. 3) = (1. 1. ç p(0. 31.64 J ò òD 0 0 3 2 x =2 × u z dzdy 35.0 ´ 10 -9 Q = 0. (C) F = (Ñ × D ) Dv = ¶( x) æ 4 3ö .32 C m 2 = 2 4 pr 4 p ´ (0. The net outward flux become f = ò ò D x = 2 × u x dydz + 0 0 3 3 5 3 ò Ñ × D dv = 6 ´ (0.3 + 5) = -34. 4) .05 90 ° = a4 + 0 - a a + + 0 + 6a5 = a4 + 6a5 3 3 ¶D y ¶y = 20 x 4 y 3z 4 =(3.01 = 9.01 30 ò ò 5 e -20 z (0. (C) dW = . (B) r v = Ñ × D = ê ÷ú +0+ç ÷ ç z3 øû ( -2 .÷(5)(0. 0 0 2p p 27. 1) ux .4 .001 0 0 .447.75 ´ 40n + 2 ´ 6. 5) è ë z 33.2 22.4) V = 0. dW = . f = tan -1 ç ÷ = 63.45 ´ 10 -3 nC = 9.4 ° = 0.com .qE × dL = -5( 4 u x .1) 1000(1000) 2 0 = .4 ° è1ø u r × u x = cos 63. (D) Q = 0 .5 4p D = -19.1) 3 = 0.08) dfdz nC 0 .u y + uz .05 é10 y æ 2 + 10 x 2 y öù =8.96 32. (C) Ñ × D = 1 d 2 ( r ´ 2 r) = 6 . .1 = 7. The y component of D will penetrate the surface y = 0 and y = z and net flux will be zero.33 mC 25. (C) 4 pr Dr = 4 p(2 ) 20 ´ 10 Dr = 80 nC m 2 r2 Cm . (C) Ñ × D = Center of cube Ñ V = (0.05 2.001 = 5 ò 4(2) ydy + 2 ò 4(5) ydy = 360 C.003) ÷ = 1131 nC ¶x è 3 ø 0 .5 u z pC m 2 24.qE × dL u PQ = 3 æ ( u x .

ò Vs ( z) = .03 0 . rB = 3 cm V ( r) = Q 4 pa 2r s ( 6 ´ 10 -3) 2 ´ 30 ´ 10 -9 = = 4 pe o r 4 pe o r 8. r .711u z V m. r3 = 100 ´ 5 = 158. (A) Vr = òò . 4 pe o r 3 . 40.122 0. Ep = 7.ò V = Q . (A) E = -ÑV = - r L dr r + C1 = .com 2 ´ 10 -9 [2 cos q u r + sin q u q ]. z = 3.02 0. (C) E = -ÑV é ù 6x = . (A) E = www.(150 cos f) u f . r = (5 . (B) VP ( s) = Vl (r) = .56 nC r Qd cos q 100 cos q .081 V 42.4 e o u r C m 2 1 d 2 1 d e rv = Ñ × D = 2 ( r Dr ) = 2 ( -42 e o r 1 . z are the scalar distance from the charge.4) 2 = 1 .122 0.4 ¶V 1 ¶V ur uq ¶r r ¶q rA = rB .ê4 xyz 3 + 2 uy 2 2 ú x + 2 y + 3z û ë Page 478 1 ¶V æ ¶V ö E = -ÑV = -ç ur + uq ÷ r ¶q ¶r è ø = 100 (2 cos q u r + sin q u q).4 u r V m. Vp = 0. (D) W = Q1Q2 4 pe o rB rA ò dr Q1Q2 = r 2 4 pe o é1 1ù êr . |E|= 75 V m 37. r v = Ñ × D = e oÑ × E é1 ¶ ù 1 ¶ r v = eo ê (rEr) + Ef ú r ¶f û ër ¶r é (50 + 150 sin f) 150 sin f ù 50e o 2 = e o ê+ ú =.01 At z = 0. dV u r = -(0.01 46.r C m r r ë û Q =ò 0 1 2p 2 -¥ ò 4 pe 6 ´ 10 -9 dz r L dz = ò = 108 V 4 ( 2 1) 3 2 oR -¥ pe o z + ¥ r s dS 41.3 y 2 u y + 4 u z ) ( dxu x + dyu y + dzu z ) = -10 ò 2 xdx + 10 ò 3 y 2 dy . W = 0 39.r sin q u q) é1 2 2 ù 1 ¶ rv = Ñ × D = ê 2 ( r Dr ) + ( Dr sin q) ú r sin q ¶q ë r ¶r û é1 12 sin q cos q ù r v = -80 e o ê 2 ´ 3r 2 cos q ú r sin q ër û r V = -320 e o cos q = -2. V AB = V A . 4 pe o|R .L ln r + C1 2 pe or 2 pe o rs rz dz + C2 = s + C2 2 eo 2 eo = -160 r cos q u r + 80 r sin q u q V m D = e oE = -80 e o (2 r cos q u r . 4pe o r 44.02.122 .03 38.6 )= . R¢ = ru r. = -(50 + 150 sin f) u r . (D) E = -ÑV = = -42 r -0 . = 4 pe o r 2 r2 .4 u r dr 0. (D) rA = 2 cm.1u x + 22.4 r dr r dr r At r = 0. rv = 67.2 p(50) e o 2 = -5.67. z = 5 By putting these value.85 ´ 10 -12 = -1. 0 . r = (2 .VB = V ( r) = = = 2.1) + 2 + z = 14 2 2 2 r = 12 ` + 12 = 2 . (A) V = ù z2 5 ´ 10 -9 ér r2 + z2 ln (r + r 2 + z 2 ) ú ê2 2 eo 2 ë û 0 . (D) Vr = ¥ VB = 198 kV .6)(70) r -0 .R¢| R = zu z . D = e o E. r = 2 2 + 5 2 = 29 .6)1 . C = -193 ´ 10 3 .6 m.10 ò 4 dz = -40 J 0 0 0 3 1 -1 é ù 18 z -ê6 xy 2 z 2 + 2 uz x + 2 y 2 + 3z 2 ú ë û .L ln r . (C) E = -ÑV = 1 ¶V ¶V ur uf ¶r r ¶f Q r r .22 nC m 3 (0.2 ´ 8. Vr = Vp = 2 p 0 .11 V m 2 |E| = 100( 4 cos 2 q + sin 2 q)1 2 47.gatehelp.r ú ë B Aû D = e oE = -42 r -0 .8 u y .45 nC m 3 45.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics = -10 ò (2 xu x .2 1o.ê2 y 2 z 2 + 2 ux 2 2ú x + 2 y + 3z û ë é ù 12 y .03 òò 0 0 ò ò 0 (5 ´ 10 -9)r 2 drdf 4 pe o r 2 + z 2 50 e o rdrdfdz = . At point N.s z + C 4 pe o r 2 pe o 2 pe o Here r .03 r 0. dS = rdrdf.85 ´ 10 -12 ´ r 43.

2 ´ 10 -9) 2 1 ( 4) q1 V1 = 4 pe o (0.73 J ur V m = = s 2 prls rl 3 5 òòò E × Edv 2 1 1 V = .11 ´ 10 -3 17 v = at = 7.2 dS S = 2 p 0 . (B) So Eal = Est = J al J st = sal sst Þ J al = sac J st sst I = p(2 ´ 10 -3) J st + p[( 4 ´ 10 -3) 2 .67 2 = 1315 pC m 2 .04) 2 2 1 q é 1 1 1 ù ê0.2(r + 1) z cos f u z r E = -1.51 V u r × u rdr = ln = rl l 3 l 3 V 6. x2 + 4 2 = 2 p 0 .1) 2 ] (2 p) 2 2 r + (0. 1.5 2 + 2.Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.R¢ = Q . x +4 r s = D × u z z= 0 = Q= . D = eE = . (C) I = òò J × n dS S So the equation of the surface is 40 cos q sin f = 2. (D) = ¶r V 1 ¶ ¶J z = -Ñ × J = (rJ r) + ¶t r ¶r ¶z -3 ò ò 0 0 2 1 .5 V 23 1 4 50.1. (D) F = ma = qE.4 = 40 p log 17 = 356 A 56. (B) I = òò J × n S y =1 dS = ò ò J × u y 0 0 y =1 = ò ò 10 0 0 2 1 59.01 ÷ è ø = . (A) V = 3 4 pe o|R . (C) V = 5 cos (2 x) 2 -2 y dxdz = 12307 kA = 12. r = 23.200 e o x dxdy = -( 3)(200) e o ln[ x 2 + 4 ] 2 x2 + 4 0 1 ¶ ¶ æ -20 ö (25) + ç ÷ =0 r ¶r ¶z ç r 2 + 0.300 ln 2 = .31 V é 1 ù 1 1 49.4 r 3 = 12.200 e o x C m2.5 u y + 10 u z ) × ( u x + u y + 8 u z ) ´ 10 -9 4 pe o (1 + 1 + 8 2 )1 .e oÑV é ù x 200 x ¶ ux + 2 u z C m2 = -e o ê200 z x +4 ú ¶x ( x 2 + 4) ë û 200 e o x D (z= 0 ) = .P = (1.602 ´ 10 -19)( -4 ´ 106 ) = u z = 7.ò E × dL = ò 5 We = 800 e o ò = 1548 pJ ò ò 1 2 2 é 1 1 1 ù ê x 4 y 2 z 2 + x 2 y 4 z 2 + x 2 y 2 z 4 ú dxdydz ë û 12.3p ò 0 800 sin q 2 ò1 p (0.5 ò ò 0 0 40 40 rdrdf = log[r 2 + (0.5.63 R= = = W I 4l r æ ¶V ö 1 ¶V ¶V 58.73 ´ 10 3. (A) E = -ÑV.51 1.2 y = z lies at q = 45° 2 ´ 10 -9 1 = 10 -3 Eq = 4 pe o r 3 2 (required) 55.73 5 6.73 12.82 2 + 14.04 + 0.35 P × (R .3 MA 52.67 u z V m E ×E r s = eo E × n s = eo |E| r s = e o 1. 2prl 57. m 9.8 A 0. (D) E = -ÑV = -ç ç ¶r u r + r ¶f u f + ¶z u z ÷ ÷ è ø (r + 1) 2 = -z 2 cos f u r + z sin f u f . (A) E = -ÑV = 40 ê 2 u x + uy + uzú x yz xy 2 z xyz 2 ë û We = eo 2 ( 3u x .80) 2 + 4 (0. 40 cos p p sin 3 2 = 2.04 2 ú 4 pe o ë û 1 ù é . (A) I = òò J × n z = 0 .2. (B) J = E= 4 12.84 nC www.2 ´ 10 5 A m 2 4 u r A m2. 8) So VP = =1. 16 cos q sin f = r 3 r2 60. (A) W = å qn Vn 2 n =1 V1 = V21 + V31 + V41 = V1 = V2 = V3 = V4 W = 2 ´ (1.R¢) 48.R¢| where R .0 ´ 1017 u z m s 2 .80) sin q dqdf =154.2 u z C m2. ê2 + 2 ú = 175 mJ ë û dxdz 51. 53.0 ´ 10 tu z m s 54.com Page 479 . a= qE ( -1.04 + 0.82 u f + 14.5 u f .gatehelp.(2 ´ 10 -3) 2 ]J al = 80 Solving J st = 3.1) 2 0 0 .

7).f ( x)ÑV ) 0 = Ñ × ( .33u x + 33.8.59 ú = 21 V ë û 63. |R |= 35 . -5) R¢ = (5. (A) r v = 0 Ñ 2 V = 16 e2 x + Þ Ñ 2 V = 0. Ñ × D = r v = 0 = Ñ × ( . 1)-(2.16.4 e2 x + 3 x 2 .7 u z + 16.66.4 P = 12 u x . |R¢|= 59 VP = q q q é 1 1 ù = ê 35 . (D) D n 1 = D n 2 and Et1 = Et 2 . (A) D = eE = .3 u x + 166.3u y + 1u z 66. 0) = 0 = 4 + f (0) f ( x) = -4 e 2x E2 = 1. 5.y 2 ) [u x .3 y 2 = 3 ( x 2 .3u y + 2. (B) E = -ÑV . 1) .ln êln + ln ú 1 1 1 ê 2 ú ë û é dF ¶V ¶2V ¶2V ¶2V ù =-ê + f ( x) 2 + f ( x) 2 + f ( x) 2 ú ¶x ¶y ¶z û ë dx ¶x é dF ¶V ù =-ê + f ( x)Ñ 2 V ú ë dx ¶x û 1 dF ¶V Þ Ñ 2V = f ( x) dx ¶x 70.gatehelp.(-2)) 2 12 + 32 ù .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 61. 4. ¶2 f . (D) The unit vector that is normal to the surface is u x .e oE = D P = (2 u x . E2 = Et 2 + En 1 er 2 4 4 = 133.V0 = V0 = 0. 1) = -4 + C2 V (0.7 u y + 16.200 . (D) The plane can be replaced by -60 nC at Q (2. f (0) = -4 + 3x . (C) P = D .1) er er (2.817 . = 2 ´ 15 e o = 2. 4.2.3u x + 166.(2. Page 480 e r1 e oEn 1 = e r 2 e oEn 2 www.40 kV 64.4 u y + 5 u z ) D D = ( e r .59 ú 4 pe o R 4 pe o R¢ 4 pe o ë û -9 -9 Since E is normal to the surface e 2 1000 400 En 2 = r1 En 1 = ´ ur = 2 ur V m r2 r er 2 5 68. 3.6 =0 ¶x 2 ¶f ¶f = -16 e 2 x + 6 Þ = . Vp = rL 2p eo é 1 12 + (2 .40 u z 69.9 u z nC m 2 .f ( x)ÑV ) En1 = 48 Vp = 60 ´ 10 ´ 9 ´ 10 1 ù é 1 ê 35 .33u y .f ( x)ÑV . (C) D n 1 = D n 2 .5 e o En 2 Et1 = Et 2 . 2 2x V ( x. Þ C2 = 0.67 u z . (A) Using method of images Vp .67 u z V m Et1 = E1 .67 u z Et1 = Et 2 and D n 1 = D n 2 Þ En 2 e r1 e oEn 1 = e r 2 e oEn 2 e 1 1 = r1 En 1 = E n 1 .100 ] = -817 V m . y) = 4 e .60 u y .33 u x + 8.33 u y . uN = = |ÑF| 6 En 1 = E1 × u N = En 1 = .2 u x . 1 6 1 6 [100 .1) 2 12 + (2 . -6) = (3.67 u z = 125 u x + 175 u y V m 67.u y + 2u z ] ********* = -33. D = eE D n 1 = 80 ´ 3e o = D n 2 = 5 e oEn 1 .4 . f (0. 62.En 1 = 133. -1. 65. 6) = (3. (B) D n 1 = D n 2 .com . Þ Þ e1E N1 = e 2E N 2 En 2 = 12 . 3. E2 = 48 u x .8 e 2 x + 6 x + C1 ¶x ¶x ¶V ¶f Ex = = 8 e2 x + ¶x ¶x ¶f ¶f Ex (0) = 8 + =0 Þ = -8 ¶x x = 0 ¶x x = 0 It follow that C1 = 0 Integrating again f ( x1 ) = -4 e 2 x + 3 x 2 + C. -3 xy 2 z 3 satisfy this equation.ln . -6).u y + 2u z ÑF . -1. é Final Distance from the charge ù rL ln ê 2 pe o ëInitial Distance from the charge ú û = 2.1) ´ 10 -9 2. R = (5.

(A) 1.64 A m (D) 0 Statement for Q.3.12–14: In the fig.6 u z kV m (B) 4.5 cm is (A) 0. P8. the mr = 2.56 A m (D) 0.63 A m (C) 2. carry surface current 30u x A m and -40u x as shown in fig.4 u z ) 10 5 m s.32 A m (C) 1.6 r 2 3 for r > 0. If we assume that the electron remains on the y –axis while it is in the magnetic field.3u x + 2 u y . -250 mA m at r = 2 cm and 300 mA m at r = 3 cm.12–14 12.6 u z kV m (D) 4. 0 (C) -11.14 A m (C) 0. The current density J for r > 0.4 u z ) ´ 10 m s experiences no net forces at a point in a magnetic field B = u x + 2 u y + 3u z mWb m 2 .gatehelp.1.4 u x .3u y .3u y . A point charge of 2 ´ 10 -16 C and 5 ´ 10 -26 kg is z=2 -40ux A/m moving in the combined fields B = .6 mm is (A) 2u z A m (C) u z A m (B) -2u z A m (D) 0 10. z mo (B) -3u z A m (D) 0 electron 5 (B) 0.0.5 cm. -0. at y = 50 cm the x and z coordinate are respectively (A) 1.3u z ]10 9 m s 2 (C) 400[ 6 u x .6 Hf = r Hf = 15.7 cm.3u y + 0.5 cm is (A) 0.23 m www. it encounters the uniform magnetic field B = 2 .7 cm.5).9–11: An infinite filament on the z-axis carries 10 mA in the u z direction. An with velocity v = ( 3u x + 12 u y .3u z ]10 9 m s 2 (B) 400[ 6 u x + 6 u y .4 u x + 1.0. P8.u z mT and E = 100 u x . 0 .3.15–16: In the cylindrical region 2 r + for r £ 0.com 14. Three uniform cylindrical current sheets are also present at 400 mA m at r = 1 cm.u z ]10 9 m s 2 19.5 ´ 10 7 u y z=0 Fig. In the region 0 < z < 2 the H is (A) -35u y A m (C) -5u y A m (B) 35u y A m (D) 5u y A m 13.3u y .6 mm is (A) 2u z A m (C) 3u z A m 11. In the region z > 2 the H is (A) 5u y A m (C) 35u y A m Page 482 (B) -5u y A m (D) -35u y A m (B) -1. The magnetic field H f at r = 3. The magnetic field H f at r = 0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Statement for Q.64 A m (B) 0. The surface of the slab at z = 0 and z = 2. In the region z < 0 the H is (A) 5u y A m (C) 10u y A m (B) -5u y A m (D) -10u y A m m s along the negative y-axis. At the origin.6 u z kV m (C) -4.5 u z mT.6 u z kV m 18. The current density J for r < 0.36 mA m (B) 0.96 A m 17. 9.5 mo 30ux A/m x acceleration of charge at t = 0 is (A) 600[ 3u x + 2 u y .4 u x . If the charge velocity at t = 0 is v(0) = (2 u x .37 A m (D) 0 16.27 A m Statement for Q.3u y + 0.23 m. and remains in it up to y = 2. respectively. An electron is moving at velocity v = 4. 0.23 m (D) 11. The electric field E at that point is (A) -4.4 u x + 1.200 u y + 300 u z V m.23 m.1. The magnetic field H f at r = 15 cm is .6 u y + 3u z ]10 9 m s 2 (D) 800[ 6 u x + 6 u y .12–14 The region 0 £ z £ 2 is filled with an infinite slab of magnetic material (m r = 2.

3u x nN m (D) 0 26. If the current filament is located at x = 0.220 u z A m 2 (D) 55 u x + 137.23 (A) 30u z N (C) 36u z N Statement for Q. Two infinitely long parallel filaments each carry 100 A in the u z direction. 4) to D(1. 20.4 u z mN (D) 26.Magnetostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. The total force on the loop is (A) 36u x nN (C) 54u x nN (B) -36u x nN (D) -54u x nN 23.3.6 u y mN m (C) 2. If the filaments lie in the plane y = 0 at x = 0 and x = 5 mm.4 u x N m (C) 4u x mN m Statement for Q. The magnetic flux density B is (A) 82 u x + 204 u y . The magnetic susceptibility c m of the material is (A) 5.5 and u L = u z .27–28: A conducting current strip carrying K = 6 u z A m lies in the x = 0 plane between y = 0. Let F be the vector force per meter length exerted on a current filament carrying 7 mA in the u L direction.3.5. the force on the filament passing through the origin is (A) 0. There is also a current filament of I = 5 A in the u z direction on the z –axis.327 u z mT (D) 82 u x + 204 u y .40 u z A m 29.5 u y . The force on side BC is (A) -18u x nN (C) 3. 0.2 u y mN m (B) 6. 1) to C(3. The force exerted on the strip by the filament is (A) -6.6 u x nN 21.4 u z mN (C) 19. then F is (A) 35 . -4u z A m at y = 1 and -4u z A m at y = -1.4 u x mN m 0 1 2 3 x H = 10 u x + 25 u y .3u z nN (B) 18u x nN (D) -3.3 Statement for Q. 1) to B(3.6 u y nN m Page 483 .5 u y .6 u z nN m (B) 68.gatehelp.23.300 u z A m 2 (B) 75 u x + 187.com Three uniform current sheets are located in free space as follows: 8u z A m at y = 0. z = 0. Consider the rectangular loop on z = 0 plane shown in fig.300 u z A m 2 (B) -35 .5 and y = 15 m.24–25: (B) -30u z N (D) -36u z N 30.327 u z mWb m 2 (B) 82 u x + 204 u y . (B) 6. P8.4 u x mN m Statement for Q.327 u z mA m 31. .6 u y mN m (D) -6.4 u x N m (D) -4u x mN m 22.29–32: In a certain material for which m r = 6. The force exerted on the filament by the current strip is (A) 12. and u L = u x . then F is (A) 35 . 24. If the current filament is located at y = 0.5.2 u y nN m (C) 105.5 (B) 6.8 u z nN (B) 16. 4) to A.327 u z mA m (C) 82 u x + 204 u y .20–22: A rectangular loop of wire in free space joins points A(1. 0. The magnetic flux density total is B = 6 xu x . The force on side AB is (A) 23. The wire carries a current of 6 mA flowing in the u z direction from B to C. 27.220 u z A m 2 www.5 (D) None of the above Fig.9 yu y + 3zu z Wb m 2 .5 u y . 0.6 u x nN 25.2 u y mN m (C) -12. axis in the u z directions. 0.5 u y . The force experienced by the rectangular loop is y 2 5A 1 28.6 u y mN m (D) -2. y = 0.5 (C) 7. P8. A filamentary current of 15 A flows along the entire z.2 u y nN m (C) 105.6 u y mN m (B) -0.2 u y nN m (D) 0 (C) 55 u x + 137. The magnetization M is (A) 75 u x + 187.

48 u y + 0. A uniform field H = . The magnetic flux density in iron is (A) 5. The total energy stored in spherical region 1 cm in radius centered at the origin in free space is (A) 0. the magnetization volume current density is 12 (A) uz a (C) 6 uz a 6 ( x .30 u y + 20 u z A m. The magnetic energy density is (A) 19 mJ m 2 2 If H increases from 0 to 210 A m.84 J m 3 3 39. The change in the magnetization M is (A) 164 kA m (C) 476 kA m (B) 326 kA m (D) 238 kA m 36.6 u x + 18.5 u y .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 32.6 mJ m 2 Statement for Q.4 u y .16.452 J m (D) 0.94 u y A m (C) 0.003.315.8 yu z kA m (C) 102.3u y .24 u y A m 37. the energy 2 (B) 9. In region H1 = 50 u x .4 u z mWb m 2 (C) 251u x + 377 u y .178.8 u y . The magnetic field H is (A) 986. If magnetization is given by H = 6 ( .9 u z A m (D) 80. In a material magnetic flux density is 0.17 u y A m (B) 0.2) (A) 2.3 MJ m 3 (D) 2. H 2 will be (A) 63.377 u z mWb m 2 .3u x . The magnetization curve for an iron alloy is approximately given by B= Page 484 ******** 1 H + H 2 mWb m 2 3 www.300 u y + 200 u z A m.3 kJ m 3 (B) 1.7 ´ 10 29 atoms m 3 and each atom has a dipole moment of 2.3 mJ m (D) 32.2 u x .9 kJ m 3 (C) 16.5 mJ m stored per unit volume in the alloy is (A) 6.2 yu z kA m (D) None of the above (B) 151.3u x + 48.02 u x + 7.33–34: For a given material magnetic susceptibility c m = 31 and within which B = 0.com .75.19.66 u y + 14.y) a (B) (D) 41. m r2 = 8 and H1 = 100 u x . In air magnetic field intensity is H = 10 u x + 15 u y . 1) lies on the planner boundary separating region 1 from region 2.9 u z A m 42.600 u y A m exist in free space.3u z A m.0.68 J m 3 3 (B) 1.3 A m (B) 23. while m r 2 = 5 in region 2 where 2 x + 3 y . The unit vector u N12 = 0.1508 u z mWb m 2 43. then H 2 is (A) 40.9 u x .4 u z A m .7 yu z kA m 34.6 A m (C) 16.4 A m (D) 8.9 u y .4 z > 1. The point P(2.9 u z A m (B) 80. The plane separates air ( z > 0. A particular material has 2.3u z A m (D) None of the above 35.6 ´ 10 -30 u y A × m 2 . The H in material is (m r = 4.3u y + 178.22 u y A m (D) 2. 33. The magnitude of the magnetization is (A) 47. m r = 1) from iron ( z £ 0.8 u y + 178.25. Let m r1 = 2 in region 1 defined by 2 x + 3 y . 3.64 u z is directed from region 1 to region 2.4 A m 38.y) a 3 ( x . If m r1 = 2.4 z = 1 separates two regions.2 u x + 48.2 MJ m 3 (C) 2.178. . (D) 251u x + 377 u y .yu x + xu y) in a a cube of size a.6 u x + 0. (B) 52. In a material the magnetic field intensity is H = 1200 A m when B = 2 Wb m 2 .46.2 u z A m (C) 48.6 yu z kA m 40. B = 1. In region 2.076 u z mWb m 2 (B) 12.6 yu z kA m (D) 77.226 J m (C) 1.4 Wb m 2 . The magnetization M is (A) 241yu z kA m (C) 163yu z kA m (B) 318.4 u x + 4318 u y .9 u z A m (C) 40.4 yu z T.4 z < 1.02 Wb m 2 and the magnetic susceptibility is 0.6 u x . When H is reduced to 400 A m.gatehelp. The plane 2 x + 3 y . m r = 20).315.

0. H z = r = ( -3) 2 + ( 4) 2 = 5 3u y + 4 u x = 5 5 24 ( 4 u x + 3u y) Hz = = 0.31°. r = ( -3) + (5) = 34 2 2 rIdzu f rIu f z òa 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 = 4 p r 2 (r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 = I æ a ç1 2 2 pr ç (r + a 2 ) è I At r = 1. I = 3p.577 m uf = u y ´ Hy = 12 ( -3u x + 5 u z ) 34 34 = 3u z .0.zu z ) 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 -2 -¥ ò ò ò ò 2 2 2 rdz I I uf ò4 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 u f 2 pr 4p = I I 8 uf uf 2 pr 4 p r (r 2 + 16) ö I æ 4 ç1 ÷u f 2 pr ç (r 2 + 16) ÷ è ø f = 60 °.31 ° -90 ° ¥ -¥ ò 4 p( x (12 u z .458 u y + 0.098 u y A m 5. q1 = 56.3u y) dx dy 4 p( x 2 + y 2 + 9) 3 2 12 u ydx dy 2 ¥ -4 ò 4 Idzu z ´ (ru r . (C) H = = I 4p ¥ uR = -(1 + x) u x + 3u y + 2 u z R 2 ¥ R = (1 + x) + 32 + 2 2 = x 2 + 2 x + 14 H= IdL ´ u R 4 pR 2 -¥ ¥ ò ò 0 -u ydy[2 u x + ( 3 .281u x + 0.y) u y ] [2 + ( 3 .8 u y) 4 p13 = 0. -2 -¥ ¥ -2 -¥ ò ò 4 p( x 3 uy p -2 + y 2 + 9) 3 2 2 dy y2 + 9 2 = =- ò 2 At r = .xu x .yu z . -dy = 2 sec 2 q. (A) H = ò = 2p ( -5 u x + 3u z ) 2 p 34 ò 0 IdL ´ u R 4 pR 2 Idfu f ´ ( .com Page 485 . (A) H = I uf 2 pr 4 I = 3 A. H = 0. (D) H = òò = = = K ´ u R dxdy 4 pR 2 ¥ 4 u x ´ ( .331u x + 0.3. H = 2pr 1Þ a 1+ a 1 3 2 = -a Iau f 2 pr(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 Iz uf 2pr ö ÷u A m ÷ f ø .y) 2 ]3 2 4p 0 3 .5 u x 34 6.3 SOLUTIONS 1.y = 2 tan q.ur ) I uz A m = 2a 4 pa = . IdL = 4 dxu x 4 pR 2 6 1 æ yö u y tan -1 ç ÷ = -0.zu z ) 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 ò 2 u z dq 2 sec q I uf 2 pr -a ò a rIdzu f 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 a I 56 .Magnetostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.168 u z mA m H = H y + H z = 0.458 u y mA m 2 p(5) 5 uf = Hy = Iy 2pr u f .8 u z mA m = ° 4p 2.y) ] 2 2 32 -¥ ò 4 dxu x ´ [ -(1 + x) u x + 3u y + 2 u z ] 4 p ( x 2 + 2 x + 14) 3 2 2 = = ¥ 2 u dy I = ò [2 2 + ( 3z.611u x + 0.75 u y A/m p 3 è 3 ø -2 www.147 u z . u z [sin q ] -9031 °= 145. (B) H = = a I uf 2 pr -a ò a Idzu z ´ (ru r .1u f A m 4. a = 0. H = 3u z A m 7.8 u y) dx + 2 x + 14) 3/2 = 2(12 u z .gatehelp. (B) H = ò IdL ´ u R . q 2 = -90 ° H= I 4p 56 . (A) H = H y + H z .5 m.3u z ) dx dy 4 p( x 2 + y 2 + 9) 3 2 4 ( .yu y .168 u z mA m 3.u z ´ ( -3u x + 4 u y) Þ = 1 2 a= = 0.

025 = = 106 ´ 10 -8 s .200 u z ] = 4 ´ 10 -14 [ 6 u x + 6 u y .015) H f = 35.u z ] F = ma Þ a= F 4 ´ 10 -14 = [6u x + 6u y . given by the acceleration times the transit time tt .36) . -3 I encl = 10 mA 2 p(5 ´ 10 ) H f = 10.4 u x + 1.u z ] 10 9 m s 2 19.8 ´ 10 -14 öæ 2.37 A m 11. the electron moves to an x coordinate 1 13.3u y + 0.5 ´ 10 7 øè è 0.6 u z kV m 18. . (A) FBC = ò I loop dL ´ Bfrom B C wire at BC = ò ( 6 ´ 10 -3) dzu z ´ 1 4 15m o u y = -1.u z ] m 5 ´ 10 -26 æ I ç zu x = 4 p ç (1 + z 2 ) ç è = ¥ ö ÷ + ÷ (1 + x 2 ) ¥ ÷ ø I ( u x + u z ) = 0. 20. (B) At r = 15 cm enclosed current .40) u x ´ ( -u z ) = -5 u y A m 2 1 14. I encl = 10 + 2 p(0.01) 400 .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 8.8 u z nN p 17. (A) H = Þ H f = 0. (A) Using Ampere’s circuital law ò H × dL = 2prHf = I encl At r = 0.u z )10 -3 = 1100 u x + 1400 u y .5 ´ 10 -2 ÷ç =ç m ç 9.6 ´ 10 -19)( 4.u y( -4 .4 u z )10 5 ´ ( -3u x + 2 u y . H f = 0. (D) H = ò =ò 0 ¥ IdL ´ u R 4 pR 2 -Idzu z ´ ( -zu z + u y) 4 p(1 + z ) Idzu x + 4 p(1 + z 2 ) 3 2 0 2 32 ¥ + ò 0 ¥ Idxu x ´ ( .01)( 400) = 35. (C) J = Ñ ´ H = = 1 ¶ æ r2 ç2 + 2 r ¶r ç è 1 ¶(rH f) uz r ¶r given by .117 m x = -117 cm.2 p(0.9) + u z (12 . (A) F = e(E + v ´ B) If F = 0.3 mA m 2 p(0.02)250 + 2 p(0. (A) H = ( -30 + 40) u x + ( -u z ) = 5 u y A m 2 15.com . (C) The enclosed current is I encl = 10 + 2 p(0.40) u x ´ ( -u z ) = -35 u y A m 2 In that time.6)] ´ 10 2 V m = -4.3 M 12. FAB = 16. (B) H = K ´ u n 2 1 = ( 30 .5 ´ 10 7 u y)(2. z = 0 .13 mA 2 p(0.27 A m 1 ( -30 .5 .8 ´ 10 -14 u x N This force will be constant during the time the electron travels the field.8 ( u x + u z ) mA m 4p 9.1 ´ 10 -31 ÷ç 4. It establishes a negative x –directed velocity as it leaves the field.03) 300 = 60.035) H f = 60.xu x + u y) 4 p(1 + x ) 2 32 éu x ê1 ê ê ë3 uy 2 12 uzù 3 ú ´ 10 5 ´ 10 -3 ú -4 û ú =ò 0 ¥ ò 0 Idxu z 4 p(1 + x 2 ) 3 2 xu z 0 = [ u x ( -8 .8 ´ 10 -8 u x = -18 u x nN 2 p( 3) ö ÷u z = u z A m ÷ ø 21. (D) v(0) ´ B = (2 u x .32 A m 10. ÷ ø Þ H f = 0.500 u z F(0) = Q [E + v ´ B] = 2 ´ 10 -16 [1200 u x + 1200 u y . E = -v ´ B = B ´ v Page 486 www. (C) The field from the long wire now varies with position along the loop segment.5 ´ 10 7 ö ÷ = -11 ´ 10 7 m s . vx = t50 Ftt æ -1. 4.5 cm.13 ´ 10 -3 = 800[ 6 u x + 6 u y . x = vx t50 = -(11 ´ 10 7)(106 ´ 10 -8 ) = -0.gatehelp.0.3u y .(1. (C) F = e v ´ B = .5 ´ 10 -3 u z ) = -1. (D) J = 1 ¶ æ 3ö çr ÷ = 0 r ¶r ç r ÷ è ø ò ( 6 ´ 10 1 3 -3 ) dxu x ´ 15m o uy 2 px = 45 ´ 10 -3 m o ln 3u z = 19.

Outside (y > 1 and y < .18) u x = 36 u x nN 23. (B) M = Nm = (2.5 mJ m 2 2 33.40 u z ) ò -( 6 ´ 10 1 -3 ) dxu z ´ 15m o u y = 54 u x nN 2 p(1) Ftotal = FDA + FBC = (54 .5 F = Iu z ´ B = (7 ´ 10 -3) u z ´ .32 ´ 10 -6 u x dz = 6.1m o .1114) ´ 106 = 476 kA m .9 yu y + 3zu z ] = 3zu x . m = 2 = H 2 400 ò IdL ´ B 0 1 = ò 100 dzu z ´ 0 -100 m o u y 2 p (5 ´ 10 -3) = 0.4 = 2785.5 ø 2 py è 0 . (C) For case 1.1 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 34.3 m o 600 4 p ´ 10 -7 c m = m r .18 + 36 + 6) u z = 5 ´ 6 u z = 30 u z N 24. m = m om r = 4. . Therefore H = -4 u x A m (0 < y < 1) and H = 4 u x A m ( -1 < y < 0).6 ´ 10 -30 u y) = 0. (A) F = area ò K ´ BdS = ò ò 6u 0 0 . (D) = Iu x ´ ( -4m o u x ) = 0 m 26.22 u y A m m r . m = m r1 = 2 B1 = H 1200 1 1 m = ´ = 1326.Magnetostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. c m + 1 = 6.32 ´ 10 -6 u x Wb m 2 F = ò IdL ´ B 0 1 = ò 5 dzu z ´ 1.5 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 (100 + 625 + 1600) = 9.1). (A) c m + 1 = m r . (A) F = ò IdL ´ R = I ò dxu x ´ B + I ò dyu y ´ B + I ò dxu x ´ B + I ò dyu y ´ B 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 = 82 u x + 204 u y . (A) M = c m H = ( 31)(77. 36. c m = 5. By symmetry. leaving H = 0 ( y > 1.5 c m = 2784.1.4 yu z B = = 77. y < .5(10 u x + 25 u y .5 ò = 1.4 u x N m m r1 = 1. =ln ç ÷u y = -6.4 B For case 2. DM = (1590 .2 .327 u z mWb m 2 31. 35.1 = 1325. 6m o u x æ 15 ö dy = ln ç ÷u x p 0.5 .2 400 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 27. (D) m r = c m + 1 = 31 + 1 = 4.6 xu z z = 0 for all element F = I ò dx (-9 yu z) y=1 + I ò dy(-6 xu z) x=3 + I ò dx (-9 yu z) y=2 + I ò dy(-6 xu z) x=1 1 1 3 2 3 2 1 1 32. the forces on sides AB and CD will be equal and opposite.9 yu z u y ´ B = u y[ 6 xu x .6 u y mN m p è 0.6 yu z kA m m 4. (B) Within the region -1 < y < 1.5 30.1 4.9 yu y + 3zu z ] = 3zu y .3 M1 = c m H1 = 1590 ´ 106 A m .5 z ´ -5m o u x dy 2 py 15m o æ 15 ö . (A) F = 1 1 ´ 6.5 ø 29. H= 0. This leaves the sum of forces on side BC and DA FDA = 4 28.6) yu z = 241 yu z kA m . (A) B = mH = m om rH = 4 p ´ 10 -7 ´ 6. (A) This will be the vector sum of the forces on the four sides.2 2784. (A) M = www. and so will cancel.2 u y nN m m F 25.6 u y mN m 0 1 37.5 u y .1 B mo ö æ 1 ç ÷ ç c + 1÷ ø è m -1 B= 3m o .220 u z A m 1 1 H × B = mH 2 2 2 u x ´ B = u x [ 6 xu x . the magnetic fields from the two outer sheets (carrying -4u z A m) cancel.2 M 2 = c m H 2 = 1114 ´ 106 A m . (C) M = c m H = 55 u x + 137.5 1 1 . y = 0. leaving only the field from the center sheet. (B) W = = = I ( -18 .7 ´ 10 29)(2. So at x = 0.gatehelp.3 22. (B) The field from the current strip at the filament location 1 .com Page 487 .4m o u x = -35.1) the fields from all three sheet cancel. 1.7 u y M = = 0.7 u y A m H= 0.

86 u z A m .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics = 0.28 u y + 7.0.66 u z A m Tangential component of H1 at the boundary ö HT1 = H1 .15 u z B2 = m 2H 2 = 20 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7(10 u x + 15 u y .66 u z ) m r2 5 = -193u x . 12m o -(26.83u x . (A) J b = Ñ ´ M = 41.0.32 u z ) m o = B2 N B Þ H 2 N = 2 N = 6.2.9 u z A m 42.56 u y .2 u z ******** ò H.24 u y + 9.15 u z H N 2 = 1 H N1 = m2 20 H 2 = H N 2 + H T 2 = 10 u x + 15 u y . Page 488 H1 T = H1 .90 u y + 3.7.37 u x + 0.37 u x + 0.4 u z Ñ (2 x + 3 y .0.74u z ) 1 1 38.84 u z . H 2 = H T 2 + H N 2 = (54.8 u y + 178.25.6 A m ç 4 p ´ 10 -7 è 0. and so will be directed into region 1.377 u z mWb m 2 .56 u y .8 u x + 42.86 u z ) .4 z)| 29 = 0.14.com .24 u y + 9.30 u y + 20 u z ) .30 u y + 20 u z ) × (0.5 .74 u z ) .66 u z ) = 54.H N1 = (50 u x .24 u y + 9.2 u x .600m o u y + 400m o u z Its normal component at the boundary is B1 N = (B1 × u N12 ) u N12 = (52. H1 T = H 2 T H 2 = H 2 N + H 2 T = 80.24 u y + 56.9 u x . dB = ò Hç 3 + 2 H ÷dH è ø 0 0 Ho æ1 2H H + = 6.83u x .22.4 z) un = = |Ñ (2 x + 3 y .2. (C) H N1 = .16 u z ) . (H1 × u N 21 ) u N 21 = ( -131)(0.7. = -4.83u x .02 æ 1 ö + 1 ÷ = 47.H1 N = (100 u x .32112 u y + 171.0.3u z .8 = -131 .16 u z .34 u z A m H T 2 = H T1 m 2 H N 2 = r1 H N1 = ( -4.66 u y + 14.74 u z Since this vector is found through the gradient.( -4.300 u y + 200 u z ) www.04 u z 8m o H1 N = B1 N = 26.8 .315. (A) W = = 2 o 3 o Ho = 18. (B) At the boundary normal unit vector 2 u x + 3u y . = 73.16. (A) W = H × B = m o H 2 2 2 1 = ( 4 p ´ 10 -7)( 600) 2 = 0.76 u y + 10.4 u x + 2112 u y + 28.37 u x + 0.003 ø -1 The normal component of H1 is H N1 = (H1 × u N 21 ) u N 21 H1 × u N 21 = (50 u x .7.22.15 u z ) = 251u x + 377 u y .4 z. (B) B1 = 200m o u x . = 52.83u x .34 u z ) + ( -193u x .40 u x + 2112 u y + 28. Thus u n = u n 21 .226 J m 3 2 39. 43. it will point in the direction of increasing values of 2 x + 3 y .60 u x + 5.2 MJ m 3 6 3 12 uz a 40.76 u y + 10.9 u y + 3.gatehelp.0. H T1 = 10 u x + 15 u y H T 2 = H T1 = 10 u x + 15 u y m 1 ( -3u z ) = 0.6 u x .83u x .56 u y .

933 V 13. The voltmeter reading at t = 0.2 cm I b x v Fig. then I at 0. P8.30 ° ) A (C) -2.68 V (D) 0.4. r 7 Fig.12–13. P8.5 s is (A) -21. The bar moves to the right at a constant speed of 9 m s in a uniform magnetic field of B 30 cm.6 m is (A) -1.12–13: Consider the fig.2(cos pct .4–12–14 12. m = 10 -5 H m and s = 10 -5 S m.y) u z mT.3 mA (C) -7. P8.2 . where c is the velocity of light. P8. then I ( t) is (A) 1. If B = 6 cos (120 pt . Let B = x u z T.10-11. P8.7 mA 0.1 www.30 ° ) A (D) -2. y I(t) (B) 1.26 cos (120 pt . If B = 2 cos p( ct .3 V 16 cm Fig.8 T.sin pct) mA (B) 1.2(sin pct .14–15: (B) 12.30 ° ) A 11.2 cm.2(sin pct . The bar is at x = 2 m at t = 0.4.gatehelp.4.2(cos pct .6 V (D) 6. The rails have a resistance of 2 W m.sin pct) mA (D) 1.10–11 10. b = 4 cm and c = 40 cm. then at t = 0. 2 y z a 0. The separation of the two rails is 3 Statement for Q.4.26 sin (120 pt .sin pct) mA Page 490 14.com (B) 10 (D) 20 (C) 0.8–9 is given by x = 5 t + 4 t .30 ° ) A (B) 2. If 6 W resistor is present across the left-end with the right end open-circuited.4.30 ° ) u z T. The current density J is (A) (B) (C) 200 sin (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r 400 sin (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r 100 cos (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r (D) None of the above 15.933 V Statement for Q. The voltmeter reading at x = 0.68 V (C) -0.26 cos (120 pt .8–9. If 6 W resistor is present across each end.8–9: The location of the sliding bar in fig. then the value of I ( t) is (A) 2.5 cm B 250 W The internal dimension of a coaxial capacitor is a = 1.77 mA Statement for Q. B B VM v 0.6 V (C) -6.5 sec is (A) -12.3 V (B) 21. 8.10–11: A perfectly conducting filament containing a 250W resistor is formed into a square as shown in fig. P8.3 mA (D) 77. The quality factor of the capacitor is (A) 0.The electric field intensity is E = 10 cos (10 5 t) u p V m.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Statement for Q. The homogeneous x material inside the capacitor has the parameter e = 10 -11 F m.sin pct) mA (C) 1.26 sin (120 pt .5 sec the current I is (A) -45 mA (C) -60 mA (B) 45 mA (D)60 mA 9.

24–25: A material has s = 0 and e r = 1.9 sin (10 9 t .6 z) u r V m.6 z) u r A m 2 r (B) 116 sin (10 9 t . Let e = 5 e o .6 r) u q (B) R.6 z) u r A m 2 r 0.01z) kV m 25.ax) u y mV m .4 16. The electric field intensity E is (A) 4. The electric flux density D is (A) 120 cos (1010 t .bx) T Statement for Q.com (C) 3 cos (15 ´ 108 t . A parallel-plate capacitor with plate area of 5 cm 2 and plate separation of 3 mm has a voltage 50 sin (10 3 t) V applied to its plates. The region enclosed by these surface has m = 2.2 ´ 10 -10 F m and s = 0 everywhere. (D) 4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t . S The possible electromagnetic fields are 17. m = 3 ´ 10 -5 H m. 21.01z) u y A m.bx) u z A m.Maxwell’s Equations GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.52 cos (106 t .6 z) u r A m 2 r (C) (D) - (C) 4.19–21: Consider the region defined by |x|. e = 1.0.ax) u z mA m .|y| and |z|< 1.5 ´ 10 -6 H m.25 (D) 6 sin q sin ( wt .0.01z) kV m (B) 4.67 ´ 10 4 cos (1010 t + bx) T (B) 6. (B) 6 cos (15 ´ 10 t .ax) u y mV m .52 sin (106 t .ax) u y mV m . e = 4 ´ 10 -11 F m and s = 0. The surface r = 3 and 10 mm. The magnetic field intensity is (A) -4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t .ax) u z m A m . 8 The displacement current density is 100 (A) sin (10 9 t .0.ax) u z m A m . The following fields exist in charge free regions P = 60 sin ( wt + 10 x) u z Q = 10 cos ( wt . the displacement current is (A) 148 cos (1010 t) nA (C) 261 cos (1010 t) nA (B) 261 cos (1010 t) mA (D) 148 cos (1010 t) mA 18. S (D) Q. 22.2r) u f r R = 3r 2 cot f u r + 1 cos fu f r S= (A) P. Q (C) P.bx) (C) 6 ´ 10 -5 cos (1010 t + bx) T (D) 6 ´ 10 -5 cos (1010 t .01z) V m (D) 4.22–23: Let H = 2 cos (1010 t . The value of m r is (A) 2 (C) 4 (B) 3 (D) 16 26.ax) u y mV m . m = 4m o . In a coaxial transmission line ( e r = 1). the electric field intensity is given by E= 100 cos (10 9 t . (C) 4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t . Assume .bx) nC m 2 (B) -120 cos (1010 t . The magnetic flux density B is (A) 6. 24.ax) u z mA m .67 ´ 10 4 cos (1010 t . If H = 2 cos 8 pz cos wt u f A m. then the value of w r is (A) 2 p ´ 106 rad s (C) 2 p ´ 108 rad s www. The magnetic field intensity is H = 4 cos (106 t . no DC fields are present.gatehelp. 19. and s = 0 the displacement current density J d = 20 cos (15 ´ 108 t .ax) u y m A m 2 .bx) nC m 2 (C) 120 cos (1010 t + bx) nC m 2 (D) None of the above (B) 2. The electric field intensity E is (A) 6 sin (15 ´ 108 t . If e r = 2. r 23.0.52 sin (106 t .01z) V m Statement for Q.52 cos (106 t .6 z) u r A m 2 r 216 cos (10 9 t . and z = 0 and 25 cm are perfect conductors. R 1 r (B) -4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t . (D) 3 sin (15 ´ 108 t .3 (C) 5 Statement for Q. 20. (B) 8 p ´ 106 rad s (D) 8 p ´ 108 rad s Page 491 .0. The value of a is (A) 4.

cos (3 ´ 108 t)] = 7540[cos ( 3 ´ 108 t) .119 s emf = -0.83 x) cos (108 t) V m (D) 903 sin (12 x) cos (108 t) V m .1)] V 7. In a nonmagnetic medium E = 5 cos(10 9 t . www.4 y) u x A m (D) 40 sin (10 9 t .2) 2 (20)( 377) sin 377 t mV = 0.sin ( 3 ´ 108 t)] Wb Emf = dF dt = . 0.gatehelp. the flux is 2 (B) 8. e = e o e r .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 27. the magnitude of the displacement current density is (A) 48.1(5 t + 4 t 3) 3 Wb emf = dF = -0. For distilled water m = m o .31 cos (120 pt) emf = Vba ( t) = dF dt (C) 32.y)]2 p = 0 0 0 .4 y) u y A m (C) -40 sin(10 3 t .y)]1 0 = 20 m o [sin ( 3 ´ 108 t .6 nA m 2 29. In a nonmagnetic medium ( e r = 6.5 + 0.43 sin(120 pt) 3 4 J = ( 4 yu x + 2 xzu y + z u z ) sin (10 t) A m If volume charge density r v in z = 0 plane is zero.25) the magnetic field of an EM wave is H = 6 cos bx cos (108 t) u z A m.4 y) u x A m 31.4 sin 5000 t A =R 900 ´ 10 3 1 1 I= A m.1) .76 (B) 1.3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 30. the ratio of conduction current density to displacement current density at 1 GHz is (A) 111 ´ 10 -5 . (A) F = area òò B × dS = ò ò t dtdy 2 0 0 = 0.44 ´ 10 -4 (D) 1. In a certain region (D) 16. 32.3 x 8. and s = 2 ´ 10 -3 S m. The displacement current density is (A) -40 sin (10 9 t .43 sin (120 pt) 4. (A) emf = = loop area òò B × u dz z (D) -0.0.6 m. The dielectric constant of the medium is (A) 3.8 x) u x + 4 sin(10 9 t . (A) emf = 1 1 Bo wL2 = ( 4)(2)(2) 2 = 16 V 2 2 28.43 sin (120 pt) = = 0.1 x 3 = 0. The corresponding electric field is (A) 903 sin (0. (C) F = ò ò 20m 0 0 o cos ( 3 ´ 108 t . (D) I = Vab 118.6 = 5 t + 4 t 3 At t = 0.4 y) u z 11 d ( 3)( 4)( 6) cos 5000 t = -360000 sin 5000 t dt emf 360000 sin 5000 t = .5 ´ 106 S m and e r = 4.95 cos 377 t V 2.31(120 p) sin (120 pt) = 118. A conductor with cross-sectional area of 10 cm 2 carrier a conductor current 2 sin (10 9 t) mA.68 ´ 10 -7 SOLUTIONS 1.8 x) u z V m. emf = -0. m = m o ) magnetic field intensity is H = 10 cos (10 t .1) 2 B = 0.3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 (C) -3z cos (10 t) mC m 2 4 3 Vab = .119 s. e = 81e o .com Þ t = 0.47 sin (120 pt) R 250 dF d =dt dt 5.84 (D) 2. If s = 2. (B) emf = dF d B × dS =dt dt ò = 2 p(0.11 nA m F = p(0.cos ( 3 ´ 108 t .4 m A m 2 = 0.6. (C) 2.5 s. then r v is (A) 3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 (B) 0.118.1) .39 (C) 5. (D) In this case F = [20m o (2 p) sin ( 3 ´ 108 t . (C) 903 sin (0.5) 2 (5 + 3) = -21. (C) At x = 0.1( 3)(2.83 x) sin (108 t) V m (B) 903 sin (12 x) sin (10 t) V m .4 *********** 8 6.68 ´ 10 -6 (B) 4. (C) Since B is constant over the loop area.y) dx dy = [20m o sin ( 3 ´ 108 t .4 m A m 2 3.1( 3)(5 t + 4 t 3) 2 (5 + 12 t 2 ) dt At t = 0.4 y) u y A m (B) 40 sin (10 9 t . In a charge-free region (s = 0.20 ´ (4p ´ 10 -7)(3 ´ 108 ) ´ [cos (3 ´ 108 t .6 V 9.933 V Page 492 .

ax) V m .2)(2 + 9t) dF L = .1 80 ¶Pz uy ¹ 0 ¶x dF emf = = 6(0.sin pct ú = [ .Maxwell’s Equations GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (D) F = = area òò B × dS = (0. which is now closed. 19. Hence (A) is correct. 12.30 ° ) A 11. (D) Ñ ´ E = ¶E y ¶x uz = ¶B ¶t ¶B ¶t = -a( 3 ´ 10 -3) cos (15 ´ 108 t . Ñ ´ P = - = 2.33 ´ 10 -13 = sin (15 ´ 108 . 15 ´ 108 .9 t) dF R = 1.30 ° ) dt The current is emf 6(0.cos pct .7 mA 44 The total current = -32.sin pct ] A .30 ° ) Wb I d = 2 prlJ d = .4 10.6 r) ¹ 0 r sin q ¶r 2 1é æ pö ù 1 sinç pct .26 sin (120 pt . (B) Ñ ´ H = www.8)(0.5 s.16)(9) = -1.6 z)] 10 9 u r A m 2 ¶t ¶t r =0.5) 2 (120 p) sin (120 pt .ax) u y . 17. is Fr = (0.sin pct ] mA 250 R Q S is not an EM field. (A) Total conduction current 100 cos (10 5 t) u r A m 2 I C = òò J × dS = 2prlJ = 2 prl r = 80 pcos (10 5 t) A ¶D ¶eE 10 = sin (10 5 t) A m 2 Jd = =¶t ¶t r 2 ´ 10 -11 B = sin (15 ´ 108 t . (C) ¶D ¶E 100 =e Jd = = eo [ . (C) J = s E = 100 cos (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r eS dV 2 e o 5 ´ 10 -4 = 10 3 ´ 50 cos (10 3 t) 3 ´ 10 -3 d dt = 148 cos (1010 t) nA 18.7 mA 14. Ñ ´ Q = [10 cos ( wt . (D) D = ò J d dt + C1 = .2)(16 . At t = 0.7 .ax) u y C m 3 C1 is set to zero since no DC fields are present. = 4 ´ 10 -6 a sin (15 ´ 108 t . R is not an EM field. 20.44 Il = = . Rl = 6 + 2[2 (2 + 9 t)]W.2r)]u z ¹ 0 r ¶r is a possible EM field sin f 1 ¶ ( 3r 2 cot f) × Ñ ×R = ¹ 0.45 mA 32 13.30 ° ) A R 250 16.com ¶H z u y = Jd ¶x Page 493 . (A) The flux in the left-hand closed loop is Fl = B ´ area = (0. (A) Ñ × P = 0.5 P is a possible EM field 1 ¶ Ñ × Q = 0. m 4 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 .ax) u z . (C) In this case.ax) u z A m .45 = -77.sin pct ] mWb pê è 2ø ë û p dF emf = = c [cos pct . Rl = 32 W 1. 15.sin pct ] mV dt I ( t) = emf 3 ´ 108 = [cos pct .(0.9 sin (10 9 t .2 .ax) u z mA m 21.5) 2 cos (120 pt .2 pl(10) sin (10 5 t) = . Rr = 44 W The contribution to the current from the right loop -144 Ir = = 032. (A) D = eE = e Id = J × S = V d Þ Jd = dD e dV = dt d dt = 12[cos pct . B= H= a( 3 ´ 10 -3) sin (15 ´ 108 t .ax) u z = . At 0.pct) dy 0 0 .9 t)).÷ .ax) u y .5)(2) ò cos( py .33 ´ 10 -13 sin (15 ´ 108 t .gatehelp.5) 2 (120 p) = sin (120 pt . 15 ´ 108 .8 psin (10 5 t) A Quality factor Id Ic = 8 = 0.sin (10 9 t .44 V emfR = dt Rr = 6 + 2 (2 (14 . (A) F = area òò B × dS = 6(0.44 V emfl = dt While the bar in motion. E= D 1. The flux in the right loop. whose area decreases with time.5. e 5 eo = 3 ´ 10 -3 sin (15 ´ 108 t . r ¶r r Ñ ×S = ¶(sin 2 f) 1 sin ( wt . there will be contribution to the current from the right loop.6 z) u r A m 2 r 20 ´ 10 -6 sin (15 ´ 108 . the loop resistance is increasing with time. = 1.8)(0.

a = 5 = 2.5 ´ 10 -6 www. (B) Ñ ´ H = ¶H z ¶D uy = ¶x ¶t 27. (D) B = mH = 6 ´ 10 -5 cos (1010 t .01z) u y = .04 sin (106 t .76 Ñ ´E= H= 128 p2 cos ( 8 pz) cos ( wt) u f rew2 8p me 8p 4 ´ 10 -11 ********** This result must be equal to the given H field.25 = 0.04)(0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics = a 2 ( 4 ´ 10 -6 ) cos (15 ´ 108 t . Thus 128 p2 2 = remw2 r Þ w= = ´ 2.0.01) =4 1012 m rm o e o ¶H f 26. r v = 0.0.83 x) sin (108 t) u y V m 32.04 cos (10 t .013) u y (106 )(106 )m rm o e o Þ mr = (0.25 e o .m rm o 106 e o ¶t H= 0.833) sin (bx) sin (108 t) u y V m 6. (B) Ñ ´ E = uy = -m ¶z ¶t -0.ax) = J D . b = E= w w 108 = er = v c 3 ´ 108 6.bx) u y nC m 2 23.gatehelp.25 22.01z) u x E= 106 e o = 4.6 nA m 2 29. (B) Ñ × J = (0 + 0 + 3z 2 ) sin (10 4 t) = rv = 3z 2 cos (10 4 t) + C1 10 4 8r ¶t D = -120 cos (1010 t .01z) u x = e o ¶t 0.6 e o (10 9) 2 cos (10 9 t) 10 -3 2. (C) J c = Þ Þ ¶D = 2b sin (1010 t . (A) Ñ ´ H = Þ ¶H y ¶z ux 6 At z = 0.01) sin (106 t .04(0.01z) u x kV m 6 = 40 sin (10 9 t .4 y) u y A m 31.5 ´ 106 ´ 10 ´ 10 -4 |J d | = 32. b = 8. C1 = 0 r v = 0.com = 8 p ´ 108 rad s Page 494 .bx) u y ¶t 2b cos (1010 t . = 1010 me = 1010 3 ´ 10 -5 ´ 12 ´ 10 -10 = 600 v Jd = 4.0.bx) u y C m 2 D =1010 b= w .01) ¶H cos (106 t .04(0. (C) For nonmagnetic medium m r = 1 b= 8= w w = er .44 ´ 10 -4 2 p ´ 10 9 ´ 81 ´ e o Ic = sE Þ S ¶E e ¶I c Jd = e = ¶t sS ¶t E= Ic sS 28. (A) Ñ ´ H = ¶H z ¶E uz = e ¶y ¶t ¶Ex ¶H 25.25 e o ´ 108 = 903 sin (0.01) ´ ( 3 ´ 108 ) 2 = 9 4(1012 ) = 6b sin (bx) cos (108 t) u y 1 E = ò 6b sin (bx) cos (108 t) u y dt e 6b sin (bx) sin (108 t) u y = e1010 e = 6. (D) Ñ ´ H = ur ¶z 16 p ¶E = sin ( 8 pz) cos ( wt) u r = e r ¶t E= 16 p sin ( 8 pz) sin ( wt) u r rew ¶Er (16 p)( 8 p) ¶H uf = cos ( 8 pz) sin ( wt) u f = -m ¶z rew ¶t 6(0.3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 30.0. Comparing the result a 2 4 ´ 10 -6 = 20 ´ 10 -6 . (D) J d = Ñ ´ H = ¶H z ux ¶y ¶E Ñ ´ H = 0. v c 10 9 ´ 108 e r 3 w = 10 9. Þ e r = 5.04(0.52 sin (10 t .(B) At high frequency = Jc sE s = = J d weE we 2 ´ 10 -3 = 4.bx) u z T 24.0.833 0.

The magnetic field phasor H s is (A) (C) 12 ho 12 ho ( -u z + ju y) e .j15x ( -u z .ju y) e . The phasor magnetic field intensity for a 400 MHz uniform plane wave propagating in a certain lossless material is ( 6 u y . e = 2 e o .j12 sin ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø æ 2p ö (C) 12 cos ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø æ 2p ö (D) -12 cos ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø 3.jbx m A m (D) (5.8 u z ) e .gatehelp.5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION Statement for Q. where total E-field is zero.jbx m A m (B) (5.2 ´ 10 7 m s (D) None of the above A uniform plane wave in free space has electric field Es = (2 u z + 3u y) e . The amplitude of incident E-field is 6 mV m.8–9: A lossy material has m = 5m o .j15x (B) (D) 12 ho 12 ho ( u z + ju y) e . The E-field of total wave in air is æ 2p ö (A) j12 sin ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø æ 2p ö (B) . 8.3u y .jbx m A m 6. 1. The magnetic field phasor H s is (A) ( -5.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8. The loss tangent is (A) 2913 (C) 2468 (B) 1823 (D) 1374 Page 495 4. (C) x = 3 m (B) x = -15 m . The electric field of a uniform plane wave in free space is given by Es = 12 p( u y + ju z ) e .ju y) e .1–3: A y-polarized uniform plane wave with a frequency of 100 MHz propagates in air in the + x direction and impinges normally on a perfectly conducting plane at x = 0. 5. The phase constant is 10 rad m at 5 MHz.j15x .j5 u z ) e vp is .j15x ( u z .43 ´ 106 m s (C) 1. The average power density in the wave is (A) 34 mW m 2 (C) 22 mW m 2 (B) 17 mW m 2 (D) 44 mW m 2 uz m A m ux m A m (B) -16 e -j 2p x 3 uz m A m ux m A m -j 2p x 3 (D) -16 e -j 2p x 3 2.3 m 7.3u y + 8 u z ) e . is (A) x = 15 m .j18 x A m .8 u z ) e . The phasor H s of the incident wave in air is (A) 16 e (C) 16 e -j 2p x 3 (A) 6. (D) x = .4 ´ 108 m s Statement for Q.jbx V m.com . The location in air nearest to the conducting plane.3u y + 8 u z ) e .5–6: (B) 2.j15x Statement for Q. The phase velocity www.3u y .jbx m A m (C) ( -5.

732 13.448 + j0.60 (B) 0.66 (D) 12. The loss tangent is (A) 0. The Dielectric constant is (A) 1. the minimum thickness required for wave-guide is (A) 6. 10. The attenuation constant a is (A) 4.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 9. The impedance h is (A) 101.713 per meter (C) 0.41 per meter (D) 5.19 W (C) 1.46 W (B) 3.z) u x V m in air normally hits a lossless medium (m r = 1.6 e o and s = 0.12–13: A non magnetic medium has an intrinsic impedance 360 Ð30 ° W.05 m (D) 4.46 + j7. The SWR s is (A) 2 (C) 1 2 (B) 1 (D) None of the above 21.41 + j 6.1m o .23 m (A) -14 cos ( wt .34 (C) 4. (B) 9. e = 3.713 + j0.3 W media has Es = (5 u x + 12 u y) e . The magnitude of the wave at z = 4 m and t = T 8 is (A) 10. The propagation constant is (A) 0.gatehelp.21 mm Statement for Q. 20.198 + j0.43 W 17.5 (D) 0.21 dB (B) 1.234 (D) 0. The loss suffered by the wave in the interval 0 < z < 3 m is (A) 4.43 per meter (C) 6.86 mm (D) 2. The electric field is Es = 6 e .13 per meter 11.36 (B) 5.4 W (C) 98.46 m Page 496 16. The propagation constant g is (A) 7. A 60 m long aluminium ( s = 35 ´ 10 7 S m.jgx u z V m.10–11: At 50 MHz a lossy dielectric material is characterized by m = 2. If at least the thickness of silver ( s = 6. The wave operates at 10 MHz and the electric field leads the magnetic field by 24°.43 + j2.634 (C) 0.3 W Statement for Q.18–19: A uniform plane wave in a lossy nonmagnetic (B) 3. The effective resistance of the pipe is (A) 0.com .42 dB (B) 8.936 Statement for Q.346 per meter 15. The reflected electric field is (B) 5.198 per meter (D) 0.20–22: The plane wave E = 42 cos ( wt .866 (C) 1. e 2 = 1) pipe with inner and outer radii 9 mm and 12 mm carries a total current of 16 sin (106 pt) A. 12.4 m -1 18.99 (D) None of the above m r = 1.577 19.46 per meter (B) 2.52 m (C) 8. Silver plated brass wave guide is operating at 12 GHz.2 + j 3.448 per meter (B) 0.48 W (D) 2. The skin depth is (A) 2.13 + j5.43 (C) 5.548 Statement for Q.z) u x V m (B) -14 cos ( wt + z) u x V m www.94 mm (B) 167. e r = 4) at z = 0.1 ´ 10 7 S m.12 dB (C) 10. The transmission coefficient t is 2 4 (A) (B) 3 3 (C) 1 3 (D) 3 22.4 W (D) 67.346 + j0.08 S m. m r = e r = 1) is 5d. . 14.14–15: The amplitude of a wave traveling through a lossy nonmagnetic medium reduces by 18% every meter.gz . g = 0.57 Statement for Q.41 mm (C) 5.24 dB (D) 5.

com .7 Statement for Q. The critical angle q c is (A) 83.j 49 W (D) 49 . then the value of e r is (A) 4 (C) 16 (B) 3 (D) 9 37. The E-field of a uniform plane wave propagating in a dielectric medium is given by z ö z ö æ æ 8 E = 2 cos ç 108 t ÷ u x .6 (D) 1.12 (C) 1.gatehelp. e1 = 10 pF m www. e 3 = 10 pF m 39. The region z < 0 is characterized by e r = m r = 1 and s = 0.3 (D) 0.38 GHz (D) 590 MHz 40. The intrinsic Region 2 (0 < z < 6 cm): m 2 = 2 mH m.96 GHz (C) 1.3l in front of the interface. 34.j 641 W (C) 641 + j502 W (B) 641 .16 41. z > 0. at which a uniform plane wave incident from region 1 onto the boundary at z = 0 will have no reflection.39–40: Consider three lossless region : Region 1 (z < 0): Page 498 (B) 0. The lowest frequency.45). m r = 1. The impedance of material is (A) 502 . An electromagnetic wave from an under water source with perpendicular polarization is incident on a water-air interface at angle 20° with normal to surface. The SWR in front of the plate is (A) 1.34 (D) 1.38 (B) 1. A uniform plane wave is incident from region 1 (m r = 1. A plane wave is normally incident from air onto a semi-infinite slab of perfect dielectric ( e r = 3. Its wavelength in the two region are l1 = 5 cm and l2 = 3 (B) 193 .62° (C) 42. s = 0) to free space. z < 0 and region 2.64 (C) 2.j502 W (D) 502 + j 641 W 43. The SWR is (A) 1.18 GHz (B) 4.25% (C) 25% 35. Measurements yield a SWR of 3 and the appearance of an electric field minimum at 0.6° (B) 6.27 (D) 4.38° (D) None of the above *********** 38. A 150 MHz uniform plane wave is normally incident from air onto a material. If frequency is 50 MHz. A uniform plane wave traveling in the u z direction cm. The fraction of transmitted power is (A) 0.j193 W V m.91 (C) 0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 33. A uniform plane wave in air is normally incident onto a lossless dielectric plate of thickness l 8 . On the boundary the reflected energy is (A) 6.93 42. is (A) 2.67 (C) 2 (B) 0. For water assume e r = 81.70 (B) 1.49 m 1 = 4 mH m.5% (D) 50% has a frequency of 3 ´ 1010 rad s.34–35: Region 1. and of intrinsic impedance h = 260 W.j10 z u x + 50 Ð20 ° e j10 z u x impedance of the region z > 0 is (A) 692 + j176 W (C) 176 + j 692 W Statement for Q. e 2 = 25 pF m Region 3 (z > 6 cm): m 3 = 4 mH m. The total electric field here is given E s = 150 e .sin ç 10 t ÷ uy V m 3ø 3ø è è The dielectric constant of medium is (A) 3 (C) 6 (B) 9 (D) 6 36. are both perfect dielectrics.16 (B) 12. If the amplitude of incident wave is one-half that of reflected wave in region. the SWR in region 1 is (A) 0.

6) ( 65 .6 ´ 50 ´ 106 ´ 2 pe o a= 2 p ´ 50 ´ 106 3 ´ 108 (2.3u x mW m 2 2 7. m e æ ç1 + æ s ö ç ÷ ç è we ø è 2 11.ju y) e . (B) For conducting plane G = -1.548 (1 + 1732 2 ) 4 .41 2 b=w 2 ù me é æ s ö ê 1+ç ÷ + 1ú 2 ê è we ø ú ë û 5.08 = =8 we 3.j12 sin ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø 3. Þ a 1822 = b 1824 2p -j x æ . (D) Since Pointing vector is in the positive x direction. (A) |h| = ö ÷ ÷ ø 1 4 = 120 p 2.1 3.gatehelp. uz = 16 e -j 2p x 3 2 p ´ 5 ´ 106 3 ´ 108 5´2 2 [ 1+ x 2 +1 ] uE ´ u H = ux .41 + j 6. In air the first null occur at 3 l p x =.6) ( 65 + 1) = 6. u y ´ u H = u x Þ u H = u z 1 Hs = ( -2 u y + 3u z ) e .j 2 px ö E = Ei + Er = ç 6 e 3 u y . (B) The electric field vanish at the surface of the conducting plane at x = 0. Therefore u E ´ u H = u x .99 2 ù me é æ s ö ê 1+ç ÷ .4 ´ 108 m s b 18 6 10.3) u x + 3( 8) u x } ´ 10 -3 = 17. (D) |h| = 1 Þ 360 = 2 4 æ ö ç1 + æ s ö ÷ ç ÷ ÷ ç è we ø ø è 120p er Þ 1 e r = 0. (C) vp = w 2 p ´ 400 ´ 10 = = 1.jbx mA m 120 p 6. 12.j 15x ho Þ Þ u H = uz u H = -u y .1)( 3. therefore u E ´ u H = u x .4 1 64 4 1 {(5. For u E = u y .1)( 3.3u y + 8 u z ) e .1) = 5. (B) Pavg = 1 Re {Es ´ H *} s 2 = 2 p ´ 50 ´ 106 3 ´ 108 (2. (C) s = tan 2 q n = tan 60 ° = 1732 .13 2 g = a + jb = 5. we m e 13. For u E = u z .com Page 499 . u y ´ u H = u x For u E = u z . u z ´ u H = u x Þ uH = . (B) 2.5 SOLUTIONS 1. Hs = 6 e 120 p -j 2p x 3 u H = uz s = 1823 we a = b 1 + x2 .uy For u E = u y .13 per meter.6 = 101.1 ==.1ú 2 ê è we ø ú ë û æ 2p ö = . (A) w = 2 p ´ 10 8 8 8.Electromagnetic Wave Propagation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (B) Loss tangent b=w s =x we rad s b= w 2 p ´ 10 2p = = rad m c 3 ´ 108 3 2p -j x 3 2 ù me é æ s ö ê 1+ç ÷ + 1ú 2 ê è we ø ú ë û Þ Þ 10 = x= Es = 6 e u y mV m u y ´ u H = ux .m 2 2 b1 4.jbx = ( -5. www.1 1 + x2 + 1 uz m A m 9. u z ´ u H = u x 12 Hs = ( u z . (C) The wave is propagating in forward x direction.999 = 9.6 e 3 u y ÷ mV m ç ÷ è ø a = 10 ´ 0. Er = -6 e j 2p x 3 u y mV m. (D) a = w s 0.

198 + j0. we a = ln 2 a = b æ s ö 1+ç ÷ -1 è we ø æ s ö 1+ç ÷ +1 è we ø 234 . t = T 8 377 h . 1 = 120 mm p ´ 5 ´ 10 ´ 35 ´ 10 7 ´ m o .37 = ho mr er 18.6 ÷ è4 ø æp ö |E = 13e -0 .h1 G= = 2 =ho 3 h2 + h1 + ho 2 1 1 + |G| 1 + 3 s= = =2 1 .8 cos ( wt .gatehelp.h1 ö h1 H or = ç 2 ÷ ç h + h ÷ Eoi è 2 1 ø Þ æ h .377 = 2 3000 h 2 + 377 Þ e r = 12.18) Eo e .a1 = 0.13.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 14.94 mm h1 = ho Þ æ h .686 DB.z) u x mA m w w b =1 = = m r er v c 20.66 | è4 ø 19.0. -u y ´ u H = -u z Þ u H = -u x H r = -8.198 = b g = a + jb = 0.198 0. (A) t = = h2 + h1 ho + 2 3 2 22.13. (D) h1 = ho . (A) h1 = ho . (D) Loss = aDz = 0. 21 dB. (A) h1 = ho .z) u x V m 23. ho .3.2 z cos ( wt .82 q n = 24 ° Þ Þ 1 = 0.6 ÷ = 5.h1 =3 h2 + h1 1 10 (10) = 3 3 10 Eor H or = = = 8.19 W Rac = 7 .com .1 234 + 1 Þ b = 0.448 15.4 z) At z = 4 m. 0.ho 1 h2 . (A) Eor = GEoi = 1 ( 42) = -14 3 0.14 cos ( wt .448 2 ho . (A) |E| = Eo e .5. h2 = ho G= 1 h2 . (C) h1 = ho .2 ´ 3 = 0.a1 = (1 . w = 2pr outer 60 = 0. (B) d = 1 1 = = 5. 35 ´ 10 ´ 120 ´ 10 -6 ´ 2 p ´ 12 ´ 10 -3 17. (B) E = Re{E s e jwt } = (5 u x + 12 u y) e -0 .ho ö ho = ç 2 ÷ ç h + h ÷3000 è 2 o ø Þ h2 = 485. h2 = ho Eor h . (D) t = 5 d = = 5 p ´ 12 ´ 10 ´ m o ´ 6.6 Np 1 Np = 8.h1 G= = 2 =ho 3 h2 + h1 1 + ho 2 24.75 m r ho = 2 er æp ö E = (5 u x + 12 u y) e -0 .8 cos ç .8 cos ç . (A) w = p106 d= 1 pfsm l sdw = f = 5 ´ 10 5 Hz.ho 1 h2 . h2 = m ho ho = = 2 e er 16.198 Þ 5 Er = .8 ´ 10 -3 ho 3 ´ 377 Eor = uE ´ u H = uk .05 a 0. h2 = ho Page 500 www.1 ´ 10 7 9 5 pfms = 2. m r = 20.az Eo e .1 3 h 2 o 2h2 2 =2 21.h1 ö 18 h1 = ç 2 ÷ ç h + h ÷ 6 ´ 10 -3 è 2 1 ø mr mr = ho 12. mr h = o 2 er 25.82 s tan 2 q n = = 1111 .|G| 1 .6 Np = 5.h1 =G = 2 Eoi h2 + h1 But Eor = h1 H or = GEoi æ h .5 er Rac = Since d is very small.

6 e o = 2. (C) At minimum 2p Þ f = 0.h1 = 2 h2 + h1 ho Þ er = 9 31. (A) e r1 = ç ÷ ÷ ç l w ÷ . (B) sin q t 2 = 1 sin q t1 = (0. (A) s = = 1 1 .2.9 ÷ ø 3 æ 1 + 0. h2 = ho h .gatehelp.47 e2 2.6 Þ q t = 31. (B) m o = m 1 = m 2 sin q t1 = Þ eo sin q i e1 Þ sin q t1 = 1 sin 45 ° = 0. 2.8 y) u z V m 32.|G| 3 14 1 + |G| 1+ 36.447 = = 0.com Page 501 .447ho er 5 G= Ei Er = 1 h2 .ho G = 0.382.2 p l s -1 3 -1 1 = = |G| = s+1 3+1 2 h .h1 = = ho ho h2 + h1 + er 2 e r1 G= 1 l2 . G2 = 16 1 4 = 5 35.8 ° mr h = o = 0. (D) h1 = ho . 17. (A) Since both media are non magnetic tan q B = e1 = e2 2.34 Et = 7.58ho er 3 33.47 ° Þ e 4.z) u y .ho er 2 e r1 m r2 m r1 + ho er 2 e r1 = Þ Þ m r 2 1 + 0.h1 = h2 + h1 ho ho m r2 m r1 .25%.66 cos ( wt + z) u y V m 28.38. Eot = tEoi = 7.47 = 28 ° The fraction of the incident energy that is reflected is 1 = 6.h1 0.2 p ÷ = 641 + j502 W ÷ è ø www. (B) |G| = 0.5 e j 0 .l1 3 . h1 = ho .5 e j 0 . t = 1 + G = 0.7 cos ( wt .58ho . h1 = ho mr h = o er er 30.333 4.h1 . 2 Þ er 1 = ho 2 ho + er ho - G = ± 0. er 2 = ç l w ÷ ç è 1 ø è 2 ø ho G= er 2 e r1 h2 .25 Þ q t2 = sin -1 0.(A) G = G= Er 50 Ð20 ° e j 20 = = Ei 150 3 26.5 29.58h o + h o t = 1 + G = 0.2 ° = 2. 2b G= h2 . (B) ETotal = Ei + Er .h1 G= 2 = .3l .m r 2 m r1 + m r 2 37.734.Electromagnetic Wave Propagation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.2 p ö h2 = ho ç ç 1 .447 e r1 æ m r 2 =ç e r 2 ç m r1 è ö ÷ = 0.34 cos ( wt .62 h2 + h1 Et = tEi = 92. m r ho = = 0. 266 h2 + h1 0.5 ´ 108 rad s.2 .ho G= 2 = = -0.447 m r1 m r2 3 3 m r2 m r1 m r2 m r1 + 3 3 m r2 m r1 m r1 .2 ° ho h2 2.333) = 0.0.2 p = 2 h2 + ho b= = Þ ( f + p) = 0. (A) h1 = ho . Eor = GEoi = -2.66 æ1 + G h2 = ho ç ç1-G è e j 20 3 e j 20 3 ö ÷ ÷ = 692 + j176 W ÷ ÷ ø 2 æ 2 pc ö æ 2 pc ö 34.62 m r1 1 ± 0.z) u y V m 27.5 w= 3 ´ 108 12 ´ 3 = 0. h2 = ho h2 .5 e r1 -1 er 2 e r1 er 2 l2 -1 l = 1 l2 +1 +1 l1 q t1 = 19. h2 + h1 æ ç1 + ö ÷ = 377ç ÷ ç ø ç1è 2 h .6 cos 58.5 = =4 l2 + l1 3 + 5 ho Þ e r1 æ l2 =ç e r 2 ç l1 è ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ETotal = 10 cos ( wt .5 e j 0 .6 eo But cos q t = h1 h cos q B = o cos 58. (D) h2 = ho .0.056.

b2 = w m 2 e 2 Þ Þ w m 2 e2 = f = p 0. 40. h2 = ho h . 2 b2 d = 2.j138 + 632 s= 1 + |G| 1 . (B) At 50 MHz.26 Ð .38 ° 81 ******** 2 The transmitted fraction is 1 .27 1 .j138 .45 = -0.5° h in + h1 590 . (C) This frequency gives the condition b2 d = p Where d = 6 cm. 39.133 h1 = m1 4 ´ 10 -6 = = 632 W e1 10 -11 m2 2 ´ 10 -6 = = 283 W e2 25 ´ 10 -12 h3 = 632 W h2 = The input impedance at the first interface is æ h + jh2 tan (b2 d) ö æ 632 + j283(0. tan =1 l 8 4 4 41.06 1 2 ´ 0. (A) w = 108 rad s.12 = 1.|G| = 126 . = 170 .45 ho 3.06 2 ´ 10 -6 ´ 25 ´ 10 -12 = 118 GHz . 0.j92 . (A) h1 = ho .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 38.134) ÷ è ø ø è 2 3 2 = 590 .ho + ho mr ho = er 3.74 1 3 rad m.06) = 0.0.12 2p l p p × = .134) ö hin = h2 ç 3 ç ÷ ÷ ç h + jh tan (b d) ÷ = 283ç 283 + j 632(0.632 G = in = = 0.j92 + 377 s= 1 + |G| 1 .377 G = in = = 0. (C) bd = h2 = 260.3 Þ 3 ´ 108 er = 108 1 3 Þ e r = 3.137 ° hin + ho 243 . h1 = h3 = ho æ h + jh2 tan (b2 d) ö æ 377 + j260 ö hin = h2 ç 3 ç ÷ ÷ ç h + jh tan (b d) ÷ = 260ç 260 + j 377 ÷ è ø ø è 2 3 2 = 243 .gatehelp.|G| = 1 + 0.com 42.j92 W h . (B) q c = sin -1 er 2 = sin -1 e r1 1 = 6. 43.ho 243 .0.12 Ð . v = c er = w b www. b = Page 502 .45 . b2 = w m 2 e2 = 2 p ´ 50 ´ 10 6 2 ´ 10 -6 ´ 25 ´ 10 -12 = 2.91.100.j138 h .|G| = 1 .22(0.h1 G= 2 = h2 + h1 ho 3.09 = 0.h1 590 .

The dominant mode is (B) 22.5 cm (B) 1.25 cm (C) 6 cm by 2.24 ´ 108 m s (C) 305 ´ 10 m s .09 GHz (D) 16. The cutoff frequency is (A) 3. If a short pulse of 7. a TE mode operating at 6 GHz has æ 2 px ö æ py ö E y = 15 sin ç ÷ cos ç ÷ sin ( wt .0 W 5.4 GHz (C) 5 GHz (B) 4 GHz (D) 8 GHz (B) 154 ´ 106 m s . The waveguide is operating at 20 GHz with TM11 mode.68 GHz (C) 9. 8 Statement for Q. The phase velocity is (A) 1. the time taken by the pulse to return the input end is (A) 920 ns (C) 230 ns (B) 460 ns (D) 430 ns www.1–3: A 2 cm by 3 cm rectangular waveguide is filled with a dielectric material with e r = 6.2 W (C) 375.04 GHz (A) TM10 (C) TE01 (B) TM 01 (D) TE10 (B) 412 rad m (D) 168 rad m 7. At dominant mode the cutoff frequency is (A) 11.5 GHz.gatehelp. In an an-filled rectangular wave guide.02 GHz 2.48 ´ 10 m s 8 8. For an air-filled rectangular waveguide given that æ 2 px ö æ 3py ö 12 Ez = 10 sin ç ÷ sin ç ÷ cos (10 t .7 WAVEGUIDES Statement for Q.bz) V m è a ø è b ø If the waveguide has cross-sectional dimension a = 6 cm and b = 3 cm.12 z) V m è a ø è b ø Page 511 4. The phase constant is (A) 816 rad m (C) 1009 rad m 3. Consider a 150 m long air-filled hollow rectangular waveguide with cutoff frequency 6.2 GHz is introduced into the input end of the guide.com .5 cm by 6 cm (B) 378. the cutoff frequency of a TE10 mode is 5 GHz where as that of TE01 mode is 12 GHz.25 cm by 3 cm (D) 2. (D) 7. 1. 6.9–10: In an air-filled waveguide.9 W (D) 380.1 W Statement for Q.6–7: In an air-filled rectangular waveguide the cutoff frequencies for TM11 and TE03 modes are both equal to 12 GHz. The dimensions of the guide is (A) 3 cm by 1. then the intrinsic impedance of this mode is (A) 373.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8.

7 (D) j276. The resonant frequency for the TM110 mode is (A) 5 GHz www.911 (C) 1.946 GHz 16.189 GHz (C) 8.7.66 ´ 108 m s (C) 2.2 W (D) 632.46 ´ 108 m s 15. The air filled cavity resonator has dimension a = 3 cm.bz) V m è a ø è b ø 11.25) and operates at 24 GHz.973 GHz (D) 7. P8. It has dielectric discontinuity as shown in fig.7. A rectangular (B) 4. If a < b < c.17–19 17. The phase velocity is (A) 1.11–12.2 (C) j2733.44 W x 2. The cutoff frequency is (A) 4.3 (B) j400.7.4 W Page 512 (B) 337. The intrinsic impedance is (A) 35. TE mode is æ 2 px ö æ 3py ö 10 E y = 12 sin ç ÷ cos ç ÷ sin (10 p ´ 10 t . 13.286 cm and b = 1016 cm. The cutoff frequency of a certain mode is 16 GHz.438 GHz (B) 5. The intrinsic impedance of this mode is (A) 2248 W (C) 421.4 GHz (D) 9 GHz (C) 16.66 ´ 108 m s (C) 2.2 W (B) 6. b = 2 cm.16. The y-component of the .25eo z 5 cm Fig. then the dominant mode is (A) TE011 (C) TE101 (B) TM110 (D) TM101 polyethylene ( e r = 2.7.389 Statement for Q.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 9. The intrinsic impedance is (A) 743 W (C) 986 W Statement for Q.43 ´ 108 m s 18.16. If a = c > b.42 ´ 108 m s (D) 9.42 ´ 108 m s (D) 9. the standing wave ratio is y 10.2 GHz . If the guide operate at 8 GHz in the dominant mode. P8.72 W (C) 1989 W Statement for Q. The propagation constant g is (A) j4094.com (B) 168 W (D) 144 W x a 0 b c Fig. P8. c = 4 cm. y z 12. Consider an air-filled rectangular wave guide with a = 2.4 (A) -3. eo mo.564 (B) 3978 W (D) 71.16 (B) 2.13–14: Consider a air-filled waveguide operating in the TE12 mode at a frequency 20% higher than the cutoff frequency.5 cm mo. The group velocity is (A) 1. 2.43 ´ 108 m s waveguide is filled with a 20.7. The cross section of a waveguide is shown in fig. the dominant mode is (A) TE011 (C) TE101 (B) TM110 (D) TM101 (B) 5. then the dominant mode is (A) TE011 (C) TE101 (B) TM110 (D) TM101 19.46 ´ 108 m s 14.468 (D) 4.17–19.17–19: Consider the rectangular cavity as shown in fig.gatehelp. P8. If a > b > c. P8.

35.gatehelp.7.32 cm ç ÷ +ç -2 ÷ 2 .3 cm (B) 6. (D) v = = 3 ´ 108 æ 6. (B) fc 01 = 3 ´ 108 v = = 4 GHz 2 b 2 ´ 375 ´ 10 -2 .6 GHz (D) 2.81 GHz è6ø è 3ø 2 2 Page 514 www. (C) Ez ¹ 0. the TM1 mode propagates through the guide without suffering any reflective loss at the dielectric interface. Þ 2 b = 375 cm .5 GHz < f < 4.com w 1012 = = 159. P8.3 GHz Statement for Q. èaø è 375 ´ 10 ø Since a < b.5 GHz æf ö æf ö w 2. Two identical rectangular waveguide are joined end to end where a = 2 b.2 GHz 2p 2p .25.2 ø 2 = 6. The dielectric between the plates is teflon ( e r = 2.70 GHz (D) 4 GHz < f < 6 GHz 36.48 GHz < f <7. 7.4 cm (C) 4. is (A) 3. n = 3) fc = f = 3 ´ 108 2 ´ 10 -2 æ2 ö æ 3ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 15. this must be TM 23 mode ( m = 2. The range of frequencies. 2b For TE01 mode fc = b= v 3 ´ 108 = = 1. 3 ´ 108 æ 1 ö 1 æ ö Þ a = 1. The maximum allowable plate separation b is (A) 3. A parallel-plate guide operates in the TEM mode only over the frequency range 0 < f < 3 GHz. This frequency is SOLUTIONS 1. (A) vp = 4. 2a 2 3.975 ´ 108 ms t= 2l 2 ´ 150 = = 430 ns v 6. 38.02 GHz 37. (C) 12 ´ 10 9 = 12 ´ 10 9 = .5 GHz < f < 3.25 cm 2 fc 2 ´ 12 ´ 10 9 c æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 5.8 cm (D) 8.975 ´ 108 3 ´ 108 æ 3ö 0+ç ÷ 2 è bø 2 2 6.24 GHz < f < 3. over which guide support both TE10 and TE01 modes and no other.34 æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 3.1).1 1 cm z = 3 ´ 108 2 6 ´ 10 -2 Fig.24 ´ 108 m s bp 1009 v .6 cm ************* 8. (C) bp = b 1 . One guide is air filled and other is filled with a lossless dielectric of e r . the maximum allowable value of e r is 2 p ´ 20 ´ 10 9 6 æ 3.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics frequency. the dominant mode is TE01 .33 GHz (B) 2 GHz < f < 3 GHz (C) 4. it is found that up to a certain frequency single mode operation can be simultaneously (A) 4 (C) 1 ensured in both (B) 2 (D) 6 guide. The range of frequencies over which single mode operation will occur is (A) 2.68 ö 1 -ç ÷ = 1009 rad m 3 ´ 108 è 20 ø w 2 p ´ 20 ´ 10 9 = = 1.5 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 7.6 GHz (C) 3 GHz < f < 3.6 GHz (C) 4.68 GHz è2 ø è 3ø 2 2 2 (A) 8.35 GHz < f < GHz (B) 2. (A) fc = v æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø 2 2 2 er1 = 4 Incident wave er2 = 2.ç c ÷ = 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ ç f ÷ v è ø è ø Þ bp = A 6 cm ´ 4 cm rectangular wave guide is filled with dielectric of refractive index 1.35–36: (B) 12. (A) For TE10 mode fc = a= v 3 ´ 108 = = 3 cm 2 fc 2 ´ 5 ´ 10 9 v .8 GHz (D) 7. For this frequency range.

22 = = 1564 . p = 0.Waveguides GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (B) m = 2..66 ´ 108 m s ç f ÷ ç 12 f ÷ è ø è .. .25 = 2 GHz 251.2 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 50 ø 2 = 986 W 13.23 .7 12... 2..286 ÷ + ç 1016 ÷ ÷ è . ..ç c ÷ = c 1 ..7 W In dielectric medium 2 Þ 2 p ´ 6 ´ 10 9 æf ö 12 = 1 -ç c ÷ 8 3 ´ 10 è6ø fc = h= = 2 ´ 0.. 3.2 ø è ø 9.7 m -1 . fc = 3 ´ 108 c æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ = 2 è aø 2 ´ 10 -2 è bø 10 p ´ 1010 = 50 GHz 2p 2 2 2 æ 2 ö æ 3 ö ç ç 2. 1.ç c ÷ = 1.23 W 10.com Hence the dominant mode is TM110 . n = 3.h1 = = -0.. the dominant mode is TE10 .gatehelp. Hence the dominant mode is TE011 18.81 ö hTM = 377 1 .406. (A) v g = v 1 .. f = 6 GHz æf ö w 1 -ç c ÷ bp = ç f ÷ v è ø Þ 2 2 2 h1 = ho æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø c 2 a er ho er = 2 = 377 æ 3ö 1 -ç ÷ è8ø 3 ´ 108 2 = 406. 1 -|G| 1 . cø 15. 2.ç c ÷ = 377 1 . (B) m = 2.. æ 46. n = 1..7 h2 + h1 1 + |G| 1 + 0. then 1 1 1 > > a b c 2 = 400. 42 ´ 108 m s fr1 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è bø 2 2 The lowest TE mode is TE011 with fr 2 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è bø è cø 2 æ f ö æf ö 14.33 W.. (B) If a > b > c then 1 1 1 < < a b c 377 er = 377 = 251..2 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 50 ø 2 æf ö w 1 -ç c ÷ bp = ç f ÷ v è ø 2 p ´ 50 ´ 10 9 = 3 ´ 108 n = 1. h2 = = 259.05 2..2 fc vp = v æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 The lowest TM mode is TM110 with 8 2 = 3 ´ 10 æ f ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç 1.. In free space fc = c 3 ´ 108 = = 3 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0.7 h2 .973 GHz 377 æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 377 2.33 æ2 ö 1 -ç ÷ è8ø 2 fc = 5... ø è ø 2 2 17.. 3.25 = 251. (A) v = c..1 W ç f ÷ è 159..0.. For TE mode to z m = 1. (C) Since a > b.. 3. (A) fr = = 46..2 W The lowest TE mode is TE101 with fr 2 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è cø 2 16..2 GHz f = where for TM mode to z m = 1. (C) hTE = 377 æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 = 377 æ 46. 2.23 + 406.973 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 6 ø 2 = 3978 W G= s= 259. g = jbp = j 400.22 v æmö æ nö æ pö ç ÷ +ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø bø è ècø 2 2 2 11.7 æf ö æ 15.2 f ÷ è c ø 2 = 5. f = 1. if a < b < c. . n = 1.. p = 1.. bp = 12. 15 251. (B) hTE = = 377 æ 5. 2. (B) h = hTE = h æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 2 fr 2 > fr1 .05 fr 2 > fr1 www..ç ÷ = 375. 2.33 æ 16 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 24 ø 2 The lowest TM mode is TM110 with fr1 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è bø 2 2 2 = = 337.22 259.33 W . 3. 3. 2 .. Page 515 .

8 1 . fc 01 = 3 GHz < 0.3 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 3 ø 2 = 4.3 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0.876 GHz 25.01 2. h» 377 2. p = 0.5 3 ´ 108 m < 316 .3 ´ 10 -13 Np m Page 516 www. The propagating mode will be TM1 .6 . lc = 2 2 2 è aø bø è æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ è aø è bø 2 2 ad = = 10 -15 ´ 233.8 ´ 15 ´ 108 .022 . bh 1 .6 sdh æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 = 3.876 ö 15 ´ 10 -2 ´ 233. Þ a > 6 cm Þ 3 ´ 10 9 > 12 ´ 15 ´ 108 .7 ´ 108 m s 23. Thus (C) is correct option. (B) For TE10 mode Rs = 1 pfm = = sc d sc p ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 = 0. Rs ç 1 + ç ÷ ÷ 0. a = b = c.15 TE20 7. (C) Let a = kb . f > mc 2 b er Þ Þ m< 2 fb e r c 28.8 æ 3. b b < 4 cm. 29. . hence v » we fc = 3 ´ 108 2 ´ 2. fc10 = 3 GHz > 12 fc . (D) fr = = v æmö æ nö æ pö ç ÷ +ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø ècø 2 2 2 2 2 Dominant mode is TE10 . (A) For a propagating mode f > fcm .8 TE11 6. c 3 ´ 108 = = 2.015 æf ö æ 15 ö 8 = c 1 .6 = 233. 24. 11 ´ 10 7 2 ´ 30 ´ 10 9 ´ 0.ç .4 TE01 6. TM 2 . TE1 . fr = 2 Ghz. The maximum allowed m is 3. (A) fc = 2 c æmö æ nö ç ÷ + ç ÷ .4 ´ 10 -2 2. 1 < k < 2 fcmn = c æmö 15 ´ 108 . fcm = m< mc 2 b er .01 e r = 10 ´ 10 Þ er = 9 vp = c æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø = 3 ´ 108 æ 2. TE3 and TEM Thus total 7 modes. 26. (B) sd 10 -15 10 -15 = = we 2 p ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 2.8 fc 01 Þ Þ 3 ´ 10 9 < 21. b 3 ´ 108 æ 1 ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 9 GHz 2 ´ 0.876 ö ö .6 ´ 8. 20. (C) fc = 9 22.0568ç 1 + ç ÷ ÷ ç ç a ç f ÷ ÷ 2.01 è 3 ø è2 ø The next higher mode is TE01 .gatehelp. (A) m = n = 1. (C) If a = c > b. (B) fcm = f = vg2 mc 2 b er fc 2 = 2 fc1 = 15 GHz 2 2 æ æ 2 b æ fc ö ö 2 ´ 15 æ 3. a 15 ´ 108 .ç c ÷ ÷ ç f ÷ è 9 ø è ø = 0.ç ÷ = 2 ´ 10 m s ç f ÷ è 20 ø è ø s 2 2 sd << 1.6 cm 27. then 1 1 1 = < a c b Mode lc (cm) TE10 14. (A) fc = 2 ´ 3 ´ 108 2 ´ 0.com . TE2 . a fr2 < fr1 Hence the dominant mode is TE101 .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 19. æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ = 2 è aø a è bø 2 2 The lowest TE mode is TE101 with 2 fr 2 = m 2 + k2 n2 15 ´ 108 .85 ´ 10 -12 1.21 The lowest TM mode is TM110 with fr1 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è bø v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è cø 2 2 2 l > lc .0568 . .3 1 me = c 2.4 è 9 ø ÷ è ø ø è è ø = ac = 2 2 æf ö æ 3. fr = v æmö æ nö æ pö ç ÷ +ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø ècø 3 ´ 108 2 2 a mc 2 b er = Þ 2 2 2 0.876 ö 2 1 -ç ÷ è 9 ø 2 = 1.8 c 3 ´ 108 = = 20 GHz l 0. TM 3 .ç c ÷ = 3 ´ 108 1 .065 2 2 ´ 10 9 = a = 10. Hence TE10 mode can be used.

(A) f < fc Þ 3 ´ 10 9 < v 3 ´ 108 = 2 b 2 ´ b ´ 2. (C) fc11 = 3 ´ 108 . fc 21 = 4.06 3 ´ 108 = 3 GHz .2 è 3 ø ø è = ac = è 2 2 æ fc ö æ 2.034 1 .04 æmö æ n ö = 15 ç ÷ + ç ÷ GHz è 8ø è 10 ø fc10 = 1. (C) For dominant mode (m = 1.ç bh 1 . 32. æ mp ö æ w ö æ p ö æ 2 p ´ 3 ´ 10 a= ç ÷ -ç ÷ = ç ÷ -ç 8 ç a ø ècø è è 0.5 fc1 = = 12.Waveguides GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.gatehelp. Since wave is attenuated. In guide 1 e r = 1 è 2b ø è bø c 2(2 b) c 2b c 2 e r 2 (2 b) 2 2 fc 30 = 5. .429 ´ 10 -2 æ 1 + 2 ´ 3. 2 GHz < f < 3 GHz 36.1 3 ´ 108 c = = 1. fc 20 = 375GHz . = 1.4 æ 2.9 ° = 54.6 GHz 6ø è è4ø 2 2 3 GHz < f < 3. (D) Dominant mode is TE10 mode fc = c 3 ´ 108 = = 2.01 è 8 ø è 10 ø è bø 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 ´ 108 = 2 GHz . 3 GHz will not be propagated and get attenuated æ mp ö æ np ö æ w ö g = a + jb = ç ÷ -ç ÷ ÷ +ç è a ø è b ø ènø b = 0.875 ö æ p ö ÷ ç ÷ -ç 3 ´ 108 è ø è 0.25 ´ 10 e.7 30. 2 ´ 125 ´ 10 -2 æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 3. (B) fc = fc10 = 3 ´ 108 2 ´ b ´ 2.com ******************* Page 517 . Hence six mode will be transmitted.1 ÷ ø 2 c c <f < 2(2 b) 2 e r ( b) Þ f < Þ er < 4 38. fc12 = 354 GHz.875 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0. 2 ´ 125 ´ 0. 4 Rs = For TE10 mode 2 æ 2 b æ fc ö ö Rs ç 1 + ç ÷ ÷ 1.6 GHz 37.5 GHz 2 ´ 1´ 2 = 2. n = 0) c æmö 3 ´ 108 æ nö .8 ´ 10 7 9 -7 g= æ mp ö æ np ö æwö ç ÷ + ç ÷ -ç ÷ = è a ø è b ø ènø 2 2 2 æ 2p ´ 1.1° c 2 er = = æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ è aø è bø 2 2 Þ 35.625 GHz .ç ÷ ÷ ç f ÷ è 3 ø è ø The ray angle q = 90 °-35.08 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0.4 cm 33.08 www.9 °.429 ´ 10 -2 W 34.a c z 1 = 2 -3 Np m z= 1 ln 2 = 308 m ac 7.5 GHz If fc < f .875 GHz fc 01 = 15 GHz. (A) fc = c 2 er æmö æ nö ç ÷ + ç ÷ . (B) fcmn = c æmö 3 ´ 108 æ m ö æ n ö æ nö ÷ ç ÷ +ç ÷ = ç ÷ +ç 2 è aø 2 ´ 0. fc = = 375 GHz ç ÷ +ç ÷ = 2 è aø 2 ´ 0.8 GHz cos q cos 54. (A) fc = fc10 = fc 01 = c a2 e r c b2 e r 31. (B) The ray angle is such that the wave is interface at Brewster’s angle q B = tan -1 2.04 è bø Since given frequency is below the cutoff frequency.1 = 35.04 ø è 3 ´ 10 c æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø 2 2 2 2 2 9 2 2 2 2 2 lowest cutoff frequency fc10 = Next lowest cutoff frequency fc 20 = In guide 2 lowest cutoff frequency fc¢10 = Next lowest cutoff frequency fc¢20 = For single mode fc¢10 < f < fc¢10 Þ c 2 e r 2 ( b) ö ÷ = 47.04 GHz.08 ö ö ç ç ÷÷ ç a ç f ÷ ÷ è ø ø 7. then mode will be transmit. 2 ´ 125 ´ 0.1 Þ b < 3.4 GHz fc 02 = 3 GHz.08 ö 377 ´ 0.08 ø 2 = j439 . . fc 03 = 4.1° fc1 = f = c 2 b e r1 = 3 ´ 1010 = 7.5 ´ 1. . fc11 = 2.072 pfm o = sc p ´ 3 ´ 10 ´ 4 p ´ 10 5.

25 mV m (C) j94. The H at point P is (A) j0. Determine the directivity of antenna.5–6: A antenna located on the surface of a flat earth transmit an average power of 150 kW.943 10. 2.gatehelp. The maximum electric field at that location is (A) 24 mV m (C) 109 mV m (B) 85 mV m (D) 12 mV m 7.08 V m 6.5 mA m (B) 0. If current is uniform over its length. 0) is (A) 0.36u r mW m 2 (C) 9. 30°.252 V m (C) 0. The time-average poynting vector at 50 km is (A) 6.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8. 9. where 0<q<p 0 < f < .25 mV m (B) j0.78u r mW m 2 (D) 12. f) = 4 sin 2 q sin 2 f .2–3: A 25 A source operating at 300 MHz feeds a Hertizian dipole of length 4 mm situated at the origin.126 V m (D) 0. The | E| at the 7 5.5 mA m 3.875 0 < f < 2p (B) 2.25 mA m (D) 188. f) = sin 2 q. (A) 1. then radiation resistance of the antenna is (A) 1. Assume that all the power is radiated uniformly over the surface of hemisphere with the antenna at the center. 2 (A) 0.25 mA m (C) j0.89 W (D) 1. Page 518 (B) 1.5 mV m (D) j188.468 (D) 6.com . In free space.55u r mW m 2 (B) 4. At 1 r2 p 2 the an antenna produces and Pave = cos q cos f u r W m .23 W (C) 1.186 W Statement for Q. (A) 15 (C) 3 www.8 ANTENNAS 1.693 W (C) 3. (B) 12 (D) 6 0 <f<p (B) 2 sin q cos f (D) 8 sin q cos f 4. Consider the point P(10. U( q. The E at point P is (A) j0.974 W (C) 2.68 W 8. 0 < q < p . 0.263 W (D) 2. U( q.743 0 < q < p.jbr u q V m. The radiated power is (B) 0.23 W far field. A Hertizian dipole at the origin in free space has dl = 10 cm and I = 20 cos (2 p ´ 10 t) A.5 mV m (B) 94. 90°).73u r mW m 2 distant point (100. The directive gain of the antenna is (A) cos q cos f (C) 8 cos q sin f Statement for Q.04 V m Statement for Q. An antenna can be modeled as an electric dipole of length 4 m at 3 MHz.9–10: The radiation intensity of antennas has been given. an antenna has a far-zone field given by E = 1 r 10 sin 2 q e .

03 MHz (C) 127 kHz (B) 800 kHz (D) None of the above 1. q = 2 120 p ´ 20 ´ 0. An antenna consists of 4 identical Hertizian dipoles uniformly located along the z–axis and polarized in the z-direction. 180° 3. I o = 20. (B) Pave = Prad = òò = = 100 sin 2 2 q sin q dq df 2h p 100 (2 p)(2 sin q cos q) 2 sin q dq 2 ´ 120 p ò 0 10 sin 3 q cos 2 qdq = 0. (A) b = w 2 p ´ 300 ´ 106 = = 2p c 3 ´ 108 r = 10 m. the efficiency is (A) 41. An antenna is desired to operate on a frequency of 40 MHz whose quality factor is 50. If its loss resistance is 1. (C) Prad = ò Pave × dS = Pave × 2 pr 2 Pave = Prad 150 ´ 10 3 = = 9. f = 90 ° jI bdl At far field H = H f = o sin q e . The nulls of the pattern occur when q is (A) 30°.5% h = 120 p = 377. (B) Pave = Þ ( Emax ) 2 2h Þ Emax = 2hPave 31. 150 ° (B) q = 0. If the dipoles are fed by currents. An array comprises two dipoles that are separated by half wavelength.55 u r mW m 2 6.5% Statement for Q. then array factor is p (A) sin ( 4 cos q + ) p p (C) cos ( 2 cos q + 2 ) p 4 p (B) cos ( 4 cos q + ) p p (D) sin ( 2 cos q + 2 ) p 2 P = 9. 135 ° (C) q = 30 ° . The spacing between the dipole is l / 4 .1 2 p ´ = 0. (B) l = c 3 ´ 108 = = 100 f 3 ´ 106 29. dl = 10 cm p At (100 cm.com .55 mW m 2 2 pr 2 2 p(50 ´ 10 3) 2 2 30. 0. (B) b = SOLUTIONS w 2 p ´ 10 7 2 p = = c 3 ´ 108 30 hI obdl sin q 4 pr At far field | Eq| = 26. 90 ° .89 W 3 ò 0 p *********** Page 520 www. The bandwidth of antenna is (A) 5. (C) E = Eq = hH f = 377 H f = j94. 27.gatehelp. The array factor is (A) 2 cos ( p cos q + 45 ° ) (C) 2 cos ( p sin q + 45 ° ) (B) 2 cos ( p sin q ) (D) 2 cos ( p cos q ) (B) 59% (D) 25.55 ´ 10 -6 = 85 mV m 2 |E| 2h 7. 625 è lø 5. The dipoles are fed by currents of the same magnitude and phase.25 mV m 4. that are 180° out of phase with each other.j 2 p10 e = j0. q = 30 ° . 150° (C) 45°.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 25.27–29: An array comprises of two dipoles that are separated by the wavelength. 0). 135° (B) 60°.jbr 4 pr Þ Hf = j(2.1% (C) 74. The maximum of the pattern occur at (A) q = 45 ° . The group pattern function is p p (A) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) cos ( 2 cos q) p p (B) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) cos (8 cos q) p p (C) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) sin ( 2 cos q) p p (D) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) sin (8 cos q) Emax = 2 ´ 377 ´ 9. A thin dipole antenna is l 15 long. 180 ° (D) q = 60 ° .5)(2 p) ( 4 ´ 10 -3) .25 mA m 4 p(10) 28. 150 ° dl 4 1 1 = = < l 100 25 10 80 p2 æ dl ö Rrad = 80 p2 ç ÷ = = 1263 W . 120° (D) 0.126 V m | Eq| = 4 p ´ 100 30 2.2 W.

(B) Maxima occur when sin ( p cos q) p sin q = 0 30.48 = 19 dB 0.82 = 120 ´ 10 3 22. Pr = 8 pW 5 ´ 10 9 -12 y = bd cos q + a . (D) bd = 20. (D) l = 2 |Er| s |Ei| s = 4 pr 2 4p r 29. 63 = 0. 90 ° . Gdr = 22 dB = 158. (B) |Es|= 1.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Gd = 4 p(12) 1 = 79. 2 4 l 4 2 æp ö æp ö AF = 4 cos ç cos q ÷ cos ç cos q ÷ . (B) Efficiency = D= Gain 16 = = 17. 180 ° (240 p) Gd Prad Þ |E|= 4 pr 2 = ( 60)( 3981)(200 ´ 10 3) (120 ´ 10 3) 2 = 1.9 f 40 ´ 106 = = 800 kHz Q 50 2 25. (B) bd = Þ 8 4p = 12 mW c 3 ´ 108 = =1 m f 300 ´ 106 2 2 2p l =p . (C) Radiation resistance Rr = 80 p2 ç ÷ è l ø æ 1 ö = 80 ´ p2 ´ ç . a =p l 2 pö æ bd cos q + a ö æp AF = 2 cos ç ÷ = cos ç cos q + ÷ 2 2ø è ø è4 æ Nf ö sinç ÷ è 2 ø = æyö sinç ÷ è2ø æ l ö æ 1 ö Pr = Gdr Gdt ç 2000 = 12.5) æ ö = ç ÷ (2.78 = 12. ÷ = 351 W è 15 ø Efficiency = Page 522 2 351 .4) Prad 4p 4 p( 3k)(5 k) ø è 2 ************ Prad = 1038 kW . ± 2 2 q = 60 ° . 4 2 è ø è ø 8 ´ 10 Þ 0. Rr + RL 351 + 12 www.06 m.9 63 + 7 24. (A) Gd = 36 dB = 3981 Gd = 4 pr 2 Pi Prad Þ Pi = 2 Gd Prad |E| = 4 pr 2 2h 2p l = 2p .gatehelp. Rr = = 74.06 10 3 27. a = 0.7 mW ÷ P = (1)(1) ç 3÷ 4 pr ø è è 4 p10 ø 23. N = 4 sin 4 x 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x = = 4 cos x cos 2 x sin x sin x y p 2p l p = cos q bd = = . 120 ° d( AF ) =0 dq q = 0. (C) Pr = Gdr Gdt æ l ç 4 p ç 4 pr1 r2 è ö ÷ sPrad ÷ ø 2 31.5 % .5 dB Efficiency 0. (B) cos ( p cos q) = 0 Þ cos q = ± p cos q = ± 1 2 Þ p 3p . (B) BW = æ dl ö 26.82 V m 21.com . . a = 0 l æ bd cos q + a ö AF = 2 cos ç ÷ = 2 cos ( p cos q)= 2 cos ( p cos q) 2 è ø 28. (A) ( AF ) N Gdt = 34 dB = 2512.06 (2512)(158. r2 = 32 + 4 2 = 5 km l= 3 ´ 108 = 0.5 r1 = 3 km.

then iA is (A) Symmetric 3.2 ú. then a is (A) 5 (C) 625 (B) 25 (D) None of these 9. A is equal to ú 1û ú (B) c t (D) 3A é-5 -8 0 ù 4.1 . Every diagonal elements of a Hermitian matrix is (A) Purely real (C) Purely imaginary (B) 0 (D) 1 10. The matrix. If A = ê . A = ê 3 5 0 ú is ê ú ê ú ë 1 2 -1û (A) Idempotent (C) Singular (B) Involutory (D) None of these 5. then iA is (A) Symmetric (C) Hermitian é. Every diagonal element of a skew–symmetric matrix is (A) 1 (C) Purely real é 6.1 LINEAR ALGEBRA é 0 1.com é-5 -2 ù (C) ê ú ë -3 -1û (D) None of these Page 525 .gatehelp. then l is ú ú û (B) -2 (D) -1 8. -2ù . The inverse of the matrix ê úis ë 3 -5 û é5 (A) ê ë3 2ù 1ú û é5 (B) ê ë2 3ù 1ú û - 1 2 ù ú is ú û (B) Idempotent (D) None of these www. If A is Hermitian. A = ê ê ë(A) Orthogonal (C) Unitary 1 2 i 2 (B) 0 (D) None of these i 2 é-1 2 ù 12.2 11. If A = ê 2 1 ê ê ë 2 -2 (A) A (C) 3A t (B) Skew–symmetric (D) Skew–Hermitian. If A and B are square matrices of order 4 ´ 4 such that A = 5B and A = a × B .1 ê ê ë 2 (A) 0 (C) 2 1 0 -2 -2 3 l ù ú is a singular matrix. The matrix. then A and B are both (A) Singular (C) Involutory (B) Idempotent (D) None of these (C) Hermitian (B) Skew–symmetric (D) Skew–Hermitian (A) Purely real (C) Purely imaginary (B) 0 (D) 1 7. If A is Skew–Hermitian. If A and B are square matrices of the same order such that AB = A and BA = A .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9. then adj. Every diagonal element of a Skew–Hermitian matrix is 2.

x + 2 y + 3z = 10.15 (D) 0. . then (A) adj A = 0 (C) adj A = I n 22. 2 3 3 (C) 2 A . The lx . . (I) ( AB) T = A TBT (III) adj( AB) = (adj.3 (B) . system of equation x . 2 2 (C) 1 .4 ú are ê ú 3û ê ú ë 2 -4 (A) 0.y + z = 0. . The system of (B) adj A ¹ 0 (D) None of these equations x .2 z = 13. The system equationsx + y + z = 6. . 3 A . lx + y .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics é1 13. 2 x . . .gatehelp. The system of (B) -3 (D) None of these.2 and 3.2. . . if l is (A) 6 (C) 2 18. B) (V) AB = A × B Which of the above statements are false ? (A) I. If A is an n–row square matrix of rank (n . if l is (A) l ¹ (C) l ¹ 2 Page 526 4 5 26. If A is a non–singular matrix and the eigen values of A are 2 . The system of (B) 2 2ù é 8 -6 ê. 7 x . 3 . Let A and B be non–singular square matrices of the same order.4 y + 7 z = 14. 7 x + 2 y + 10 z = 5 has (A) a unique solution (B) no solution (C) an infinite number of solutions (D) None of these é 2 -1 14.8 y + 26 z = 5 has (A) a unique solution (B) no solution (C) an infinite number of solution (D) none of these 4ù é3 are 23. 1 (D) None of these é 2 16. (D) None of these 15. 15 (D) None of these equations has 3 x . 3. A = ê 4 7 ê ê ë 1 4 the value of l is (A) -13 (C) 3 (B) 13 3ù lú is 2.1 .2 y + z = 0. 3 . The eigen values of A = 7 . The rank of the matrix A = ê 0 ê ê 2 ë (A) 3 (C) 1 17.2 y + 2 z = 0 (B) -6 (D) -2 25. . then the eigen values of the matrix 2A are 1 3 (B) 2 .6 24. then A -1 is equal to ú 2û ú 0 é 2 1 (B) ê-5 1 2ê ê ë -1 -1 0ù 0ú ú 2û ú 19. a non–zero 15 x .3 A (D) None of these (B) l = 4 3 (D) None of these www. . if l is (A) 3 (C) 0 20. equations 5 x + 3 y + 7 z = 4. .3.3 . 3 (D) None of these.z = 0 has the trivial solution as the only solution.com . . solution. 3 x + 26 y + 2 z = 9. If the eigen values of a square matrix be 1. The eigen values of A = ê 9 -5 ú ë û (A) ± 1 (C) -1. 6 (A) . III & IV (C) I & II (B) IV & V (D) All the above 1 -1ù 3 -2 ú is ú 4 -3ú û (II) ( AB) -1 = B-1 A -1 (IV) r( AB) = r( A)r(B) 3 x + 8 y .4 . A)(adj.3 then the eigen values of A -1 are 1 1 -1 (A) 2 . Consider the following statements. then ú 5û ú (D) none of these 21.6 y + 5 z = 0. 3. If the rank of the matrix.y + 3z = 0. -15 (C) 0.1). Let A = ê5 ê ê ë3 é 4 0 1 (A) ê-10 2 4ê ê ë -1 -1 é 1 (C) ê-10 ê ê -1 ë 0 2 -1 0 2 1 0ù 0ú ú 2û ú 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û 0ù 0 ú. x + 2 y + lz = 12 is inconsistent. 15 (B) 0.1 (B) 1.

4 are the eigen values of a non–singular matrix A and A = 4.I 2 ) (C) 12( A . . 1 4 (B) 2.Linear Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.com (B) I and IV (D) II and IV Page 527 (C) II and III .4ù . If 2 . 2 . If 2 and 4 are the eigen values of A then the eigenvalues of A T are (A) 1 2 .sin na Which of the above statements are true ? (A) I and II www.sin a é cos na IV. A a × A b = A ab sin a ù . then consider the following cos a ú û II. If the product of matrices écos q cos q sin q ù A =ê ú and 2 ëcos q sin q sin q û 2 (B) 10 (D) None of these é cos n a III. If A a = ê ë.2 A .A ) × ê ú is equal to sin a cos a û ë (A) I + A (B) I .4n ù 1 . If A = ê ëtan a 2 . . ( A a ) n = ê n ë. 3 (C) 1. .4 35. ( A a ) n = ê ë. 3 (B) 1. then q and f differ by (A) an odd multiple of p (B) an even multiple of p (C) an odd multiple of (D) an even multiple p 2 p 2 28. then the eigen values of adj A are (A) 1 2 .2 nú û é8 32. 9 (D) None of these é cos 2 f cos f sin fù B=ê ú cos f sin f sin 2 f û ë is a null matrix. 2 and 5 are the eigen values of the matrix A then A is equal to (A) 8 (C) 9 34. If 1 and 3 are the eigenvalues of a square matrix A then A 3 is equal to (A) 13( A . 16 30. If A = ê ë1 (D) None of these n. then A and B are (A) both null matrices (B) both identity matrices (C) both square matrices of the same order (D) None of these 29. If 1.I 2 ) (B) 13A . . If A and B are two matrices such that A + B and AB are both defined. 4.2 n (C) ê ë n (D) None of these é cos a 38. 2 . If -1 . The sum of the eigenvalues of A = ê4 ê ê2 ë equal to (A) 18 (C) 10 (B) 15 2 5 0 3ù 9 ú is ú 5 ú û é1 . 3 are the eigen values of a square matrix A then the eigen values of A 2 are (A) -1 .gatehelp. 2. then for every positive integer -1 ú û 0 0ù ú 0ú 1 ú 2 û (C) I + 2 A é3 37.1 (D) 8 . 4 (D) None of these (C) 4.16 (C) 2 . If A is a square matrix of order 3 and A = 2 then A (adj A) is equal to é2 (A) ê0 ê ê0 ë é1 (C) ê0 ê ê ë0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û 0ù 0ú ú 1û ú é1 2 ê (B) ê0 ê0 ë 0 1 2 écos a .sin a ù 2 then (I .sin a statements : I. -1 (B) 2 .1 27.tan a ù 2 ú 0 û 31.12I 2 (D) None of these é 0 36. A a × A b = A ( a + b) sin n a ù ú cos n a û sin na ù cos na ú û (D) None of these 33.A (D) I . A n is equal to é1 + 2 n (A) ê ë n 4n ù 1 + 2 nú û 4n ù 1 + 2 nú û é1 + 2 n (B) ê ë n .

If A n ´n is a triangular matrix then det A is (A) Õ ( -1) a i =1 n n ii (B) Õa i =1 n n ii (C) å ( -1) a i =1 ii (D) åa i =1 ii www. that has an inverse is é 3 1ù (A) ê ú ë6 2 û é6 2 ù (C) ê ú ë9 3û é5 2 ù (B) ê ú ë2 1 û é8 2 ù (D) ê ú ë4 1 û 4 2 41. then AA is ë3 -1 4 û é 1 3ù (A) ê ú ë-1 4 û 1ù é2 (C) ê ú ë1 26 û é 1 0 1ù (B) ê ú ë-1 2 3û (D) Undefined 40. Matrix D is an orthogonal matrix D = ê ëC value of B is 1 (A) 2 (C) 1 1 2 é 2 -1ù é1 -2 . If A = ê ú.5 ù 44. If A is a 3-rowed square matrix. then adj (adj A) is equal to (A) A (C) A 6 3 (B) A (D) A 46. If A = ê2 1ú then A -1 is ê ú ê ú ë1 1û é1 4 ù (A) ê3 2 ú ê ú ê2 5 ú ë û é2 3ù (C) ê3 1ú ê ú ê ú ë2 7 û é 1 -2 ù (B) ê-2 1ú ê ú ê 1 2ú ë û (D) Undefined é1 ù é1 1 0 ù ê ú 48. If A = ê ë x of x is (A) 1 (C) 1 2 (B) 2 (D) None of these (B) 28 (D) None of these 0ù é 1 and A -1 = ê xú û ë-1 0ù . then the value 2ú û 47. If A is a 3-rowed square matrix such that A = 2. The skew symmetric matrix is é 0 -2 5 ù (A) ê 2 0 6ú ê ú ê ú ë-5 -6 0 û é0 1 3ù (C) ê1 0 5 ú ê ú ê ú ë3 5 0 û é1 5 2ù (B) ê6 3 1ú ê ú ê ú ë2 4 0 û é0 3 3ù (D) ê2 0 2 ú ê ú ê ú ë1 1 0 û é1 2 ù 43. If A is a 3-rowed square matrix such that A = 3. The matrix.com .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 39. the product of A and B ë1 0 1û ê ú ë1 û is é1 ù (A) ê ú ë0 û é1 ù (C) ê ú ë2 û é1 0 ù (B) ê ú ë0 1 û é1 0 ù (D) ê ú ë0 2 û Bù . The 0ú û éA 49. If A = ê ú and B = ê0 ú. then adj (adj A) is equal to : (A) 3A (C) 27A (B) 9A (D) none of these é1 2 0 ù T 45. then adj (adj A 2 ) is equal to (A) 2 4 (C) 216 é2 x 42.gatehelp. If A = ê 1 0 ú and B = ê then AB is ê ú 0ú ë3 4 û -3 4 û ê ú ë é-1 -8 -10 ù (A) ê-1 -2 5ú ê ú 15 û ê ú ë 9 22 é-1 -8 -10 ù (C) ê 1 -2 -5 ú ê ú 15 û ê ú ë 9 22 Page 528 (B) (D) 0 0 -10 ù é 0 ê-1 -2 (B) -5 ú ê ú ê ú ë 0 21 -15 û é0 -8 -10 ù (D) ê1 -2 -5 ú ê ú ê ú ë9 21 15 û 50.

A 2 = AA = ( AB) A = A( BA) = AB = A and B2 = BB = (BA)B = B( AB) = BA = B Þ A 2 = A and B2 = B.4 + 6 =0 Þ l = -2 2. ½ 1 .2 ½ ½1 ½ + 2½ l½ ½ 0 -2 ½ ½ ½ 0 + 0½ 3 ½ ½-2 3 ½ ½= 0 l ½ 52. é-5 -8 4. Þ aij = . if A = 0. A = 5B Þ A = 5B = 5 4 B = 625 B Þ a = 625 ************ 3. Þ 2 aii = 0 Þ aii = 0 if i = j then aii = .1 ét 2 cos t ù dA 51.A . then (A) A is non singular and the rows and columns of A are linearly independent. (C) A is orthogonal if AA T = I A is unitary if AA Q = I . (B) Let A = [ aij ] be a skew–symmetric matrix. ê ú ê0 0 1ú ë û A2 = I A is involutory. (B) A is singular if A = 0 é 0 Þ ê -1 ê ê 2 ë Þ 1 0 -2 -2 ù 3 ú =0 ú lú û . é ê AA Q = ê êê ë www. if A 2 = I Now.. If A Î R n ´n . A is Idempotent.Linear Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.sin t ù (C) ê t cos t ú ëe û é2t cos t ù (B) ê t ú ë e sin t û (D) Undefined SOLUTIONS 1. Thus A & B both are Idempotent. 6. (C) If k is a constant and A is a square matrix of order n ´ n then kA = kn A . then dt will be e sin t û ë ét 2 sin t ù (A)ê t ú ë e sin t û é2t .aij . det A ¹ 0.gatehelp. if A 2 = A A is Involutory. (C) A is non singular and the A has one zero rows.e.4) + 2( 3) = 0 Þ l . Page 529 . (D) A is singular. where A Q is the conjugate transpose of A i. Here.aii Thus diagonal elements are zero. then AT = . (B) A is non singular and the rows A are linearly dependent. 5.com 1 2 i 2 ùé 2 úê úê 1 úê úê 2 ûë i 1 2 i 2 ù 2 ú é1 ú= 1 ú ê0 ë ú 2 û i 0ù = I2 1ú û Thus A is unitary. (B) Since. A Q = ( A) T . A = ê 3 5 ê ê ë 1 2 2 0 ù é-5 -8 0úê 3 5 úê -1û ë 1 2 úê Þ 0ù 0ú ú -1û ú é1 0 0 ù = ê0 1 0 ú = I. If A = ê t ú.( -1)½ ½-2 Þ ( l . (B) A is singular.

(A) A square matrix A is said to be Hermitian if A = A. 2 ½ -1 ½4 Thus A = 7 ½ 1 4 ½ Þ Þ Þ 3½ l½ = 0 ½ 5½ Similarly 1½ ½2 .A.l) + 3(16 . and IV are wrong. adj ( AB) = adj (B) adj ( A) r( AB) ¹ r( A) r(B).e. ( AB) -1 = B-1 A -1 . 9. 2 10 -10 ù é 4 0 ú = ê10 2 2 -1 ú ê 0 2ú ê-1 -1 û ë 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û T 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û Where cij is the cofactor of aij Also cij = ( -1) i + j M ij . M13 = -6. are zero. 16.1 ú ê3 û ë 13.e. ( iA) Q = i A Q = .2 ½ ½ 6 . A -1 = ( iA ) Q = . II. (B) Since A = 2( -9 + 8) + 2( -2 + 3) = . So aij = a ji .gatehelp. M11 = minor of a11 i.2 ½ ½ ½ -6 ½ 6 .2 ½ ½2 ½-2 M 21 =½ ½-2 ½-1 M 23 =½ ½ 2 -2½ ½ . 8.8 l + 20 .2ù -1ú û if i = j then aii = . C12 = ( -1)1 + 2 M12 = -6 . M 22 =½-1 ½ = 1½ ½ 2 .A Q Þ 2ù 1ú û Þ a ji = .iA. (D) A is Hermitian then A Q = A Now. obtained by leaving the row and the column corresponding to aij and then take the determinant of the remaining matrix. C33 = ( -1) 3+ 3 M 33 = 3 éC11 det A = êC21 ê ê ëC31 C12 C22 C32 T C13 ù C23 ú ú C33 û ú T é -3 -6 -6 ù é -1 -2 -2 ù =ê 6 3 -6 ú = 3ê 2 1 -2 ú = 3A T ú ê ú ê 3û 1û ú ê ú ê ë 6 -6 ë 2 -2 Page 530 T 2 ½ ½ 1 ½= 6 ¹ 0 Again. Now. 10. M13 =½ 2 = = M12 = ½ 1½ ½2 .aij . (B) A matrix A ( m ´n ) is said to be of rank r if (i) it has at least one non–zero minor of order r. Þ Thus iA is Skew–Hermitian. The rank of A is denoted by r( A). T 11. 9 l = 117 Þ l = 13 ½-1 . M 33 = M 32 =½ ½ 2 .( iA ) 1 A =5 3 é adj A == ê ê ê ë A -1 = 0 2 1 4 0 0 0 1 adj A A 0 = 4 ¹ 0.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 7.6 . (C) If A = [ aij ]n ´n then det A = [ cij ]n ´n .com r( A ) = 2 . If i = j then aii = aii i. C22 = ( -1) 2+ 3 15. = 1½ . 3 is zero. (A) The correct statements are ( AB) T = BT A T . (A) Since.7) = 0. M 23 = -6.iA Q = .1ú û = -1 T an element is the element itself and aii is purely real.A Now. 70 .l + 27 = 0.( -A ) = iA then iA is Hermitian. one minor of order 2 is ½ 0 ½ ½ 3 Þ www. (C) A is Skew–Hermitian then A Q = .e. ( iA) Q = i A Q = . -1 =½ ½-2 -2 ½ ½ 1½ = -3 é 4 0 1ê 10 2 4ê ê-1 -1 ë 14. (A) Since A -1 = Now. where M ij is the minor of aij . and (ii) all other minors of order greater than r. Here A = é-5 Also. ½ 1 Now.2 + 2 = 0 Þ r( A ) < 3 C31 = ( -1) 3+ 1 M 31 = 6. C32 = ( -1) 3+ 2 M 32 = -6 . = -2½ ½ ½ 3 = 1½ 2( 35 . if any.2½ C13 = ( -1) 1+ 3 2+ 2 ½-1 .4 l) + 1(20 .2½ ½-2 =½ ½ 1 -2 ½ ½ 3. (C) A square matrix A is said to be Skew-Hermitian if A = . given that r( A) = 2 ® minor of order greater than 2 i. conjugate of Q 12..3ù .2 =½ ½ 2 2+1 C11 = ( -1)1 + 1 M11 = -3. aii + aii = 0 é-5 adj A = ê ë-3 . C23 = ( -1) M 21 = 6. C21 = ( -1) M 22 = 3. adj A = ê ë-2 A -1 = 1 -1 é-5 ê-3 ë -1 1 adj A A 2 .2½ ½ 6 . Q 3 -5 If A is Skew–Hermitian then A = .aii Þ it is only possible when aii is purely imaginary.2½ ½ 6 .2 ù é5 = . M 31 = . AB = A × B Thus statements I.

n = m. A ¹ 0..1) ( l ... (A) Since the sum of the eigenvalues of an n–square matrix is equal to the trace of the matrix (i.. by Cayley–Hamilton theorem. So the eigen values of 2A are 2 ....1 é1 A(adj A) = 2 ê0 ê ê ë0 0 1 0 0 ù é2 0 ú = ê0 ú ê 1 û ë0 ú ê 0 2 0 0ù 0ú ú 2û ú Thus eigen values are -1 . A and B are square matrices are the eigen values of a matrix of the same order... Thus eigen values of A -1 are . l n are the eigen values of A then A l1 . . l 2 n This happens when ( q . (C) écos q cos f cos ( q .tù ê 2 = (I + A ) =ê =ê ú t 1ú ê a ë û tan 1 ú ë û 2 .A ) × ê ësin a é ê 1 =ê ê..lI = 0 -6 2 ½8 -l ½ Þ ½-6 7-l .l)( .t2 t ù ê1 + t 2 é 1 =ê ú´ê ë -t 1 û ê 2 t 2 ê ë(1 + t ) -2 t ù (1 + t 2 ) ú ú 1 .l ½-4 ½ Þ Þ ( 3 . .4 and 6 26. A l2 . i. 30..f) = 0 n 25. AB is defined.3)( l .t2 ú 1 + t2 ú û www..18 l2 + 45 l = 0 l( l .3A = 4( 4 A . kl2 . l1 l2 ln 2 3 -1 .. l3 then the eigen values of kA are kl1 .tan 2 2 a 2 = 1-t 36...3A Þ A 3 = 13A ... every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation so A 2 ....f) cos q sin f cos ( q . 28.. required sum = 8 + 5 + 5 = 18 33.. the eigenvalues of A and A are square so the eigenvalues of A T are 2 and 4.com aù é 1 . l2 .. (B) Since the product of the eigenvalues is equal to the determinant of the matrix so A = 1 ´ 2 ´ 5 = 10 34..5 . Hence. (B) Since 1 and 3 are the eigenvalues of A so the characteristic equation of A is ( l . 3 27. A and B are matrices of the same type.. .. then A has the eigen values l1 . (A) Let tan = t. (A) Since A(adj A) = A I 3 . l2 .f) sin q sin f cos ( q .sin a ù cos a ú û aù 2ú´ ú 1 ú û 29.1 24.4½ 0 = ½ ½ -4 3-l ½ 2 ½ Þ Þ l2 . then.1. (C) Since A + B is defined. l2 .15) = 0 Þ l = 0 ... 15 32. .. 9.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 5 ½ ½3-l ½= 0 Þ ½ -5 .tan ú é 1 .e. 2 n eigen values of A 2 are 1.15 + l + 2 l + 16 = 0 2 2 Þ Þ ( l + 1) = 0 Þ l = . ..f) û null matrix when cos ( q ..e. . (C) Characteristic equation is A . (B) If l1 ....e.....4 l + 3 = 0 Also. . l 2 . kl3. (B) If eigen values of A are l1 .. 2 4 T a 1 + tan 2 2 .4 A + 3I 2 = 0 Þ A 2 = 4 A . (B) If l1 . A l n the eigen values adj A are eigenvalues of adj A are .tan a ë 2 tan a 2 = 2t 1 + t2 2 A. . l2 . Also.3I 2 Þ A 3 = 4 A 2 .f) ù AB = ê ú =A ëcos f sin q cos ( q . 4.sin a ù cos a ú û é1 . a 1 . l2 . (B) If l1 .3) = 0 Þ l2 . cos a = a t + t2 2 1 + tan 2 2 2 tan and sin a = écos a (I . sum of the diagonal elements) so.. 2 35..gatehelp. l are the eigen values of a non–singular matrix A. So.3I) . 3 . So..f) is an odd multiple of p .. then A -1 has the eigen values 1 1 1 1 1 . (B) Since. Thus 4 -4 . . 2 and-1.l) + 16 = 0 Þ l + 2l + 1 = 0 2 31. the number of columns in A must be equal to the number of rows in B i. say m ´ n.12I 2 Page 532 écos a êsin a ë .

.3.1) (B) ( e . 3]. 0) and B (4. 3 [ such that f ¢ ( c) = 0 is given by 1 1 (A) c = 2 ± (B) c = 2 ± 2 3 (C) c = 2 ± 1 2 p 2 6.6 x 2 + kx + 5 on 1 . p (B) 3 (D) None 7. 4]. the value of c of the mean-value theorem is (A) 0.5 (C) log ( e .6 x 2 + 11 x . then the point c « ] 1. 1]. ÷ è2 4 ø æ 1 1ö (D) ç . c is equal to p (A) 4 (C) p 6 x 2 p and f ¢ ( c) = 0 for c « ] 0.com .2) (D) None of these www.. If Rolle’s theorem holds for f ( x) = x 3 .gatehelp.2 on [2. . where the tangent is parallel to the chord joining the end points of the curve is æ9 1ö (A) ç . ÷ è4 2ø æ7 1 ö (B) ç . If f ( x) = x 3 . Then.1) in ]0. where the tangent is parallel to the chord joining A (3. 2p[ . Let f ( x) = e x in [0. the value of c of the mean value theorem is (A) . 3]. Let f ( x) = x( x + 3) e .2) be defined in [0. 0 £ x £ Then. ÷ è2 4 ø Page 534 10. 1) is (A) (7.1) (D) None 5. Let f ( x) = sin 2 x. A point on the curve y = x . the value of k is [1.2 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 1. 2 [. Let f ( x) = x 2 .3) 2 .1)( x . ÷ è 2 2ø (B) ( p.16 (C) 0. 0 [ such that f ¢ ( c) = 0. Then.6 (C) 3 (B) 6 (D) 2 3 4. is the tangent parallel to x –axis ? æp ö (A) ç . Let c « ] .4 be defined in [2.20 (D) None 3. the 2 value of c of the mean value theorem is (A) 0. At what point on the curve y = (cos x . 1 ]. the value of c is (A) 3 (C) -2 (B) -3 1 (D) 2 8.1 ÷ è2 ø æ 2 p -3 ö (C) ç . 1) æ7 1 ö (C) ç . ÷ è2 4 ø æ9 1 ö (D) ç . ÷ è2 4 ø (D) None of these 2.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9.6 is on [1. Let f ( x) = x( x . Then. ÷ è4 2ø æ7 1ö (C) ç .24 (B) 0. A point on the parabola y = ( x . 3] with c = 2 + 3 (A) -3 (B) 3 (C) 7 (D) 11 9. ÷ è 3 2 ø æ3 1ö (B) ç . -3 £ x £ 0. Then.

2 2 ¶y a ¶x 2 (D) ¶2z ¶2z = ..a2 2 2 ¶x ¶y (C) 2 a 2 .y 2 .÷ 2ø 2ø è è (B) 1 + -K 2! 4! pö pö æ æ çx.h cot x + (D) None of these pö æ 12. then at x = a. If u = tan -1 ç ç è (A) 2 cos 2 u (C) 1 tan u 4 x+ y ö ÷. If z = z( u.÷ is 2ø è 2 3 2 pö pö pö æ æ æ çx.y) (D) ( y . v) . gives è4 ø 4 2 (A) 1 + x + x + x 3 + K 3 (B) 1 + 2 x + 2 x 2 + (C) 1 + 8 3 x +. then (A) ¶ z ¶ z = a2 2 ¶x 2 ¶y 2 2 (D) None of these (B) ¶ z ¶ z = a2 2 ¶y 2 ¶x 2 2 22. If f ( x. is equal to (A) log sin x + h cot x (B) log sin x + h cot x + (C) log sin x .÷ 2ø 2ø 2ø è è è (A) 1 + + + +K 2! 3! 4! pö pö æ æ çx. then x ¶u + y ¶u equals ¶x ¶y x+ y÷ ø (B) 1 sin 2 u 4 1 2 h cosec2 x + K 2 1 2 h sec 2 x + K 2 1 2 h cosec2 x + K 2 (D) 2 tan 2 u x 3 + y 3 + x 2 y .y) ¶x ¶y ¶z ¶z = ( y . then by the expression (A) (C) ex (sin y .com dz is equal to dx (B) 0 (D) a 3 Page 535 (C) ¶2z 1 ¶2z =. then the value of è xø è xø x2 (A) 0 (C) 2u ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y 2 2 . If u = e .2 t 2 cos y) t ex (cos y + 2 t 2 sin y) t (B) (D) ex (sin y + 2 t 2 cos y) t ex (cos y .x) ¶x ¶y (B) ( x .÷ 2ø 2ø pö è è æ (C) ç x . u = x 2 . 3 19.÷ çx.xy + y 2 17.÷ çx. then ¶ x¶ y¶ z xyz (A) e xyz [1 + xyz + 3 x 2 y 2 z 2 ] (B) e (C) e xyz xyz 21.2 11.x) ¶z ¶z = ( x + y) ¶x ¶y ¶z ¶z = ( x + y) ¶x ¶y (D) None of these ¶ 3u is equal to 14. (A) 2a www.ay). If u = tan -1 x ¶u ¶u is +y ¶x ¶y 1 sin 2 u 2 (A) (B) sin 2u (D) 0 (C) sin u æ yö æ yö 18. x = log e t and y = t 2 .÷ çx. log sin ( x + h) when expanded in Taylor’s series. y) = 0. then (A) (C) ¶f ¶f ¶f ¶f dz × = × × ¶y ¶z ¶x ¶y dx ¶f ¶f dz ¶f ¶f × × = × ¶y ¶z dx ¶x ¶y (B) ¶f ¶f ¶f ¶f dz × × = × ¶y ¶z ¶x ¶x dx [1 + xyz + x y z ] 3 3 3 2 [1 + 3 xyz + x y z ] 2 2 (D) e xyz [1 + 3 xyz + x 3 y 3z 3 ] 15. If z = e x sin y.2 t 2 sin y) t x2 x4 + +K 2! 4! 20. is 2 dx dx dy ¶y (B) u (D) -u dz is given dt (D) None of these æp ö 13. If z = x 2 + y 2 and x 3 + y 3 + 3 axy = 5 a 2 .÷ + + +K 2ø 3! 5! è 2 3 5 2 2 æ 16. y = a.gatehelp. f( y. v = a.÷ çx.xy 2 .2 xy . z) = 0.Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. then (A) ( x + y) (C) ( x + y) ¶z ¶z = ( x . sin x when expanded in powers of ç x . If u = fç ÷ + xyç ÷. If z = f ( x + ay) + f( x . tanç + x ÷ when expanded in Taylor’s series.. then the value of x 2 .

r sin q dt dt dr dq . z = tan -1 (A) dz = (C) dz = xdy . Match the List–I with List–II. If r 2 = x 2 + y 2 .1) ¶u ¶y dr dq . If x = r cos q. Of these statements (A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A 29.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 23. then x = 2u +y ¶x ¶y è xø Reason (R): Given function u is homogeneous of degree 2 in x and y. then x 2 + y is equal to ¶x ¶y ¶x è xø (A) nu (C) ( n . y = r sin q. If u = log (A) 0 (C) u Page 536 x2 + y2 ¶u ¶u .com . then the percentage error in the area is approximately equal to (A) 1% (C) p% (B) 2% (D) 4% (D) - 28.ydy x2 + y2 33.r sin q dt dt dr dq + sin q dt dt 2 (D) r cos q 31. List–I x2 y ¶2u ¶2u then x 2 + y x+ y ¶x ¶x ¶y 1 1 24.sin q dt dt ¶2u ¶2 y æ yö 30.gatehelp. If u = x m y n .y2 1 1 then x 2 ü ï ý ï þ x4 + y4 1 1 ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 2 ¶x 2 ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y 2 (iii) If u = x 2 + y 2 then x 2 25. then ì æ ¶r ö 2 æ ¶r ö 2 ü ï ï (A) r 2 í ç ÷ + ç ÷ ý ç ¶y ÷ ï è ¶x ø è ø ï þ î (C) æ ¶r ö 1 ì æ ¶r ö ï ÷ +ç ÷ 2 íç ç ¶y ÷ r ï è ¶x ø è ø î 2 2 ¶ r ¶ r is equal to + dx 2 ¶y 2 2 (i) If u = ì æ ¶r ö 2 æ ¶r ö 2 ü ï ï (B) 2 r 2 í ç ÷ + ç ÷ ý ç ¶y ÷ ï è ¶x ø è ø ï þ î (D) None of these ¶2q ¶2q + ¶x 2 ¶y 2 (ii) If u = x2 . then the value of to (A) (C) a2 x2 y5 2 a2 x4 y5 y . then the value of is (A) 0 (C) ¶r ¶x (B) 1 (D) ¶r ¶y ¶u ¶u æ yö (iv) If u = f ç ÷ then x +y ¶x ¶y è xø List–II (1) (3) 0 3 u 16 (2) ¶u ¶x 1 u 4 26.3ax 2 + x 3 = 0. then (A) r cos q (C) r cos q dx is equal to dt (B) cos q dr dq .ydx x2 + y2 xdx .1) u (D) ( n . then (A) du = mx m -1 y n + nx m y n -1 (C) udu = mxdx + nydy (B) du = mdx + ndy (D) du dx dy =m +n u x y d y is equal dx 2 2 (4) - Correct match is— (I) (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 2 2 1 (II) 2 1 1 2 (III) 3 4 3 4 (IV) 4 3 4 3 27.ydy x2 + y2 xdy + ydx x2 + y2 xdx . If y 3 . then x is equal to +y x+ y ¶x ¶y (B) 1 (D) eu www. If u = x n -1 yf ç ÷. If an error of 1% is made in measuring the major and minor axes of an ellipse. y = r sin q where r and q are the functions of x. then x (B) dz = (D) dz = (B) 2 a2 x2 y5 2 a2 x2 y5 32.1) ¶u ¶x (B) n( n . Consider the Assertion (A) and Reason (R) given below: ¶u ¶u æ yö Assertion (A): If u = xyf ç ÷. If x = r cos q.

from the parabola y = x 2 is (A) (C) 4c + 1 4c . 1 [ (C) ] -¥. f ( x) = x 2 e . -8) (C) (-2.9 x 2 + 9 x + 3 is increasing in each interval. where 0 £ c < 5. 3 [ (D) None of these 46.Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.1 2 (B) 4c + 1 2 x is increasing in the interval ( x 2 + 1) (B) ] -1. f ( x) = 2 x 3 . then equal to (A) (1 + log xy) (B) (1 + log xy) (C) (1 . f ( x) = x 4 .log xy) x æ x2 + y ö ÷ ç y ç y2 + x ÷ ø è yæ y + xö ÷ ç x ç x2 + y ÷ ø è 2 41.ç 2 ÷ xç x + y÷ ø è ¶z ¶z æ yö 35. 3 [ (C) ] -¥. ¥ 37. The maximum value of ç ÷ is è xø (A) e æ1ö (C) ç ÷ è eø e (B) e - 1 e (D) None of these 39. ¥ [ (D) None of these x 38.2 x 2 is decreasing in the interval (A) ] -¥. 1 [ (D) None of these æ1ö 47.log xy) . f ( x) = x 9 + 3 x 7 + 6 is increasing for (A) all positive real values of x (B) all negative real values of x (C) all non-zero real values of x (D) None of these 40. are (A) (-2. If z = xyf ç ÷. ¥ [ (B) ] -1. f ( x) = (B) ] -¥.1 [ È ] 1. -1 [ È ] 1. 0 [ (D) ] 0.gatehelp. then f ( x) = e ax + e . ¥ [ (C) ] -1. 1 [ (D) None of these (A) ] -¥. ¥ [ (B) ] -2. . -8) (D) None of these 36. The minimum distance from the point (4.ax is decreasing for (A) x > 0 (C) x > 1 (B) x < 0 (D) x < 1 42.x is increasing in the interval du is dx (A) ] -¥. The shortest distance of the point (0. If f ( x) = kx 3 . The maximum value of f ( x) = (1 + cos x) sin x is (A) 3 (C) 4 (B) 3 3 (D) 3 3 4 Page 537 www. The least value of a for which f ( x) = x 2 + ax + 1 is increasing on ] 1.15 x 2 + 36 x + 1 is increasing in the interval (A) ] 2. The minimum value of ç x 2 + ÷ is x ø è (A) 75 (C) 25 (B) 50 (D) 0 49. ¥ [ (C) ] 2. where x 3 + y 3 + 3 xy = 1. If a < 0. If u = x log xy. c). 2 [È ] 3.3. is (A) (C) 2 2 (B) 2 2 (D) 3 2 y æ y2 + x ö (D) (1 . The co-ordinates of the point on the parabola y = x 2 + 7 x + 2 which is closest to the straight line y = 3 x . 2. -1 [ È ] 0. 2) to the parabola y 2 = 8 x. 0) (B) (2. [ is (A) 2 (C) 1 (B) -2 (D) -1 xæ x + yö ÷ ç y ç y2 + x ÷ ø è 2 44. then (A) k < 3 (C) k > 3 (B) k £ 3 (D) k ³ 3 250 ö æ 48. then x is equal to +y ¶x ¶y è xø (A) z (B) 2z (C) xz (D) yz 45.com . 2 [ 43.2 (B) Both A and R are true and R is not a correct explanation of A (C) A is true but R is false (D) A is false but R is true 34.

3 ø è Now.é x + 6 . so f ( x) = sin 2 x is continuous in ê0. By Rolle’s theorem Ec such that f ¢( c) = 0. (C) Since a polynomial function as well as an exponential function is continuous and the product of two continuous functions is continuous. -2) are (A) ( 5 . [.c2 ù e 2ê ú =0 2 ë û c c + 6 .3. [ .12 c + k = 0 . f (1) = f ( 3). (B) A polynomial function is continuous as well as differentiable. By Rolle’s theorem. 4 3. f ( x) is differentiable in ] -3. The 1 2 of (B) a = 2. Hence. c = 3. Now. ë 2û Also.12 c + 11 = 0 1 ö æ c = ç2 ± ÷. So. 0 [.12 x + 11 Þ f ¢ ( c) = 3c 2 . f ¢ ( c) = 0 (A) (C) 1 p on the interval [0. If y = a log x + bx 2 + x has its extremum values at x = -1 and x = 2. Þ 3c 2 . 0) (D) None of these pö æ 53. So. f ¢ ( x) = (2 x + 3) × e x 2 - . Also.x2 ù 1 -2 2 e ( x + 3 x) = e 2 ê ú 2 2 ë û x x which clearly exists for all x « ] . 0 [ . b = 52. 2 ] is 1 2 (B) 2 (D) .é c + 6 . which clearly exists for all p p x « ]0.2 51. Now. f ( -3) = f (0) = 0. f ¢ ( x) = 2 cos 2 x. 2 2 cos 2 c = 0 Þ 2c = p 2 Þ c= p .c) = 0 Þ c = -2. f (1) = 0 and f ( 3) = 0.So. f ( x) is differentiable in x « ]0. the given function is continuous and differentiable. 0 [. (A) Since the sine function is continuous at each the point on the curve é pù x « R. c 2 . (D) f ¢ ( x) = 3c 2 . 2 2 co-ordinates 4 x 2 + 5 y 2 = 20 that is farthest from the point (0. For what value of xç 0 £ x £ ÷. 0) (C) (0. b = 2 2 (C) a = 2.6 = 0 Þ ( c + 2) ( 3 .12 c + 11.c 2 = 0 i. 0].com Þ 3c 2 . then 1 (A) a = . The greatest value of f ( x) = sin 2 x pö æ sinç x + ÷ 4ø è SOLUTIONS 1. c = -2 « ] -3.e.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 50. f (0) = f ç ÷ = 0.. 4. f ¢ ( x) = 3 x 2 . ú.c . there exists è2 ø p c « ]0. [ such that f ¢( c) = 0. 0 [ such that f ¢ ( c) = 0. so f ( x) is ************* continuous in [-3. 2) (B) ( 6 . f ¢ ( c) = 0 Þ .gatehelp.12 x + k f ¢ ( c) = 0 Page 538 www. By Rolle’s theorem c « ] -3. b = -1 (D) None of these Þ 2. the function 2ø è x has a maxima ? y= (1 + tan x) (A) tan x (C) cot x (B) 0 (D) cos x æ pö Also.

we get x2 Þ ¶2 ¶2 ¶2 ( v + w) + 2 xy ( v + w) + y 2 2 ( v + w) = 0 ¶x 2 ¶x ¶y ¶y x2 ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 2 = 0 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y Þ 19..(ii) ¶x ¶u ¶x ¶v ¶x ¶z ¶z ¶u ¶z ¶v and = × + × . è4ø è4ø è4ø è4ø x2 x3 æp ö Thus tanç + x ÷ = 1 + 2 x + ×4 + × 16 + K 2 6 è4 ø 8 = 1 + 2 x + 2 x + x3 + K 3 2 Which is homogeneous of degree 1 ¶f ¶f Thus x +y = f ¶x ¶y As above question number 16 x ¶f ¶u 1 +y = sin 2 u ¶x ¶y 2 æ yö æ yö 18.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics æ pö æ pö æ pö f ç ÷ = 1. (C) Here u = e xyz Þ ¶u = exyz × yz ¶x Þ x2 ¶2v ¶2v ¶2v + 2 xy + y 2 2 = 0. we get ¶2z ¶2z = a2 2 2 ¶y ¶x = e x sin y × æ 16. f ¢¢ç ÷ = 4.(1) ¶x 2 ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶2w ¶2w ¶2w + 2 xy + y2 = 0.2 xy . 2 2 f ¢¢¢( x) = 2sec 4 x + 4sec 2 x tan 2 x etc... x = log e t Þ = ¶y dt t And y = t 2 dy = 2t dt dz ¶z dx ¶z dy = × + × dt ¶x dt ¶y dt Þ ex 1 + e x cos y × 2 t = (sin y + 2 t 2 cos y) t t ¶ z = a 2 f ¢¢( x + ay) + a 2 f¢¢( x .ay) ¶x ¶ z = f ¢¢( x + ay) + f¢¢( x ... ¶u ¶u ¶v ¶v =2x -2y .. f ¢¢¢ç ÷ = 16.. (A) Let v = fç ÷ and w = xYç ÷ è xø è xø Then u = v + w Now v is homogeneous of degree zero and w is homogeneous of degree one 14.gatehelp. = 0. .. x +y = f ¶x ¶y 2 Þ Page 540 x ¶(tan u) ¶(tan u) 1 +y = tan u ¶x ¶y 2 . Now.y 2 .xy 2 = f (say) x 2 ... (B) z = f ( x + ay) + f( x . è2 ø è2 ø è2 ø æ pö æ pö f ¢¢¢ç ÷ = 0..ay) ¶y 2 and x 2 Adding (1) and (2)..(1) dx 2 ¶z = af ¢( x + ay) .ay). (C) Given that z = z( u. = -2 x .. v). =0 ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶y www..(2) 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y 2 ¶2u = ze xyz + yzexyz × xz = e xyz ( z + xyz 2 ) ¶x¶y ¶ 3u = e xyz × (1 + 2 xyz) + ( z + xyz 2 ) e xyz × xy ¶ x¶ y¶ z = e xyz (1 + 3 xyz + x 2 y 2 z 2 ) 15... f ¢¢ç ÷ = -1.(i) ¶z ¶z ¶u ¶z ¶v = × + × . (B) z = e x sin y ¶z = e x sin y ¶x ¶z dx 1 And = e x cos y.xy + y 2 17. (A) Here tan u = f ¢( x) = sec ... f ¢¢( x) = 2sec x tan x. è4 ø è4ø è 4 ø 2! è 4 ø 3! è 4 ø x sec 2 u Þ x ¶u ¶u 1 + y sec 2 u = tan u ¶x ¶y 2 ¶u ¶u 1 1 +y = sin u cos u = sin 2 u ¶x ¶y 2 4 x 3 + y 3 + x 2 y . 2 3 æp ö æ pö æ pö x æ p ö x ¢¢¢æ p ö f ç + x ÷ = f ç ÷ + xf ¢ç ÷ + × f ¢¢ç ÷ + f ç ÷+... (B) u = tan -1 ç ç è Þ tan u = x+ y x+ x+ y x+ y ö ÷ y ÷ ø 20. f ¢ç ÷ = 0..com = f (say) Which is a homogeneous equation of degree 1/2 ¶f ¶f 1 By Euler’s theorem. 2ø è è2 ø 13.(2) ¶y 2 2 Hence from (1) and (2)... f ¢¢¢¢ç ÷ = 1.. (B) Let f ( x) = tan x Then. .2 y...ay).af¢ ( x .(iii) ¶y ¶u ¶y ¶v ¶y From (i).. u = x 2 . f ¢ç ÷ = 2. v = a.ay) ¶z = f ¢ ( x + ay) + f¢ ( x . æ pö æ pö æ pö æ pö f ç ÷ = 1..

(ii) dx ¶x ¶y dx 3 3 2 from (i).r sin q ¶r ¶q Substituting these values in (ii). we get ( x + y) æ ¶r ö æ ¶r ö and ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 4 x 2 + 4 y 2 = 4 r 2 ç ¶y ÷ ¶x ø è è ø Þ 2 2 æ ¶r ö ü ¶ 2 r ¶ 2 y 1 ì æ ¶r ö ï ï + 2 = 2 íç ÷ + ç ÷ ý ç ¶y ÷ ¶x 2 ¶y r ï è ¶x ø ï è ø þ î 21.(ii) dt ¶r dt ¶q dt From (i). fxy = 0 é fxx ( f y) 2 ... f yy = 6 y . y = r sin q. a ) è a + a2 23.r sin q × dt dt dt 28.2 fx f y fxy + f yy( fx ) 2 ù d2 y =-ê ú 2 ( f y) 3 dx ë û é( 6 x .x) ¶x ¶y 24.1 = 0 dx dx Þ æ x 2 + ay ö dy = -ç 2 ÷ ç y + ax ÷ dx ø è x x2 + y2 æ x 2 + ay ö ÷ ç. (B) Given that x = r cos q..2 Substituting these values in (ii) and (iii) ¶z ¶z ¶z = (2 x .3ax 2 = 0] y5 2 a2 x2 y5 y .. f( y. = m× + n× =m + n× u dx x y dx u x y 1 x + y2 2 22...0 + 6 y( 3 x 2 .2 y) + × 0. (C) Given that f ( x. we get dz = dx + a æ dz ö = + ç ÷ 2 dx ø( a .6 ax) 2 ù = -ê ú (3 y2 )3 ë û 2 = .(i) dz ¶z ¶z dy = + × .(v) ¶y ¶u ¶v ¶z ¶z = ( y ... (A) Given that z = tan -1 www. a ø a Substituting these value in (ii)..com Page 541 . ¶f dx ¶y ¶f dz ¶y =¶f dy ¶z 25. = ....gatehelp. = 2 2 ¶x 2 x + y ¶y 2 2 ×2y 27. y) = y 3 . Þ Þ and tan q = y x Þ y = r sin q æ yö q = tan -1 ç ÷ è xø ¶q 1 -y æ -y ö = = 2 2 ç 2 ÷ ¶x 1 + ( y x) è x ø x + y 2 ¶2q -2 xy = ¶x 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 ¶2q 2 xy ¶2q ¶2q and = 2 + =0 2 2 2 ¶y (x + y ) ¶x 2 ¶y 2 æ ¶f ö æ ¶f ö ç÷ ç÷ dy dz ç ¶x ÷ ç ¶y ÷ × = ´ dx dy ç ¶f ÷ ç ¶f ÷ ç ¶y ÷ ç ¶z ÷ è ø è ø or. (A) x = r cos q . (C) r 2 = x 2 + y 2 and Þ ¶r ¶r =2y = 2 x and ¶y ¶x Þ ¶2r ¶2r + =2 + 2 + 4 ¶x 2 ¶y 2 ¶2r ¶2r = 2 and =2 2 ¶x ¶y 2 2 2 From (iv) and (v).2 ÷ ç a 2 + a 2 è a + a. (B) Given that z = x + y and x + y + 3axy = 5 a . we get 1 du 1 1 dy du dx dy or. we get dx dr dq = cos q ... y) = 0.(i) x dy dy and 3 x + 3 y + 3ax + 3ay.Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. (D) Given that u = x m y n Taking logarithm of both sides. z) = 0 These are implicit functions ¶f dy = .6 a + 6 x .6 a( 3 y 2 ) 2 .ay 3 + 4 a 2 x 2 ) y ===2 [ -a( a 3 + y 3) + 4 a 2 x 2 ] y5 2 [ -a( 3ax 2 ) + 4 a 2 x 2 ] [ \ x 3 + y 3 .(i) dx ¶x dr ¶x dq = × + × .2 ÷ ç x 2 + y 2 è y + ax ø y æ a 2 + aa ö ÷ =0 ç.5 ( -ax 3 ..¶x .3ax 2 + x 3 = 0 fx = .. (D) Given that f ( x. ¶x ¶x = cos q. fxx = . ¶f ¶f dz ¶f ¶f × × = × ¶y ¶z dx ¶x ¶y 2 2 Similarly 26.6 ax + 3 x 2 .(iv) ¶x ¶u ¶v and ¶z ¶z ¶z = × ( -2 x ... we get log u = m log x + n log y Differentiating with respect to x. f y = 3 y 2 ..2 y) + × 0. 2 ¶z 1 ¶z = ×2x ..

.(ii) ¶u ¶u ¶u dy we know that ..1 ÷u = . (C) Given that u = x n -1 yf ç ÷. (A) Given that u = x log xy. dz = = + × dx x 2 + y 2 x 2 + y 2 dx x2 + y2 29.. we get x Þ ¶ 2 u ¶u ¶2u n ¶u + + y = 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶x x ¶2u ¶2u ¶u +y = ( n . It is a homogeneous function of x1 4 + y1 4 34..gatehelp.. ¶2u ¶2u ¶u ¶u (as in question 30) x 2 +y = ( n . è xø It is a homogeneous function of degree n ¶u ¶u Euler’s theorem x +y = nu ¶x ¶y Differentiating partially w.r. By Euler’s theorem x Thus x ¶u ¶u +y = 2u ¶x ¶y ¶u ¶u +y = nu (where n = 2) ¶x ¶y ¶u ¶u or xe u + ye u = eu ¶x ¶y or. eu = = f (say) x+ y x+ y ¶e u ¶e u x +y = eu ¶x ¶y æ yö In (d)u = f ç ÷ It is a homogeneous function of degree è xø zero. 2 x2 = ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 = n( n .u 2 è2 4 ø Substituting these in (ii). u = 0 ¶x ¶y Hence correct match is a 2 b 1 c 3 d 4 f is a homogeneous function of degree one ¶f ¶f x +y = f ¶x ¶y Þ 32.t.. x ¶u ¶u +y =1 ¶x ¶y æ yö 30...1) 2 ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶x x2 y It is a homogeneous function of 31..÷ = è2 4 ø 4 x2 = Page 542 ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y 2 2 = n( n .1 ÷u = 4 è4 16 ø ¶u 1 x = x× ×x= ¶y xy y www. (B) Let 2a and 2b be the major and minor axes of the ellipse Area A = pab Þ Þ log A = log p + log a + log b ¶(log A) = ¶(log p) + ¶(log a) + ¶(log b) ¶A ¶a ¶b Þ =0 + + A a b 100 100 100 Þ ¶A = ¶a + × ¶b A a b 100 100 But it is given that ¶a = 1.1) u 2 ¶x ¶x dy ¶y 2 ¶z = ¶y x æ1ö ×ç ÷ = 2 2 æ yö è xø x + y 1+ç ÷ è xø 1 2 1 æ1 1 ö ç . (A) Given that u = xyf ç ÷. x.(ii) = + ¶x ¶x ¶y dx From (i) and ¶u 1 = x× × y + log xy = 1 + log xy ¶x xy æ1 1ö 1 degree ç .1) u 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y 1 æ1 3 ö u ç .ydx . we get dz -y x dy xdy .(ii) dx ¶x ¶y dx From (i) ¶z = ¶x -y æ -y ö ×ç 2 ÷ = 2 x ø x + y2 æ yö è 1+ç ÷ è xø 1 2 In (c) u = x1 2 + y1 2 It is a homogeneous function of 1 degree .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics dz ¶z ¶z dy = + × . Since it is a homogeneous è xø function of degree 2. (B) u = log x2 + y2 x2 + y2 . (B) In (a) u = x+ y degree 2.y1 2 .1) = ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶x In (b) u = x1 2 ... ¶u ¶u x +y = 0..com .(i) x 3 + y 3 + 3 xy = 1. and ¶b = 1 a b 100 ¶A = 1 + 1 = 2 A Thus percentage error in A =2% æ yö 33.

ax ) = 2 cosh ax. we get 3 x2 + 3 y2 dy æ dy ö + 3ç x + y × 1÷ = 0 dx è dx ø Þ æ x + yö dy = -ç 2 ÷ ç y + x÷ dx ø è 2 Now. 38.3x + 3 10 = = x2 + 7 x + 2 . we get du x ì æ x 2 + y öü ÷ý = (1 + log xy) + í -ç 2 dx y î ç y + x ÷þ ø è 35. ç ÷ ç dx 2 ÷ ø x = -2 è dp =0 dx So. Thus Minimum distance = (2 . x = -2. E = 4 t 4 .1)( x + 1). 2 44.4 x = 4 x( x .2 c and dy dy 2 dE =0 dy Þ 1ö æ y =çc .x = e . f ¢ ( x) > 0 Þ Þ (1 .2 x 1.x 2 e . (B) f ¢ ( x) = ( x + 1) . c) be the given point and P ( x. D = (2 t 2 . Now.4) 2 + ( 4 .1 = 4 2 2 é 1 öù æ 2 ê .. So. t = 1 is a point of minima. 2 [ È ] 3. = 2 y + 1 . x = -2 is a point of minima.2) 2 = 2 2 . Clearly. 41. 46. (B) Let the point closest to (4. 43.x x(2 .1) ( t 2 + t + 1) dt dE =0 Þ t =1 dt éd2 E ù d2 E = 48 t 2 . (C) f ¢( x) = 6 x .÷ 2ø è 1ö æ 1 ö æ Also.x = 2 ( x 2 + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 2 2 2 Clearly. f ( x) is increasing in ] -¥. . www.1 and also when x > 1.4) 2 + ( 4 t . Now.÷ + ç c . f ( x) is increasing in ] -1.3 x + 3 = 0 is p= = y .12 k < 0 or k > 3. (B) The given function is homogeneous of degree 2.8).2 ÷ú è øû ë For f ( x) increasing. 40. (C) f ¢ ( x) = 3kx .2 cy + c2 dE d2 E = 2 > 0. 1 [. 4).c) 2 = y + ( y . 39. y) be any point on y = x 2 . ¶z ¶z Euler’s theorem x +y = 2z ¶x ¶y 36. dt 2 ë dt û ( t =1 ) So. E = x 2 + ( y . Clearly. This happens when -1 < x < 1. y). f ¢ ( x) < 0 when x < . (B) f ¢( x) = (2 x + a) 1 < x <2 Þ Þ 2 <2x < 4 Þ 2 + a <2x + a < 4 + a (2 + a) < f ¢( x) < ( 4 + a). f ( x) is decreasing in ] -¥.gatehelp.2) 2 is minimum when E = (2 t 2 . 1ö æ Thus E minimum. Also.30 x + 36 = 6( x . ( x 2 + 1) 2 > 0 for all x. we have f ¢( x) > 0.x + 2 xe . (A) f ( x) = ( e ax + e . (A) Let the required point be P ( x. So.3) 2 Clearly.x). .c) 2 is shortest when E = x 2 + ( y . perpendicular distance of P ( x.c) 2 is shortest. Sol. \ + a ³ 0 or a ³ .2)( x . So. 37. D = ç c .c) 2 Þ E = y 2 + y .x) (1 + x) > 0 x2 + 4 x + 5 10 or p = ( x + 2) 2 + 1 10 So.2) 2 is minimum.com Page 543 .18 x + 9 = 3 [ kx . when y = ç c . f ¢( x) = 2 a sinh ax < 0 When x > 0 because a < 0 42.16 t + 20 dE Þ = 16 t 3 .Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. x = y = ç c . y) from y . So.x 2 ) > 0 (1 . f ¢( x) > 0 when x < 2 and also when x > 3.6 x + 3] 2 2 dp 2 ( x + 2) d p 2 and = = dx dx 2 10 10 Þ æ d2 p ö > 0. Then.c ÷ 2ø è 2 è ø = c1 4c . f ¢( x) > 0 when x > 0 and x < 2. (A) f ¢ ( x) = 4 x 3 . -1 [ È ] 1. D = x 2 + ( y .÷ 2ø è This is positive when k > 0 and 36 .(C) f ¢ ( x) = 9 x8 + 21 x6 > 0 for all non-zero real values of x. When x = -2. The required point is ( -2. we get y = ( -2) 2 + 7 ´ ( -2) + 2 = -8.3 x + 3 10 ( x + 2) 2 + 1 10 2 Substituting these in (A). (C) Let A (0.2. 45. (D) f ¢( x) = . ê 2 ú = 48 > 0. ¥ [. 2) be (2 t 2 .16 = 16 ( t . least value of a is -2. ¥ [.2 From (ii)..4) 2 + ( 4 t .

x × 2 dx x dy =0 Þ 1 + log x = 0 Þ dx éd y ù æ1ö ê dx 2 ú æ 1 ö = -ç e ÷ è ø ë ûçx = ÷ ç ÷ 2 è eø 1 -1 e a + 8 b = -2. =0 Þ . 2 è 3ø p öæ pö 3 3 æ . the required point is 2 p pö æ ç 5 cos . D = ( 5 cos f .x . (C) dy a = + 2 bx + 1 dx x Þ Þ . 4 ë 2û dz 1 d 2z 2 = ..gatehelp.x è xø Þ dy = . (A) f ¢( x) = 2 x f ¢( x) = 0 Þ 2x - f ¢¢(5) = 6 > 0. sin ÷ i.1)(cos x + 1) and f ¢¢( x) = .x (1 + log x) 2 ..a . (C) f ( x) = 2 sin x cos x sin x + cos x 2 = 2 2 2 2 (say). dx sin 2 x dz =0 dx Sign of Þ tan x = 1 Þ x= p é pù in ê0. Then.sin f) = 0 Þ p f= .sin 2 f + 8 cos f Þ df when f = p d 2z .0) 2 + (2 sin f + 2) 2 is maximum when z = D 2 is maximum z = 5 cos 2 f + 4 (1 + sin f) 2 dz Þ = -10 cos f sin f + 8(1 + sin f) cos f df dz =0 df Þ x = p 3 or Þ 2 cos f ( 4 . 1 + tan x 1 tan x = + x x x where z = (sec x + cosec x). 2 2ø è 53.. [sec( p 4) + cosec ( p 4)] www. Maximum value = e1 e . x = 1 is a point of maxima. 2 d 2z = -2 cos 2 f .. z is minimum at x = p 4 and therefore.1).x .. So. x2 y2 + = 1 which is an 5 4 Let the required point be ( 5 cos f .com . 250 ö æ Thus minimum value = ç 25 + ÷ = 75.(ii) Solving (i) and (ii) we get b = - < 0. æ p ö -3 3 f ¢¢ç ÷ = < 0. Maximum value = Page 544 ************ 2 2 = 1. 1 or cos x = -1 Þ f ¢( x) = 0 Þ cos x = 2 x = p. = (sec x + cosec x) z cos f = 0 dz = .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics æ1ö 47. f ( x) is maximum at x = p 4. 2 Þ a + 2 b = 1. Maximum value = ç sin ÷ç 1 + cos ÷ = 3 øè 3ø 4 è 50. (B) Let y = ç ÷ then. 2 sin f). 52.2 + sec 2 x and = + 2sec2 x tan x dx x dx 2 x 3 dz 1 Þ x = cos x. So. (D) Let z = Then. So. dz cos x = sec x tan x .x (1 + log x) dx x 51. (0. 2). 5 ø è 49.e. ê dx 2 ú ë û x = cos x Thus z has a minima and therefore y has a maxima at x = cos x. y = x . < 0.2b + 1 = 0 a + 4b + 1 = 0 2 1 and a = 2.cosec x cot x = (tan 3 x . x = p 3 is a point of maxima.. dz changes from -ve to +ve when x passes dx through the point p 4. e 500 ö 250 æ and f ¢¢( x) = ç 2 + 3 ÷ x ø x2 è 250 =0 x2 Þ x = 5.8 sin f df2 48. 2 df2 p z is maximum when f = . (D) f ¢( x) = (2 cos x . So.2 + sec 2 x = 0 x dx éd 2z ù = 2 cos 3 x + 2sec2 x tan x > 0.(i) é dy ù =0 ê dx ú ë û ( x = -1 ) é dy ù =0 ê dx ú ë û (x = 2 ) x= 1 e Þ 1 d2 y = x . x = 5 is a point of minima.sin x(1 + 4 cos x). So. ú. (C) The given curve is ellipse.

dx ò 1 + sin x is equal to (B) cot x + cosec x + c (D) tan x + sec x + c ò 3 + 8 x .4 3 3 3 + 8 x . òx 2 x dx is equal to +1 (B) log ( x 2 + 1) (D) 2 tan -1 x 1 .sec x + c 4.com Page 545 . ò dx 2 x + 3x + 4 2 is equal to (B) 1 2 sinh -1 4x + 3 23 æ2x -1ö 4 2 ÷ (C) log (2 x 2 .aa) log a (D) 1 ( a x + a a .1) log a (D) None of these 7. ò 1 + 3 sin 1 2 1 2 dx 2 x is equal to (B) 2 tan -1 (tan x) (D) 2 tan -1 ( 1 tan x) 2 (A) 1 log ( x 2 + 1) 2 x 2 (A) (C) 6.3 x2 + ÷ 6 18 è 5 ø 3x .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9.cot x + cosec x + c (C) tan x .3 INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1.2 x + 3) + tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 3 5 ø è æ2x -1ö 3 2 ÷ (D) log (2 x 2 .4 ö sin -1 ç 3 + 8 x .2 x + 3) + tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 4 5 ø è (A) (C) 1 2 1 2 sin -1 4x + 3 23 4x + 3 23 cosh -1 (D) None of these www.2 x + 3) + tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 4 2 ø è (B) æ2x -1ö 4 ÷ log (2 x 2 .4 ö sin -1 ç ÷ 18 3 è 5 ø 25 æ2x -1ö 3 5 ÷ (A) log (2 x 2 .gatehelp.3 x 2 dx is equal to 3x . (B) (C) ò 2x ( 3 x + 1) dx is equal to 2 -2x + 3 3x .2 x + 3) + 5 tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 3 ø è (D) None of these 8.a a + 1) log a (C) 1 ( a x + a a + 1) log a 1 (B) (ax .3 x2 æ 3x .4 25 3 æ 3x .4 6 3 3 + 8 x . log a 5. 3. If F ( a) = to a > 1 and F ( x) = ò a 2 dx + K is equal (A) (B) (C) 1 (A) ( a x .4 ö sin -1 ç ÷ 18 3 è 5 ø 25 (A) (A) . tan -1 (tan x) tan -1 (2 tan x) (C) tan -1 ò 3 sin x + 4 cos x dx is equal to 9 1 x+ log( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 25 25 18 2 x+ log( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 25 25 18 1 x+ log( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 25 25 2 sin x + 3 cos x 2.3 x2 æ 3x .

The value of (A) e x tan x +c 2 x (A) æ 2 ö ÷ 2 cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ è ø (B) ò e ç 1 + cos x ÷dx is ç ÷ è ø (B) e x cot x +c 2 (D) e x cot x + c æ 1 + sin x ö æ 2 ö ÷ (C) .sinh -1 (C) (D) None of these 16.x2 (A) e f ¢( x) x ò e { f ( x) + f ¢( x)} dx is equal to (B) e x f ( x) (D) None of these (C) e x + f ( x) 18.x + sec x + tan x + k (C) .b) þ ì sin( x .2 tan ë (C) 2 x 2 + x + 1 + sinh -1 (D) 2 x 2 + x + 1 .x 2 + c (C) (D) 1 2 1 x .x + sec x . ò sin -1 x dx is equal to (C) x sin -1 x + 1 + x 2 + c 21.1 .sin x dx sin x is equal to (B) .log ( x 2 + 1) + c 2 2 1 2 1 x + log( x 2 + 1) + c 2 2 (C) æ x pö log tanç + ÷ 2 è2 8ø dx (D) æ x pö log tanç + ÷ 2 è4 4ø 13.a) sin( x . (A) ò dx x . x x . dx ò ex . (A) ò1+ x + x 1 2 1 4 1 2 dx 2 + x3 is equal to ù xú û ù xú û ù xú û (A) 2 x 2 + x + 1 + 2 sinh -1 (B) x 2 + x + 1 + 2 sinh -1 é ( x + 1) 2 -1 êlog x 2 + 1 + tan ë 2x + 1 (B) é ( x + 1) 2 log 2 + 2 tan -1 ê x +1 ë é ( x + 1) 2 -1 êlog x 2 + 1 .e x ) (D) log (1 . (B) x sin -1 x .1 is equal to (B) log (1 .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 9.tan x (A) .1) + c 11.tan x 17.b) is equal to (A) sin( x . ò sin( x .2 cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ è ø 12.x 2 + c (D) x sin -1 x .1) + c dx is equal to 1 æ 2 ö ÷ cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ 2 è ø 1 æ 2 ö ÷ cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ 2 è ø ò 1 .1) (C) log ( e Page 546 ò 5 x .1) + c (D) tan -1 (2 x .a) log sin( x .e ) x -x (A) x sin -1 x + 1 .x2 + c (C) log (2 x .x2 is equal to (B) sin -1 (2 x .gatehelp. (A) (D) - (C) e x tan x + c 19.a) ü (C) sin( a .1) (C) 1/2 .b) log í ý î sin( x .x 2 + c ò sin x + cos x 1 + sin 2 x dx is equal to (B) x (D) tan x (A) sin x (C) cos x 22. ò ( x + 1) 1 1 .x + sec x + tan x (D) .b) æ x -aö (B) log sinç ÷ è x -bø ì sin( x . 10.b) î sin( x .a) ü 1 (D) log í ý sin( a . ò sin x + cos x 1 2 1 dx is equal to (B) 1 2 1 æ x pö log tanç + ÷ è2 6ø pö æ log tanç x + ÷ 4ø è òx 2 x3 dx is equal to +1 (A) x 2 + log ( x 2 + 1) + c (B) log ( x 2 + 1) . The value of (A) -1/2 www.2 x .3 dx is 0 1 (B) 13/10 (D) 23/10 .sec x .b) þ 14.com (A) log ( e x .1 . ò 2x + 3 x + x+1 2 dx is equal to 2x + 1 3 3 2x + 1 3 2x + 1 3 15.x .x 2 + c 20.

com 0 ò a (1 + cos q) r=0 (D) 2 ò 0 ò r=0 . then 48 (A) 5 2 48. x . The area of the region bounded by the curve y ( x 2 + 2) = 3 x and 4 y = x 2 is given by (A) (C) òò ydxdy is equal to A (B) 36 5 ò ò 0 1 x2 4 y= 0 dxdy dydx (B) (D) ò ò 0 1 x2 4 y= 0 dydx dxdy (C) 32 5 (D) None of these ò ò 0 2 3x ( x 2 + 2) y= x 2 4 ò 1 y= 0 ò 3x ( x 2 + 2) y= x 2 4 42.1÷ 4è 16 è ø ø (C) p 16 ö æ p2 ç ÷ ç 16 . The area of the cardioid r = a (1 + cos q) is given by (A) 2 ò (C) 2 ò Page 548 p q= 0 r = 0 p2 ò a (1 + cos q) rdrdq rdrdq (B) 2 ò p 0 p4 ò a (1 + cos q) r=a a (1 + cos q) rdrdq rdrdq www.1÷ ÷ ÷ ç 16 ç 6 .y + 2 = 0 is given by (A) 1 (C) 3 2 (B) (D) 1 2 5 4 ************* 45. The area bounded by the curves y = 2 x .1) 3 (C) ( e . The area of the region bounded by the curves x + y = a and x + y = a in the first quadrant is given 2 2 2 49.1) 4 (A) 4 ò p4 0 p2 ò ò 0 a cos 2 q 0 rdrdq (B) 2 ò p2 0 ò a cos 2 q 0 rdrdq (D) None of these (C) 4 ò a cos 2 q 0 rdrdq (D) 2 ò p a cos 2 q 0 0 ò rdrdq 41.x 2 (B) ò ò dxdy 0 0 a a2 . The area of the lemniscate r 2 = a 2 cos 2 q is given by (B) p log ( 2 .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 39. y = . The area bounded by the curve r = q cos q and the p lines q = 0 and q = is given by 2 ö ö p æ p2 p æ p2 (B) (A) ç ç . (A) (C) ò ò(x 0 x 1 x 2 + y 2 ) dydx is equal to (B) 3 35 7 60 4 49 46.1 ÷ ø è (D) None of these (D) None of these 1 + x2 40.1) 2 51.1) 2 43.x 2 (C) ò ò dxdy 0 (D) None of these 50. òòò 1 1 1 0 0 0 e x + y+ z dxdydz is equal to (B) 3 ( e . The area bounded by the curves y 2 = 9 x.gatehelp. If A is the region bounded by the parabolas y 2 = 4 x and x = 4 y. The value of (A) (C) p log ( 2 + 1) 4 p log ( 2 + 1) 2 ò ò dy dx is 0 0 1 47.x. (D) None of these x+ z ò ò ò -1 0 1 z x -z ( x + y + z) dy dx dz is equal to (B) -4 (D) None of these (A) 4 (C) 0 44. x = 1 and x = 4 is given by (A) 25 47 (C) 4 33 (B) 2 101 (D) 6 (A) ( e . The volume of the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = a 2 bounded below by z = 0 and bounded above by z = h is given by (A) pah (C) 1 pa 3h 3 (B) pa 2 h (D) None of these by (A) ò ò dxdy 0 a-x a 2 .y2 a a-x a a2 .

sin 2 ´ 2 2 +K = x x x x cos + sin cos .com Page 549 .÷ + ç ÷ sin ç 5 ÷ý 3ø è 3ø è 3ø è è 3ø ç ÷ï ï ç ÷ è 3 øþ î = 3x .aa K = = log a log a log a F ( x) = a 1-a 1 + = [ a x .÷ ç ÷ .Integral calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.a a + 1] log a log a log a x a cosec2 x dx cosec2 x dx =ò (1 + cot2 x) + 3 cosec 2 x + 3 .2 x + 3) + tan -1 4 4æ 5ö ç ÷ ç 2 ÷ è ø 5. q = 4 2 Put x 2 + 1 = t Þ 2 xdx = dt 1 1 x ò x 2 + 1 dx = ò 2 × t dt = 1 1 log t = log ( x 2 + 1) 2 2 ax +K log a 3 4x -2 5 dx dx + ò 2 4 ò 2 x2 .4 sin x 18 3 sin x + 4 cos x 1 18 log ( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) + x 25 25 7.÷ dx 3ø è 3ø è 2 2 1 = 3 2 ì 4 öü æ 2 2 2 ç x .sec x + c 8. (C) Let I = ò Let (2 sin x + 3 cos x) = p( 3 cos x . (A) Let I = ò 3x + 1 dx 2x -2x + 3 2 ò x dx 2 x +1 Let 3 x + 1 = p( 4 x .+ K 2 t t x -2 cos -2 2 +K = +K = x x x cos + sin 1 + tan 2 2 2 x x x -2 cos cos .gatehelp. (A) 4.3 SOLUTIONS 1.2) + q I= = Þ p= 3 5 . (B) ò dx 2 x + 3x + 4 2 = 1 2 ò dx æ 23 ö 3ö æ ÷ çx+ ÷ +ç ç 4 ÷ 4ø è è ø 2 2 www.ç x .sin 2 2 2 2 x x 2 x -2 cos + 2 sin cos 2 2 2 +K = 2 x 2 x .4 sin x) 1 18 . (C) = dx ò 1 + sin x dx x xö x x 2 + cos 2 ÷ + 2 sin cos ç sin 2 2ø 2 2 è x sec 2 dx 2 =ò =ò dx 2 2 x xö xö æ æ ç 1 + tan ÷ ç cos + sin ÷ 2 2ø 2ø è è x Put 1 + tan = t 2 x 2 dt 2 Þ sec2 dx = 2 dt Þ ò 2 dt = .2 x + 3 2 2x -2x + 3 5 dx 3 log (2 x 2 .3 x2 + sin -1 6 18 5 = tan x .÷ï ïæ 4 ö æ5 ö æ 4ö æ5 ö -1 3 í ç x .cosec2 x dx = dt 1 -dt t 1 æ cot x ö = cot-1 = cot-1 ç ÷ 4 + t2 2 2 2 è 2 ø Put cot x = t Þ I =ò = 3.3 x 2 dx = 3 ò 4ö æ5 ö æ ç ÷ . q= 25 25 1 25 p= I= = ò 3 sin x + 4 cos x dx + 25 ò 3 sin x + 4 cos x dx 3 cos x . (B) ò 3 + 8 x . (A) F ( x) = ò a x dx + K = Þ F ( a) = aa +K log a 3 5 1 = log (2 x 2 .4 25 3 3x .2 x + 3) + ò 2 2 4 æ 4 æ 5ö 1ö ÷ çx.1 + K cos x òæ 1 tan -1 (2 tan x) 2 2 sin x + 3 cos x dx 3 sin x + 4 cos x + q( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 6. (C) Let I = ò =ò dx 1 + 3 sin 2 x 1 aa 1 .sin cos 2 2 -(1 + cos x) + sin x = + k = tan x .4 3 + 8 x .÷ +ç ç 2 ÷ 2ø è è ø x1 2 5 2 2.ç x .sec x .

(D) = = = ò sin( x .b) sin [( x .b) ò sin( x .. C= 2 2 2 1 1 1 x -1 I = dx . (B) Let I = ò =ò dx 1 + x + x2 + x3 11.com .a) sin( x .ò 2 dx 2 ò1+ x 2 x +1 = = 1 1 1 log (1 + x) . B=.a)] dx sin( a .b)] dx sin ( a .b) î sin( x . A + B = 0.b) þ 10.ç ç 2 è ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 =- =- 1 æ 2 ö ÷ cosh -1 ç ç x + 1÷ 2 è ø 12.2ç .a) dx sin( x .1 ÷ t t t è ø è ø 1 2 2 Let 1 = A(1 + x 2 ) + ( Bx + C)(1 + x) 1 2 cosh -1 Comparing the coefficients of x 2 . x and constant terms.a) sin( x .ç . (B) ò dx x 1. (D) Let I = ò Put x + 1 = 1 t - Þ 1 dt t2 dx (1 + x) (1 + x 2 ) A Bx + C 1 = + 2 (1 + x)(1 + x ) 1 + x 1 + x 2 I =ò 1 ö æ1 ö æ1 1 .1 t 1 2 Put 1 .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics = 1 2 sinh -1 x+ æ ç ç è 3 4 = 1 sinh -1 4 x + 3 2 23 23 ö ÷ ÷ 4 ø dx = 1 2 ò dx pö æ sinç x + ÷ 4ø è = 1 2 ò cosecç x + 4 ÷dx è ø æ pö = 9.b) ò 1 [log sin ( x .log cot 2 ç x + 4 ÷ú = 2 log tan ç 2 + 8 ÷ 2 ë è øû è ø 2x + 1 x2 + x + 1 2x + 1 x2 + x + 1 ò 2 dx x2 + x + 1 dx æ 3ö 1ö æ ÷ çx+ ÷ +ç ç 2 ÷ 2ø è è ø 2 2 13.2 x .cos( x .1) + c 1 ( x + 1) 1 .b) = 2 x 2 + x + 1 + 2 sinh -1 2x + 1 1 [cot( x .log ( x 2 + 1) + tan -1 x 2 2 2 1 4 é ( x + 1) 2 log 2 + 2 tan -1 ê x +1 ë ù xú û =- ò dt æ 1 t2 .b) ò sin( x .log sin ( x . (D) Let I = x+c òe x dx e . (C) = 1 2 ò sin x + cos x dx p p sin x cos + cos x sin 4 4 dx ò Page 550 www.a) sin( x .b) = ( x 2 + x + 1)1 2 + 2 sinh -1 1 2 1 x+ 2 3 2 3 ´ò = = sin( x .x 2 dx = 1 dt t2 =-ò dt 2 t2 .e .b) 1 sin ( a .b) sin( x .( x .b) dx dx dx + 2 ò 1 sin( a .b)]dx sin( a .x = t Þ e .e. B + C = 0.x 2 =I = Put x = sin q Þ dx = 2 sin q cos q dq 2 sin q cos q 2 sin q cos q I =ò dq = ò dq 2 sin q cos q sin q 1 .x -1 (2 x .x dx = dt dt I =ò = log t = log (1 .x dx =ò 1 .a) .1 ÷ .sin q I = ò 2 dq = 2 q + c = 2 sin -1 I = sin -1 14.b) cos( x . C + A = 1 Solving these equations.b) 1 sin( a .e .b) ì sin( x .a) .a) sin( x .x ) t dx 15.b) .gatehelp.a) ü 1 log í ý sin ( a .cot( x . we get 1 1 1 A = . (B) =ò =ò ò 2x + 3 x2 + x + 1 dx + 1 é 1æ p öù 1 æ x pö ê.a) .

(D) Put x 2 + x = t -1 Þ (2 x + 1) dx = dt 20.x 2 = t 2 xdx = .sin x 1 1 + sin x dx .x 1 .x 2 + c 21.ò e × 2 tan dx ý + ò e tan dx 2î 2 2 2 þ x 23. f ( .gatehelp.x) = -x 4 sin 5 x f ( x) is odd function thus p òx p 4 sin 5 x dx = 0 p2 p2 ò sin x + cos x 1 + sin 2 x dx 27.sin 2 x 1 + sin x dx . (B) òe 0 1 x dx = + e.ç 10 .sin x 1 . (B) Let I = ò =ò =ò =ò sin x dx 1 . (C) I = ò =ò = 2 24.tdt = x sin -1 x + ò dt = x sin -1 x + t = x sin -1 x + 1 .x) dx = 0 c= 3 2 Þ 1 2 c ( 3 . (B) Let I = ò e { f ( x) + f ¢( x)} dx x 22.2 c) 2 3 ø0 6 è x( x + 1 .3x ÷ è 2 ø0 ø3 5 è 9ö æ 9 =ç+ ÷+ è 10 5 ø = éæ 5 ö æ 9 9 öù êç 2 .com 2 ò cos x dx = 0 ò 0 1 (cos 2 x + 1) dx 2 Page 551 .x = ò (sec2 x + sec x tan x) dx .x2 + 3 x ÷ + ç ÷ ç 2 .x Þ òe 0 1 e x dx 2x +1 Put e x = t e x dx = dt = 1 òt e 2 dt e = [tan -1 t ]1 +1 = tan -1 e .x2 x 1 .x) = ( .2 c) = 0 6 Þ 1 2 1 x .ò f ¢( x) ex dx} + ò ex f ¢( x) dx = f ( x) × ex æ 1 + sin x ö 18.sin x = ò sin x + cos x (sin x + cos 2 x) + 2 sin x cos x 2 dx 1 .ò 2 dx 2 x +1 x +1 ò 0 c x(1 . (A) Let I = ò sin = sin -1 x × x . Since. (D) ò x(1 .5 ÷ú è ø è øû ë 9 æ 1 9 ö 13 + ç.ò dx = ò dx .3 ÷ .(1 .3 16.3 dx 1 = ò e x f ( x) dx + ò e x f ¢( x) dx = { f ( x) e x .ò 5 x .log ( x 2 + 1) + c 2 2 -1 25. (A) www.Integral calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. (A) Let I = ò e ç ç 1 + cos x ÷ dx ÷ è ø x ö æ 5 x2 æ 5 ö = ç . (D) ò 5 x .sin x) dx 1 .x) dx = ò ( x . (A) òx p p 4 sin 5 xdx In second part put 1 .x ) dx 0 0 c x3 x × x2 dx = ò 2 dx x +1 x +1 2 1 ö 1 æ1 = ç x 2 .x cos 2 x =ò =ò sin x + cos x (cos x + cos x) 2 dx sin x + cos x dx = ò dx = x sin x + cos x 35 35 = tan x + sec x .tan -1 1 = tan -1 e c c p 4 2 x = e tan + c 2 19.x 17.+ ÷= 10 è 2 10 ø 10 x xö æ ç 1 + 2 sin cos ÷ x 2 2 ÷ dx =òe ç x ç ÷ 2 cos 2 ç ÷ ø è 2 1 x x = ò e x sec 2 dx + ò e x tan dx 2 2 2 = 1ì x x x x ü x x í e × 2 tan .x 3 ÷ = c 2 ( 3 .1) x dx = ò xdx .3 dx + 0 0 35 1 35 ò 5 x .3 dx = .ò = x sin -1 x dx = ò sin × x dx dx x × 1 × dx 1 1 .x2 ò 0 1 2x + 1 x+ x 2 dx = ò 0 2 dt t = 2( t1 2 ) 2 = 2 2 0 x- ò 26.x) 4 sin 5 ( .

.( -1)] + [1 ...tan -1 ç ç + ÷ êtan ç 3 è6 6ø 3 ë 3 3 ÷û ø è 2p 3 3 = 2p 3 9 Adding (1) and (2).(1) 0 f ( x) ò f (2 a . when x = 1.x) dx .. t = 0 0 I = ò -e t dt = -[ e t ]1 = -[ e 0 .e1 ] = e .x2 = t 1 2 1 . (B) Let I = 0 1 -1 ò 1 x x dx = 0 -1 -x ò1 x dx + 0 ò x dx 0 1 x = ò log (tan x × cot x) dx 0 p2 = -1 ò -1dx + ò 1 × dx = -[ x ] 0 100 p + [ x ]1 0 = ò log 1 dx = 0 0 p2 Þ I =0 = .x) Aliter 2.(i) è 2 4ø 0 1 ò |sin x|dx = 100 ò |sin x|dx 0 0 p [ .x2 xdx ( -2 x) dx = dt = a 2 ò cos 2 q dq = a 2 × 0 p2 1 p (By Walli’s Formula) × 2 2 when x = 0.com Page 552 . (B) Let I = ò a 2 .x) + f ( x) dx. t = 1..x2 0 ò 0 e 1 . Use Walli’s Rule ò cos 0 2 x = 1 p p × = 2 2 4 Adding (1) and (2).ò 2 sin ç t ..0 ] = 0 35.x 2 + a 2 sin -1 ú = ê0 + 4 2 a û0 ë 4 ú ë2 û 29.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics = = = 1 æ1 ö ç sin 2 x + x ÷ 2 è2 ø0 p2 pö æp = ò 2 sinç (1 .t) . (D) Let I = ò 2 sin ç .0 ÷ú 2 ê2 è2 øû ë 1 é1 pù p ê2 (0 . q = 0..a 2 sin 2 q a cos q dq 0 p2 32..x) = 2a ò 1 × dx = [ x ] 0 2a 0 = 2a I = a Put x = a sin q Þ dx = a cos q dq when x = 0.1 4ø è2 0 1 2I = 0 Þ I =0 2a æ 3ö æ 1ö Gç ÷ Gç ÷ 1 p p2 p 2 2 Aliter 1. (C) Let I = I= 2a ò f ( x) + f (2 a .ú 1 ê -1 2ú êtan 3 ê 3 ú ú ê 2 ë 2 û0 1 =ò 0 dx æ 3ö 1ö æ ÷ çx.1 1 = pa 2 4 Aliter: ò 0 a a 2 .x2 f ( x) + f (2 a .÷dt . (B) Let I = ò 1 1 dx 1 .[0 .gatehelp. (C) Let I = Put Þ 1 .2 t ÷dt è ø 0 1 æp p ö 1 é1 æp öù (sin p .(1) 0 p2 33.x ÷ dx è2 ø 0 I = ò log (cot x).(2) 0 p2 p2 = = æ 2 é 1 1 öù 2 æ p p ö -1 ÷ú= .x 2 dx 0 a ò f ( x) + f (2 a . (C) æ pt p ö 30..0) . we get 2I = Þ 28.x + x2 0 é 1ù x.. we get 2 I = ò [log (tan x) + log (cot x)]dx 0 p2 34.÷ +ç ç 2 ÷ 2ø è è ø 2 2 = æp ö I = ò log tan ç .÷dt = ..(2) 0 2a f (2 a .. . p when x = a.x) dx 0 1 1 .sin 0) + ç .. sin x is periodic with period p] www.0 + 2 ú = 4 2ë û pö æp = .x 2 dx a é 1 pa 2 ù pa 2 xù é1 = = ê x a 2 . (D) Let I = ò log (tan x) dx . q = 2 I = ò a 2 ..÷dt = 4ø è2 0 1 ò 2 sinç 4 .. ò cos 2 x dx = è ø è ø = 2 = 2 4 æ4ö 0 2 Gç ÷ è2 ø p2 31..

x ò dydx 38.. (D) The given equations of the curves are y = 2 x i.p) F [sin ( p ...0 ÷ 4 è ø p2 p2 p2 p2 1 -x ò dydx = ò [ y ] 1 2 x -x = ò [2 x + x ]dx 1 x ò e × 2 tan 2 dx 0 x æ 32 ö æ 4 1 ö 101 =ç + 8÷ -ç + ÷ = 6 è 3 ø è3 2ø 44.ç 2 . .... (A) The curves are x 2 + y 2 = a 2 . y 2 = 4 x.x 2 .gatehelp..(ii) Adding (1) and (2). 0) and B (0..(ii) The curves (i) and (ii) intersect at òe 0 p2 x tan x dx 2 = e .cos p + cos 0) = 100(1 + 1) = 200.x..y + 2 = 0. A x sin x dx = 0..e.8 . if m is odd I = ò cos 0 p m 1 [ x 1 + x 2 + log( x + 1 + x 2 )]1 0 2 1 = [ 2 + log (1 + 2 )] 2 = 41.(1) 0 = ò ( x ..x) F(sin x) dx .(i) .. The region of integration A is given by A =ò =ò 4 4 é y2 ù ydydx = ò ê ú dx ò 2 û x2 4 0 x2 4 0 ë 4 2 x 4 2 x 37... the required area is A =ò x 1 Here. (B) The equations of the given curves are y 2 = 9 x.. (C) Let I = ò cos m x sin nx dx = ò f ( x) dx 0 0 p p = ò 1 + x 2 dx 0 Where f ( x) = cos m x sin n x f ( p .2 x ú 2 ë û1 1 1 ö 1 æ = (16 .2 ÷ = 2 è ø 2 www. we get x = 0.cos x) m (sin x) n = -cos m x sin n x.. we get 2 I = ò pF (sin x) dx 0 Þ I= 1 pF (sin x) dx 2ò 0 p2 p The curves (i) and (ii) intersect at A (a. (B) Let I = ò 0 p2 ex æ 2 x xö + 2 tan ÷dx ç sec 2 è 2 2ø p2 43. x = 4 .x 3 ú dx 3 3 û 0 ë 2 52 1 4 ù 3 é2 = ê x7 2 + x .x ú = 15 3 û 0 35 ë7 1 1 é ù = ò [ 3 x .(ii) If a figure is drawn then from fig.x 3 .cos x) 0 0 p 40.. (D) 1 ò ò 0 0 1 1 + x2 dydx = ò [ y ]01 + 0 1 x2 dx = 100( .x 2 y= a . (B) 1 p2 ò 0 1 1 3ù é 2 2 2 ò ( x + y ) dy dx = ò ê x y + 3 y ú x dx û 0 ë x x 1 x A =ò 4 4 3 x 1 x+ 2 ò dydx = ò [ y ] 1 4 3 x x+ 2 dx 4 1 1 ù é = ò ê x 5 2 + x 3 2 .x) = cos m ( p .. the required area is x .x) = ( . if m is odd n p Solving the given equations y 2 = 4 x and x 2 = 4 y ...a) The required area A = x =0 ò a a2 .3 p = 100 ò sin x dx = 100( .(i) A(1. 6) If a figure is drawn then from fig. 3) and B(4.8) .(2) 0 p p 42......com Page 553 .x) sin n ( p . I1 + I 2 = e I = I1 + I 2 = e 39. (A) Let I = ò xF (sin x) dx .(i) 4 2 x 4 4 x 1 = ò e xsec 2 dx + 2 2 0 p2 x ò e tan 2 dx = I1 + I 2 0 x y = .. 36. x + y = a.Integral calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9....( x + 2)]dx = ê2 x 3 2 ..x)]dx 0 p é 48 x5 ù 1æ x4 ö ÷dx = ê x 2 ç4x = ÷ ç 160 ú 0 5 2è 10 ø ë û 0 I = ò ( p . I1 = ò e x sec 2 dx 2 2 0 1 xù é1 = ê e x × 2 tan ú 2 û0 2 ë2 p æ ö = ç e p 2 tan .I 2 . (A) Let I = òò ydxdy.

1 ÷ ø è é( x + y + z) 2 ù ò1 ò ê ú dxdz 2 ûx.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 45.x 2 ) dx ú dz = 2 ò ê .(i) and 4 y = x 2 .(i) The required area A= = = 1 2 1 4 p 2 q cos q Volume V = 4 h ò a 2 . p2 Þ dx = a cos q dq.z ò ò ò ( x + y + z) dydxdz x+ z 1 z x+ z p p3 p 1æ1 ö .com .ò 2q 4 ë3 û0 4 êè 2 ø0 2 ú 0 ë û = ò [( e 2 + z .2 e1 + z + e z ]1 0 0 p2 1 = = = p3 1 éæ cos 2 q ö æ cos 2 q ö ù .ç sin 2 q ÷ = 96 16 8 è 2 ø0 16 ö æ p2 ç ÷ ç 16 . 46. If a figure is drawn then from fig. (C) The equation of the given curve is r = q cos q. 1).. (B) The equation of the cylinder is x 2 + y 2 = a 2 The equation of surface CDE is z = h. (A) The curve is r 2 = a 2 cos 2 q If a figure is drawn then from fig.÷ = 0 è4 4ø 1 éz4 ù 6 z dz = 4 ê ú ò ë 4 û -1 -1 1 3 1 48..e z )]dz 0 1 p2 ù p3 1 é = + ê.2 e + 1) = e 3 . (A) The equation of the cardioid is r = a (1 + cos q) p a (1 + cos q) Thus the equation volume is V = 4 ò zdxdy A .2 e 2 + e) ..( e 2 ...e1 + z ) .(i) =4 a 0 If a figure is drawn then from fig.x 2 dx 0 a q= 0 ò r=0 ò rdrdq Let x = a sin q. the required area is p 4 a cos 2 q A =4 p4 q= 0 ò é1 2 ù ò0rdrdq = 4 ò ê2 r ú 0 û 0 ë r= p4 p4 a cos 2 q dq 1 1 3 é ù é( x + z) 3 x 3 ù = 2 ò êò (( x + z) 2 .z 3 .2 e1 + z + e z ) dz = [ e 2 + z .x 2 a a2 .z ]dz = 3 -1 3 æ1 1ö = 4ç . the required area is The required area A = 2 3x ( x 2 + 2 ) ******** x =0 ò y= x 2 4 ò dxdy 49.( e1 + z .gatehelp.1 = ( e . (C) The equations of given curves are y( x 2 + 2) = 3 x...y ..x 2 0 dx = 4 hò a 2 .3e 2 + 3e .ú dz 3 3 û0 -1 ë 0 -1 ë û ésin 2 q ù = 2 ò a cos 2 q dq= 2 a ê = a2 2 ú0 ë û 0 2 2 2 2 = ò [(2 z) 3 ....e y + z ]1 dz 0 0 p2 p2 p2 ù 1 é1 ù 1 éæ sin 2 q ö sin 2 q = ê q 3 ú + êç q 2 dq ú ÷ . 2 2 q= 0 p2 ò é1 2 ù ò0rdrdq = ò ê2 r ú o û r= 0 ë cos 2 qdq = 1 4 p2 p2 dq 1 1 1 50.(ii) The curve (i) and (ii) intersect at A (2.êç -q ÷ . (C) = = 1 z p3 1 æ -p ö 1 + ç -0÷ 96 4 è 4 ø 8 p2 ò cos 2 q dq 0 p2 -1 0 x .òç÷d q ú 96 4 ëè 2 ø0 2 ø û ú ê 0è p2 = ( e 3 . the required area is Required area A = 2 ò ò hdydx = 4 hò [ y ] 0 0 a2 .ò q sin 2 q dq ú 96 4 ë 0 û = ò ( e 2 + z .e y + z ]dydz 2 ò q dq + 2 ò q cos 2 q dq 0 = ò [ e1 + y + z .a 2 sin 2 q × a cos q dq 0 = 4 ha 2 ò cos 2 q dq = 4 ha 2 × 0 q cos q p2 1 p × = pa 2 h. the required area is Page 554 www. (A) 1 1 òq 0 0 2 1 4 p2 òòòe 0 0 0 x + y+ z dxdydz 1 1 y+ z ò q (1 + cos 2 q)dq 2 0 p2 = ò ò [ ex + 0 0 1 y+ z 1 0 ] dydz = ò ò [ e1 + 0 0 ..1) 3 51. If a figure is drawn then from fig.0 ë é(2 x + 2 z) 2 æ 2 x ö2 ù -ç ÷ ú dxdz òòê 2 è 2 ø û ê ú -1 0 ë 1 z z 47.

÷ ....1) 2 ..i6 p2 (A) i2 p (C) i6 p2 15.1)( z ...2)( z . 17–18: 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 f ( z0 ) = ò dz ..1) + 2 2 ( z . ò z( z .z 2 ) dz = ? where c is the upper half of the circle c -1 é 1 1 ù 2 ê1 . (A) (C) e2 z ò ( z + 1) 4 dz = ? where c is the circle of z = 3 c 4 pi -3 e 9 4 pi -1 e 3 (B) (D) 4 pi 3 e 9 8 pi -2 e 3 12.÷ .1) + 2 ( z . f ( z) = (A) (B) 1 about z = 1 z +1 (A) 2 + i 6 p (C) 1 + ip 13.. f ( z) = z -1 about the points z = 0 z +1 (B) -1 ... f ( z) = sin z about z = (A) p 4 ò cos pz dz = ? where c is the circle z = 3 c z -1 (B) ... If z + 1 < 1..ç z .1) . The integration of f ( z) = x 2 + ixy from A(1.( z .ç z . The value of f ¢(1 .1) dz = ? where c is the circle z = 3 c (B) i2p (D) 0 1 cos pz dz around a rectangle with 2 pi ò z 2 .z0 ) c x + y = 4.z 2 + z 3.Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9..i2 p (D) ... then z -2 is equal to (A) 1 + (B) 1 + (C) 1 + (D) 1 + n =1 ¥ vertices at 2 ± i ..ú 2ê 2 2 ë û 1é 1 1 ù 1 + ( z .1) 2 .gatehelp.) (C) -1 + 2( z ...ú 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 2ê è ú ë û 2 ù 1 é æ pö 1 æ pö ê1 ...ú ê 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 2ë è ê ú û 2 ù 1 é pö 1 æ pö æ ê1 + ç z ......i) is (A) 7 ( p + i2) (C) 2 p (5 + i13) Statement for 19–21: Expand the given function in Taylor’s series..5 10. 2 ù 1 é pö 1 æ pö æ 1 + ç z .) 20.... 1 ..÷ .ú 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 2ê è ú ë û sin pz 2 ò ( z .z 2 + z 3...i11 3 (D) 23 .2 ( z . 19.) (D) None of the above (B) 6 (2 + ip) (D) 0 (B) 4i (D) 0 11.÷ + ..ú 2 ë û 1é 1 1 ù 1 . ò ( z . 2 2 å ( n + 1)( z + 1) å ( n + 1)( z + 1) å n( z + 1) ¥ n =1 ¥ n ¥ n -1 n +1 n =1 n =1 å ( n + 1)( z + 1) n www..i6 5 17..com Page 565 .....1 c (B) i2 e (D) 0 (B) (A) i6p (C) i4p 16...2( z ...÷ + ç z . 4) along the straight line AB joining the two points is -29 (A) + i11 3 (C) 23 + i6 5 29 (B) .ú 2ê 2 2 ë û z =1 -2 (A) 3 3 (C) 2 14.ç z .. The value of (C) (D) None of the above 22.2) dz = ? where c is the circle z = 15 c (B) 4 + i 3p (D) i3p (A) 1 + 2( z + z 2 + z 3. The value of f ( 3) is (A) 6 (C) -4i 18..... where c is the circle ( z .2z .... 1) to B(2.. (B) 2 3 -3 (D) 2 (C) (D) None of the above 21.1) + 2 ( z .÷ . -2 ± i is (A) 6 (C) 8 Statement for Q.

( z .. (D) .1) 5 .1) .6p (D) None of the above 1 (B) ...... 1 3 7 15 3 + z + z2 + z . 2 z z z (B) (D) 1 8 13 + + + ..1) ........2) 32. 2 z z z 29.z3 + z ..1) ( z .2) dz = ? where c is c (D) None of the above 26.. The Laurent’s series of 1 for z < 2 is z( e z ..... 1 < z < 2 1 2 3 (A) + 2 + 3 + ... z > 2 (A) (C) 6 13 20 + + 3 + .. 4 16 64 (B) (C) 1 1 2 5 4 21 6 + z + z + z .1) .( z .. 2 4 16 64 1 3 15 5 z ..... 3 5 2 ò z e z dz = ? where c is z = 1 c 27.... Expand the function 1 in Laurent’s ( z ..1) 3 ( z . z z z (B) K ..........1) 3 ( z ...1) .....2z 25.... 2! 5! 3 5 (A) ... 2 2 4 8 z is. z z2 z 1 3 7 + 3 + 4 + . 23..z)( z .e Zz at its pole is z4 -4 (B) 3 2 3 (D) 30.. (A) ò 2 + cos q = ? 0 dq -2 p 2 (B) 2p 3 (D) None of the above Page 566 www..UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics Statement for Q..( z .....1) 5 .z ..( z ... z 2 z 12 720 (C) 1 1 1 1 2 + + z2 + z + .( z .. 2! 5! ( z . z 12 634 720 34.... z 2 z 12 720 1 1 1 1 2 (B) 2 + z + .z -1 (C) 1 1 1 1 3 .1) -1 ..........2) 28. (B) i3 p (D) -2 òæ z cos z dz = ? where c is z ...z2 z -K 2 4 8 18 (D) 1 3 7 + 2 + 4 .i3p (C) 2 1 is z( z ...1) (A) i3p C) ip 3 2p (B) . 23–25........i3p (D) None of the above 1 1 1 1 2 (A) 2 + + + 6z + z + . z < 1 (A) 1 + 3z (B) (C) +7 2 15 2 z + z ....3 + 4 . (C) .... 2 z z z (D) None of the above 24..( z ..... 2 4 8 16 1 3 z2 z3 + + + .......... 2 4 1 at z = 0 is z -1 (B) 2 (D) -1 3 z = 15 .. the Laurent’s series for (A) ...1) .......1) ..( z . The residue of the function (A) (C) 4 3 -2 3 1 ..1) -1 - (A) 6 p (C) i2p 33. The residue of z cos (A) (C) 1 2 1 3 1 .... 4 4 8 16 31.. The Laurent’s series of f ( z) = where z < 1 1 5 3 21 5 (A) z z + z ... If z .z -2 ........z -3 ...com (C) 2 p 2 (D) -2 p 3 .....1 < 1 .1 = 1 pö c z ç ÷ 2ø è (B) .gatehelp.. ò z(1 . ( z + 1)( z 2 + 4) 2 series for the condition given in question............ 2 4 8 1 1 2 3 4 15 6 + z + z + z .......1)( z ..... z z2 z3 2 3 4 .( z .( z ...1)( z .

f (0) z é( x 3 .(1) Now. so we apply first principle method.gatehelp. (A) (C) x2 ò ( 2 + a 2 )( x 2 + b2 ) dx = ? -¥ x p ab a+b p a+b ¥ ¥ (B) p ( a + b) ab SOLUTIONS 1. f ( z) = u + iv = Þ u= x3 . the derivative f ¢( z) exits of the limit in equation (1) is unique i. it does not depends on the path along which Dz ® 0. .Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.y 3(1 . z ¹0 x2 + y2 x3 + y3 x2 + y2 (D) p ( a + b) 36. 0) . 0) h3 h2 = lim = lim = 1 h ®0 h ®0 ¶x h h ¶u u(0. 0 *************** At the origin. 0 + k). then é x 3 + i( x 3) 1 ù f ¢ (0) = lim ê =1 + i 2 x ®0 xú ë (x ) û So we see that f ¢(0) is not unique. (A) (C) ò1+ x 0 dx 6 =? (B) (D) p 2 p 3 p 6 2p 3 Cauchy Riemann equations are ¶u ¶v ¶u ¶v and = =¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x By differentiation the value of we get ¶u ¶y ¶v ¶v at(0. 0) .5 35. then é( x 3 .e.y3 ... www. 2.u(0. 0) . 0) k3 k2 = lim = lim =1 k ®0 ¶y k ®0 k k Thus.u(0. .y 3) + i( x 3 + y 3) 1 ù = lim ê 2 2 z ®0 (x + y ) ( x + iy) ú ë û Now let z ® 0 along y = x. f ¢( z) = Df df = lim dz Dz ®0 Dz Du + iDv or f ¢( z) = lim Dz ®0 Dx + iDy .com Page 567 . (C) Since. (A) Since.k3 k2 = lim = lim = -1 k ®0 ¶v h ®0 k k ¶v v(0 + h. ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶y 0 . 0) . x2 + y2 v= x 3(1 + i) .. 0 + k) . ¶u u(0 + h.y 3) + i( x 3 + y 3) 1 ù 2i 1+ i f ¢ (0) = lim ê 2 2 ú= 2(1 + i) = 2 z ®0 (x + y ) ( x + iy) û ë Again let z ® 0 along y = 0.v(0. f ¢(0) = lim z ®0 f ( z) . v(0. 0) h3 h2 = lim = lim =1 h ®0 ¶x h ®0 h h ¶v v(0. Hence f ¢(0) does not exist.i) . we see that ¶u ¶v ¶u ¶v and = =¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x Hence. Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied at z = 0. Again.

v) + i( u + v) F ( z) = U + iV add equation (1) and (2) .e.(3) .sinh x sin y = y( x. (C) u = sinh x cos y ¶u = cosh x cos y = f( x... V = u + v Let F ( z) be an analytic function. ¶u ¶2u 4....com .i × 0 = cosh z On integrating f ( z) = sinh z + constant Þ f ( z) = w = sinh z + ic (As u does not contain any constant. (C) Given f ( z) = u + i v Þ Þ Þ if ( z) = -v + iu (1 + i) f ( z) = ( u .... f ¢( z) exists for all points lie on the line x = y.sin y) = e x ( .y) .. u = x 2 Þ = 2 x and =0 ¶x ¶y and v = y 2 Þ ¶v ¶v = 0 and =2y ¶x ¶y f ¢( z) = ¶u ¶u -i ¶x ¶y ..sin y) + ie x (sin y + cos y) + ic1 = e x (cos y + i sin y) + ie x (cos y + i sin y) + ic1 F ( z) = (1 + i) e x + iy + ic1 = (1 + i) ez + ic1 (1 + i) f ( z) = (1 + i) e z + ic1 ( i + 1) i i(1 ...sin y) ¶U ¶U and = e x (cos y . =0 ¶y ¶y 2 Þ Page 568 .sin y) dy = d[ e x (sin y + cos y)] on integrating V = e x (sin y + cos y) + c1 F ( z) = U + iV = e x (cos y .(3) Now let v be the conjugate of u then ¶v ¶v ¶u ¶u dv = dx + dy = dx + dy ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x (by Cauchy-Riemann equation) Þ .(2) Again.. 0) + ih( z. ¶u ¶v ¶v ¶u +i = -i ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶u ¶v ¶v -¶u and = = ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶y ¶u ¶u ¶v ¶v f ¢( z) = -i = +i ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x 3.i) Þ f ( z) = e z + c1 = e z + c1 = ez + c1 2 1+ i (1 + i)(1 . whatever be the path of reaching at that point From equation (3) and (4) 2 x = 2 y Hence. of equation (2) and (3) must be same i. 0) = 2 z + i 0 = 2 z On integrating f ( z) = z 2 + c www.H. 0) = cosh z . Thus u is harmonic... (A) ¶v ¶v = 2 y = h( x. 0) .y) dy On integrating v = x 2 . let Dz ® 0 along a path parallel to imaginary where..S. U = u .. y) ¶x ¶y ¶2u ¶2u + = 0.. F ( z) = (1 + i) f ( z).(1) .v = e x (cos y . = 2 x = g( x... U = ( u ..v).UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics Let Dz ® 0 along a path parallel to real axis Þ Dy = 0 \ Dz ® 0 Þ Dx ® 0 Now equation (1) Du + iDv Du Dv f ¢( z) = lim = lim + i lim Dx ®0 Dx ®0 Dx Dx ®0 Dx Dx ¶u ¶v f ¢( z) = +i ¶x ¶x axis. for existence of f ¢( z) R.cos y) ¶x ¶y Now. equation (1) gives f ¢( z) = 2 x and equation (2) gives f ¢( z) = 2 y Now.(2) the function x and hence i. Now.(2) dv = 2 x dx + 2(1 ..(3) ¶y ¶x Now... f ( z) = u + iv Here u = x 2 and v = y 2 ¶u ¶u Now.(4) 6.. (A) Given f ( z) = x 2 + iy 2 since.. dV = -¶U ¶U dx + dy..gatehelp. y) ¶y by Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = f( z.(1) . the constant c is in Now. y) ¶x ¶u and = .(2) ¶y ¶x .iy( z.y 2 + 2 y + C 5. y). 7. (B) = 2(1 .. ¶x 2 ¶y 2 by Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = g( z.e. =0 ¶x ¶x 2 ¶u ¶2u = -2 x .i) Þ f ( z) = e z + (1 + i) c we know that and f ¢( z) = ¶v ¶v + i . then Dx ® 0 and Dz ® 0 ® Dy ® 0 Thus from equation (1) Dz + iDv Du Dv ¶u ¶v = lim + i lim = + f¢( z) = lim Dy ®0 Dy ®0 iDy Dy ®0 iDz iD y i ¶y ¶y f ¢( z) = -i ¶ u ¶ v + ¶y ¶y .(1) = e x (sin y + cos y) dx + e x (cos y .sin y . in w)...... for existence of f ¢( z) at any point is necessary that the value of f ¢( z) most be unique at that point..

(3) If is the circle z = 3 Since.(2) f ( z) dz ù ú [Here f ( z) = 1 = f ( z o) and z o = 0] c z . c = 3 dx = dt .( -1)]4 pi f ¢¢¢( -1).1)( z . 0) .2) 2 z z .5 8. 0) + ih( z. y) ¶x ( x2 + y2 )2 ( x2 + y2 )2 By Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = g( z.Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9..2 (0) = 3pi c 13. y) ( x2 + y2 )2 Taking n = 3. therefore I 2 = 2 pi.(1 + i) 2 z2 z ø z è e 2 z dz e 2 z dz =ò ( z + 1) 4 c [ z .z e 2 z dz ò= 3 ( z + 1) 4 = 3 e |z | 12. everywhere in c i..(3) ..2) = 1 3 I1 + I 2 .2z 1 3 ò z( z .1)( z . y = ct + d On A.2 sin 2 2 x 9. (D) 2 ¶v -( x 2 + y 2 ) . f ( z) is analytic within and on z = 3 8 pi .2z 1 1 3 = + z( z . (3).z ) o f ( z) dz 4 pi f ¢¢( z o) 3 ..( x .(1) ¶v ( x 2 + y 2 ) . the singular point z = 1 lies z -1 c ò AB is . so the function f ( z) is analytic .(2) 3 Þ -2 Taking f ( z) = e 2 z .zo û 1 Similarly.i(0) = = .. therefore by Cauchy’s integral .2 ÷ = . Given fc ò (z .(4) z -2 c using equations (2). y = c + d a = 1.cos 2 y) 2 Now. 0) = 1 1 æ 1 ö + iç .com ..y)2 x y 2 .. (D) Since. y = d x = a + b.cos 2 x) 2 = 2 cos 2 x cosh 2 y .. y) (cosh 2 y . theorem 1 I3 = ò dz = 0.2) dz = 2 (2 pi) + 2 pi .iy( z.cos 2 x) 2 By Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = f( z. y) ¶y (cosh 2 y . z = 0 is the only singularity for I1 = lies inside ò z dz c 1 and it z = 15. t = 0 Þ Þ and t = 1 Þ Þ x = b.gatehelp. the singular point z = 2 lies outside z -2 c the circle z = 15.. 0) 2 cos 2 z .z ) c o c f ( z) dz n +1 or = ò (z .cos 2 z) 2 1 ... for I 2 = ò dz. x = at + b.1 2( z . z = 2 + 4 i Let z = 1 + i corresponds to t = 0 and z = 2 + 4 i corresponding to t = 1 then.x . f ( z) = e 2 z Þ Þ f ¢¢¢( -1) = 8 e f ¢¢¢( z) = 8 e 2 z equation (2) have ò ( z + 1) c e 2 z dz 4 = 8 pi -2 e 3 . and z o = -1 in (1). (D) We know by the derivative of an analytic function that 1 www.x 2 + 2 xy = = = h( x.2 xy = g( x.. we get 1 .. hence by Cauchy’s integral . z = 1 + i and On B...cosec2 z (1 . (A) = ¶x (cosh 2 y . 1 For I 3 = ò dz.. (B) Given contour c is the circle z = 1 Page 569 = t= 0 1 ò [( t + 1) 2 + i( t + 1)( 3t + 1)][ dt + 3i dt ] = ò [( t 2 + 2 t + 1) + i( 3t 2 + 4 t + 1)](1 + 3i) dt 0 é t3 ù 29 = (1 + 3i) ê + t 2 + t + i( t 3 + 2 t 2 + t) ú = + 1 1i 3 3 ë û0 11. z = 15.I 3.(1) 2 2 ¶u 2 sin 2 x sinh 2 y = = y( x. dy = 3 dt b = 1..2z 1 .ò cosec2 z dz + ic = cot z + ic 10.2) dz c Since.1)( z . d = 1 2 = a + 1.2 = f( x. Formula 1 I1 = ò dz = 2 pi c z é 1 ê f ( z o) = 2pi ë .cos 2 z On integrating f ( z) = . 1 .( x . (4) in (1)..cos 2 x) .e.y)2 y = ¶y ( x2 + y2 )2 2 f ¢¢( z o) = n! 2 pi ò (z ..z ) c o f ( z) dz n +1 = 2pi n f ( z o) n! = y .. 4 = c + 1 Þ 2 ò z( z . we have ò ( z + 1) c e 2 z dz 4 = On integrating 1 1 f ( z) = (1 + i) ò 2 dz + c = (1 + i) + c z z ¶u 2 cos 2 x (cosh 2 y .. y = 3t + 1 Þ ò f ( z) dz = ò ( x c c 1 + ixy)( dx + idy) inside z = 15.2 -2 = .

1) + 3 ( z ..zo take f ( z) = cos pz..e..1)( z . f ( z) = sin pz 2 Þ 16..1) ú = i ê2 3 ë û 3 14.i i.. the distance of 1 ..z + 1 ÷ cos pz dz 2 × 2 pi c è ø 1 æ cos nz cos nz ö ç ÷dz z +1 ø 4 pi ò è z . (D) ò dz c ( z . now by Cauchy’s integral formula 1 f ( z) dz f ( z) f ( z o) = dz Þ ò = 2pif ( z o) 2pi ò z .zo dz = 2 pif( zo) c Þ f ( z o) = 2pif( z o) Þ f ¢( z o) = 2pif¢( z o) and f ¢¢( z o) = 2pi f¢¢( z o) ò (e p iq . Let f( z) = 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 then by Cauchy’s integral formula Page 570 = 1 1 1 1 ( z ..... (D) f ( 3) = 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 singular point of and it lies outside the z -3 circle x 2 + y 2 = 4 i.1)ç ÷+ 2 2! è 4 ø 3 æ 1 ö ( z ..z 2 + z 3 .1) + ( z . (B) Let f ( z) = cos pz then f ( z) is analytic within and on z = 3.4 ( z .1 dz = 2 pif (1) = 2pi cos p = -2pi z sin pz 2 15. and so on. 1) from the origin is 2 which is less than 2.e 3iq)dq = i ê 3i ú 0 ë 2i û 0 since... 0 £ q £ p 2 ò ( z .e.( e 3px .1) 3 + .1) + 2 ( z .3 dz . Taylor series is given by f ( z) = f ( z 0 ) + ( z .1) . (D) Let. Hence by Cauchy’s theorem— f ( 3) = ò c f ¢¢¢(1) = - 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 is z -3 Taylor series is f ( z) = f ( z 0 ) + ( z . 3! about z = 0 f ( z) = -1 + z(2) + z2 z3 ( -4) + (12) + .gatehelp.ú 2ê 2 2 2 ë û or f ( z) = www. =i× 1 é1 1 ù 2 × ( e 2 pi .com .1 c 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 ò z .z0 ) 3 f ¢¢¢( z 0 ) + K 3! 18. .. I = = òz c 2 1 cos pz dz -1 = -1 + 2 z ... therefore analytic everywhere within c. 8 1 2 1 1 ö æ 1 ò ç z .. f (1) = 0 2 Þ f ¢( z) = ( z + 1) 2 -4 ( z .i) + 7 ] = 2 p (5 + 13i) 19. (C) f ( z) = Þ Þ z -1 2 =1 z +1 z +1 f ¢(0) = 2. z o = 1.. we have cos pz ò= 3 z .1) 3 +.. f ( z) = -1 + 2( z .ò dz z -2 z -1 c c f (2) = sin 4 p = 0 and f (1) = sin p = 0 1 2 pi = 2 pif (2) .i) = 2 pi[ 6(1 .1) 2 .z0 ) 3 f ¢¢¢( z 0 ) + .1) æ 3 ö ç .z o c c z . 2! 3! ò sin pz 2 sin pz 2 dz . for upper half of the circle.2 z 2 + 2 z 3.z 0 ) f ¢( z 0 ) + ( z .3 ( z . 2 22 2 2 1 1 1é 1 ù 1 .) 20.÷+K ç ÷+ 3! è 8 ø è4ø 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 dz = 0 z -3 ( z . since zo = 3 is the only c Or I = f ¢(1) = f ¢¢(1) = 17. (C) The point (1 .z0 ) 2 f ¢¢( z 0 ) + 2! ( z .1) 2 ..( z . (B) f ( z) = f ¢( z) = f ¢¢( z) = f ¢¢¢( z) = -1 ( z + 1) 2 2 ( z + 1) 3 -6 ( z + 1) 4 1 z +1 Þ Þ Þ Þ f (1) = -1 4 1 4 3 and so on. Now.z ) dz = c q= 0 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 ò z . f( z) = 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 Þ f¢ ( z) = 6 z + 7 and f¢¢( z) = 6 f ¢(1 ..1) 3 12 ( z + 1) 4 Þ Þ f ¢¢( z) = f ¢¢¢( z) = f ¢¢(0) = -4.z 0 ) f ¢( z 0 ) + ( z ..e 2 iq) ie iqdq p p é e 2 iq e 3iq ù = i ò ( e 2 iq . z = 2. f ¢¢¢(0) = 12.2) = f (0) = -1. the radius of the circle).i) lies within circle z = 2 ( .2 pif (1) since.z0 ) 2 f ¢¢( z 0 ) 2! + about z = 1 f ( z) = 2 1 æ -1 ö ( z .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics Þ z = e iq Þ dz = ieiqdq Now. (1.1 .

÷ . Since.( z .( z .2) 2 z z .(1 + z)]-2 1 1 = 2 z [1 .) .÷ z -2 z -1 2è 2ø -1 pö æ çz .1) 3 ...1 = u Þ z = u + 1 and u < 1 1 1 1 1 = + z( z .Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.1)( z ..÷ +è 2! 4ø 2 2 è æ 1 ö ÷ çç 2 ÷ ø è 3 Þ pö æ çz .ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + K÷ ÷ z ç 2è 2 4 9 z z z è ø ø 1 1 1 1 3 or f ( z) = K-z -4 .(1 + z)]2 é ù z z2 z3 1+ + + + Kú + (1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + .÷ 4ø +è 3! f ( z) = æ 1 ö ÷ +K çç 2 ÷ ø è 25.2) z .1ú z ê1 + z + 2 ! 3! 4 ! ë û 2 1 1 1æ 1ö = = ç1 . =1 2 + (1 .1) -1 ..2 z .z) -1 2 3 ù 1 é 1æ pö 1 æ pö pö æ ê1 + ç z .K 27.cos z Þ Þ Þ Þ p 1 æ pö f ç ÷ = sin = 4 2 è4ø 1 æ pö f ¢ç ÷ = 2 è4ø 1 æ pö f ¢¢ç ÷ = 4ø 2 è 1 æ pö and so on.(1) = ( z .com Page 571 .2) 1 1 1 1 1 .z0 ) f ¢¢( z 0 ) 2! 2 ö 1æ 1æ 1 1 1 z z2 z3 ö ç1 + + + + . ÷ zè z z z ø + about z = p 4 2 ( z .(1 + u + u2 + u3 + . (B) z < 1. so by expanding R. (A) f ( z) = sin z f ¢( z) = cos z f ¢¢( z) = .sin z f ¢¢¢( z) = .÷ -.1 Since.ç z ...u3 + .1) 5 ......5 21. (D) Let f ( z) = z -2 = f ( z) = [1 .u-1 .÷ ..1 < 1 Let z .u) -1 2 2( u + 1) u 2( u . ÷ zè z z z zè z z z ø ø = 1æ1 3 7 ö ç + 2 + 3 + K÷ zèz z z ø f ( z) = 1 3 7 + + +K z2 z3 z4 zö 1 1 1æ = . by binomial theorem. we get f ( z) = 1 + 2(1 + z) + 3(1 + z) 2 + 4(1 + z) 3 + K + ( n + 1)(1 + z) n + K or f ( z) = z -2 = 1 + n =1 For z . z > 1 Þ 1 < 1 and z < 2 z -1 Þ z 2 <1 1 1 [1 .2 u .1) .1) and -1 æ zö 1 1 = ç1 . 3! Laurent’s series is given by 1æ 2 4 98 1 1 1 ö ö 1æ f ( z) = ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + .z .u = -u . ] ....1 2( z . ÷ . (C) 2 <1 z Þ -1 1 1 < <1 z 2 = Þ 1 <1 z Taylor series is given by f ( z) = f ( z 0 ) + ( z .÷ 1ö zè z -1 zø æ zç 1 .ú 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 3! è 4ø 2 ê è ú ë û 22.u + u2 .. 1 + z < 1.S.( z ..÷ z -1 z è zø and 1æ 1 1 1 ö ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + K÷ z z z 2è ø -1 1 1æ 2ö = ç1 ..ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + .z 0 ) f ¢( z 0 ) + 1 1æ 1ö = ç1 ..gatehelp.K .) 2 2 1 3 -1 = ( -2 u ..(1 .2) 2 z z . (D) Since.1)( z ..H..÷ zø è = 1æ 1 1 1 ö ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + K÷ zè z z z ø 1 z( e z .÷ 1 pö 1 4ø æ f ( z) = + çz .÷ .+ = (1 + u) -1 . (B) Here f ( z) = .÷ z -2 z è zø = 1æ 2 4 8 ö ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + .1)( z .2) 26.ç z .1) 2 å ( n + 1)( z + 1) ¥ n = = 1 1 1 23.z0 ) 3 f ¢¢¢( z 0 ) + . f ¢¢¢ç ÷ = 4ø 2 è ( z ..u-1 .u5 .) ê 2 4 8 ë û 1 3 7 15 3 f ( z) = + z + z 2 + z +K 2 4 8 16 1 1 1 1 = + z( z . (B) Let f ( z) = = 1 é ù z z3 z4 + + + K .z 2 z -K 2 4 8 18 f ( z) = 24.ç1 ..1 2( z .u3 .u-1 2 Required Laurent’s series is f ( z) = -( z .÷ = z -2 2 è 2ø 2 -1 é ù z z z ê1 + 2 + 4 + 9 + Kú ë û 2 3 equation (1) gives— www.z -1 .z -2 .

4.. (B) Let z = eiq Þ = 1æ 1ö and cos q = ç z + ÷ 2è zø 2p òæ 0 p ç e 2 iq ç è e 3iq dq R a 2 öæ b2 ö + 2 ÷ç e 2 iq + 2 ÷ ÷ç R øè R ÷ ø -idz dq ò 2 + cos q = ò 1 æz 1 ö.Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.b) = a+b 2 i ( a 2 .z 4 )( z1 .(1) 3 z a = ( z . The poles are z = ± ia.3) f ( z) = lim z ®-2 + ( z + 2 + 3) = 1 2 3 ò f ( z) dz = 2 pi ´ 2 c 2p 1 3 pi 3 = pi 3 = 2p 3 + 3+i 2 1 = ( z1 .ib) = z ®ib ( z . z = ± ib. (C) I = ò 2 dz = ò f ( z) dz 2 2 2 c ( z + a )( z + b ) c where c is be semi circle r with segment on real axis from -R to R.com ******** Page 573 .ia) z ®ia or ò f ( z) dz + r -R ò f ( z) dz = p iq R 2p .ia)( z .z 5)( z1 . (C) Let I = ò dz = ò f ( z) dz 1 + z6 c c Let f ( z) = 1 z2 + 4z + 1 c is the contour containing semi circle r of radius R and segment from -R to R. 1 + z6 = 0 Þ z = ( -1) p 6 = e i ( 2 n + 1 ) p 6 .2 + 3. 0 c 2 + çz + ÷ 2è zø dz z + 4z + 1 2 Now when R ® ¥. = lim ( z .3 out of these only z = -2 + 3 lies inside the circle c : z = 1 ò f ( z) dz = 2pi(Residue at z = -2 + c 3) Now. 5. c: z =1 ¥ ò b( z) dz = 0 r -¥ ò (x 2 x p dz = 2 2 + a )( x + b ) a+b 2 2 = . For poles of f ( z).3+i .ia)( z 2 + b2 ) 2 i( a 2 . 2. z £ q £ 2p z ò f ( z) dz = ò r ie 2 iqiRe iqdq 2 2 iq + a 2 )( R 2 e2 iq + b2 ) 0 (R e p 34. i.2iò c 36.z 2 )( z1 .z6 ) Residue at z = = 1 3i(1 + 3 i) = 1 .b2 ) ie iqdq R5 1 + e6 iq R6 where R ® ¥.3i 12 i 1 6i = 1 3i(1 .b2 ) 2 Now ò f ( z) dz = ò 1 + R e c 0 r iRe dq 6 6 iq = ò 0 p Residue at z = ib z2 -b = lim ( z . 3.gatehelp. 1. 2 3+i lie in the contour 2 where n = 0.3i + 1 + 3i + 2 i) = 12 i 3 (sum of residues at z = ia and z = ib) Residue at z = ia.5 ò f ( z) dz = 2 pi ´ 6 = 3 pi c 1 1 Now -idz dq = .z 3)( z1 . 6 Only poles z = 1 3 f ( z) has poles at z = .ib) 2 i( a 2 .. (1) ® ¥ ò f ( z) dz ® 0 ò f ( z) dz = ò f ( z) dz + ò f ( z) dz c r -R R ò 0 ax 2p = 1 + x6 3 = p 2 pi ( a .. Here only z = ia and z = ib lie within the contour c Residue at z = i is Residue at z = 1 + 3i is 12 i R ò c f ( z) dz = ò f ( z) dz + r -R ò f ( z) dz ò f ( z) dz = 2pi c = 2 pi 2p (1 .3i) = 1 + 3i 12 i ò 2 + cos q = -2 i ´ 0 dq z2 35. residue at z = -2 + 3 = z ®-2 + lim 3 ( z + 2 . -2 .b2 ) www.ia)( z + ia)( z + ib)( z .

The following is the data of wages per day: 5. 85. 71. 2. 8. 90.5 and 2 respectively. 72.1 (D) 28. Consider the table given below Marks 0 – 10 10 – 20 20 – 30 Number of Students 12 18 27 20 17 6 3. The following marks were obtained by the students in a test: 81.6 PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 1.com (B) 46 (D) None (C) 40 . is (A) 18 (C) 27 (B) 28 (D) 6 4. (B) 33. 3.6 (C) 30. 83.5 7. 5.5 (B) 37 and 47 (D) 47. 2. 90. the mid value of a class is 15 and the class interval is 4. 62.5 and 37.5 and the lower class boundary of the lowest class is 10. The mode of the given distribution is Weight (in kg) Number of Children 40 5 43 8 46 16 49 9 52 7 55 3 mathematics by 16 students of a class are as follows: 0. 5. 7. In a frequency distribution.1 (C) 2. If the class size is 10. 5. 0. 7. The mid value of a class interval is 42.1 the marks obtained in 8. 92.6. 95. 40 and 15 having their means 2.4 2. A distribution consists of three components with frequencies 45.6 5. 70. 5. 8. 5. The lower limit of the class is (A) 14 (C) 12 (B) 13 (D) 10 6. 8 The arithmetic mean of the marks obtained is (A) 3 (C) 5 Page 574 (B) 4 (D) 6 (A) 55 www. 8 The mode of the data is (A) 5 (C) 8 (B) 7 (D) 10 9. 8. 3. 2. 4.gatehelp. 6. The upper class boundary of the highest class is (A) 35. The width of each of nine classes in a frequency distribution is 2.3 (B) 2. 5. 7. 6. In a monthly test. 9. The mean of the combined distribution is (A) 2. The range of the marks is 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 (A) 9 (C) 27 (B) 17 (D) 33 The arithmetic mean of the marks given above. then the upper and lower limits of the class are (A) 47 and 37 (C) 37. 3.79. 9. 89. 4.2 (D) 2.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9. 7. 10. 85.5 and 47. 86. 5.

The median of 0. The mean-deviation of the data 3. 2. -1. 14 is (A) 1 (C) 2. -3. 13. 5.16 (C) 0. is Class interval 3–6 6–9 9–12 12–15 15–18 18–21 21–24 Frequency 2 5 21 23 10 12 3 B can solve 70%.75 (D) 26 17. The odds against a husband who is 45 years old. then the value of x is (A) 4 (C) 20 (B) 10 (D) 40 16. 5 12. is (A) (C) 61 96 13 64 15. 16.com . The probability that A occurs at least once is (A) 0. 6 is (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) -1.25 (D) 2. living till she is 61 are 5:3.7 (B) 2. 2.75 mm 21. 6.5 mm (B) 123 mm (D) 122. 18 (C) 15.73 13. A can solve 90% of the problems given in a book and 14.8 (D) 12. 37 256 249 256 Eight The probability of getting at least 6 heads is The median of the above frequency distribution is (A) 122 mm (C) 122. 12.8 18. 5.Probability and Statistics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. living till he is 70 are 7:5 and the odds against his wife who is 36.25 (B) 0. 5.20 22. 14 is (A) 4 (C) 2. A speaks truth in 75% and B in 80% of the cases. 6.75 (B) 3. What is the probability that at least one of them will solve a problem.5 (C) 12 (B) 11. 11. 15 is (A) 2. 5. The standard deviation of 6. The probability that an event A occurs in one trial of an experiment is 0. be 20. 5.83 (B) 0 (D) 2. 8. 7. 2. Consider the following table Diameter of heart (in mm) 120 121 122 123 124 125 Number of persons 5 9 14 8 5 9 19. The probability that at least one of them will be alive 25 years hence. (A) (C) 7 64 57 64 (B) 0.784 (D) None coins are tossed (B) (D) simultaneously.6 10. 9. 5 (A) 12 (C) 1. 11.gatehelp. The standard deviation for the data 7.4. If the arithmetic mean of two numbers is 10 and their geometric mean is 8.63 (D) 0. The mean deviation of the following distribution is x f 10 3 11 12 12 18 13 12 14 3 11.4 (C) 2. 10. The mode of the following frequency distribution. 4 (D) 20. In what percentage of cases are they likely to contradict each other narrating the same incident ? (A) 5% (C) 35% (B) 45% (D) 15% (A) 11.964 20. If the geometric mean of x.5 (D) 2.5 (B) 16. 6. Three independent trials of experiment are performed. 10. selected at random from the book? (A) 0.936 (C) 0.4 23.4 (B) 5 32 (D) None Page 575 www.97 (B) 0. 50. the numbers are (A) 12. -3. 8.5 (D) 3.

then the distribution is æ3 1ö (A) ç + ÷ è4 4ø æ4 1ö (C) ç + ÷ è5 5ø 12 that A1 will die in one year is (A) (C) (B) 1 . An each x 1 n2 1 [1 . If one ball is drawn from each bag. second.3. Then. If the sum of mean and variance of a binomial distribution is 4. If 3 is the mean and (3/2) is the standard deviation of a binomial distribution. A bag contains 4 white and 2 black balls. then the mean of X is (A) ± 1 (C) ± 3 www. Another bag contains 3 white and 5 black balls. 0.p) n (D) 1 [1 .p) n ] n æ 1 3ö (B) ç + ÷ è2 2 ø 12 60 æ1 4ö (D) ç + ÷ è5 5 ø 5 31. Getting 1 or 6 is taken as a success.com (B) 6 (D) None (B) ± 2 (D) None .m ç 1 + ÷ ç 2! ÷ ø è a Poission variate such that 28.6976 (B) 0. A die is thrown 100 times.76 (C) 0. Getting an even number is considered a success. K. third and fourth shot are 0. The probability that the variable takes any of the values 0 or 2 is æ m2 ö (A) e . the distribution is æ1 1ö (A) ç + ÷ è7 8 ø 12 25. A bag contains 5 white and 4 red balls. the distribution is æ1 4ö (A) ç + ÷ è5 5 ø æ2 3ö (C) ç + ÷ è5 5 ø 5 æ1 2ö (B) ç + ÷ è 3 3ø 5 5 (D) None of these 35.m ç 1 + m + ÷ ç 2! ÷ ø è (C) e 3 2 (1 + m 2 ) -1 2 (B) e m (1 + m) -3 2 æ m2 ö (D) e . the probability 30.q) (D) p + 1 .1 respectively. The mean of the number of successes is 3 2 (A) (B) 2 3 (C) 1 (D) None 27. The probabilities of hitting the plane at the first. then the probability that only one of them will be alive at the end of the year is (A) pq (C) q(1 . Then. A variable has Poission distribution with mean m.8 for five trials. If the probabilities that A and B will die within a year are p and q respectively. The variance of the number of successes is (A) 50 (C) 10 (B) 25 (D) None 26.(1 . the mean is 4 and variance is 3. The probability that a man who is x years old will die in a year is A1 .4.(1 .p) (B) p(1 . The probability that the gun hits the plane is (A) 0.2 and 0. A die is thrown thrice. The sum and product of the mean and variance of a binomial distribution are 24 and 18 respectively.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 24.2 pq 29. Then amongst n persons years old now. Another bag contains 4 white and 2 red balls. is 13 (A) 27 (C) 8 27 5 (B) 27 (D) None 33. 0.(1 . If X is P (2) = 9 P ( 4) + 90 P ( 6). the probability that both are white is 1 (A) 24 (C) 5 24 1 (B) 4 (D) None æ1 3ö (B) ç + ÷ è4 4ø æ1 1ö (D) ç + ÷ è2 2 ø 16 æ1 5ö (C) ç + ÷ è6 6ø 24 32 32. A2 . An anti-aircraft gun can take a maximum of 4 shots at an enemy plane moving away from it.gatehelp. the probability that one is white and one is red.p) n ] n2 p.4096 (D) None of these 34. In a binomial distribution. its mode is (A) 5 (C) 4 Page 576 36. If one ball is drawn from each bag.

The correlation (B) 0.225 (B) 1. Y ) = 10. If Sxi = 24.97 46.625 42. If å x = å y = 15. The ranks obtained by 10 students in Mathematics and Physics in a class test are as follows Rank in Maths 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank in Chem.com Page 577 . y is (A) 22 x + 9 y = 146 (C) 22 x . then the coefficient of correlation r is equal to (A) 0.6 (C) 0. If r = 0.3 41.75 and 3 x + 4 y = 8 = 0. If Sxi = 15.9 y = 146 (D) .256 å x 2 = å y 2 = 49.25 (C) -0. When the correlation coefficient r = ± 1.5 (D) 0.225 44. 3 10 5 1 2 9 4 8 7 6 47.224 (D) None Sxi yi = 306. If byx = 1.15 (C) 0.24 (D) 0.97 (B) -0. If å x = 125.92 coefficient between x and y is 48. å xi2 = 164. å xi yi = 199. then the regression coefficient byx ********* www. var ( x) = 2.6 and bxy = 0. å xy = 50 and n = 25. (A) 0. Sxi yi = 110 and n = 5.46 (D) None 38. If cov ( x. The coefficient of correlation between their ranks is (A) 0.26 (B) -0. å xy = 44 and (B) 2 3 49. then r( X . å x 2 = 1650.9 y = 74 (D) 22 x + 9 y = 74 å yi2 = 574 and n = 4. var ( X ) = 6.1 3 (C) .75 å yi = 44. y) is equal to ( bxy + byx ) = r ( bxy + byx ) > r (B) 1 2 ( bxy + byx ) < r (D) None of these 40. then the two regression lines (A) (B) (C) (D) are perpendicular to each other coincide are parallel to each other do not exist 43.36 (C) 0.4 Syi = 36.36 (C) 0. then the line of regression of x on (B) 22 x .Probability and Statistics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. is equal to (A) 2. bxy be the regression coefficients of y on x and x on y respectively then (A) r = bxy + byx (C) r = bxy ´ byx (B) r = bxy ´ byx (D) r = 1 ( bxy + byx ) 2 45. å y 2 = 1500. Let r be the correlation coefficient between x and y and byx . 2 i å yi = 42. Which one of the following is a true statement.16 (B) 0. Y ) is (A) (C) 5 7 3 4 (B) 4 5 (D) 0. y) = -16. If Sxi = 30.6 37. å y = 318 and n = 6. (C) there is a positive correlation between x and y (D) there is a negative correlation between x and y 39.36.25 (D) 0.gatehelp. If cov( X .1 2 å y = 100. n = 5. (A) (C) 1 2 1 2 cov ( x. then the regression coefficient bxy is (A) -0.89 and var ( y) = 100. then (B) 0. then (A) there is a perfect correlation between x and y (B) x and y are not correlated.64 (D) -0.1 (C) 1. The equations of the two lines of regression are : 4 x + 3y + 7 = 0 (A) 1. then tan q is equal to (A) 0.1 4 50. then bxy = ? (A) .4 and q is the angle between two regression lines. å xi2 = 184. (B) 0.25 and var( Y ) = 31.18 (C) 0.5.6 (D) 1.

Solving a + b = 20 and a . Then. 2 2 13. 5. upper limit x + 10. = 15 Þ x = 13. 2 2 [ . (B) Let the lower limit be x. (A) Let the lower limit be x. f1 = 21 and f2 = 10. 9. 2 2. . 5 6.M. Both lie in that column whose c. Sf 100 ø è 8. (B) ( x ´ 16 ´ 50)1 3 = 20 Þ æ 20 ´ 20 ´ 20 ö x =ç ç 16 ´ 50 ÷ = 10. 4. . (B) Maximum frequency is 23.4 ab = 44 .5 + 15 ´ 2 220 = = 2. 2. is 28] 14. a+b = 10 2 ab = 8 Þ Þ ( a + b) = 20 ab = 64 and a . åf 16 45 ´ 2 + 40 ´ 2. 5.256 = 144 = 12.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics SOLUTION 1.A -20 -10 0 10 20 30 f ´d -240 -180 0 200 320 180 S ( f ´ d) = 390 Here n = 50.M. 46 occurs most often. 6 Number of observations is 14. x + ( x + 10) = 42 2 Þ x = 37. (D) Observations in ascending order are -3. modal class is 12–15.L1 ) 2 f . f = 23. A.gatehelp. Median = 1 1 [7 the term +8 the term] = (2 + 5) = 35. = A + S( fd) æ 300 ö = ç 25 + ÷ = 28.6 + (2. -3. = å( f ´ x) 64 = = 4. ÷ è ø Þ x ´ 16 ´ 50 = (20) 3 Lower limit = 37 and upper limit =47.com . 3.f.f1 ( L2 . L1 = 12. 5.b = 12 we get a = 16 and b = 4. (B) Upper class boundary = 10. Medium = n n = 25 and + 1 = 26. -1. (D) Range = Difference between the largest value = (95 . (B) Let the numbers be a and b Then.b = ( a + b) 2 .2.5 ´ 9) = 331.. So. upper limit is x + ( x + 4) x + 4. 12. (B) Marks 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency f 2 2 3 1 4 2 1 1 å f = 16 f ´1 0 4 9 4 20 12 7 8 å( f ´ x) = 64 11. So. (B) Mean = 7. 2. 6. So. 100 100 6. (A) The given Table may be presented as Diameter of heart (in mm) 120 121 122 123 124 125 Number of persons 5 9 14 8 5 9 Cumulative frequency 5 14 28 36 41 50 A.62) = 33.f1 . 0. mode =8. 2. (B) Class 0–10 10–20 20–30 30–40 40–50 50–60 Mid value x 5 15 25 = A 35 45 55 Frequenc yf 12 18 27 20 17 6 Sf = 100 Deviation d = x. Thus Mode = L1 + f . (C) Since 8 occurs most often. which is even. 5. mode =46. 2 2 1 122 + 122 (25th term +26 th term) = = 122. L2 = 15. Then. . (B) Clearly.f2 Page 578 www. 10.

Required probability = P(A occurring at least once) = 3C1 × (0.÷ = .41 = 2. (D) P(none dies) = (1 .4) 2 ´ (0.6 and n = 3. 5 5 Sd2 = 6 .4) 3 4 36 16 6 64 ö 784 æ =ç3´ ´ + 3´ ´ + = 0.P ( E º F ) = 1 .414 = 2.gatehelp.63 Required probability = P ( E È F ) = P ( E) + P ( F ) . ( 46 . 2 6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + 14 50 18.6) + 3C3 × (0. (B) Here p = 0.Probability and Statistics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. ´ + ´ = + = 4 5 4 5 20 5 20 è 20 ø Thus M = 576 = 12.6) 2 + 3C2 × (0..784. 2 1 .12) = 12.21 .4) ´ (0. 48 Sfd 36 So.p).9 ´ 0. (C) M = = = 10. Clearly E and F are independent events. 8 è ø Sd = 3 .P(none will be alive 24 years hence) 7 5 ö 61 æ = 1 . E and F are independent events.8 + 10 .10 + 14 . 5 5 2 2 2 2 Sd2 = 7 .11 + 9 .7. 1 P(A1 dies) = {1 .10 = 40 2 2 2 Then. 2 20. Required probability P(at least one dies) = 1 . F =event that B speaks the truth.8 = 22 Sd 22 Thus Mean deviation = = = 2.97. (C) Let E = the event that A solves the problem.÷ = . (B) p = q= = P (6 heads or 7 heads or 8 heads) www. (C) Let E =event that A speaks the truth. n Page 579 = 8 = 2 2 = 2 ´ 1.. P( F ) = ç 1 .) 19.9.75 n 48 17.63) =0.10) æ 3 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 10 + 11 + 14 ö 15. P ( E) = 5 12 and P ( F ) = 3 8 6= Sd2 40 = n 5 5 ö 7 3ö 5 æ æ and P ( F ) = ç 1 .com .p) n .0.. So. P( F) = = 100 4 100 5 3ö 1 4ö 1 æ æ P ( E) = ç 1 .p) n n = 8.4. (C) Mean = ç ÷ = 8.(1 .8 + 8 .P ( E) × P ( F ) = ç 1 ´ ÷= 12 8 ø 96 è 24.p) n }.11 = 40 s= Sd 2 40 = = 8 = 2 2 = 2 ´ 1. (D) m = 2 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 55 = = 11.p) (1 . 100 100 P ( E º F ) = P ( E) × P ( F ) = 0. = P[(A speaks truth and B tells a lie) or (A tells a lie and B speaks the truth)] = P (E and F ) + P (E and F) = P ( E) × P ( F ) + P ( E ) × P ( F ) 3 1 1 4 3 1 7 æ 7 ö =ç ´ 100 ÷% = 35%. and F = the event that B solves the problem.21) (15 .11 + 15 .7 .4. P(at least one of them will be alive 25 years hence) = 1 . n 8 16.6 = 12 + (23 . Mean deviation = = = 0 .÷ = 4ø 4 5ø 5 è è P (A and B contradict each other). n 5 = 23. (A) Let E = event that the husband will be alive 25 years hence and F =event that the wife will be alive 25 years hence.P ( E º F ) = (0. ÷= 10 100 100 10 1000 ø 1000 è 1 .11 + 11 . (B) x 10 11 12 13 14 f 3 12 18 12 3 Sf = 48 f ´x 30 132 216 156 42 Sfx = 576 d = x-M 2 1 0 1 2 f ´d 6 12 0 12 6 Sfd = 36 æ1ö æ1ö æ1ö 1 = 8 C6 × ç ÷ × ç ÷ + 8 C7 × ç ÷ × + 8 C8 2 ø è2 ø è è2 ø 2 8´7 1 1 1 37 = ´ + 8´ + = 2 ´ 1 256 256 256 256 6 2 7 æ1ö ×ç ÷ è2 ø 8 21.(1 .75. 75 3 80 4 Then.8 + 11 . 22.11 + 13 .9 +0.10 2 + 8 . P ( F ) = = 0.83 (app.n times = (1 . q = 0.10 + 10 .8 + 5 . 90 70 P ( E) = = 0.7 = 0. Thus P ( E) = ç 1 ÷= 12 ø 12 8ø 8 è è Clearly.10 + 12 . E and F are independent events. P ( E) = = .8 + 14 .8.

Probability and Statistics

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 9.6

Sxi 15 å yi 36 = = 3, y = = = 7.2 n 5 n 5 æ Sx y ö æ 110 ö cov( x, y) = ç i i - x y ÷ = ç - 3 ´ 7.2 ÷ = 0.4 n 5 è ø è ø 39. (C) x = 40. (D) r = cov ( x, y) var ( x) × var ( y) = -16.5 2.89 ´ 100 = -0.97.

47. (C) Given lines are : y = -2 -

3 x 4

41. (B) Di = -2, - 8, - 2, 3, 3, - 3, 3, 0, 2, 4. SDi2 = ( 4 + 64 + 4 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 0 + 4 + 16) = 128. é 6( SDi2 ) ù æ 6 ´ 128 ö 37 = 0.224. R = ê1 = ç1 ÷= n( n2 - 1) ú ç 10 ´ 99 ÷ 165 ø ë û è ( Sxi )( Syi ) n 42. (A) byx = é 2 ( Sxi ) 2 ù êSxi - n ú ë û Sxi yi 24 ´ 44 ö æ ç 306 ÷ 4 ø = ( 306 - 264) = 42 = 2.1 =è 2 (164 - 144) 20 é (24) ù ê164 - 4 ú ë û ( Sxi )( Syi ) ù æ 199 - 30 ´ 42 ö é ç ÷ ê Sx i y i ú è 6 ø n û = 43. (B) byx = ë é 2 ( Syi ) 2 ù 42 ´ 42 ù é êSyi - n ú ê318 ú 6 ë û ë û (199 - 210) -11 = = = -0.46. ( 318 - 294) 24 44. (C) byx = r × r 2 = bxy ´ byx 45. (C) sy sx and bxy = r × sx sy r = bxy ´ byx .

æ 7 3 ö and x = ç - - y ÷ è 4 4 ø -3 -3 and . byx = bxy = 4 4 3 æ -3 -3 ö 9 or r = - = -0.75. So, r 2 = ç ´ ÷= 4 ø 16 4 è 4 [. .. byx and bxy are both negative ® r is negative] 48. (A) r( X , Y ) = cov( X , Y ) var( X ) var( Y ) = 10 6.25 ´ 31.36 = 5 7

49. (C) byx =

nSxy - ( Sx)( Sy) nSx 2 - ( Sx) 2

æ 5 ´ 44 - 15 ´ 15 ö 1 =ç ç 5 ´ 49 - 15 ´ 15 ÷ = - 4 ÷ è ø 50. (B) bxy = = nSxy - ( Sx)( Sy) nSy 2 - ( Sy) 2

25 ´ 50 - 125 ´ 100 9 = 25 ´ 1500 - 100 ´ 100 22 x= 125 = 5, 25 y= 100 = 4. 25

Also,

Required line is x = x + bxy ( y - y) 9 Þ x =5 + ( y - 4) Þ 22 x - 9 y = 74. 22

Þ

1 1 é sy sx ù ( bxy + byx ) > r is true if êr × +r× >r sy ú 2 2 ë sx û

2 i.e. if s2 + sx > 2 sx s y y

i.e. if ( s y - sx ) 2 > 0, which is true. 46. (A) r = 1.6 ´ 0.4 = .64 = 0.8 byx = r × m1 = sy sx Þ sy sx = byx r = 1.6 =2 0.8 m2 = r × sy sx = 0.8 ´ 2 = 1.6.

1 sy 1 5 , × = ´2= r sx 0.8 2

æ m - m2 tan q = ç 1 ç1 + m m 1 2 è

ö æ 2.5 - 1.6 ö 0.9 ÷ =ç ÷ ÷ ç 1 + 2.5 ´ 1.6 ÷ = 5 = 0.18. ø ø è

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Page 581

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 9.7

(B) (C) (D)

x2 x5 x8 x11 + + + 2 20 160 4400 x2 x5 x8 x11 + + + 2 20 160 2400 x x x x + + + 2 40 480 2400
2 5 8 11

Statement for Q. 18–19: dy For = 1 + y 2 given that dx x: y: 0 0 0.2 0.2027 0.4 0.4228 0.6 0.6841

12. For dy dx = xy given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using Euler method taking the step size 0.1, the y at x = 0.4 is (A) 1.0611 (C) 1.6321 Statement for Q. 13–15. For dy dx = x 2 + y 2 given that y = 1 at x = 0. Determine the value of y at given x in question using modified method of Euler. Take the step size 0.02. 13. y at x = 0.02 is (A) 1.0468 (C) 1.0346 14. y at x = 0.04 is (A) 1.0316 (C) 1.403 15. y at x = 0.06 is (A) 1.0348 (C) 1.0638 (B) 1.0539 (D) 1.0796 (B) 1.0301 (D) 1.0416 (B) 1.0204 (D) 1.0348 (B) 2.4680 (D) 2.4189

Using Milne’s method determine the value of y for x given in question. 18. y (0.8) = ? (A) 1.0293 (C) 0.6065 19. y (10) = ? . (A) 1.9428 (C) 1.5555 Statement for Q.20–22: Apply Runge Kutta fourth order method to obtain y (0.2), y (0.4) and y (0.6) from dy dx = 1 + y 2 , with y = 0 at x = 0. Take step size h = 0.2. 20. y (0.2) = ? (A) 0.2027 (C) 0.3846 21. y (0.4) = ? (A) 0.1649 (C) 0.4227 (B) 0.8397 (D) 0.1934 (B) 0.4396 (D) 0.9341 (B) 1.3428 (D) 2.168 (B) 0.4228 (D) 1.4396

16. For dy dx = x + y given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using modified Euler’s method taking step size 0.2, the value of y at x = 1 is (A) 3.401638 (C) 9.164396 (B) 3.405417 (D) 9.168238

22. y (0.6) = ? (A) 0.9348 (C) 0.6841 (B) 0.2935 (D) 0.563

23. For dy dx = x + y 2 , given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using Runge Kutta fourth order method the value of y at x = 0.2 is (h = 0.2) (A) 1.2735 (B) 2.1635 (D) 2.9468 (C) 1.9356

17. For the differential equation dy dx = x - y 2 given that x: y: 0 0 0.2 0.02 0.4 0.0795 0.6 0.1762

24. For dy dx = x + y given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using Runge Kutta fourth order method the value of y at x = 0.2 is (A) 1.1384 (C) 1.2428 (h = 0.2) (B) 1.9438 (D) 1.6389
*********

Using Milne predictor–correction method, the y at next value of x is (A) 0.2498 (C) 0.4648 (B) 0.3046 (D) 0.5114

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Page 583

UNIT 9

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Engineering Mathematics

SOLUTIONS
1. (B) Let f ( x) = x 3 - 4 x - 9 Since f (2) is negative and f ( 3) is positive, a root lies between 2 and 3. First approximation to the root is 1 x1 = (2 + 3) = 2.5. 2 Then f ( x1 ) = 2.5 3 - 4(2.5) - 9 = - 3.375 i.e. negative\The root lies between x1 and 3. Thus the second approximation 1 x2 = ( x1 + 3) = 2.75. 2 to the root is

x2 = x0 = 35 .

x1 - x0 f ( x0 ) f ( x1 ) - f ( x0 )

0.5 ( - 0.5441) = 37888 . 0.3979 + 0.5441

Since f ( 37888) = - 0.0009 and f ( 4) = 0.3979, therefore . the root lies between 3.7888 and 4. Taking x0 = 37888, x1 = 4, we obtain . 0.2112 x3 = 37888 . ( - .009) = 37893 . 0.3988 Hence the required root correct to three places of decimal is 3.789. 4. (D) Let f ( x) = xe x - 2, Then f (0) = - 2, and f (1) = e - 2 = 0.7183 So a root of (i ) lies between 0 and 1. It is nearer to 1. Let us take x0 = 1. Also f ¢( x) = xe x + e x and f ¢(1) = e + e = 5.4366 By Newton’s rule, the first approximation x1 is f ( x0 ) 0.7183 x1 = x0 =1 = 0.8679 f ¢( x0 ) 5.4366 f ( x1 ) = 0.0672, f ¢( x1 ) = 4.4491. Thus the second approximation x2 is f ( x1 ) 0.0672 x2 = x1 = 0.8679 = 0.8528 f ( x1 ) 4.4491 Hence the required root is 0.853 correct to 3 decimal places.

Then f ( x2 ) = (2.75) 3 - 4(2.75) - 9 = 0.7969 i.e. positive. The root lies between x1 and x2 . Thus the third 1 approximation to the root is x3 = ( x1 + x2 ) = 2.625. 2 Then negative. The root lies between x2 and x3 . Thus the fourth 1 approximation to the root is x4 = ( x2 + x3) = 2.6875. 2 Hence the root is 2.6875 approximately. 2. (B) Let f ( x) = x 3 - 2 x - 5 So that f (2) = - 1 and f ( 3) = 16 i.e. a root lies between 2 and 3. Taking x0 = 2, x1 = 3, f ( x0 ) = - 1, f ( x1 ) = 16, in the f ( x3) = (2.625) 3 - 4(2.625) - 9 = - 1.4121 i.e.

5. (B) Let y = x + log10 x - 3.375 To obtain a rough estimate of its root, we draw the graph of (i ) with the help of the following table : x y 1 -2.375 2 -1.074 3 0.102 4 1.227

method of false position, we get x1 - x0 1 x2 = x0 f ( x0 ) = 2 + = 2.0588 f ( x1 ) - f ( x0 ) 17 Now, f ( x2 ) = f (2.0588) = - 0.3908 i.e., that root lies between 2.0588 and 3. Taking x0 = 2.0588, x1 = 3, f ( x0 ) = - 0.3908, f ( x1 ) = 16 in (i), we get 0.9412 x3 = 2.0588 ( - 0.3908) = 2.0813 16.3908 Repeating this process, the successive approxima- tions are x4 = 2.0862, x5 = 2.0915, x6 = 2.0934, x7 = 2.0941, x8 = 2.0943 etc. Hence the root is 2.094 correct to 3 decimal places. 3. (C) Let f ( x)2 x - log10 x - 7 Taking x0 = 35, x1 = 4, in the method of false position, . we get
Page 584

Taking 1 unit along either axis = 0.1, The curve crosses the x–axis at x0 = 2.9, which we take as the initial approximation to the root. Now let us apply Newton–Raphson method to f ( x) = x + log10 x - 3.375 1 f ¢( x) = 1 + log10 e x f (2.9) = 2.9 + log10 2.9 - 3.375 = - 0.0126 1 f ¢(2.9) = 1 + log10 e = 11497 . 2.9 The first approximation x1 to the root is given by
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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 9.7

x1 = x0 -

f ( x0 ) 0.0126 = 2.9 + = 2.9109 ¢( x0 ) f 11497 .

at x = 0,

y = 1,

dy = -1 dx

f ( x1 ) = - 0.0001, f ¢( x1 ) = 11492 . Thus the second approximation x2 is given by x2 = x1 f ( x1 ) 0.0001 = 2.9109 + = 2.91099 f ¢( x1 ) 11492 .

d2 y dy =1 -2y 2 dx dx at x = 0, y = 1,
2

d2 y =1 + 2 = 3 dx 2

Hence the desired root, correct to four significant figures, is 2.911 6. (B) Let x = 28 so that x 2 - 28 = 0 Taking f ( x) = x 2 - 28, Newton’s iterative method gives xn + 1 = xn 28 ö f ( xn ) x 2 - 28 1 æ ÷ = xn - n = ç xn + ç ¢( xn ) 2 xn 2è f xn ÷ ø

d 3y d2 y æ dy ö = -2 ç ÷ -2y dx 3 dx 2 è dx ø at x = 0, y = 1, d 3y =-8 dx 3

d4 y = -2 dx 4

é dy d 2 y d 3y ù 3 +y ê dx dx 2 dx 3 ú ë û d4 y = 34 dx 4 dy h2 d 2 y h3 d 3 y h4 d 4 y +K + + + 3 ! dx 3 4 ! dx 4 dx 2 ! dx 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 4 3+ ( -8) + 34 + ...... 2! 3! 4!

at x = 0, y = 1

Now since f (5) = - 3, f ( 6) = 8, a root lies between 5 and 6. Taking x0 = 5.5, x1 = x2 = 1æ 28 ö 1 æ 28 ö ÷ = ç 5.5 + ç x0 + ÷ = 5.29545 ÷ 2 ç 2è 5.5 ø x0 ø è 1æ 28 ö 1 æ 28 ö ÷ = ç 5.29545 + ç x1 + ÷ = 5.2915 ÷ 2ç ç 2è 5.29545 ÷ x1 ø è ø

The Taylor series expression gives y( x + h) = y( x) + h

y(0.1) = 1 + 0.1( -1) +

= 1 - 0.1 + 0.015 - 0.001333 + 0.0001417 = 0.9138 9. (C) Here f ( x, y) = x 2 + y 2 , x0 = 0 We have, by Picard’s method y = y0 +
x

1æ 28 ö 1 æ 28 ö ÷ = ç 5.2915 + x3 = ç x2 + ÷ = 5.2915 2ç 5.2915 ÷ x2 ÷ 2 ç è ø ø è Since x2 = x3 upto 4 decimal places, so we take 28 = 5.2915. 7. (B) Let h = 0.1, dy = 1 + xy Þ dx
3 2

y0 = 0

x0

ò f ( x, y) dx ò f ( x, y ) dx
0 x

....(1)

The first approximation to y is given by given x0 = 0, d2 y dy =x +y dx 2 dx d y d y d y =x +3 dx 4 dx 3 dx 2 y =1
4 3 2

x1 = x0 + h = 0.1

y (1 ) = y0 +

x0

d y d y dy , =x +2 dx 3 dx 2 dx given that Þ x = 0,

Where y0 = 0 +

ò f ( x, 0) dx = ò x dx.
2 0 0 (1 )

x

x

...(2)

The second approximation to y is given by y ( 2 ) = y0 +
x

dy d2 y d 3y d4 y = 1 ; 2 = 1, = 2, = 3 and so on dx dx dx 3 dx 4 dy h2 d 2 y h3 d 3 y + + + 3 ! dx 3 dx 2 ! dx 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 3 ×1 + 2 +K 2! 3!

x0

ò f ( x, y
6

x

) dx = 0 +
3 7

ò f ç x, ç è
0

x

æ

x3 ö ÷dx 3÷ ø

The Taylor series expression gives : y( x + h) = y( x) + h Þ Þ

æ x = 0 + ò ç x2 + ç 9 0è Now,

ö x x ÷dx = + ÷ 3 63 ø (0.4) 3 (0.4) 7 + = 0.02135 3 63

y (0.4) =

y (0.1) = 1 + 0.1 ´ 1 + y(0.1) = 1 + 0.1 +

0.01 0.001 + +K 2 3 = 11053 . y0 = 1

10. (C) Here

f ( x, y) = y - x ; x0 = 0, y0 = 2

We have by Picard’s method y = y0 +

= 1 + 0.1 + 0.005 + 0.000033 ......... 8. (B) Let h = 0.1, given x0 = 0,

ò

x

x0

f ( x, y) dx

The first approximation to y is given by y (1 ) = y0 +
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dy = x - y2 x1 = x0 + h = 0.1, dx

x0

ò f ( x, y0 ) dx = 2 +

x

ò f ( x, 2) dx
0

x

Page 585

UNIT 9

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Engineering Mathematics

= 2 + ò (2 - x) dx
0 x

x

=2 + 2x -

x2 2

....(1)

Euler’s method gives yn + 1 = yn + h( xn , yn ) n = 0 in (1) gives y1 = y0 + hf ( x0 , y0 ) Here x0 = 0, y0 = 1, h = 0.1 ....(1)

The second approximation to y is given by y ( 2 ) = y0 + =2 +
x

x0

ò f ( x, y

(1 )

) dx x 2
2

x0 2

ò f ç x, 2 + 2 x ç è

æ

ö ÷dx ÷ ø

y1 = 1 + 0.1 f (0, 1) = 1 + 0 = 1 n = 0 in (1) gives y2 = y1 + h f ( x1 , y1 ) = 1 + 0.1 f (0.1 , 1) = 1 + 0.1 (0.1) = 1 + 0.01 Thus y2 = y( 0 .2 ) = 101 . ....(2) n = 2 in (1) gives y3 = y2 + hf ( x2 , y2 ) = 101 + 0.1 f (0.2 , 101) . . . . y3 = y( 0 .3) = 101 + 0.0202 = 10302 n = 3 in (1) gives y4 = y3 + hf ( x3 , y3) = 10302 + 0.1 f (0.3 , 10302) . .
3

= 2 + ò (2 + 2 x 0 2

x2 - x) dx 2
3

=2 + 2x +

x x 2 6
x

The third approximation to y is given by y ( 3) = y0 + =2 +
x

x0

ò f ( x, y

(2 )

) dx x x ö ÷dx 2 6 ÷ ø
2 3

x0 x

ò f ç x, 2 + 2 x + ç è
2

æ

= 10302 + 0.03090 . . y4 = y( 0 .4 ) = 10611 Hence y( 0 .4 ) = 10611 . 13. (B) The Euler’s modified method gives y1* = y0 + hf ( x0 , y0 ), h y1 = y0 + [ f ( x0 , y0 ) + f ( x1 , y1*)] 2 Now, here h = 0.02, y0 = 1, x0 = 0 . y1* = 1 + 0.02 f (0, 1), y1* = 1 + 0.02 = 102 h Next y1 = y0 + [ f ( x0 , y0 ) + f ( x , y1*)] 2 0.02 =1 + [ f (0, 1) + f (0.02, 102)] . 2 = 1 + 0.01 [1 + 10204 ] = 10202 . . So, . y1 = y (0.02) = 10202

ö æ x x = 2 + ò ç2 + 2 x + - ÷dx ÷ ç 2 6 ø 0è =2 + 2x + x2 x3 x4 + 2 6 24 f ( x, y) = x + y 2 , x0 = 0 y0 = 0

11. (B) Here
x

We have, by Picard’s method y = y0 +

x0

ò f ( x, y0 ) dx ò f ( x, y ) dx
0 2 x

The first approximation to y is given by y (1 ) = y0 +
x

=0 +

x0

ò f ( x, 0) dx
0

x

x = 0 + ò xdx = 2 0
x

The second approximation to y is given by y ( 2 ) = y0 +
x

* 14. (D) y2 = y1 + h f ( x1 , y1 )

x0 4

ò f ( x, y

(1 )

) dx = 0 +
2 5

ò f ç x, ç è
0

x

æ

x2 2

ö ÷dx ÷ ø

= 10202 + 0.02 [ f (0.02, 10202)] . . = 10202 + 0.0204 . = 10406 . h * Next y2 = y1 + [ f ( x, y) + f ( x2 , y2 )] 2 0.02 y2 = 10202 + . [ f (0.02, 10202) + f (0.04, 10406)] . . 2 = 10202 + 0.01 [10206 + 10422 ] = 10408 . . . . . y2 = y( 0 .04 ) = 10408
* 15. (C) y3 = y2 + hf ( x2 , y2 )

æ x x x ö ÷dx = + = òç x + ÷ ç 2 50 4 ø 0è The third approximation is given by y ( 3) = y0 +
x

x0

ò f ( x, y

x

(2 )

) dx

æ x2 x5 ö ÷dx = 0 + ò f ç x, + ç 2 20 ÷ ø 0 è
x æ 2 x7 ö x2 x5 x8 x11 x4 x10 ÷dx = + + + = òç x + + + ç 2 20 160 4400 4 400 40 ÷ ø 0è

= 10416 + 0.02 f (0.04, 10416) . . = 10416 + 0.0217 = 10633 . . h * Next y3 = y2 + [ f ( x2 , y2 ) + f ( x3 , y3 )] 2

12. (A) x: 0
Page 586

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

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UNIT 9

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Engineering Mathematics

1 1 ö æ k2 = hf ç x0 + h, y0 + k1 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 0.1) = 0.202 2 2 ø è 1 1 ö æ k3 = hf ç x0 + h, y0 + k2 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 0.101) = 0.2020 2 2 ø è k4 = hf ( x0 + h, y0 + k3) = 0.2 f (0.2, 0.2020) = 0.20816 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2 + 2 (.202) + 2 (.20204) + 0.20816 ], 6 k = 0.2027 such that y1 = y(0.2) = y0 + k = 0 + 0.2027 = 0.2027

h k ö æ k2 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 1 ÷ 2 2ø è = (0.2) f (0.1, 11) = 0.2(1.31) = 0.262 . h k ö æ k3 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 2 ÷ 2 2 ø è = 0.2 f (0.1, 1131) = 0.2758 . k4 = hf ( x0 + h, y0 + k3) = (0.2) f (0.2, 12758) = 0.3655 . 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + 2 k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2 + 2 (0.262) + 2 (0.2758) + 0.3655 ] = 0.2735 6 Here y1 = y( 0 .2 ) = y0 + k = 1 + 0.2735 Þ 12735 .

21. (C) We now to find y2 = y(0.4), k1 = hf ( x1 , y1 ) = (0.2) f (0.2, 0.2027) = 0.2 (10410) . 1 1 ö æ k2 = hf ç x1 + h , y1 + k1 ÷ 2 2 ø è = (0.2) f (0.3, 0.3068) = 0.2188 1 1 ö æ k3 = hf ç x1 + h , y1 + k2 ÷ 2 2 ø è = 0.2 f (0.3, 0.3121) = .2194 k4 = hf ( x1 + h, y1 + k3) = 0.2 f (0.4, .4221) = 0.2356 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2082 + 2(.2188) + 2(.2194) + 0.356 ] = 0.2200 6 y2 = y( 0 .4 ) = y1 + k = 0.2200 + .2027 = 0.4227 22. (C) We now to find y3 = y( 0 .6 ) , k1 = hf ( x2 , y2 ) = (0.2) f (0.4, 0.4228) = 0.2357 1 1 ö æ k2 = hf ç x2 + h, y2 + k1 ÷ 2 2 ø è = (0.2) f (0.5, 0.5406) = 0.2584 1 1 ö æ k3 = hf ç x2 + h, y2 + k2 ÷ 2 2 ø è = 0.2 f (0.5, .5520) = 0.2609 1 k4 = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2357 + 2(.2584) + 2(0.2609) + 0.2935 ] 6 1 = [0.2357 + 0.5168 + 0.5218 + 0.2935 ] = 0.2613 6 y3 = y( 0 .6 ) = y2 + k = .4228 + 0.2613 = 0.6841 23. (A) Here given f ( x, y) = x + y k1 = hf ( x0 , y0 )
Page 588
2

= .2082

24. (C) Here f ( x, y) = x + y h = 0.2 To find y1 = y( 0 .2 ) , k1 = hf ( x0 , y0 ) = 0.2 f (0, 1) = 0.2 h k ö æ . k2 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 1 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 11) = 0.24 2 2ø è h k ö æ . k3 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 2 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 112) = 0.244 2 2 ø è k4 = hf ( x0 + h, y0 + k3) = (0.2) f (0.2, 1244) = 0.2888 . 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2 + 2(0.24) + 2(0.244) + 0.2888 ] = 0.2428 6 y1 = y( 0 .2 ) = y0 + k = 1 + 0.2428 = 12428 .

***********

x0 = 0

y0 = 1,

h = 0.2

To find y1 = y( 0 .2 ) , = (0.2) f (0, 1) = (0.2) ´ 1 = 0.2
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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

10.5
EC-07
1. If E Denotes expectation, the variance of a random variable X is given by (A) E[ X 2 ] - E 2 [ X ] (C) E[ X ]
2

6. For the function e- x , the linear approximation around x = 2 is (A) ( 3 - x) e -2 (C) [ 3 + 2 2 - 1(1 + 2 x ]e -2 (B) 1 - x (D) e -2

(B) E[ X 2 ] + E 2 [ X ] (D) E [ X ]
2

2. The following plot shows a function y which varies linearly with X. The value of the integral I = ò y dx is
y
1 2

7. An independent voltage source in series with an impedance Z s = Rs + jX s delivers a maximum average power to a load impedance Z L when (A) Z L = RS + jX S (C) Z L = jX S (B) Z L = RS (D) Z L = RS - jX S

3 2 1 -1 1 2 3 x

8. The RC circuit shown in the figure is
R C + +

(A) 1.0 (C) 4.0

(B) 2.5 (D) 5.0

Vi

R

C

Vo -

3. For x << 1, coth( x) can be approximated as (A) x (C) 1 x sin( q/2) q is (B) 1 (D) not defined (B) x 2 (D) 1 x2
-

(A) a low-pas filter (C) a band-pass filter

(B) a high-pass filter (D) a band-reject filter

4. lim
q®0

9. The electron and hole concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor are ni per cm 3 at 300 K. Now, if acceptor impurities are introduced with a concentration of N A per cm 3(where N A >> ni ) the electron concentration per cm 3 at 300 K will be (A) ni
2

(A) 0.5 (C) 2

5. Which of the following functions is strictly bounded ? (A) 1 x2 (B) e x (D) e - x

(B) ni + N A (D) ni2 NA
Page 639

(C) x 2

(C) N A - ni
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UNIT 10

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Previous year Papers

10. In a

p+ n junction diode under reverse biased the

15. If closed-loop transfer function of a control system is given as T( s) =
s-5 ( s + 2 )( s + 3)

magnitude of electric field is maximum at (A) the edge of the depletion region on the p -side (B) the edge of the depletion region on the n -side (C) the p+ n junction (D) the center of the depletion region on the n-side 11. The correct full wave rectifier circuit is

then It is

(A) an unstable system (B) an uncontrollable system (C) a minimum phase system (D) a non-minimum phase system 16. If the Laplace transform of a signal y( t) is Y ( s) = (A) -1
1 s ( s -1 )

, then its final value is (B) 0 (D) unbounded

Input

Input

Output

Output

(A)

(B)

(C) 1

17. If R( t) is the auto correlation function of a real, wide-sense stationary random process, then which of the following is NOT true (A) R( t) = R( -t)

Input

Output

Output

C

(D)

Input

(B) R( t) £ R(0) (C) R( t) = - R( -t) (D) The mean square value of the process is R(0)

12. In a trans-conductance amplifier, it is desirable to have (A) a large input resistance and a large output resistance (B) a large input resistance and a small output resistance (C) a small input resistance and a large output resistance (D) a small input resistance and a small output resistance 13. X = 01110 and Y = 11001 are two 5-bit binary numbers represented in two's complement format. The sum of X and Y represented in two's complement format using 6 bits is (A) 100111 (C) 000111 (B) 0010000 (D) 101001

18. If S( f )is the power spectral density of a real, wide-sense stationary random process, then which of the following is ALWAYS true? (A) S(0) £ S( f ) (C) S( - f ) = -S( f ) (B) S( f ) ³ 0
¥

(D)

ò S( f )df

=0

19. A plane wave of wavelength l is traveling in a direction making an angle 30 o with positive x -axis. The E field of the plane wave can be represented as (E0 is constant) (A) E = yE0 e (C) E = yE0 e
® ® æ 3p p ö j ç wt x z÷ ç ÷ l l ø è æ 3p p ö j ç wt + x z÷ ç l l ÷ è ø æ p 3p ö j ç wt - x z÷ ç ÷ l l ø è æ p 3p ö j ç wt - x + z÷ ç l l ÷ è ø ®

(B) E = yE0 e (D) E = yE0 e
®

®

20. If C is close curve enclosing a surface S, then the magnetic field intensity H , the current density j and the electric flux density D are related by
® ® ®

14. The Boolean function Y = AB + CD is to be realized using only 2-input NAND gates. The minimum number of gates required is (A) 2 (C) 4
Page 640

® æ® ö ç j + ¶ D ÷. d ® (A) ò ò H . d s = ò l ç ¶t ÷ s c è ø ® ® ® æ® ö ç j + ¶ D d ÷. d ® (B) ò H . d l = òò s ç ¶t ÷ s s è ø ® ®

(B) 3 (D) 5

www.gatehelp.com

980 (C) 0. For the BJT circuit shown.1 R .2 (C) P . the depletion layer width will be (A) 4 mm (C) 8 mm (B) 4. assume that the b of the transistor is very large and VBE = 0. The depletion layer width at reverse bias of 1. For the circuit shown in the figure.1 Q .2 S .4 j3 Group-II (1) Population inversion (2)Pinch-off voltage (3) Early effect (4) Fat-band voltage A ~ 36.5 V 37. W 3 3 2 (B) 4 V.2 R .4 R . Group-I (P)BJT (Q)MOS capacitor (R) LASER diode (S) JFET (A) P . the phasor voltage V AB (in volts) is A 5W -j3 B 5W match each device in Group I with its characteristic property in Group II.9 mm (D) 12 mm (A) -2 V (C) -0.2 R .50 exp( -25 t) mA (B) 0. Assuming that the emitter injection efficiency is 0.8 V.2 Q .4 R .25 exp( -25 t) mA 31. for t > 0.1 S .5 V (B) -1 V (D) 0.3 Q .995 35. W 3 (D) 4 V.4 S .2 (C) P .995. The DC current gain (b) of a BJT is 50.2V is 2 mm. where t is in seconds.3 Q .2 (D) P . is given by 20 kW iC 10 V 20 kW 4 mF + VC - (A) 0. Group-I (P) Zener Diode (Q) Solar cell (R) LASER diode (S) Avalanche Photodiode (A) P . (A) 0. A p+ n junction has a built-in potential of 0. the base transport factor is Group-II (1) Forward bias (2) Reverse bias 2i 1W 2A 2W Y (A) (C) 4 V.7 V . Group I lists four types of p .5 Ð30 o (B) 5 Ð30 o (D) 17 Ð30 o 1V 1 kW vo 1 kW 1 kW 32.com operation of the BJT is . the capacitor current ic ( t).3 Q . For the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure.2 34. group I lists four different semiconductor devices.1 S . 2W 30.1 S .1 R .2 R .gatehelp.25 exp( -25 t) mA (C) 0.3 S . Vc is 0 volts at t = 0 sec.n junction diodes.50 exp( -25 t) mA (D) 0.2 (B) P . match each device in Group I with one of the option in Group II to indicate the bias condition of the device in its normal mode of operation. Vo is 2 kW (A) 0 (C) 12.2 Q .985 (D) 0. The mode of Page 642 www.2 Q .1 S . In the circuit shown.1 S .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 29. the Thevenin voltage and resistance looking into X . In the AC network shown in the figure.2 (D) P .1 Q .2 (B) P .Y are 1W X 33.1 R . For a reverse bias of 7.990 (B) 0. 2W 3 4 2 V.2 V.

com Page 643 .Q2 : cut-off. the current I is 5V PMOS 2.29 V (C) 7.Q2 : saturation. Q4 :cut-off (B) Q1 : revere active.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. the output voltage from 200 W + vo _ X (V0 ) ranges A B C vi (A) X = A B C + A B C + A BC + ABC (B) X = ABC + A B C + ABC + ABC www. Q4 :cut-off (C) Q1 : normal active. Q4 :normal active 43. if the transconductance parameters of the NMOS and PMOS transistors are kn = kp = m n Cox Wn Ln = m p Cox Wp Lp = 40 mA/V 2 - 1 kW - and their threshold voltages are VTHn = VTHp = 1V . Q3: saturation.Q2 : saturation. Q3: cut-off.4 kW 100 W Q4 (A) V02 = 2 V01 (C) V02 = V01 ln 2 (B) V02 = e V01 2 (D) V01 .V02 = VT ln 2 + Q1 Q2 D + Q3 39.14 to 7. In the CMOS inverter circuit shown. The circuit diagram of a standard TTL NOT gate is shown in the figure.29 to 7.00 to 7. The Y = AB CD + ABCD+ ABCD+ ABCD (A) cut-off (C) normal active (B) saturation (D) reverse active minimized to (A) Y = A B CD + A B C + A C D (B) Y = A B CD + B C D + A B C D (C) Y = AB C D + B C D + AB CD (D) Y = AB C D + B C D + A B C D 38. In the following circuit.43 V (B) 7. Q3: saturation. assume that the diode current follows the equation I = I s exp(V/VT ). D 2 kW vo The relationship between V01 and V02 is 42. the modes of operation of the transistors will be VCC =5 V vi 4 kW 1.5 V I NMOS (A) Q1 : revere active. X is given by 0 1 1 0 I0 4-to-1 MUX I1 Y I2 I3 S1 S0 0 1 1 0 I0 4-to-1 I1 MUX I2 Y I3 S1 S0 (A) 0 A (C) 45 mA (B) 25 mA (D) 90 mA 40. if the input voltage ( Vi ) range is from 10 to 16V. For Vi = 2 V . Vi = 2. V0 = V02 . the knee current is negligible and the Zener dynamic resistance is 10W.5 10 kW (A) 7. Q3: saturation. In the Op-Amp circuit shown.29 V (D) 7.14 to 7. V0 = V01 . the Zener voltage at knee is 7V.5 V .43 V Boolean expression can be 2V 10 V 1 kW 41.Q2 : normal active. For the Zener diode shown in the figure.gatehelp. and for Vi = 4 V . Q4 :saturation (D) Q1 : saturation.

00. 01.5. 11. P = 1. where u( t) is the unit step function. The following binary values were applied to the X and Y inputs of NAND latch shown in the figure in the sequence indicated below X = 0. Q = 1 (B) P = 1. Q = 1.FFH Page 644 (B) F8H .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers (C) X = AB + BC + AC (D) X = A B + B C + AC 44.ö æ (B) 5ç 1 . x[1] = 1. Q = 0 or P = 0.FCH (D) F0H . The transfer function of a plant is T( s) = (A) F8H . x[ -2 ] = 1. The range of addresses for which the 8255 chip would get selected is 8255 (A) K P = 100.09 (C) K P = 10. Q = 0. or P = 0 Q = 1. 00. The step response of 10 the system is (A) 5( 1 .e -5t ) u( t) (C) 1 (1 .t u( t). Y = 1.FBH (C) F8H . Q = 1. P = 0. 01 (D) 00.F7H www. An 8255 chip is (B) 00.e 5 ÷u( t) ÷ 5ç è ø The corresponding stable P . A Hilbert transformer is a (A) non-linear system (C) time-varying system (B) non-causal system (D) low-pass system 49. 11. K D = 0. X = 1. P = 1. 10.z -1 . Q outputs will be (A) P = 1. Q = 0. 01. The z-transform x[ z ] of a sequence x[ n] is given by 5 X ( z) = 1 -0 . K D = 0. Let X ( e jw ) denote the discrete-time Fourier transform of x[ n]. Q = 1. The frequency response of a linear. Q = 0. 01 46. P = 1. Q = 0 or P = 0. Q = 1 (C) P = 1. Y = 1. then the value of K P and K D are R(s) + C(s) (B) 0 (D) 0.e 5 ÷u( t) ç ÷ è ø t . X = 0. 00.9 53. The p value of (A) 5 (C) 16p -p ò X (e jw )dw is (B) 10p (D) 5 + j10 p D0 Q0 D1 Q1 51. 00 (C) 00. Q = 0. is given by 1 1 (A) Hz (B) 2 . x[ -1] = 0. The value of x[0] is (A) -0.1 Hz 2p 2p (C) ¥ (D) 1 Hz 48. A Control system with PD controller is shown in interfaced to an 8085 the figure If the velocity error constant K V = 1000 and the damping ration z = 0.com 5 (s + 5)( s2 + s + 1) . x[ n] is given as x[ -3] = 1.gatehelp. 11. 01.9 (D) K P = 10. Y = 0. P = 0. P = 1.09 (B) K P = 100. X P 47.e-5t )u(t) 2 A 5-point sequence t . P = 1. 10. the counter state (Q1Q0 ) follows the sequence (C) 50.5 (A) 00. 10. Q = 0. Q = 1 (D)P = 1. time-invariant Q Y system is given by H ( f ) = 1 + j5 pf . The address lines A3 to A7 as well as the IO/M signal are used for address decoding.25 microprocessor system as an I/O mapped I/O as show in the figure. x[0 ] = 5. (A) The 3-dB bandwidth of the low-pas signal e.5 (C) 0. The address lines A0 and A1 of the 8085 are used by the 8255 chip to decode internally its thee ports and the Control register. P = 1. K D = 0. Q = 1 45. For the circuit shown. It is given that the region of convergence of 2 x[ n] includes the unit circle. K D = 0. 10 52.ö 1æ ç 1 .

5 The second-order approximation of T( s) using dominant pole concept is 1 (A) (s + 5)(s + 1) (C) 5 s2 + s + 1 (B) (D) 5 (A) (C) 10 s + 11s + 11 2 (B) (D) 1 s + 11s + 11 2 (s + 5)(s + 1) 1 s2 + s + 1 10 s + 10 s + 11s + 11 2 1 s + s + 11 2 58. 57.05 s) C (D) 0 0 61.1) 10( s + 4) (A) (B) s+2 s+2 (C) 10( s + 2) s + 10 (D) 2(s + 2) s + 10 59. The raised cosine pulse p( t) is used for zero ISI in digital communications. then the spectrum Y ( f ) of y( t) will be M m(t) 56.p) n -1 + (1 .5 The gain K for which s = 1 + j1 will lie on the root locus of this system is (A) 4 (C) 6. The expression for p( t) with unity roll-off facto is given by p( t) = sin 4 pWt 4 pWt(1 .(1 . The open-loop transfer function of a plant is given as G( s) = 1 s 2 -1 .com . s( s 2 + 7 s + 12) The value of p( t) at t = (A) -0. if the spectrum M ( f ) of m( t) is as shown. then the lead compensator that an stabilize this control system is 10( s .pn (D) 1 .5 (D) 10 60.16W 2 t 2 ) 1 is 4W (B) 0 (D) ¥ 55. The transfer function G( s) corresponding to this Bode plot is G(jw)dB 60 dB 40 dB 20 dB 1 10 20 100 -20 dB/dec S 0 Hilbert Transform (A) -40 dB/dec w (B) -60 dB/dec 0 0 (A) (C) 1 ( s + 1)( s + 20) 100 s( s + 1)( s + 20) (B) (D) 1 s( s + 1)( s + 20) 100 s( s + 1)(1 + 0.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. A unity feedback control system has an open-loop transfer function G( s) = K . The probability of AT MOST one bit in error in a block of n bits is given by (A) pn (C) np(1 .gatehelp. If the plant is operated in a unity feedback configuration. The state space representation of a separately excited DC servo motor dynamics is given as é ê ë dw dt dia dt During transmission over a certain binary communication channel.p) n (B) 1 . bit errors occurs independently with probability p. In the following scheme.5 (C) 0. the slope overload distortion can be reduced by (A) (B) (C) (D) decreasing decreasing decreasing increasing the the the the step size granular noise sampling rate step size 54. In delta modulation. The asymptotic Bode plot of a transfer function is as shown in the figure.p) n Page 645 1ù é wù é 0 ù ù é-1 ú = ê-1 -10 ú êi ú + ê10 ú u ûë a û ë û û ë www.5 (B) 5.

A load of 50W is connected in shunt in a 2-wire transmission line of Z 0 = 50W as shown in the figure.j (C) j 69. The mode of propagation in the waveguide (B) TM11 (D) TE10 www.e. a five-cell repeat pattern. The radiation pattern in the lane of the dipole (E plane) looks approximately as (A) y y ® (D) 50 h0 (B) 66.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 62.288 ´ 10 3 bits per sec (C) must be exactly equal to 12.1 2 (A) ê 1 ë 2 ù . and a and b are the dimensions is (A) TE20 (C) TM 20 Page 646 (D) z z along the x -axis and the y -axis respectively. In a Direct Sequence CDMA system the chip rate is 1. A 7 5 (B) (D) -5 7 5 7 l0 2 pö 5 3 5 æ cos( wt .288 ´ 10 3 bits per sec (D) can take any value less than 122. The 2-port scattering parameter matrix (s-matrix) of the shunt element is é. 8 channels can co-exist in 200 KHz bandwidth using TDMA.4 3 . The voltage reflection coefficient G at the input is l/4 l/4 64. An air-filled rectangular waveguide has inner dimensions of 3 cm ´ 2 cm.ú û 1 2 1 2 é0 1 ù (B) ê ú ë1 0 û é 1 (D) ê 4 3 ë. the maximum number of simultaneous channels that can exist in one cell is (A) 200 (C) 25 (B) 40 (D) 5 1 5 67.88 ´10 3 bits/sec 68. If the processing gain is desired to be at Least 100.bz) y h2 è 2 ø è a ø C 2 z y y z Where H 0 is a constant. the data rate (A) must be less than or equal to 12.com . The characteristic impedance of the line is l Z 0 = 50W and each section has a length of 4 . Assuming a frequency reuse factor of . The wave impedance of the TE20 mode of propagation in the waveguide at a frequency h0 = 377 W) (A) 308W (C) 400W ® 200 W of 30 GHz is (free space impedance 200 W (B) 355W (D) 461W l/4 65.288 ´ 10 3 bits/sec (B) must be greater than 12.bz + ÷ h0 h0 2ø è 5 7 l 2 The time average power flow density in Watts is h0 100 (B) (A) 100 h0 (C) 50h2 0 ® dipole is kept horizontally at a height of above a perfectly conducting infinite ground plane. The H field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in free space is given by H=x ® (A) . The parallel branches of a 2-wire transmission line are terminated in 100 W and 200 W resistors as shown in the figure. i.3û 63.bz) + y sinç wt .gatehelp. The E field in a rectangular waveguide of inner dimensions a ´ b is given by E= ® wm æ p ö æ 2 px ö ç ÷ H 0 sinç ÷ sin( wt . In a GSM system.4ù 1ú 4û 2 é.2288 ´ 106 chips per second. A GSM based cellular operator is allocated 5 MHz bandwidth.1 3 3ù (C) ê 2 1ú ë 3 .

Linked Answer Questions: Q. If the reflected wave is linearly polarized. on an air-dielectric interface. A right circularly polarized (RCP) plane wave is incident at an angle of 60 o to the normal. If these constellations (B) 4 (D) 8 are used for digital communications over an AWGN channel. 76 to Q. The ratio of the average energy of constellation 1 to the average energy of constellation 2 is (A) 4 a 2 (C) 2 75. The maximum depletion layer width in silicon is (A) 0. the C-V plot will shift to the left. 85 Carry Two marks Each. Assume that the four symbols in both the constellations are equiprobable.gatehelp. respectively. Then which of the following is true? (A) Both S1 and S2 are true (B) S1 is true and Se is false (C) S1 is false and S2 is true (D) Both S1 and S2 are false www. 75 : Two 4-ray signal constellations are shown. C 7 pF 74. Statement for Linked Answer Questions 76 & 77: Consider the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure. The gate oxide thickness in the MOS capacitor is (A) 50 nm (C) 350 nm (B) 143 nm (D) 1 mm 72. 72.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.5 70. It is given that f1 and f2 constitute an orthonormal basis for the two constellations. Let N0 / 2 denote the power spectral density of white Gaussian noise.com Page 647 .143 mm 73. Consider the following statements about the C-V characteristics plot: S1: The MOS capacitor has an n-type substrate.143 mm (C) 1 mm (B) 0. the relative dielectric constant xr 2 is RCP air Dielectric Linearly Polarized Common Data for Questions 74.857 mm (D) 1. 73: The SiO2/silicon figure (MOS) shows capacitor the having high-frequency an area of Constellation 1 Constellation 2 capacitance-voltage(C-V) characteristics of a Metal/ 1 ´ 10 -4 cm 2 . S2: If positive charges are introduced in the oxide. then which of the following statements is true ? 1 pF 0 V (A) Probability of symbol error for Constellation 1 is lower (B) Probability of symbol error for Constellation 1 is higher (C) Probability of symbol error is equal for both the constellations (D) The value of N 0 will determine which of the two constellations has a lower probability of symbol error. R1 R1 vi R C vo 71. Assume that the perimitivities ( e 0 e r ) of silicon and Si O2 are 1 ´ 10 -12 F/cm and 35 ´ 10 -13 F/cm . (A) 2 (C) 2 (B) 3 (D) 3 0 Common Data for Questions 71.

f). B5H MVI B. Assuming that the reconstruction levels of the quantizer are the mid-points of the decision boundaries. After execution of line 7 of the program. Z = 0 (C) CY = A.gatehelp.sRC 1 1 + sRC 80.2 and 0 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 78 & 79. Z = 0 (B) CY = 0. the status of the CY and Z flags will be (A) CY = 0. If the itial state vector of the system x( t) = ê -2 t ú ë-2 e û é 1ù changes to x(0) = ê ú. The transfer function V0 ( s)/Vi ( s) is (A) (C) 1 .2 and p 2 (B) 0 and p 2 (C) -p and 0 p (D) . ê ú ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ ë-1û ø è è ë-2 û ø æ æ é 1ù ö é 1ù ö (B) ç -1.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 76. ê ú ÷ ç ç -2 ÷ -1û ÷ ë è ø è ë ûø 81. Consider a linear system whose state space representation is x( t) = Ax( t). Decision boundaries of the quantizer are chosen so as t maximize the entropy of the quantizer output.t ù becomes x( t) = ê . It is given that 3 consecutive decision boundaries are ' -1' . The values of a and b are (A) a = 1 1 and b = 6 12 1 1 and b = 4 16 (B) a = (D) a = 1 3 and b = 5 40 1 1 and b = 3 24 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 80 & 81. An 8085 assembly language program is given below. then the system response is ë-2 û é e -2 x ù . ê ú ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ ë-1û ø è è ë-2 û ø æ é 1ù ö æ é 1ù ö (C) ç -1ê ú ÷ and ç -2.sRC 1 + sRC 1 1 . Z = 1 (D) CY = 1.t ú ë -e û Page 648 (C) a = 83. the ratio of signal power to quantization noise power is (A) (C) 152 9 76 3 (B) 64 3 (D) 28 www. ê ú ÷ and ç -2. ê ú ÷ and ç -2. If the initial state vector of é 1ù the system is x(0) = ê ú. If Vi = V1 sin( wt) and V0 = V2 sin( wt . Line 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: MVI A.sRC (B) (D) 1 + sRC 1 . then the system response ë-2 û é e. Z = 1 -5 b -1 0 1 5 x 82. The system matrix A is é 0 1ù (A) ê ú ë-1 1û 1ù é 2 (C) ê ú ë-1 -1û 1ù é 1 (B) ê ú ë-1 -2 û 1ù é 0 (D) ê ú ë-2 -3û 77. then the minimum and maximum values of f (in radians) are respectively p (A) . ê ú ÷ ç ÷ ç -1û ÷ è ë-2 û ø è ë ø æ æ é 1ù ö é 1ù ö (D) ç -2.com . OEH XRI 69H ADD B ANI 9BH CPI 9FH STA 3010H HLT Statement fo Linked Answer Questions 82 & 83: An input to a 6-level quantizer has the probability density function f ( x) as shown in the figure. The contents of the accumulator just after execution of the ADD instruction in line 4 will be (A) C3H (C) DCH (B) EAH (D) 69H 79. ê ú ÷ and ç 1. The eigenvalue and eigenvector pairs ( li Vi ) for the system are æ æ é 1ù ö é 1ù ö (A) ç -1. f(x) a 78. '0 ' and '1'.

com Page 649 . C 58. D 60. D 33. B 55. (C) 125mA 85. D 44. D 36. C 82. D 75. A 65. C 13. D 70. D www.5 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 84 & 85. A 35. A 24. C 22. A 52. B 47. The voltage V0 is (A) -0. A 3. A 68. B 77. In the digital-to Analog converter circuit shown in the figure below. C 84.781 V (C) -3. A 27. A 37. C 8. B 80. C 11. B 38. A 2. A 6. A 32. B 83. D 29. C 28. B 50. D 46. D 25. C 45. C 40.562 V (D) -6. B 23. D 63. The current is (A) 3125mA . C 69. D 61. A 62. A 81. B 5.C 15. B 39. D 43. VR = 10 V and R = 10 kW. 4.125 V (B) -1.gatehelp. C 51. A 59. B 67.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. D 56. C 78. A 48. A 85. B 7. C 41. D 34. C 26. C ************ 66. D 10 . C 74. B 79. D 73. A 2R 2R 2R 2R R vo + 21. R R R i R ANSWER 1. B 57. A 71. D 12. B 30.250 V (B) 62. B 54. C 49. D 14. A 9. B 84. C 16. B 72. B 19. B 42.5mA (D) 250mA 31. C 64. C 18. A 17. D 20. A 53. A 76.

1 is C C As t ® ¥. Q. the new Q of the circuit is (A) 25 (C) 100 (B) 50 (D) 200 7. A series RLC circuit has a resonance frequency of 1 kHz and a quality factor Q = 100.5 is i1(t) 2W 2H Fig.. n-type silicon is obtained by doping silicon with 3. Q5 1F 2.com (A) Germanium (C) Boron (B) Aluminium (D) Phosphorus (B) 1. L and C is doubled from its original value. The minimum number of equations required to analyze the circuit shown in Fig. The load that will obtain the maximum power transfer is (A) 1 W resistance (B) 1 W resistance in parallel with 1 H inductance (C) 1 W resistance in series with 1 F capacitor (D) 1 W resistance in parallel with 1 F capacitor d 2i di (A) 2 2 + 2 + i( t) = sin t dt dt (B) 2 (C) 2 (D) 2 d 2i di +2 + 2 i( t) = cos t dt 2 dt d 2i di +2 + i( t) = cos t 2 dt dt d 2i di +2 + 2 i( t) = sin t dt 2 dt 6. The Laplace transform of i( t) is given by I ( s) = 2 s(1 + s) Q.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10.10 eV (D) 0. The value of i( t) tends to (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 (D) ¥ 5. Q.36 eV www.80 eV . A source of angular frequency 1 rad/sec has a source impedance consisting of 1W resistance in series with 1 H inductance.1—30 carry one mark each 1.gatehelp. If each of R. The bandgap of silicon at 300 K is (A) 1. The differential equation for the current i( t) in the R R R C R ~ (A) 3 (C) 6 circuit of Fig.1 EC-03 Duration : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 150 4.67 eV Page 591 (C) 0. Q1 sin t (B) 4 (D) 7 ~ Fig.

n = 0 d( n) = í î 0. The combination circuit consists of (A) one AND gate (B) one OR gate (C) one AND gate and one OR gate (D) two AND gates 21.50 cm (D) 100. binary coherent FSK is inferior to binary coherent PSK by (A) 6 dB (C) 2 dB 29.25 cm (C) 50.j5 (D) 3 . The transfer function of the system should be (A) 4 e (C) 4 e 23. The depth of penetration at a frequency of 4 MHz will be (A) 6. The unit of Ñ ´ H is (A) Ampere (B) Ampere/meter 2 X ( z) = z 4 + z 2 . A PD controller is used to compensate a system.j8 pf j8 pf (D) 2 e sequence x( n) with A the z-transform 28. otherwise The output at n = 4 is (A) -6 (C) 2 (B) zero (D) -4 (B) 3 dB (D) 0 dB (C) Ampere/meter (D) Ampere-meter 30. Compared to the uncompensated system. 0) Re Q. Twelve 1 W resistance are used as edges to form a cube. 31. The noise at the detector output is (A) the in-phase component (B) the quadrature component (C) zero (D) the envelope åc n e j 2 pf0t .2 z + 2 .EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. time-invariant system. the closed-loop system is Im GH . A 0 to 6 counter consists of 3 flip flops and a combination circuit of 2 input gate(s).gatehelp. It is given that c3 = 3 + j5. The Fourier series expansion of a real periodic signal with fundamental frequency f0 is given by g p ( t) = (A) 5 + j 3 n = -¥ 25. The depth of penetration of electromagnetic wave in 24. At a given probability of error. Q24 (A) always stable (B) unstable with one closed-loop right hand pole (C) unstable with two closed-loop right hand poles (D) unstable with three closed-loop right hand poles (B) 1 W (D) 3 W 2 Page 593 www. time-invariant system with the impulse response h( n) = 2 d( n .3) where ì 1.com .00 cm w=0 (-1.00 cm (B) 12. Fig. If G( s) H ( s) has one right-hand pole. The required output is 4 x( t . The input to a coherent detector is DSB-SC signal plus noise.j 4 pf 27.24 shows the Nyquist plot of the open-loop transfer function G( s) H ( s) of a system.2).j5 (C) -5 + j 3 22. The noise at the input to an ideal frequency detector is white. The power spectral density of the noise at the output is (A) raised-cosine (C) parabolic (B) flat (D) Gaussian (B) 2 e . The detector is operating above threshold. the compensated system has (A) a higher type number (B) reduced damping (C) higher noise amplification (D) larger transient overshoot 26. j 4 pf .31—90 carry two marks each.plane a medium having conductivity s at a frequency of 1 MHz is 25 cm.3z -4 is applied as an input to a linear.1 20. Then c-3 is (B) -3 . Q. The resistance between two diagonally opposite corners of the cube is 5 (A) W 6 (C) 6 5 w is positive Fig. Let x( t) be the input to a linear.

An input voltage 3W V=2cos 4t R = 3.55 ° ) + 10 3 cos (2 t .5 W and Z12 = 0. then Z ( s) is Im 1 s .24 M=0.3) s2 .gatehelp. Q. after the switch is brought from position 1 to position 2 at t = 0. 1 S 2 R V R i1 L i2 C C (C) 10 cos ( t .2 s .192 + j 0.36.18 + j 190) . Q.Ls ê ë 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (B) ê . (B) (0. The resulting steady state current i( t) in ampere is (A) 10 cos ( t + 55 ° ) + 10 cos (2 t + 10 ° + tan -1 2) (B) 1 .92 W ~ Fig. The driving-point impedance Z ( s) of a network has the pole-zero locations as shown in Fig.ú 1 s = ú 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê R+ úë û ê 0 ú Cs û û ë ù é Vù .32 has the form P cos 4 t.72) (C) -(0. I1 ( s) and I 2 ( s) are the Laplace transforms of i1 ( t) and i2 ( t) respectively.33–34.46 + j 190) .2 2( s .Ls ê ë 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (C) ê .55 ° ) + 10 cos (2 t + 10 ° . At t = 0 + .25 W (B) Z11 = 3W (C) Z11 = 3W www.Ls ê ë Page 594 Fig.Ls ê ë éV ù ù . Q.2 s .18 + j 0. (D) -(0. The impedance parameters Z11 and Z12 two-port network in Fig.5 W (D) Z11 = 2.3 of the 37.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 32.75W and Z12 = 0.25 W and Z12 = 0.tan -1 2) (D) 1 . For both the questions.com and Z12 = 0. The equations for the loop currents I1 ( s) and I 2 ( s) for the circuit shown in Fig.Ls ú é I s ù ê ú 1 = s 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê ú ë û ê0 ú R+ ú Cs û ë û ù é Vù . Q.Ls ú é I s ù ê. Q33-34 -3 -1 -1 33.cos ( t . assume that the switch S is in position 1 for a long time and thrown to position 2 at t = 0.cos ( t + 55 ° ) + 10 3 cos (2 t + 55 ° ) 2 (A) (0. the current i1 is (A) -V 2R (B) -V R (A) (C) 34.144) The circuit for Q. are 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (A)ê .plane Re Fig.37 are 2W 2W 3W 1 éV ù ù .33–34.3) s2 .Ls ú é I s ù ê. Q32 v( t) = 10 2 cos ( t + 10) + 10 3 cos (2 + 10 ° ) V is applied to a series combination of resistance R = 1W and an inductance L = 1 H.33–34 are given in Fig. Q. where P is 1 F 10. The current flowing through the resistance R in the circuit in Fig.75 H 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (D) ê . Q36 -V (C) 4R (D) zero 3( s + 3) s + 2s + 3 2 (B) (D) 2( s + 3) s + 2s + 2 2 3( s .25 W .35 ° ) 2 36.ú 1 s = ú 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê ë û ê 0 ú R + Ls + ú ë û Cs û 2 1W 1W 1’ 2’ Fig.Ls ú é I s ù ê ú 1 = s 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê ú ë û ê0 ú R + Ls + ú Cs û ë û 35. If Z(0) = 3. Q37 (A) Z11 = 2.

the operating point ( VCE . 2 mA) (C) (4 V.0 mA (D) 4. a certain germanium diode requires a forward bias of 0.5 mA (B) 2. The energy bandgap of the semiconductor material used there is (Plank’s constant = 6.gatehelp. R is metallization and S is source/drain diffusion. The input resistance of the current-shunt negative feedback amplifier using the above amplifier with a feedback factor of 0. the closest approximation of the ratio of reverse saturation current in germanium diode to that in silicon diode is (A) 1 (C) 4 ´ 10 3 (B) 5 (D) 8 ´ 10 3 (A) (2 V. An n-type silicon bar 0. Coherent radiation 3.1 cm long and 100 mm 2 in cross-sectional area has a majority carrier concentration of 5 ´ 10 20 / m 3 and the carrier mobility is 0. input resistance of 1 kW and output resistance of 2.2.com Page 595 .46.13 m 2 /V-s at 300 K. Neglecting the channel width modulation effect and assuming that the MOSFET is operating at saturation.0 mA (B) 10 4 Ohm (D) 10 -4 Ohm Ohm 39. the drain current is observed to be 1 mA. LED Q. if no electric field is present. For a transistor with b of 200. Match items in Group 1 with items in Group 2. LASER (A) P-1 Q-2 R-4 S-3 (B) P-2 Q-3 R-1 S-4 (C) P-3 Q-4 R-1 S-2 Group 2 1. is (A) zero (C) +1120 A cm 2 (B) -112 A cm 2 (D) -1120 A cm 2 44. At 300 K. most suitably. Avalanche photo diode R. working in saturation is 900 mV. The electron concentration in a sample of uniformly doped n-type silicon at 300 K varies linearly from 1017 cm 3 at x = 0 to 6 ´ 1016 cm 3 at x = 2 mm.26 eV (C) 1. 2 mA) (D) (4 V. 2 mA) Fig. whereas a certain silicon diode requires a forward bias of 0.98 eV (D) 0. If electronic charge is 1. Q is n-well implant.1 38..74 eV 43. 150. Group 1 P.5 mA (C) 3. is (A) P–Q–R–S (C) R–P–S–Q (B) Q–S–R–P (D) S–R–Q–P 40.718 V.17 eV (B) 1.626 ´ 10 -34 J – s) (B) (3 V. the current density in the silicon.5 ´ 10 -19 coulomb. the values of R1 and R2 are such that the transistor is operating at VCE = 3 V and I C = 15 mA when its b is . for a diode current of 1 mA. then the order in which they are carried out in a standard n-well CMOS fabrication process. If the charge of an electron is 1. A particular green LED emits light of wavelength 5490 A°. Q46 42. Assume a situation that electrons are supplied to keep this concentration gradient constant with time. the drain current for an applied VGS of 1400 mV is (A) 0. Q. Under the conditions stated above. Current gain (D) P-2 Q-1 R-4 S-3 46. I C ) is VCC = 6 V R1 R2 45.1435 V. In the amplifier circuit shown in Fig.5 kW. then the resistance of the bar is (A) 106 Ohm (C) 10 -1 (A) 2. An amplifier without feedback has a voltage gain of 50.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. Heavy doping 2.Tunnel diode S.Spontaneous 4. 1 mA) www.6 ´ 10 -19 coulomb and the diffusion constant Dn = 35 cm 2 s.When the gate-to-source voltage ( VGS ) of a MOSFET with threshold voltage of 400 mV. If P is Passivation. is (A) 1/11 kW (C) 5 kW (B) 1/5 kW (D) 11 kW emission 41.

are cascaded.Q (C) 4 bit substracter giving Q . Q53 49. input resistance of 1 kW and output resistance of 250 W. its frequency of oscillation (in Hz) is 51.47 has an ideal inverting amplifier. Q. Z with Y = P Å Q Å R. Q. Y and Z are as follows W = R + PQ + RS X = PQRS + P Q R S + PQ R S Y = RS + PR + PQ + P Q 50. The output voltage of the regulated power supply shown in Fig. X = Y (D) W = Y = Z Fig. The circuit shown in Fig. The open circuit voltage gain of the combined amplifier is (A) 49 dB (C) 98 dB (B) 51 dB (D) 102 dB C C C R R R 52. X . The charging requires (A) constant voltage source of 3 V for 1 ms (B) constant voltage source of 3 V for 2 ms (C) constant current source of 3 mA for 1 ms (D) constant current source of 3 mA for 2 ms Fig. If the op-amp in Fig. Q. R and outputs Y. An ideal sawtooth voltage waveform of frequency 500 Hz and amplitude 3 V is generated by charging a capacitor of 2 mF in every cycle. Q. Q. Q47 (A) (2 p 6 RC) 1 (C) ( 6 RC) 1 1 (B) (2 pRC) 6 (D) (2 pRC) 48.48 is + 1 kW 15 V DC Unregulated Power source 53.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 47. P. X = Z (C) W = Y (B) W = Z . Q48 Z Y R Z Y R Z Y R Z Y R (A) 3 V (C) 9 V (B) 6 V (D) 12 V Output Fig. Q50 (A) 1 V (C) 14 V Page 596 (B) 6 V (D) 17 V www. The oscillator circuit shown in Fig. Three identical amplifiers with each one having a voltage gain of 50.53 has 4 boxes each described by inputs.50 is ideal.com 55. If the functions W . If the worst case delay in the ripple . Z = RQ + PR + QP . A 4 bit ripple counter and a 4 bit synchronous counter are made using flip flops having a propagation delay of 10 ns each.gatehelp. the output voltage Vout will be equal to 5 kW 1 kW 2V 1 kW 3V 8 kW Vout Z = R + S + PQ + P × Q × R + PQ × S Then (A) W = Z . The circuit acts as a Q Vz = 3 V 40 kW 20 kW Regulated DC Output P P Q P Q P Q P Q _ Fig. The action of a JFET in its equivalent circuit can best be represented as a (A) (B) (C) (D) Current Controlled Current Source Current Controlled Voltage Source Voltage Controlled Voltage Source Voltage Controlled Current Source (A) 4 bit adder giving P + Q (B) 4 bit substracter giving P .R (D) 4 bit adder giving P + Q + R 54.

ECL and CMOS families of digital ICs are compared in the following 4 columns P Fanout is minimum Power consumption is minimum Propagation delay is minimum DTL Q DTL R TTL S CMOS 59. W. S =10 ns (A) (B) (C) (D) BCD to binary code Binary to excess -3 code Excess -3 to Gray code Gray to Binary code 56. then (A) R =10 n. Q57 4 6 8 10 12 14 58.58 converts MSB + + + The clock to the register is shown. A is a parallel-in. and the data on the W bus at time t1 is 0110. TTL. A partial table of the contents of the ROM is as follows MSB TTL CMOS ECL DTL CMOS ECL TTL TTL CLK A The correct column is (A) P (C) R (B) Q (D) S 1 57.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. In the circuit shown in Fig. Its output acts as the input to a 16 ´ 4 ROM whose output is floating when the enable input E is 0. S =10 ns (D) R =30 ns. which loads at the rising edge of the clock C. Q58 www. parallel-out 4 bit register. The OP AMP is ideal. The circuit shown in Fig.gatehelp. S =40 ns (C) R =10 ns.59. Q. S =30 ns (B) R =40 ns.1 counter and the synchronous counter be R and S respectively. but all the resistance and the 5 V inputs have a tolerance of ±10%. The DTL. The data on the bus at time t2 is MSB Fig. Q59 Address 0 2 Data 0011 1111 0100 1010 1011 1000 0010 1000 Fig. The input bits 0 and 1 are represented by 0 and 5 V respectively. Q. The circuit shown in Fig.com Page 597 .57 is a 4 bit DAC. The specification (rounded to the nearest multiple of 5%) for the tolerance of the DAC is (A) ±35% (C) ±10% R R 2R E ROM (B) ±20% (D) ±5% CLK t1 t2 t 4R Vout 8R R Fig. The input lines are connected to a 4 bit bus. Q.

67.9 (D) 104.gatehelp.2 (B) 163. Let Z = X + Y . The variance of W is 62.6 68.505 s( s + 27) s + 29 s + 6 2 www. 1) and (( -2. Solve the problems and choose the correct answers.3.4 (A) 2.36 (D) 8. 3. Q.64 at t = 2 and t = 4 (B) 9.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers (A) 1111 (C) 1000 (B) 1011 (D) 0010 Data for Q.Q( 2 1 2 ) (B) (D) 1 6 1 12 66. Then f1 (in Hz) is 0 £ | f | £ f1 H (0) (A) 327. S but not P 67. is (A) 0.7.717 (C) 71. 3.3 (C) 2. A discrete time system has the input-output relationship.68.00 respectively.6 (D) 2. R. Let f1 be the highest frequency such that H ( f1 ) 0.5 kHz are p(t) 3 T0 = 10 sec -3 Data for Q. Q67 (B) 3. The signal flow graph of a system is shown in Fig. The above system has the properties (A) P. In an 8085 microprocessor. n ³1 ì x( n) ï y( n) = í 0. 3. Let P be linearity. 3. Q be time-invariance. Let x( t) = 2 cos ( 800 pt) + cos (1400 pt). .95. x( t) is sampled with the rectangular pulse train shown in Fig. Q. 63.Q(0.3. 3. n =0 ï x( n + 1) n £ -1 î where x( n) is the input and y( n) is the output. R. Q. S but not Q. Then the probability that ( Z £ . Let W = Y .2) is (A) zero (C) 1 3 + 1].7.8 (C) 52. The only spectral components (in kHz) present in the sampled signal in the frequency range 2.63–64 are given below. X ( t) is a random process with a constant mean value of 2 and the autocorrelation function R X ( t) = 4[ e -0 .5) (C) Q( 2 1 2 ) (B) Q(0.5) (D) 1 . Let X and Y be two statistically independent random variables uniformly distributed in the ranges ( -1. Let X be the Gaussian random variable obtained by sampling the process at t = ti and let Q ( a) = ò a ¥ y2 2 1 2p e - dy The probability that [ x £ 1] is (A) 1 . As a result (A) Carry flag will be set but Zero flag will be reset (B) Carry flag will be reset but Zero flag will be set (C) Both Carry flag and Zero flag will be reset (D) Both Carry flag and Zero flag will be set 61. Let H ( f ) denote the frequency response of the RC-LPF. S but not R (D) Q. The system under consideration is an RC low-pass filter (RC-LPF) with R = 1 kW and C = 10 mF.4.7.65–66 are given below. the instruction CMP B has been executed while the content of the accumulator is less than that of register B. 2. Solve the problems and choose the correct answers. R be causality and S be stability.7 Page 598 6 (A) 2 s + 29 s + 6 (C) s( s + 2) s + 29 s + 6 2 (B) (D) 6s s + 29 s + 6 2 (B) 7. Q68 64. 65.17 (D) 4.2 t 60. 3. The transfer function R(s) 1 1 s -2 C(s ) R(s ) of the system is 6 -4 1 s -3 1 C(s) Fig. Q.Z . R (C) P.4 -T0 -T0/6 0 T0/6 t T0 Fig. S (B) P.6. Let Y and Z be the random variables obtained by sampling X ( t) (A) 13. Let t g ( f ) be the group delay function of the given RC-LPF and f2 = 100 Hz.com .5 kHz to 3. Then t g ( f2 ) in ms.36 (C) 2. 1) respectively.

0 (C) 0. c( t) and m( t) are used to generate an AM signal. Then the value of f (in MHz) is 71.5 0 0 2 4 Time (sec) 6 Amplitude 0. 75.5 1 problems and choose the correct answers.dB.0 The data for Q. Total side band power Then the quantity is Carrier power 0 5 Time (sec) 10 Amplitude Amplitude 0 (A) (C) 1 2 1 3 (B) (D) 1 4 1 8 (C) Step Response 1. If the peak frequency deviation of the generated FM is three times the transmission bandwidth of the AM signal.5.5 the coefficient of the term cos [2 p(1008 ´ 10 t)] in the FM signal (in terms of the 0 0 2 4 Time (sec) 6 Bessel coefficients) is (A) 5 J 4 ( 3) (B) 5 2 J8 ( 3) Page 599 www. Let vi = Acl cos (2pfcl t) + m( t) (A) 1. The gain margin and the phase margin of a feedback system with G( s) H ( s) = (A) . 0) (D) (-0. Solve the With r ( t) as the unit-step function.1) 3 (B) 10 7 ( s + 10)( s + 100) (D) 10 9 ( s + 0. The zero-input response of a system given by the state-space equation & é x1 ù é1 0 ù é x1 ù é x1 (0) ù é1 ù ê x ú = ê1 1 ú ê x ú and ê x (0) ú = ê0 ú is &2û ë ûë 2 û ë ë 2 û ë û éte t ù (A) ê ú ët û ée t ù (C) ê t ú ëte û ée t ù (B) ê ú ët û ét ù (D) ê t ú ëte û 20 0. Q70 ( s + 0. 0° (C) ¥.5 0 0 5 10 15 Time (sec) 20 25 0.1) ( s + 10) 2 ( s + 100) 2 ( s + 0. ¥ has the break-away point located at (A) (-0. The (B) Step Response 1 0. The approximate Bode magnitude plot of a minimum phase system is shown in Fig.5. 0° s are ( s + 100) 3 (B) ¥.333 (D) 3. 0) 70. ¥ (D) 88. The transfer function of the system is dB 160 140 73.5 modulation index of the generated AM signal is 0. A second-order system has the transfer function C (s) 4 = 2 R (s) s + 4s + 4 (B) 0.5 dB. 0) (C) (-4. c( t) and m( t) are used to generate an FM signal.1 69 The root locus of the system G( s) H ( s) = K s( s + 2)( s + 3) 72. 0) (B) (-2.5 1 (D) Step Response 76.1) 3 (A) 108 ( s + 10) 2 ( s + 100) (C) 108 ( s + 0.com . then 3 Amplitude 1 0.1) ( s + 10)( s + 100) 2 3 can be filtered by an appropriate band-pass filter. Q.5 m( t) is the message signal.70.75-76 are given below.548. The output of the nonlinear device where l c Fig. the response c( t) of the system is represented by (A) Step Response 2 1. A DSB-SC signal is to be generated with a carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz using a nonlinear device with the input-output characteristic v0 = a0 v1 + a1 vi3 where a0 and a1 are constants.1 10 100 74.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.784. Let m( t) = cos [( 4 p ´ 10 3) t ] be the message signal and c( t) = 5 cos [(2 p ´ 106 ) t ] be the carrier.gatehelp.

0 cm ´ 1.01) mho (D) (0.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.j0.02) mho (C) (0. Two identical antennas are placed in the q = p 2 plane as shown in Fig.02 .5 GHz www. A short-circuited stub is shunt connected to a transmission line as shown in Fig.04 .1 86. given then by the f s E( z.28 ´ 10 7 m/sec (B) 2.j0.90 æ 2 ps ö (A) 2 cos ç ÷ è l ø æ ps ö (C) 2 cos ç ÷ è lø æ 2 ps ö (B) 2 sin ç ÷ è l ø æ ps ö (D) 2 sin ç ÷ è lø ************** 88.5 Ð180 ° (D) 0. The reflection coefficient for the normal incidence. If the electric field intensity associated with a uniform plane electromagnetic wave traveling in a s perfect dielectric 7 medium is volt/m. operating at wavelength l.00 ´ 10 7 m/sec Fig. Q.1pz) velocity of the traveling wave is (A) 3.88.0.90.02) mho (B) (0. Q.5 GHz (C) 10. The elements have equal amplitude excitation with 180° polarity difference.333Ð180 ° 90.0 GHz (D) 12. If Z 0 = 50 ohm. Q. A uniform plane wave traveling in air is incident on the plane boundary between air and another dielectric medium with e r = 4.88 (A) (0.com Page 601 . is 87. A rectangular metal wave guide filled with a dielectric material of relative permitivity e r = 4 has the inside dimensions 3.01 .02 + j0) mho 89. The cut-off frequency for the dominant mode is (A) 2.2 cm. t) = 10 cos (2 p ´ 10 t .j0.00 ´ 108 m/sec (D) 2.333 Ð0 ° (B) 0. is (A) zero (C) 0.0 GHz (B) 5.00 ´ 108 m/sec (C) 6. the admittance Y seen at the junction of the stub and the transmission line is l/8 Zo Zo Zo Z L 100 W l/2 Y Fig. The correct value of the magnitude of the far-zone resultant electric field strength normalized with that of a single element. both computed for f = 0. Q.gatehelp.

25. 26. 63. (C) (B) (D) (C) (C) (A) (*) (A) (A) (A) (D) (A) (A) (A) (D) (B) (D) (B) 3. 72. 10. 11. 57. 43. 16. 36. 60. 40. 9. 87. 12. 32. 52. 76. 67. (C) (A) (A) (D) (C) (B) (C) (C) (A) (B) (B) (A) (A) (A) (D) (D) (C) (D) Page 602 www. 83. (B) (D) (B) (D) (D) (A) (A) (B) (C) (A) (D) (C) (A) (C) (B) (D) (B) (D) 2. 49. 45. 33. 31. 71. 59. 35. 47. 73. 41. 34. 6. 46. 90. 8. 17. 38. 61. 20. 68. 54. 88. 48.gatehelp. 66. 14. 27. 69 74 79 84. 86. 64. 58. 78. 56.com . (B) (A) (B) (B) (B) (D) (D) (C) (D) (C) (B) (D) (C) (A) (C) (A) (B) (A) 4. 89 (C) (C) (C) (B) (A) (B) (D) (C) (B) (D) (A) (C) (B) (D) (A) (C) (C) (B) 5. 29. 42. 82. 39. 53. 23. 44. 28. 22. 30. 19. 65. 21. 70 75 80 85. 13. 37. 62. 77. 81.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers ANSWER SHEET 1. 24. 18. 15. 50. 7. 55. 51.

31 t(sec) i(t) 1 0. the minimum base current ( I B ) required to drive the transistor in Fig.63 i(t) 2 ½ t(sec) (C) i(t) 0. S1 : The b of a bipolar transistor reduces if the base width is increased. Q. A master-slave flip-flop has the characteristic that (A) change in the input is immediately reflected in the output (B) change in the output occurs when the state of the master is affected (C) change in the output occurs when the state of the slave is affected (D) both the master and the slave states are affected at the same time www. Voltage series feedback (also called series-shunt feedback) results in vi(t) 2W (A) increase in both input and output impedances (B) decrease in both input and output impedances Fig Q.11 (B) high-pass filter (D) band-reject filter 7.5 0. The current i( t) is i(t) 1H (C) current controlled current source (D) current controlled voltage source 10. Consider the following statements S1 and S2. For the R-L circuit shown in Fig. The impurity commonly used for realizing the base region of a silicon n-p-n transistor is (A) Gallium (C) Boron (B) Indium (D) Phosphorus (A) low-pass filter (C) band-pass filter Fig Q.5 0. then the transistor is operating in the (A) normal active mode (C) inverse active mode (B) saturation mode (D) cutoff mode 12. If for a silicon n-p-n transistor.5 (C) increase in input impedance and decrease in output impedance (B) (D) decrease in input impedance and increase in output impedance 11.31 t(sec) 1 0.7 V and the collector-to-base voltage ( VCB ) is 0. Assuming VCEsat = 0.2 V and b = 50.com .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 5. (A) 56 mA (C) 60 mA (B) 140 mA (D) 3 mA 13. Which one of the following is correct ? (A) S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE (B) Both S1 and S2 are TRUE (C) Both S1 and S2 are FALSE (D) S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE 9. S2 : The b of a bipolar transistor increases if the doping concentration in the base is increased.2 V. the input voltage vi ( t) = u( t).11 is a (A) i(t) 0. the base-to-emitter voltage ( VBE ) is 0.5.63 (D) vi R R vo C ½ 2 t(sec) C 6. Q.gatehelp. Q.12 to saturation is 3 V IC 1 kW IB 8. An ideal op-amp is an ideal (A) voltage controlled current source (B) voltage controlled voltage source Page 604 Fig Q12. The circuit in Fig.

Q.25 0 1 2 x Fig Q. Group 1 P: Shift register Q: Counter R: Decoder Group 2 1: Frequency division 2: Addressing in memory chips 3: Serial to parallel data conversion (A) stable but not causal (B) stable and causal (C) causal but unstable (D) unstable and not causal 20. is (A) 8 (C) 5 (B) 6 (D) 7 Vin 0 Fig Q.2) n u[ -n . Q.20 17. The range of signed decimal numbers that can be represented by 6-bit 1’s complement numbers is (A) -31 to +31 (C) -64 to +63 15.1] (D) -(0.20. Choose the correct one from among the alternatives A.0.2.18 is the voltage transfer characteristic of (A) an NMOS inverter with enhancement mode transistor as load (B) an NMOS inverter with depletion mode transistor as load (C) a CMOS inverter (D) a BJT inverter 22. The z-transform of a system is H ( z) = z z . The user should be able to control the gain of the amplifier from a minimum to a maximum in 100 increments. For the inputs shown in Fig.55 P–1 Q–3 R–2 (A) zero (C) 0.17 (A) 0 (C) AB (B) 1 (D) AB If the ROC is |z |< 0. The impulse response h[ n] of a linear time-invariant system is given by h[ n] = u[ n + 3] + u[ n . in straight binary. then the impulse response of the system is (A) (0. A digital system is (B) -63 to +64 (D) -32 to +31 required to amplify a 19. Fig.2 u[ n . The probability that X = 1 is Fx(x) 1.2) n u[ n] (B) (0.2) n u[ -n .17 shows the internal schematic of a TTL AND-OR-Invert (AOI) gate.30 21. Q.18 16.2 14. C. Fig.2) n u[ n] (C) -(0. The Fourier transform of a conjugate symmetric function is always (A) imaginary (C) real (B) conjugate anti-symmetric (D) conjugate symmetric Page 605 www.2 Fig Q.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.25 (D) 0. The minimum number of bits required to encode.com .1] 18.gatehelp.55 -2 0.0 (A) P–3 Q–2 R–1 (B) P–3 Q–1 R–2 (C) P–2 Q–1 R–3 (D) 0. the output Y is A B Input are Floating y (B) 0. B.17. D after matching an item from Group 1 with the most appropriate item in Group 2.2 ] .7 ] where u[ n] is the unit step sequence. Q. The distribution function FX ( x) of a random variable X is shown in Fig. The above system is Vout binary-encoded audio signal.

Consider the following statements S1 and S2. Consider an abrupt p-n junction. then for Vbi + VR = 4 V. S1 : The threshold voltage ( VT ) of a MOS capacitor decreases with increase in gate oxide thickness. Which one of the following is correct ? (A) S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE (B) Both S1 and S2 are TRUE 36.6 ´ 10 -19 Coulomb. and the doping are concentrations N A = 9 ´ 10 cm the p-side n-side respectively. If the junction capacitance ( C j ) is 1 pF for Vbi + VR = 1 V. increasing the conductance G results in increase in its Q factor. If the electron mobility (m n ) is 1250 cm 2 /V-sec and the charge of an electron is 1. Q. (C) 10 3 s 2 + 10 3 s + 106 (D) 106 s 2 + 106 s + 106 41.. S2 : In a parallel G–L–C circuit.5 + 2 e + 2 e ) u( t) -t -2 t -t -2 t (C) Both S1 and S2 are FALSE (D) S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE Page 607 www.2 e + e ) u( t) (C) (0.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. The resistivity of a uniformly doped n-type silicon sample is 0. In an 16 abrupt on 3 p–n junction. Consider the Bode magnitude plot shown in Fig.33 (A) (C) ( s + 10) ( s + 1)( s + 100) 10 2 ( s + 1) ( s + 10)( s + 100) (B) (D) 10( s + 1) ( s + 10)( s + 100) 10 3( s + 100) ( s + 1)( s + 10) (D) Both S1 and S2 are FALSE 38. S2 : The threshold voltage ( VT ) of a MOS capacitor decreases with increase in substrate doping concentration.25 pF vi(t) 100 mF vo(t) Fig Q35.5 + e + 15 e ) u( t) . For the circuit shown in Fig.25 mm (B) 0.e ) u( t) (D) (0. Let Vbi be the built-in potential of this junction and VR be the applied reverse bias.2 33.7 mm (C) 2.33.3 mm (D) 0.com . the donor impurity concentration ( N D) in the sample is (A) 2 ´ 1016 cm 3 (C) 2.5 W-cm. the output y( t) is (A) (1 . A system described by the following differential equation d2 y dy +3 + 2 y = x( t) dt 2 dt is initially at rest. The transfer function H ( s) is 20 log H(jw) 0 -20 40 dB/dec 20 dB/dec -20 dB/dec 37. The transfer function H ( s) = o Vi ( s) circuit is given by H ( s) = 10 s + 20 s + 106 2 6 reverse biased and the total depletion width is 3 mm. The depletion width on the p-side is (A) 2. the initial conditions are zero. S1 : At the resonant frequency the impedance of a series R–L–C circuit is zero. For input x( t) = 2 u( t). Which one of the following is correct ? (A) S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE 1 10 100 w (B) Both S1 and S2 are TRUE (C) S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE Fig Q. -t -2 t -t -2 t (B) (1 + 2 e . Q.5 ´ 1015 cm 3 (B) 1 ´ 1016 cm 3 (D) 5 ´ 1015 cm 3 35.35. Consider the following statements S1 and S2. C j will be (A) 4 pF (B) 2 pF (D) 0.75 mm The Quality factor (Q-factor) of this circuit is (A) 25 (C) 100 (B) 50 (D) 5000 39.5 pF (C) 0. The p-n junction is V ( s) of an R–L–C 34. Its transfer function H ( s) = VC ( s) Vi ( s) is 1 (A) 2 s + 10 3 s + 106 106 (B) 2 s + 10 3 s + 106 10 kW 10 mH 40.gatehelp.

1 mm.48. VCE = 39 V .5 mA.gatehelp. biased in the active region. VCE = 2.5 kW 47.47 is 1 kW 2.47 1 kW C C 1 kW (B) 2p mF (D) 2 p 6 mF 45.45 are 5 V IC 4 kW 2.0 kW (C) g m = 25 mA/V and rp = 2. is 0. Assuming that the b of the transistor is 100 and the thermal voltage ( VT ) is 25 mV. Assuming negligible recombination in the base.12 eV.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 42. (C) (A) vs R2 vs RL Fig Q. The longest wavelength that can be absorbed by silicon.87 mm. The maximum electron concentration and the diffusion constant in the base are 1014 cm 3 and Dn = 25 cm 2 sec respectively.706 eV (B) g m = 40 mA/V and rp = 4. Assume that the b of the transistor is extremely large and VBE = 0.5 kW (D) g m = 40 mA/V and rp = 2. VCE = 4. The value of C required for sinusoidal oscillations of frequency 1 kHz in the circuit of Fig.854 eV (B) 0. VCE = 375 V .2 kW + VEC 1 kW 300 kW 48.5 mm.886 eV (D) 0. I C and VCE in the circuit shown in Fig. which has the bandgap of 1. the load current iL is R1 R1 vo vi R2 iL RL R1 Fig Q.5 V (D) I C = 0. If the longest wavelength that can be absorbed by another material is 0. are (A) g m = 25 mA/V and rp = 15. (C) I C = 1 mA. I D is (A) 2 mA (C) 9 mA (B) 3 mA (D) 4 mA 46.45 (A) I C = 1 mA.7 V.416 eV (C) 0. the collector current density is (the electron charge is 1.5 mA.625 kW 43. In the op-amp circuit given in Fig. Q. then for VGS = 3 V. If the drain current ( I D) is 1 mA for VGS = 2 V. The neutral base width of a bipolar transistor. The threshold voltage ( VT ) of the MOSFET is 1 V. the transconductance ( g m ) and the input resistance ( rp) of the transistor in the common emitter configuration.1 kW 44.48 (B) vs R2 vs R1 (D) Page 608 www.com . A bipolar transistor is operating in the active region with a collector current of 1 mA. Q. Q. then the bandgap of this material is (A) 1.7 V (B) I C = 0.6 ´ 10 -19 Coulomb) (A) 800 A/cm2 (C) 200 A/cm2 (B) 9 A/cm2 (D) 2 A/cm2 (A) (C) 1 mF 2p 1 2p 6 mF Fig Q. is 1. The drain of an n-channel MOSFET is shorted to the gate so that VGS = VDS .

5 sec (D) 2.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 57.j2. A causal system having the transfer function H ( s) = 1 s+2 is excited with 10u( t).5 (D) [-4 1 1 j2 4] j2 j2. The numbers are available in registers B and C respectively.2 ] . A rectangular pulse train s( t) as shown in Fig.61 (A) DC (C) 8 kHz sinusoid 62. 9258 MOV A. A Boolean function f of two variables x and y is defined as follows : f (0. M CMA MOV M . a minimum cost solution for realizing f using only 2-input NOR gates and 2-input OR gates (each having unit cost) would have a total cost of (A) 1 unit (C) 3 units (B) 4 units (D) 2 units 59. DCR C. A Which one of the following is performed by this sequence? (A) Contents of location 9258 are moved to the accumulator (B) Contents of location 9258 are compared with the contents of the accumulator (C) Contents of location 8529 are complemented and stored in location 8529 (D) Contents of location 5892 are complemented and stored in location 5892 58. DCR C (C) DCR C.5 kHz (B) 0.7 sec www. A part of the 8085 program for this purpose is given below: MVI A.3 sec .61 is convolved with the signal cos 2 ( 4 p ´ 10 3 t). It is desired to multiply the numbers 0AH by 0BH and store the result in the accumulator. b > 2 (C) a < 2. f (1. 1) = f (1. The time at which the output reaches 99% of its steady state value is (A) 2. ADD B.2 x[ n] + bx[ n . Consider the sequence (B) 12 kHz sinusoid (D) 14 kHz sinusoid x[ n] = [ -4 . Q. A causal LTI system is described by the difference equation 2 y[ n] = ay[ n . 1) = 1. ADD B (D) ADD B. Consider the sequence of 8085 instructions given below LXI H. The convolved signal will be a s(t) 1 1 ms 0 t Fig Q. The output signal has the frequency (A) zero Hz (C) 0.1] The system is stable only if (A) a = 2. any value of a 64.gatehelp. 00H LOOP: –––––––––– ––––––––––– ––––––––––– HLT END The sequence of instructions to complete the program would be (A) JNZ LOOP.com (B) 2.5] 0] 4 .j5 1 + j2 5 ] ­ The conjugate anti-symmetric part of the sequence is (A) [-4 . JNZ LOOP.5] available. 0) = 0 Assuming complements of x and y are not 60.1 sec (C) 2. any value of b (D) b < 2.j2.5 (C) [. 0) = f (0.25 kHz 61. b < 2 (B) a > 2.j2. JNZ LOOP Page 610 63.75 kHz (D) 0.5 (B) [. A 1 kHz sinusoidal signal is ideally sampled at 1500 samples /sec and the sampled signal is passed through an ideal low-pass filter with cut-off frequency 800 Hz.j2. JNZ LOOP. DCR C (B) ADD B.

66.sin( -4 t) + 2 sin( -t) ù (A) ê 2 sin( -4 t) + sin( -t) ú ë . The impulse response h[ n] of a linear time invariant system is given as ì -2 2 ï h[ n] = í 4 2 ï 0 î n = 1. the state transition matrix e is ë0 1 û given by é 0 e. y = x1 + u The system is (A) controllable but not observable (B) observable but not controllable (C) neither controllable nor observable 68.X ( f 2) e .( be + cf + dg) + bedg (D) abcd . 1 Hz and 80 Hz.sin( -4 t) + sin( -t) û sin(2 t) ù ésin( -2 t) (B) ê sin( t) sin( -3t) ú ë û é (C) ê ë sin( 4 t) + 2 sin( t) 2 sin( -4 t) . x2 = 2 x1 .X ( f 2) e j 2 pf 1 (B) .x2 = u.X ( f 2) e .j 2 pf 71. Q. then the output is (A) 4 2 e jpn (C) 4 e jpn 4 4 (B) 4 2 e . .66 1 (A) . The state variable equations of a system are : & & x1 = -3 x1 .( be + cf + dg) abcd bedg 1 .( be + cf + dg) abcd 1 .2 otherwise 2ù é-2 69.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.gatehelp. Given A = ê ú. For the polynomial P ( s) = s 5 + s 4 + 2 s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 15 the number of roots which lie in the right half of the s-plane is (A) 4 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 1 67. x The gain 5 is x1 x1 a x2 b x3 c f x4 d x5 1 e g (D) controllable and observable é1 0 ù At 73.t ú 0û ëe ée .t ù (A) ê .sin( -4 t) + sin( t) 2 sin( 4t) + sin( t) ú û If the input to the above system is the sequence e jpn 4 .1 n = 2.cos( -4 t) + sin( -t) û 70.X ( f 2) e j 2 pf 2 (D) . Consider the signal flow graph shown in Fig. Then Y ( f ) is x(t) 1 y(t) -2 0 2 t -2 0 t The range of K for which the system is stable is 21 (A) (B) 13 > K > 0 > K >0 4 (C) 21 <K <¥ 4 (D) -6 < K < ¥ -1 Fig Q.01 Hz.2 sin( -t) ù . The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is G( s) = K s( s + s + 2)( s + 3) 2 66. zeros at 5 Hz. The approximate phase of the system response at 20 Hz is (A) –90° (C) 90° (B) 0° (D) –180° 72.68.2 sin( -t) ù é (D) ê -2 cos( 4 t) + cos( t) ú ë .com Fig Q.jpn (D) -4 e jpn 4 4 cos( -t) + 2 cos( t) 2 cos( -4 t) .t 0ù (C) ê -t ú ë 0 e û www. . Q. Let x( t) and y( t) with Fourier transforms F ( f ) and Y ( f ) respectively be related as shown in Fig. If A = ê ú. then sin At is ë 1 -3û é sin( -4 t) + 2 sin( -t) . A system has poles at 0.( be + cf + dg) + bedg é 0 et ù (B) ê t ú ëe 0 û ée t 0 ù (D) ê tú ë0 e û Page 611 1 . 100 Hz and 200 Hz.68 (A) (B) (C) 1 .2 65.j 2 pf 2 (C) .

266 root-mean square value of the quantization noise is 76.8 kbps (D) 38.15 (B) 0. A random variable X with uniform density in the interval 0 to 1 is quantized as follows: if 0 £ X £ 0. The output of the modulator is passed through an ideal high-pass filter with cut-off frequency of 100 MHz.1 kHz sinusoid (C) a linear function of time (D) a constant Page 612 81.com . Q.573 (C) 2.7 75. then the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver is (A) 50 dB (C) 40 dB (B) 30 dB (D) 60 dB is the quantized value of X. where xq (A) 0.2V. and time division multiplexed. D after matching an item from Group 1 with the most appropriate item in Group 2. The output of the filter is added with 100 MHz signal of 1V amplitude and 90° phase shift as shown in Fig.25 V with equal probability.3. The slope of h( t) in the interval 3 < t < 4 sec is x(t) 1 0 1 2 3 4 t(sec) 78. are sampled at their respective Nyquist rates. 1 V 90 o (A) 1–T (B) 1–S 2–U 3–P 4–T (C) 1–S 2–P 3–U 4–Q (D) 1–U 2–R 3–S 4–Q Fig Q.6 kbps www. 15.sin(2 p ´ 106 t) (B) (D) 1 + sin(2 p ´ 106 t) 5 4 + cos(2 p ´ 106 t) 2–P 3–U 4–S 77. Q.2V (i.4 kbps (C) 27.74. Consider the signal x( t) shown in Fig. 1 V 100 Mhz. The combined signal is given to an ideal frequency detector. when binary 1 is transmitted. The (B) 0. the voltage at the detector can have any value between 0 and 1 V with equal probability.76 (A) constant (C) 5 4 . Choose the correct one from among the alternatives A.205 xq = 0 xq = 0.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 74.2 kbps (B) 28.2 (D) 0. Two sinusoidal signals of same amplitude and frequencies 10 kHz and 10. C.3 £ X £ 1. Group 1 1 : FM 2 : DM 3 : PSK 4 : PCM Group 2 P : Slope overload Q : m-law R : Envelope detector S : Capture effect T : Hilbert transfer U : Matched filter 100 Mhz. with h( t) being non-zero only in the interval 0 to 4 sec.198 (D) 0.gatehelp.74 (A) ½ sec -1 (C) –1/2 sec -1 (B) –1 sec -1 (D) 1 sec -1 79. Consider a binary digital communication system with equally likely 0’s and 1’s. A 1 mW video signal having a bandwidth of 100 MHz is transmitted to a receiver through a cable that has 40 dB loss. encoded with 12 bit words.25 V and +0. B. If the effective one-sided noise spectral density at the receiver is 10 -20 Watt/Hz. When binary 0 is transmitted the voltage at the detector input can lie between the levels -0. The output of the detector is (A) 0. 600 Hz and 600 Hz.e. If the detector has a threshold of 0. The envelope of the resultant signal is 1 Mhz. 1 V Balanced Modulator HPF 100 Mhz y(t) 80. having bandwidth 1200 Hz. Q. if the received signal is greater than 0. the average bit error probability is (A) 0. A 100 MHz carrier of 1V amplitude and a 1 MHz modulating signal of 1V amplitude are fed to a balanced modulator. Let h( t) denote the impulse response of the filter matched to x( t). if 0. the bit is taken as 1).05 Fig. The bit rate for the multiplexed signal is (A) 1.76. Three analog signals.1 kHz are added together.1 kHz sinusoid (B) 20.5 (C) 0.

B1 and B2 are (A) B1 = 20 kHz. Q. The magnitude of the displacement current is ( e o = 1 36 p ´ 10 -9 F m) (A) 10 mA (C) 10 A (B) 100 mA (D) 1.88 Page 613 .1 Q.5 P x = -1 x=0 Assuming that the bandwidth of the above rectangular pulses is 10 kHz.gatehelp. If and E = (a x + ja y) e jkz . quarter-wave long (at 1 GHz) transmission line as shown in Fig.59 mA 84.84 The source output is transmitted using two modulation schemes. B2 = 10 kHz www. B2 = 10 kHz (D) B1 = 10 kHz.5 -1 V Fig Q. namely Binary PSK (BPSK) and Quadrature PSK (QPSK). A source produces binary data at the rate of 10 kbps. The binary symbols are represented as shown in Fig. B2 = kHz (B) B1 = 10 kHz. Consider a 300 W. It is connect.1 Binary 1 88. The magnitude of the voltage at the open circuit end of the line is -3 -1 1 3 f (kHz) x(t) Balanced Modulator HPF 10 kHz Balanced Modulator y(t) 10 V.com Fig. It is connected to a 10 V.82.2 82.ed to a 0. 3. t(ms) 0 t(ms) 0 0. x = -0. Q.6 GHz source.5 V. Let B1 and B2 be the bandwidth requirements of BPSK respectively.Q. 50 W source Zo = 300 W ~ 10 kHz ~ 13 kHz l/4 Fig Q. The ideal HPF has the cutoff frequency 10 kHz.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. Let X ( f ) and Y ( f ) denote the Fourier transforms of x( t) and y( t) respectively.88. Consider a system shown in Fig.jwt r jkz . Q.85 Fig Q.84 Binary 1 1V 0.85. X(f ) (C) B1 = 20 kHz. 50W source at one end and is left open circuited at the other end. why is the microwave signal amplitude modulated at 1 kHz ? (A) To increase the sensitivity of measurement (B) To transmit the signal to a far-off place (C) To study amplitude modulation (D) Because crystal detector fails at microwave frequencies r \$ \$ 87. B2 = 10 kHz 85.the time-averaged Poynting H = ( k wm )(a y + ja x ) e vector is (A) null vector \$ (C) (2k wm )a z \$ (B) ( k wm )a z \$ (D) ( k 2wm )a z 83.jwt \$ \$ . Consider an impedance Z = R + jX marked with point P in an impedance Smith chart as shown in Fig. The movement from point P along a constant resistance circle in the clockwise direction by an angle 45° is equivalent to r=0 . A parallel plate air-filled capacitor has plate area of 10 -4 m 2 and plate separation of 10 -3 m. In a microwave test bench.82 (A) 10 V The positive frequencies where Y ( f ) has spectral peaks are (A) 1 kHz and 24 kHz (C) 1 kHz and 14 kHz (B) 2 kHz and 24 kHz (D) 2 kHz and 14 kHz (C) 60 V (B) 5 V (D) 60/7 V 86.

order = 3 (D) degree = 2.x( t) 2 2 1 1 (B) . Even and odd parts of a unit step function u( t) are respectively.x( t) 2 2 6. Choose the function f ( t).ç ÷ u( -n .gatehelp.. order =3 2. x( t) 2 2 (C) 1 1 . Q5 1 1 (A) . 1. . The function x( t) is shown in the figure. A fair dice is rolled twice. L and C such that the step response y( t) in the figure has no oscillations.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10. The condition on R. (A) 3 sin(25 t) (C) e -t 3 Fig. Q7 d2 y dy -5 + 6y =0 dt 2 dt (A) y = e 2 x + e -3x (C) y = e -2 x + e -3x (B) y = e 2 x + e 3x (D) y = e -2 x + e -3x 1 (A) R ³ 2 L C L (C) R ³ 2 C L C 1 (D) R = LC (B) R ³ Page 615 www. .com . .1) must be è6ø è5ø 5 5 (B) z > (A) z < 6 6 (C) 5 6 <z < 6 5 (D) 6 < z <¥ 5 n n (B) 4 cos(20 t + 3) + 2 sin(710 t) (D) 1 sin(25 t) 3.¥ < t < ¥ for which a Fourier series cannot be defined. is L R u(t) C y(t) 4. order = 1 (B) degree = 3. order = 2 (C) degree = 4. The following differential equation has d2 y æ dy ö 2 3 2 + 4ç ÷ + y +2= x dt è dt ø (A) degree = 2. x( t) 2 2 1 1 (D) . x(t) 1 0 -1 t Question 1..3 EC-05 Duration : Three Hours 150 Maximum Marks : 5.30 Carry one Mark each.transform of the æ5ö æ6ö sequence ç ÷ u( n) . The probability that an odd number will follow on even number is 1 1 (B) (A) 2 6 (C) 1 3 (D) 1 4 7. The region of convergence of z . A solution of the following differential equation is given by Fig.

com .CB (C) CB .5 W 11. In a series RLC circuit.CB (D) CE . The value of x will be ë 0 Xû i i1 2 (A) abundance of Silicon on the surface of the Earth. The cascode amplifier is a multistage configuration of (A) CC . 15. The reserve saturation current at 40° C for the same bias is approximately (A) 30 pA (C) 50 pA (B) 40 pA (D) 60 pA 18.3 eV (C) 1.CC (B) CE . Q15 10 V RL 30 (A) kW 4 (C) 40 kW (B) 10 kW (D) infinite Fig. The maximum power that can be transferred to the load resistor RL from the voltage source in the figure is 100 W ~ Ri Fig.1 eV (B) 0. The ABCD parameters of an ideal n:1 transformer é n 0ù shown in the figure are ê ú. The first and the last critical frequency of an RC driving point impedance function must respectively be (A) a zero and a pole (B) a zero and a zero (C) a pole and a pole (D) a pole and a zero 17. 0011 0100 (D) B2.gatehelp. Q8 (A) n (C) n2 1 (B) n (D) 1 n2 9. L = 1 H and 1 m. Decimal 43 in Hexadecimal and BCD number system is respectively (A) B2. (C) favorable properties of Silicon . The input resistance of the amplifier shown in the figure is 30 kW 10 kW vo Fig. The primary reason for the widespread use of Silicon in semiconductor device technology is Page 616 (C) 2B.4 eV 12. R = 2 kW. 0100 0011 13. (B) larger bandgap of Silicon in comparison to Germanium.25 W (B) 10 W (D) 0.CC (A) 1 W (C) 0.dioxide (SiO2) (D) lower melting point. (D) decrease the input resistance and increase the output resistance. 0100 011 (B) 2B.Amperes (pA).7 eV (D) 1. + n:1 v1 - + v2 - 14. 0100 0100 www. (B) increase both input and output resistance (C) decrease both input and output resistance. The effect of current shunt feedback in an amplifier is to (A) increase the input resistance and decrease the output resistance.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 8. The bandgap of Silicon at room temperature is (A) 1. The resonant frequency is 400 1 (A) 2 ´ 10 4 Hz (B) ´ 10 4 Hz p C= (C) 10 Hz 4 (D) 2 p ´ 10 Hz 4 10. Q10 16. A Silicon PN junction at a temperature of 20° C has a reverse saturation current of 10 pico .

÷ + 4 sin(15 pt) is 2ø è (A) 40 (C) 42 (B) 41 (D) 82 A 1 C 0 MUX 1 24. y( n) = x 2 ( n) and Y ( e jw ) be the è2 ø Fourier transform of y( n) then Y ( e ) is 1 (A) 4 (C) 4 (B) 2 4 (D) 3 j0 n w= 0 w=¥ Re (C) Im Im w=¥ (D) w= 0 Re w= 0 w=¥ Re 22. (C) Mathematical analysis involves approximations. Page 617 www. The power in the signal pö æ s( t) = 8 cosç 20 p . Q-Z. Amplitude Modulation (B) P-W. S-Z (D) P-Y. The Boolean function f implemented in the figure using two input multiplexes is 0 MUX f 23. Q19 (B) DSB . km( t) A sin( wc t) R. R-Z. R-Y.SC (D) AM (C) SSB (A) ABC + ABC (C) ABC + A B C (B) ABC + ABC (D) A BC + ABC 25. R-W. (D) System has large negative phase angle at high frequencies. Which one of the following polar diagrams corresponds to a lag network? (A) (B) Im Im w= 0 w=¥ t t Re æ1ö 21. Q-X. Despite the presence of negative feedback. Let x( n) = ç ÷ u( n). {1 + km( t)} A sin( wc t) Q. Q-Y. Find the correct match between group 1 and group 2 Group 1 P.EC-05 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. S-Y Group II W. A linear system is equivalently represented by two sets of state equations: & & X = AX + BU And W = CW + DU 20. Which of the following analog modulation scheme requires the minimum transmitted power and minimum channel bandwidth? C B (A) VSB Fig.Frequency Modulation Y. Which one of the following (B) statements is true? (A) [ l] = [m ] and X = W t (B) [ l] = [m ] and X ¹ W (D) [ l] = [m ] and X ¹ W t (C) [ l] ¹ [m ] and X = W (C) h(t) h(t) (D) 26.gatehelp.3 19. S-W (C) P-X. A sin( wc t + km( t)) (A) P-Z. S-X 27. Which of the following can be impulse response of a causal system? (A) h(t) h(t) The eigenvalues of the representations are also computed as [ l] and [m ]. Q-W.com . R-X. control systems still have problems of instability because the (A) Components used have non-linearities (B) Dynamic equations of the subsystem are not known exactly. Phase Modulation X.

For the circuit show in the figure. [ AA T ]-1 is A =ê 1 -1 0 0 ú ê ê0 0 1 -1ú ë û é1 0 0 0 ù 4 ê0 1 0 0 ú 4 ú (A) ê 0 0 1 0ú ê 2 ê0 0 0 1 ú ë 2û é1 ê0 (C) ê ê0 ê0 ë 0 0 0ù 1 0 0ú ú 0 1 0ú 0 0 1ú û é1 0 0 0 ù 2 ê0 1 0 0 ú 2 ú (B) ê 0 0 1 0ú ê 2 ê0 0 0 1 ú ë 2û é 0 0 0ù ê0 1 0 0 ú 4 ú (D) ê ê0 0 1 0 ú 4 ê0 0 0 1 ú ë 4û 1 4 (A) 5 V and 2 W (C) 4 V and 2 W (B) 7. Q38 10 3 (A) Ð90 ° Amps. A Silicon sample A is doped with 1018 atoms/cm 3 of boron. then the reading in the ideal voltmeter connected between a and b is R1 R4 V R3 b 10 V a R2 Fig.90 ° Amps. Q42 é 0.5 W (D) 3 V and 2.EC-05 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. The ratio of electron to Page 619 .1 0. The capacitor is initially uncharged. The h parameters of the circuit shown in the figure 3W 10 60O A ~ are + V1 - Fig.238 V (B) 0. Q40 ~ I1 10 W I2 + 20 W V2 - Fig.05 ú ë û 1ù é10 (D) ê -1 0.3û é30 20 ù (C) ê ú ë20 20 û -1ù é10 (B) ê 1 0. The output voltage VO at time t = 2 sec is I1 0. For the circuit shown in figure.5I1 5W a b Fig. Thevenin's voltage and Thevenin's equivalent resistance at terminals a . A square pulse of 3 volts amplitude is applied to C-R circuit shown in the figure. Q43 (A) 3 V 10 V (B) -3 V (D) -4 V (C) 4 V 44.1ù (A) ê ú ë-0.b is 5W 0.60 ° Amps 39.gatehelp.138 V (D) 1 V. 2 (D) 5 Ð .com with 1018 atoms/cm 3 phosphorus. If R1 = R2 = R3 = R and R3 = 11 R in the bridge . Given an orthogonal matrix é1 1 1 1ù ê1 1 -1 -1ú ú.1 0.5 V and 2.3 37. Another sample b of identical dimension is doped www.05 ú ë û 43. -j2 42. 2 (C) 5 Ð60 ° Amps 10 3 (B) Ð .5 W 41.1 mF -j2 I2 + 1 kW V2 - Fig. Q41 38. Impedance Z as shown in the given figure is j5 W j2 W j10 W j10 W j2 W Fig.238 V (C) -0. Q39 (A) j29 W (C) j19 W (B) j9 W (D) j39 W Vi 3V + V1 2 sec t - 40. the instantaneous current ii ( t) is j2 i1 5 0 A O (A) 0. circuit shown in the figure.

(D) low pass. Off frequency are respectively. The free space e o = 8. the emitter current is IC _ VBE + V1 RE -VEE V2 Fig. 1000 rad/sec. 47. For an npn transistor connected as shown in figure VBE = 0. A Silicon PN junction diode under reverse bias has depletion region of width 10 mm. The type of filter and its cut. For an n-channel MOSFET and its transfer curve shown in the figure. Q48 permitivity of Silicon. Page 620 www. Q46 (A) 30 mA (C) 49 mA (B) 39 mA (D) 20 mA Fig. Given that reverse saturation current of the junction at room temperature 300 K is 10 -13 A. Which of the following can be calculated ? 1 MW 50. The voltage eo is indicated in the figure has been measured by an ideal voltmeter.7 volts. Q47 (A) Bias current of the inverting input only (B) Bias current of the inverting and non-inverting inputs only (C) Input offset current only (D) Both the bias currents and the input offset current.com . Q49 (A) increase both the differential and common .mode gains (B) increases the common mode gain only (C) decreases the differential mode gain only (D) decreases the common mode gain only.85 ´ 10 -12 relative Fig. a large value of ( RE ) VCC RC RC 46. 10 kW 10 kW vo vi 1 mF 1 kW 3 (D) 2 45.gatehelp. 10000 rad/sec. 49. (C) high pass. The ratio of conductivity of the sample A to B is (A) 3 2 (C) 3 (B) 1 3 48. Q50 (A) 1 V and the device is in active region (B) -1 V and the device is in saturation region (C) 1 V and the device is in saturation region (D) -1 V and the device is in active region. (B) Low pass. 1000 rad/sec. 1000 rad/sec. In an ideal differential amplifier shown in the figure. 1V VGS VS=1 V Fig. e r = 117 and the preemptively of .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers hole mobility is 3. The depletion capacitance of the diode per square meter is (A) 100 mF (C) 1 mF (B) 10 mF (D) 20 mF (A) high pass. The OP-amp circuit shown in the figure is filter. F/m. the threshold voltage is eo ID 1 MW Transfer Characteristics VD=5 V D VG=1 V G S Fig.

A16 not used (D) x( 3t + 2) 63.n0 ) then the most general form of will be (A) -n0 w0 + b for any arbitrary real (B) -n0 w0 + 2pk for any arbitrary integer k (C) n0 w0 + 2 pk for any arbitrary integer k (D) -n0 w0 f 62. Continuous and periodic signal G.A7 256 bytes Chip #2 the inverse Fourier transform of X ( 3 f + 2) is given by (A) 1 æ t ö j 3pt xç ÷e 2 è2 ø (B) 1 ætö xç ÷e 3 è 3ø j 4 pt 3 (C) 3 x( 3t) e .invariant system having a frequency response H ( e jw ). F-2.j 4 pt A10 . G-4. For a signal the Fourier transform is X ( f )). H-4 (A) E-1. the following and choose the correct Group 1 E.A7 256 bytes Chip #1 time. F-2.gatehelp. Fourier representation is discrete and periodic (A) E-3.td ) + 0. Fourier representation is continuous 4.2 Re (B) (1 + 0.5 cos wT) e .com Fig. Then A8 A9 A9 A8 A0 .0. Q57 (A) 010 (B) 111 (D) 100 (D) 101 58. Continuos and periodic signal F. If the output of the system Ax( n . G-4.jwt d www. Discrete and aperiodic signal H.5 x( t .5 cos wT) e .jwt d Page 622 -8 -2 -0.cos wT) e . Fourier representation is discrete and aperiodic 3. Q63 .td + T) + x( t . Q58 (A) 0100 . A signal x( n) = sin( w0 n + f) is the input to a linear A0 . (C) F900-FAFF (B) 1500 .5 x( t . F-1.td + T) The filter transfer function H( w) of such a system is given by (A) (1 + cos wT) e .F9FF 59. The polar diagram of a conditionally stable system for open loop gain K = 1 is shown in the figure. Fourier representation is continuous and aperiodic 2. H-4 (D) E-2. Discrete and periodic signal CLK Q0 Q1 Q2 Group 2 1. The output y( t) of a linear time invariant system is related to its input x( t) by the following equation y( t) = 0. What memory address range is NOT represents by chip # 1 and chip # 2 in the figure A0 to A15 in this figure are the address lines and CS means chip select. H-3 Fig. If the present state of the counter is Q2Q1Q0 = 001 then its next state Q2Q1Q will be 1 T0 Q0 1 T1 Q1 1 T2 Q2 60.16FF (D) F800 . Match combination. G-2. 61. G-3. The closed loop system is stable for Im Fig.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 57. The given figure shows a ripple counter using positive edge triggered flip-flops. The open loop transfer function of the system is known to be stable. H-1 (C) E-1.02FF. F-3.jwt d (C) (1 .jwt d (D) (1 .

9 (A) (B) s + 9.9 s+3 (C) s-6 s + 8. w = 5 rad/s which one of the following compensator Ge ( s) will be suitable ? s+3 s + 9.com (C) 380 kHz .EC-05 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.x2 è ö ÷ ´ 100% ÷ ø 67. A double integrator plant G( s) = K s 2 . The type number and zero frequency gain of the system are respectively (A) 1 and 20 (C) 0 and 1 20 (B)0 and 20 (D) 1 and 1 20 1 (C) K < and 5 < K 8 1 (D) K > and 5 > K 8 64. (A) jw jw (B) s -10 V 2 kW 0. A ramp input applied to an unity feedback system results in 5% steady state error. In the derivation of expression for peak percent overshoot æ -px M p = expç ç 1 .33 (D) s-6 s Which one of the following conditions is NOT required? (A) System is linear and time invariant (B) The system transfer function has a pair of complex conjugate poles and no zeroes. 65.s) . Given the ideal operational amplifier circuit shown in the figure indicate the correct transfer characteristics assuming ideal diodes with zero cut-in voltage. (D) The system has zero initial conditions. A MOS capacitor made using P type substrate is in the accumulation mode.gatehelp. H ( s) = 1 is to be compensated to achieve the damping ratio and and undamped natural frequency.3 (A) K < 5 and 1 1 <K < 2 8 (B) K < 1 1 and < K < 5 2 8 66. The dominant charge in the channel is due to the presence of (A) holes -8 V +5 V Vi -5 V +8 V Vi (B) electrons (C) positively charged ions -10 V -10 V (D) negatively charged ions (D) (C) Vo +10 V +5 V -5 V +5 V Vi -5 V Vo 70. s( s + 3) Indicate the correct root locus diagram. Q65 (A) Vo +10 V +10 V Vo Vi (B) 69. (C) There is no transportation delay in the system.5 kW 2 kW s s (C) jw jw (D) s Fig. An unity feedback system is given as G( s) = K (1 . 10 V vi vo 68. An FM signal with frequency deviation of 90 kHz and modulating signal bandwidth +5 V Vi of 5 kHz is applied to this device. A device with input x( t) and output y( t) is characterized y( t) = x 2 ( t). The bandwidth of the output signal is (A) 370 kHz (B) 190 kHz (C) 95 kHz Page 623 -5 V -10 V www.

gatehelp.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers Statement of Linked Answer Questions 84a 84b and (C) y[n] 2 1 ½ -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -2 -1 0 1 y[n] 2 2 3 4 5 6 n Voltage standing wave pattern in a lossless transmission line with characteristic impedance 50 and a resistive load is shown in the figure.1 ÷ y[ n] = í è 2 ø ï 0 î for n even for n odd y[n] 2 will be (A) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 ½ 0 y[n] 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 n (B) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 ½ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Page 626 www. Q85 85a.6 (B) -1 (D) 0 ************ Statement of Linked Answer Question 85a and 85b: A sequence x (n) has non-zero values as shown in the figure. Q84a and Q84b 85b. The reflection coefficient is given by (A) -0.5 W (B) 200 W (D) 0 84b. The sequence ì æn ö ï xç . V(z) 4 (D) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 ½ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n 1 l l/2 Fig.jw [cos 2 w + 2 cos w + 2 ] (D) e -2 jw [cos 2 w + 2 cos w + 2 ] 84a.(A) x[n] 2 1 ½ -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Fig. The value of the load resistance is (A) 50 W (C) 12.6 (C) 0. The Fourier transform of y[2 n] will be (A) e-2 jw [cos 4 w + 2 cos 2 w + 2 ] (B) [cos 2 w + 2 cos w + 2 ] (C) e .com .

com .4 EC-06 Duration : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 150 (A) e-2 t u( t) (C) e . f( w) = kw3 (C) A( w) = Cw. ¥) 5. is equal to (A) ò P × dl (B) ò Ñ ´ Ñ ´ P × dl (C) ò Ñ ´ P × dl (D) ò Ñ × Pdv 8.5 (B) 1 (D) a -a x (B) Inversely proportional to the doping concentration (C) Directly proportional to the intrinsic concentration (D) Inversely proportional to the intrinsic concentration 9. VD respectively. f( w) = kw2 (B) A( w) = Cw2 .85 carry two marks each. The range of tunnel-diode voltage for VDwhich the slope of its I . The concentration of minority carriers in an extrinsic semiconductor under equilibrium is (A) Directly proportional to the doping concentration 4. The values of voltage ( VD) across a tunnel-diode corresponding to peak and valley currents are Vp .20 one marks each and Q.1 to carry Q. Under low level injection assumption.gatehelp. Ñ ´ Ñ ´ P Where P is a vector.Ñ P 2 (B) Ñ P + Ñ (Ñ × P) 2 (C) Ñ 2P + Ñ ´ P 3. x Î ( -¥. A low-pass filter having a frequency response H ( jw) = A( w) e jf( w ) distortions if (A) A( w) = Cw2 . A solution for the differential equation x( t) + 2 x( t) = d( t) With initial condition x(0 -) = 0 Page 628 (B) Drift current (D) Induced current (C) Recombination current . é 1 1 1.VD characteristics is negative would be (A) VD < 0 (C) Vp £ VD < Vv (B) 0 £ VD < Vp (D) VD ³ Vv 2. f( w) = kw-1 does not produce any phase 7. f( w) = kw (D) A( w) = C. the injected minority carrier current for an extrinsic semiconductor is essentially the (A) Diffusion current www. The rank of the matrix ê 1 -1 ê ê ë 1 1 (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 (D) 3 1ù 0 ú is ú 1û ú 6.Ñ 2P òò (Ñ ´ P) × ds where P is a vector.t u( t) (B) e 2 t u( t) (D) e t u( t) Q.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10. is equal to (A) P ´ Ñ ´ P . A probability density function is of the form p( x) = Ke The value of K is (A) 0.21 to Q.5 (C) 0. (D) Ñ (Ñ × P) .

The Dirac delta function is defined as ì1 t =0 (A) d( t) = í î 0 otherwise ì1 t =0 (B) d( t) = í î 0 otherwise ì1 (C) d( t) = í î0 ì¥ (D) d( t) = í î0 t =0 otherwise ¥ and -¥ ò d( t) dt = 1 ¥ -¥ t =0 and otherwise ò d( t) dt = 1 16. Z 0 = 0 (C) Z i = ¥.t sin t (B) 1 pö æ sinç t + ÷ 4ø 2 è (D) sin t . Z 0 = 0 (B) Z i = 0.com 14. In the system shown below.gatehelp. The open-loop function of a unity-gain feedback control system is given by G( s) = K ( s + 1)( s + 2) The gain margin of the system in dB is given by (A) 0 (C) 20 (B) 1 (D) 13.bz + p 2) The wave is (A) Linearly polarized in the z–direction (B) Elliptically polarized (C) Left-hand circularly polarized www.bz) + a y sin( wt .VGS curve : (i) VGS = 0 at I D = 12 mA and (ii) VGS = -6 Volts at I D = 0 mA Which of the following Q – point will give the highest trans – conductance gain for small signals? (A) VGS = -6 Volts (C) VGS = 0 Volts (B) VGS = -3 Volts (D) VGS = 3 Volts 17. The electric field of an electromagnetic wave propagation in the positive direction is given by \$ \$ E = ax sin( wt . “d” denotes don’t care 18. The phenomenon known as “Early Effect” in a bipolar transistor refers to a reduction of the effective base-width caused by (A) Electron – Hole recombination at the base (B) The reverse biasing of the base – collector junction (C) The forward biasing of emitter-base junction (D) The early removal of stored base charge during saturation-to-cut off switching 11. Let x( t) « X ( jw) be Fourier Transform pair.4 10. Z 0 = ¥ 15. the response y( t) will be x(t) 1 s+1 y(t) Fig Q. Z 0 = ¥ (D) Z i = ¥.x2 [ n] 3 3 includes 1 (A) < z < 3 3 (C) 3 < z <3 2 2 < z <3 3 1 2 <z < 3 3 (B) (D) 12. The input impedance ( Z i ) and the output impedance ( Z 0 ) of an ideal trans-conductance (voltage controlled current source) amplifier are (A) Z i = 0. The Fourier Transform of the signal x(5 t .3) in terms of X ( jw) is given as (A) (C) 1 e 5 j 3w 5 æ jw ö Xç ÷ è 5 ø (B) (D) 1 e 5 j 3w 5 æ jw ö Xç ÷ è 5 ø 1 .j 3w æ jw ö e Xç ÷ 5 è 5 ø 1 j 3w æ jw ö e Xç ÷ 5 è 5 ø (D) Right-hand circularly polarized Page 629 .EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. An n-channel depletion MOSFET has following two points on its I D . If the region of convergence of x1 [ n] + x2 [ n] is 1 2 < z < then the region of convergence of x1 [ n] .÷ 4ø 2 è 2 e .cos t 19. The number of product terms in the minimized sum-of-product states) 1 0 0 1 (A) 2 (C) 4 0 d 0 0 0 0 d 0 (B) 3 (D) 5 1 0 1 1 expression obtained through the following K – map is (where. 18 (A) (C) 1 1 pö æ sinç t . x( t) = (sin t) u( t) In steady-state.

A negative resistance Rneg is connected to a passive network N having driving point impedance Z1 ( s) as shown below.5A (C) 1. Consider two transfer functions G1 ( s) = 1 s And G2 ( s) = 2 s 2 + as + b s + as + b re bI1 ro The 3–dB bandwidths of their frequency responses are. a 2 .4 30. A 2 mH inductor with some initial current can be represented as shown below. Rneg (singularities) of a driving point impedance function of a passive network having two kinds of elements.0 A (B) 2. Assume that the diode has zero voltage drop and a storage time ts . Q.gatehelp. "w 37.31 (A) re and bro (C) 0 and bro 32.4 b (B) (D) a 2 + 4 b. The first and the (B) 0 and -bro (D) re and -bro last critical frequencies 36.0A (D) 0. parameters given by éV1 ù é A ê I ú = êC ë 1û ë B ù é V2 ù D ú ê -I 2 ú ûë û 34.EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. respectively (A) (C) a 2 . The above property will be satisfied by (A) RL network only (B) RC network only (C) LC network only (D) RC as well as RL networks N Z2(s) Z1(s) Fig Q.34 (A) 8 e -0 .37 www. In the figures shown below. a2 + 4 b a2 . vR is given by (all in Volts) 1 2 5V 5V 1 kW + vR _ 1 mV Fig Q.004 t ) Volts (D) 8 Volts 31. a2 .4 b. In the two port network shown in the figure below z12 and z 21 are respectively I1 I2 35.e -0 . it is changed to position 2. vo( t)is given by 1k If port – 2 is terminated by the input impedance seen at port – 1 is given by A + BRL ARL + C (A) (B) C + DRL BRL + D DRL + A (C) C + BRL ARL + B (D) D + CRL + Vi(t) 4 mF 4k 1 mF + VO(t) - Fig. The value of initial current is Is 0. the switch was connected to position 1 at t < 0 and at t = 0. are a pole and a zero respectively.com Page 631 .4 b.004 t Volts (C) 8u( t) Volts (B) 8(1 . where s is the Lap lace Transform variable. "w (D) Rneg £ ÐZ1 ( jw). A two-port network is represented by ABCD.4 b a2 + 4 b Fig Q.33 (A) 0. For Z 2 ( s) to be positive real. If vi ( t) = 10 u( t) Volts. For 0 < t £ ts .0 A Fig Q.36 (A) Rneg £ Re Z1 ( jw). "w (C) Rneg £ Im Z1 ( jw). "w 33. In the circuit shown below. a 2 + 4 b.002s (B) Rneg £ Z1 ( jw) . assume that all the capacitors are initially uncharged.

41 (B) 1324 (D) 4231 (C) 2201 www. the capacitor C is initially uncharged. For the circuit shown in the following figure. conductance of the n-type (D) 12 V -12 V semiconductor to that of the intrinsic semiconductor of same material and ate same temperature is given by (A) 0. For example. At t = 0 the switch S is closed. (A) v ´ B (C) along v (B) B ´ v (D) opposite to v 42.000 (C) 41. H-4 (B) (A) ~ 6V R VR - Fig Q. F-3.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers (A) vR = -5 (C) 0 £ vR < 5 (B) vR = +5 (D) -5 £ vR < 0 The voltage VC across the capacitor at t = 1 is (A) 0 Volt (C) 9.000 (B) 2.000 (D) 20.2 ´ 108 atoms/m 3 :15 ´ 10 4 atoms/m 3 . F-4. 43 A new Binary Coded Pentary (BCP) number system is proposed in which every digit of a base–5 number is represented by its corresponding 3–bit binary code.gatehelp. The electric field E induced due to Hall effect acts in the direction. the BCP code 10001001101 corresponds of the following number is base–5 system 10 V (A) 423 Fig Q. F-2.com Page 632 . G-2. The waveform observed across R is 6V + 12sin wt 39. G-1. The majority carriers in an n–type semiconductor have an average drift velocity v in a direction perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B.type semiconductor has the following data: Hole-electron ratio Doping concentration Intrinsic concentration The ratio of :0. In this numbering system.3 Volts (D) 10 Volts 38.00005 (C) 10. H-2 40. In the figures shown the OP AMP is supplied with and the ground has been shown by the symbol S 1 kW C=1 mF – VC + vo -6 V -6 V Q.45 Volts (B) 6. G-1.42 6V (A) E-4. H-3 (C) E-3. Group 1 E-Varactor diode F-PIN diode G-Zener diode H-Schottky diode Group 2 1-Voltage reference 2-High frequency switch 3-Tuned circuits 4-Current controlled attenuator (B) E-2.4 :4. the base–5 number 24 will be represented by its BCP code 010100. assume that the zener diode is ideal with a breakdown voltage of 6 volts. H-3 (D) E-1. For the circuit shown below. F-4. G-1. A heavily doped n. Find the correct match between Group 1 and Group 2.

The output f will be A B P f Clock Q1 Q0 3 . (A) Q1 and Q0 (C) Q1Q0 and Q1Q0 (B) Q0 and Q1 (D) Q1 Q0 and Q1Q0 48. Which of the following waveforms will be observed at VO ? Q2 On completion of RET execution. 3CF4 PUSH PSW SPHL POP PSW RET 0 0 1 1 D CLK Q 3000 H CLK Fig Q.4 44.Bit Counter D1 D3 D/A Converter 1 kW C Fig Q.47 The inputs D0 and D1 respectively should be connected as. the outputs of the full-adder should be 1 0 1 1 D CLK Q A S Full Adder B Ci Q CO D CLK Fig Q. A 4 – bit D / A converter is connected to a free – running 3 – big UP counter.49 www.46 Fig Q. An I / O peripheral device shown in Fig.com Page 633 . Two D – flip – flops. EFFF H CALL 3000 H : : : LXI H. as shown below. its chip–select ( CS) should be connected to the output of the decoder shown in as below: A2 A3 A4 LSB 3-to-8 Decoder MSB D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 DATA IORD IOWR A1 A0 I/O Peripheral (A) (B) (C) (D) 47.(b) below is to be interfaced to an 8085 microprocessor. For the circuit shown in figures below. Following is the segment of a 8085 assembly language program LXI SP. Initially.EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.gatehelp. To select the I/O device in the I/O address range D4 H – D7 H. all the flip – flops are in clear state.44 (A) output 7 (C) output 2 (B) output 5 (D) output 0 45.45 (A) S = 0 C0 = 0 (C) S = 1 C0 = 0 (B) S = 0 C0 = 1 (D) S = 1 C0 = 1 SP is (A) 3CF0 H (C) EFFD H 1 kW D3 D2 vo 46. The point P in the following figure is stuck at 1. as shown in the following figure. After applying two clock pulses. the contents of (B) 3CF8 H (D) EFFF H 49. are to be connected as a synchronous counter that goes through the following sequence 00 ® 01 ® 11 ® 10 ® 00 ® K D0 Clock CK Q0 Q0 D1 CK Q1 Q1 MSB A7 A6 A5 CS Fig Q. two 4 – bit parallel – in serial – out shift registers loaded with the data shown are used to feed the data to a full adder.

A medium is divide into regions I and II about x = 0 plane. V 2 2 Q y1(t) Q C y2(t) Fig Q.sin t ù (D) ê sin t ú ë cos t û Q is quantizer with L levels. A source generates three symbols with probabilities 0.03 msec. An electromagnetic \$ \$ \$ wave with electric field E1 = 4 ax + 3a y + 5 az is incident normally on the interface from region I. which is to be added to y1 ( t) and y2 ( t) such that y1 ( t) and y2 ( t) and are different.67 x=0 x>0 www.1)(250 . In the following figure the minimum value of the constant “C” .sin t û (A) D (C) D2 12 (B) (D) D 2 D L 60. The bandwidth of the output would be (A) 4 ´ 10 4 Hz (C) 2 ´ 10 9 Hz (B) 2 ´ 106 Hz (D) 2 ´ 1010 Hz (C) 2 -6 61.cos t (B) ê . V] x(t) with range -V . The area of the beam cross-section at the interface is given by (A) 2 p m 2 (C) p 2 (B) p2 m 2 (D) p m 2 m2 63.EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.u( t . the most efficient source encoder would have average bit rate as (A) 6000 bits/sec (C) 3000 bits/sec (B) 4500 bits/sec (D) 1500 bits/sec 66. The output is then uniformly sampled with sampling period ts = 0.cos t . A = ê ú ë-1 0 û The state transition matrix of the system is é cos t (A) ê ë. A point source of electromagnetic energy is located in the medium at a depth of 1 meter from the interface.sin t sin t ù cos t ú û sin t ù é. The minimum step. 0.50 at a rate of 3000 symbols per second.2)) So that slope overload is avoided. stepwise D allowable signal dynamic range [-V. would be (A) 2 -10 (B) 2 -8 (D) 2 -4 65.64 é. The electric file E2 in region II at the interface is Region I m1=mo er1=4 s1=0 E1 x<0 Region II m2=mo er2=4 s2=0 E2 Fig Q.u( t . is 59.sin t .cos t ú ë û é.com Page 635 . the transmitted beam has a circular cross-section over the interface. Due to the total internal reflection. (here W is message bandwidth and wc is carrier frequency both in rad /sec) (A) RC < 1 W (B) RC > 1 W 67. A zero mean white Gaussian noise is passed through an ideal lowpass filter of bandwidth 10 kHz.size required for a Delta – Modulator operating at 32 K . 0.sin t ù (C) ê cos t ú ë.25. A message signal with 10 kHz bandwidth is lower side Band SSB modulated with carrier fc1 = 106 Hz frequency the resulting signal is then passed through a Narow Band Frequency Modulator with carrier frequency fc 2 = 10 9 Hz.125 t)( u( t . A medium of relative permitivity e r 2 = 2 forms an interface with free – space.1) .4 (A) (C) p 2 p 4 (B) (D) p 3 p 6 (C) RC < 1 wc (D) RC > 1 wc 64. Assuming independent generation of symbols.cos t . samples/sec to track the signal (here u( t) is the unit function) x( t) = 125 t( u( t) . The samples so obtained would be (A) correlated (C) uncorrelated (B) statistically independent (E) orthogonal 62. A linear system is described by the following state equation é 0 1ù & X ( t) = AX ( t) + BU ( t). as shown in the figure below.25. The diagonal clipping in Amplitude Demodulation (using envelope detector) can be avoided if RC time – constant of the envelope detector satisfies the following condition.gatehelp.

t) (C) -s( t) (B) -s(1 .7 V. hie ® ¥. the collector – to.emitter voltage drop is (A) 4. the transistor has the parameters: bDC = 60. the collector – to. hfe ® ¥ The capacitance can be assumed to be infinite.3 kW + vC – vS ~ CC Fig Q. 2.75 a y . The impulse response of filter matched to the signal s( t) = g( t) . 75 : Let g( t) = p( t)* p( t) where * denotes convolution and p( t) = u( t) .5 (C) t. Under the DC conditions. An Amplitude Modulated signal is given as x AM = 100( p( t) + 0. The inner broad – wall dimension of the rectangular wave guide is (A) 5/3cms (C) 5/2 cms (B) 5 cms (D) 10 cms Common Data for Question 74. Statement of Linked Answer Question 76 & 77: A regulated power supply.com .u( t . Q1 15 V (UR) + 1 kW 10 kW 12 kW vo – Common Data for Question 71. (D) t 2 .70 71. It is base-fed at a frequency of 600 kHz.76 6V 24 kW Page 636 www.1) with u( t) being the unit step function.5 g( t)) cos wc t In the interval.3 (D) 10 (C) 5.5 1 kW 53 kW 5. \$ \$ \$ \$ (D) -3ax + 3a y + 5 az 72. shown in figure below. 12 V (B) t.3 Volts (D) 6. 74. 0.72.0 Volts (B) 5.3 68.125 az .gatehelp.t) (D) s( t) 70.2)* g( t) is given as: (A) s(1 .emitter voltage drop (A) increases by less than or equal to 10% (B) decreases by less than or equal to 10% (C) increases by more than 10% (D) decreases by more than 10% 73. When a planes wave traveling in free-space is incident normally on a medium having the fraction of power transmitted into the medium is given by (A) 8/9 (C) 1/3 (B) 1/2 (D) 5/6 69. has an unregulated input (UR) of 15 volts and generates a regulated output Use the component values shown in the figure. If bDC is increase by 10%.8 Volts (C) 6. The radiation resistance of the antenna in Ohms is 2 p2 (A) 5 (C) 4 p2 5 p2 (B) 5 (D) 20 p2 75.0 following Linked Answer Question : Q. 0.85 carry two marks each. 10 .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers (A) E2 = E1 \$ \$ \$ (C) 3ax + 3a y + 5 az \$ \$ (B) 4 ax + 0. One set of possible values of the modulating signal and modulation index would be (A) t.75 to Q. The small signal gain of the amplifier vc vs is (A) 10 (B) –5. A rectangular wave guide having TE10 mode as dominant mode is having a cut off frequency 18-GHz for the mode TE30 .73: In the transistor amplifier circuit show in the figure below.d( t . VBE = 0.6 Volts Fig Q. A mast antenna consisting of a 50 meter long vertical conductor operates over a perfectly conducting ground plane.

B 53. D 35. C 81. B 67. A 14. D 16. C 56. A 23. C 12. A 25. The load resistance is (A) 25 Ohms (C) 75 Ohms (B) 50 Ohms (D) 100 Ohms 11. B 82.2 Amps (C) 0. C 24. B 59.6 Amps (B) 0. B Page 638 www.3 Amps (D) 0. A 83. 84. C 72. B 39. The steady state current through the load resistance is (A) 1. D 50. A 73. A 19. D 68. B 55. D 7. 41. D 30. B 65. B 27. B 49. the voltage at the load end is found to be 40 volts. A 34. D 79. B 51.4 Amps 21. C 29. B 61. A 18. C 58. D 46. B *********** ANSWER 1. D 45. A 10 . D 54. D 17. A 43. C 44. B 66. A 80. B 47. D 28. 84.com . B 70.A 64. C 33.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers take 400 ms for an electromagnetic wave to travel from source end to load end and vice – versa. D 85. C 76. A 32. A 38.D 22. D 63. B 37. D 42. At t = 400 ms. B 36. B 40. C 6. A 75. B 57. D 71. D 60. 5. C 62. C 69. C 3.gatehelp.B 15. C 9. A 52. A 8. C 85. A 26. C 74. D 48. B 2. B 77. D 20.C 4. C 31. A 78. B 13.

2 kJ 3 12 V 10 V 0 10 min (B) 12 kJ (D) 14.7 EC-09 Q.gatehelp. Assume that. which of the following can have a concentration of 4 ´ 1019 cm-3? (A) Silicon atoms (C) Dopant atoms (B) Holes (D) Valence electrons Which of the above statements are correct? (A) P and S (C) Q and S (B) P and R (D) Q and R 2 6. 20 carry one mark each. S. How much energy does the battery deliver during this talk-time ? Page 662 www. A fully charged mobile phone with a 12 V battery is good for a 10 minute talk-time. The order of the differential equation d 2 y æ dy ö 4 -1 +ç ÷ + y = e is dr 2 è dt ø (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 4 (A) 220 J (C) 13.com .Q. The full forms of the abbreviations TTL and CMOS in reference to logic families are (A) Triple Transistor Logic and Chip Metal Oxide Semiconductor (B) Tristate Transistor Logic and Chip Metal Oxide Semiconductor (C) Transistor Transistor Logic and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (D) Tristate Transistor Logic and Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon 7. R. A function is given by f ( t) = sin t + cos 2 t.1) is è 3ø è2 ø 1 1 1 (B) z > (A) < z < 3 2 2 p n 3.1 / 2 p and 1 / p Hz 4.4 kJ 2. Which of the following is true ? (A) f has frequency components at 0 and 1 / 2 p Hz (B) f has frequency components at 0 and 1 / p Hz (C) f has frequency components at 1 / 2 p and 1 / p Hz (D) f has frequency components at 0. The ROC of Z-transform of the discrete time sequence æ1ö æ1ö x( n) = ç ÷ u( n) . 1. Q.1 . The Fourier series of a real periodic function has only P. during the talk-time. the battery delivers a constant current of 2 A and its voltage drops linearly from 12 V to 10 V as shown in the figure.ç ÷ u( -n . In an n-type silicon crystal at room temperature. Cosine terms if it is even sine terms if it is even cosine terms if it is odd sine terms if it is odd 5.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10.

Which of the following statements is true regarding the fundamental mode of the metallic waveguides shown ? . Which of the following compensators has such a magnitude plot ? 20 dB (B) 10 æ1ö C2 ç ÷ è2 ø 2 10 (D) 10 æ1ö C2 ç ÷ è2 ø 10 12. A fair coin is tossed 10 times.com Page 663 . If f ( z) = c0 + c1 z -1 . Which of the following can be the value of the current source I ? 20 V 10.gatehelp. then (A) 2 pc1 1 + f ( z) dz is given by z unit circle ò (B) 2 p(1 + c0 ) (D) 2 pj(1 + c0 ) The power of the output process Y ( t) is given by (A) 5 ´ 10 -7 W (C) 2 ´ 10 -6 W (B) 1 ´ 10 -6 W (D) 1 ´ 10 -5 W (C) 2 pjc1 14. The magnitude plot of a rational transfer function G( s) with real coefficients is shown below.40 dB shape of its autocorrelation is (A) (B) (A) Lead compensator (B) Lag compensator (C) PID compensator| (D) Lead-lag compensator 9. If the power spectral density of stationary random process is a sinc-squared function of frequency. A white noise process X ( t) with two-sided power spectral density 1 ´ 10 -10 W/Hz is input to a filter whose magnitude squared response is shown below. 1 (C) (D) -10 kHz 10 kHz f 13.P: Coaxial Q: Cylindrical I 60 V R: Rectangular 12 A (A) Only P has no cutoff-frequency (B) Only Q has no cutoff-frequency (C) Only R has no cutoff-frequency (D) All three have cut-off frequencies (A) 10 A (C) 15 A (B) 13 A (D) 18 A 15. The ratio of the mobility to the diffusion coefficient in a semiconductor has the units www.7 (C) z < 1 3 (D) 2 < z < 3 11. it is known that the 60 V source is absorbing power. In the interconnection of ideal sources shown in the figure. the . What is the probability that ONLY the first two tosses will yield heads ? æ1ö (A) ç ÷ è2 ø æ1ö (C) ç ÷ è2 ø 2 8.EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.

z plane and parallel to the y -axis.p) 2 +. but the interrupt can be delayed or rejected Such an interrupt is (A) non-maskable and non-vectored (B) maskable and non-vectored (C) non-maskable and vectored (D) maskable and vectored 17.p) 2 +. dl = òò A. dl = òò V . z components (C) y. y..p) 2 +.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers (A) V -1 (C) V.cm -1 (B) cm. The other wire is in the x . For a message signal m( t) = cos(2pfm t) and carrier of frequency fc . One wire is in the y .gatehelp. In a microprocessor. dS C SC ® ® ® ® C SC ® ® ® ® (C) ò Ñ ´ V .. The Taylor series expansion of by (A) 1 + (C) 1 ( x . z components Q. 3! ( x .p) 2 +. If the transfer function of the following network is V0 ( s) 1 the value of the load resistance RL is = Vi ( s) 2 + sCR + + y 1A x (A) x. z components (B) x. which of the following is true? Note : C and SC refer to any closed contour and any surface whose boundary is C. If a vector field V is related to another vector field A through V = Ñ ´ A. dS www. dS C SC ® ® ® ® C SC ® ® ® ® (B) ò A. 1 and 2 with probabilities . Which components of the resulting magnetic field are non-zero at the origin ? z 1A 16. – – 21.. What is the conditional probability P ( X + Y = 2 X .s 20.. which of the following represents a single side-band (SSB) signal ? (A) cos(2 pfm t) cos(2 pfc t) (B) cos(2pfc t) (C) cos[2p( fc + fm ) t ] (D) [1 + cos(2 pfm t) cos(2 pfc t)] Page 664 (D) 1 sin x at x = p is given x-p ( x . Two infinitely long wires carrying current are as shown in the figure below. 3! ® (B) -1 (D) -1 + 23. 3! ( x .. y components (D) x. 60 carry two marks each...com . the service routine for a certain interrupt starts from a fixed location of memory which cannot be externally set. V -1 (D) V. dl = òò Ñ ´ A. Consider the system (B) R/2 (D) 2 R é1 0 ù dx = Ax + Bu with A = ê ú dt ë0 1 û é pù and B = ê ú where p and q are arbitrary real numbers. and 2 4 4 respectively.. dl = òò V .Y = 0) ? (A) 0 (C) 1 6 (B) 1 16 (A) R/4 (C) R 18. ëq û Which of the following statements about the controllability of the system is true ? (A) The system is completely state controllable for any nonzero values of p and q (B) Only p = 0 and q = 0 result in controllability (C) The system is uncontrollable for all values of p and q (D) We cannot conclude about controllability from the given data 19. dS (D) ò Ñ ´ A. The variables X and Y 1 1 1 take values 0. 3! ® 22. (A) ® ® ò V . 21 to Q. Consider two independent random variables X and Y with identical distributions.y plane and parallel to the x -axis.

Match each differential equation in Group I to its family of solution curves from Group II.3.1) 28.1.1 + 3 j. S.3. . the steady state R value of the current is given by V 2 V0 (B) i( t) ® (A) i( t) ® 0 R R L (C) i( t) ® V0 (1 + B) R (D) i( t) ® 2 V0 (1 + B) R 27. The current i( t) for t > 0 is given by www. 3 . In the circuit below. The switch in the circuit shown was on position a for a long time.3.EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. Q . dt V For an initial current of i(0) = 0 . 3 . The voltage V is given by 1A (A) 8 VAR (C) 28 VAR (B) 16 VAR| (D) 32 VAR (A) min( Vi . R . Circles 2.2 26.1 . 3 + 5 j.2 e -1250 t u( t) mA (B) 20 e -1250 t u( t) mA (D) 20 e -1000 t u( t) mA 25.2 e -125t u( t) mA (C) 0. .gatehelp. what value of RL maximizes the power delivered to RL ? 100 V (A) P . 6 .com Page 665 . Given that F ( s) is the one-sided Laplace transform of f ( t). Q . R . S . The eigen values of the following matrix are é-1 3 5 ù ê-3 -1 6 ú ê ú ê 0 0 3ú ë û (A) 3.1) (B) max( Vi 1) (C) max( -Vi .1.3. the Laplace transform of (A) sF ( s) .1 (C) P .2.1) (C) min( -Vi .Rt / L sin t) u( t). 29. 5 + j (B) -6 + 5 j. and is move to position b at time t = 0.1 (B) P .j (C) 3 + j. R. Straight lines 3. S . An AC source of RMS voltage 20 V with internal impedance Z s = (1 + 2 j)W feeds a load of impedance Z L = (7 + 4 j)W in the figure below.j.2.7 24. Group 1 dy y = dx x dy y =dx x dy x = dx y dy x =dx y Group II 1. the diode is ideal. Q .f (0)] s (A) 0.3 j (A) 2. S .2.f (0) (C) (B) ò t 0 f ( t) dt is 100 V 1 F ( s) s ò s 0 F ( t) dt 1 (D) [ F ( s) . R . Q .j (D) 3.3 (D) P .4 W (C) 4 W (B) 8 W 3 (D) 6 W 30. 3 + j. R . Q. Hyperbolas P. The reactive power consumed by the load is 31. The time domain behavior of an RL circuit is represented by di + Ri= V0 (1 + Be . S .3. In the circuit shown.2.1.

11. 00. What are the counting states (Q1 .. .0) NOR: first (1. An LTI system having transfer function and input x( t) = sin( t + 1) is in steady state. h( 3) = -1 and h( k) = 0 otherwise.. LTI (B) BIBO. 10. has breakaway/break-in points and angle of departure at pole P (with respect to the positive real axis) equal to Im (s) + + k G(s) O X Re (s) Q P 40.0) (C) NAND: first (1.-2+2j. Consider the following statements.. Consider a system whose input x and output y are related by the equation y( t)= ò x( t .7 (A) NAND: first (0. 10. 10. locus for negative values of k.24 -3.EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. 2 possessed by the system ? BIBO: Bounded input gives a bounded output.0) then (1. LTI: The system is linear and time-invariant.. S1: H ( z) is a low-pass filter.) is zero for all sampling frequencies ws (B) y(..24 s . The 4-point Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a discrete time sequence {1.59 s + 112 .3} is (A) [0.6. Which one of the following transfer functions has these properties ? -2. The root s2 + 2 s + 2 (A) 11. 2 www.0) then (1. 11. S2: H ( z) is an FIR filter.-3j] Clock JK Flip Flop JK Flip Flop K 1 43. 01. LTI (D) LP. Causal.-2-2j] (C) [6.) is nonzero for all sampling frequencies ws (C) y(. (D) 01.2-2j] (D) [6-1+3j.) is zero for ws > 2. 00.0) then (1. i.0) (B) NAND: first (1..1) NOR: first (1. LP: The system is low pass.t) h(2 t) dt -¥ ¥ (A) ± 2 and 0° (C) ± 3 and 0° (B) ± 2 and 45° (D) ± 3 and 45° s2 + 1 s2 + 2 s + 1 44. 11. Which of the following is true? (A) y(. s + 191s + 191 .0. 00.1+3j] (B) [2.1) then (0.1) 39. and S2 is a reason for S1 (D) Both S1 and S2 are true. 00. A system with transfer function H ( z) has impulse response h(.e.0) then (0. 10.1) NOR: first (0.0) NOR: first (1.. (D) -382 s . but nonzero for w2 < 2 45.0) (D) NAND: first (1. 01. 10. The output is sampled at a rate ws rad/s to obtain the final output { x( k)}.0. 01. for -¥ < k < 0.1) then (0..0) then (0.191s + 191 .) defined as h(2) = 1.0) then (1. but S2 is not a reason for S1 41. . The unit step response of an under-damped second where h( t) is shown in the graph....2.2. Q2 ) for the counter shown in the figure below? Q Q Q ( 0 A) Causal. The feedback configuration and the pole-zero locations of G( s) = s2 . Which of the following is correct? (A) Only S2 is true (B) Both S1 and S2 are false (C) Both S1 and S2 are true.gatehelp. (B) 01.. Causal: The system is causal.59 s + 112 . 10.1-3j.) is nonzero for ws > 2.2 s + 2 are shown below.-1.2+2j.2.com Page 667 . LTI 42.82 (A) 2 (B) 2 s + 2.2. (C) 00. (C) -2. LP (C) BIBO. but zero for ws < 2 (D) y(. Which of the following four properties are order system has steady state value of -2.

5 and her teacher calculates the variance of X as 1. A magnetic field in air is measured to be ® æ ö x y \$ \$÷ B= B0 ç 2 ç x + y2 y .2 5 0.5.15 MV . (A) Both the student and the teacher are right (B) Both the student and the teacher are wrong (C) The student is wrong but the teacher is right (D) The student is right but the teacher is wrong Q.80 MV .com . r ¹ 0 m 0 ç x2 + y2 ÷ è ø \$ 2 B0 z æ ç 2 ç x + y2 m0 è ö ÷.76 V (C) is 0. cm -1 . r ¹ 0 Page 668 www. A student calculates the mean of X as 3.ç ÷ sin w2 t è2 ø è2 ø is amplitude-modulated with a carrier of frequency wc to generate s( t)= [1 + m( t)]cos wc t What is the power efficiency achieved by this modulation scheme ? (A) 8. A discrete random variable X takes values from 1 to 5 with probabilities as shown in the table. Intrinsic carrier concentration = 1.4 4 0. r ¹ 0 ÷ ø (B) j = ® (C) j = 0.] (A) j = ® ® \$ ö 1 B0 z æ ç ÷.80 MV . A communication channel with AWGN operating at a signal to noise ratio SNR >> 1 and bandwidth B has capacity C1 .3B 49.cm -1 Dielectric constant of silicon = 12 51 The built-in potential of the junction (A) is 0.15 MV .4 ´ 1010 cm -3 Thermal voltage = 26 mV Permittivity of free space = 8.2 3 0.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 46. Which of the following statements is true ? k P ( X = k) 1 0.1 mm Depletion width on the p-side = 10 mm .70 V (B) is 0. The peak electric field in the device is (A) 0. The branches are terminated by 50W loads.85 ´ 10 -14 F.x2 + y2 x ÷ è ø What current distribution leads to this field ? [ Hint : The algebra is trivial in cylindrical coordinates. Determine the impedance Z i as seen by the source. the resulting capacity C2 is given by (A) C2 = 2 C1 (C) C2 = C1 + 2 B (B) C2 = C1 + B (D) C2 = C1 + 0. If the SNR is doubled keeping B constant. cm -1 . as shown. r ¹ 0 m 0 ç x2 + y2 ÷ è ø 50. directed from n-region to p-region (C) 1. directed from p-region to n-region (D) 1. each of length l / 4. cm -1 .1 2 0. directed from p-region to n-region (B) 0. A transmission line terminates in two branches. directed from n-region to p-region Common Data for Questions 53 and 54: 48.1 (D) j = ® \$ ö 1 B0 z æ ç ÷. 47 A message signal given by æ1ö æ1ö 1n( t)= ç ÷ cos w1 t . The lines are lossless and have the characteristic impedances shown.gatehelp.33% (C) 20% (B) 11.82 (D) cannot be estimated from the data given 52.11% (D) 25% (A) 200W (C) 50W Common Date Questions Common Date for Questions 51 and 52: Consider a silicon p-n junction at room (B) 100W (D) 25W temperature having the following parameters: Doping on the n-side = 1 ´ 1017 cm -3 Depletion width on the n-side = 0. cm -1 .

Page 669 . '5' is displayed. If only P2 is pressed.5 dB.0333 V (C) 0. 0'.5 -j Re + - G(s) 53. signifying 'Rs.7 The Nyquist plot of a stable transfer function G( s) is shown in the figure. When a button is pressed. while the gate voltage of the p-MOSFET is kept constant at 3 V. For small increase in VG beyond 1 V. www. '0' is displayed. (B) 43. 57. which of the following gives the correct description of the region of operation of each MOSFET ? (A) Both the MOSFETs are in saturation region (B) Both the MOSFETs are in triode region (C) n-MOSFET is in triode and p-MOSFET is in saturation region (D) n-MOSFET is in saturation and p-MOSFET is in triode region.0667 V (B) 0. where the gate voltage VG of the n-MOSFET is increased from zero. The gain and phase margins of G( s) for closed loop stability are (A) 6 dB and 180° (C) 6 dB and 90° (B) 3 dB and 180° (D) 3 dB and 90° 57.05 V. Estimate the output voltage V0 for VG = 15 V .8 dB (D) 40 dB If no buttons are pressed. the step size of the quantization is approximately (A) 0. If only P1 is pressed.1 V. is 1 mA . signifying 'Rs.e. the resulting signal to quantization noise ratio is approximately (A) 46 dB (C) 42 dB Linked Answer Questions Statement for Linked Answer Questions 57 and 58 : 5'. and the negative values are uniformly quantized with a step size of 0.gatehelp. Common Data for Questions 55 and 56: The amplitude of a random signal is uniformly distributed between -5 V and 5 V. + -1-0. . 2'. Im Consider the CMOS circuit shown. 55. the quantity mCax (W / L). [Hint : Use the appropriate current-voltage equation for each MOSFET. Which of the following statements is true? (A) G( s) is an all-pass filter (B) G( s) has a zero in the right-half plane (C) G( s) is the impedance of a passive network (D) G( s) is marginally stable 54.05 V (D) 0. We are interested in the stability of the closed loop system in the feedback configuration shown.com Two products are sold from a vending machine. signifying 'Error'. the price of the corresponding product is displayed in a 7-segment display. the magnitude of the threshold voltage is 1 V and the product of the trans-conductance parameter and the (W/L) ratio. 'E' is displayed. which has two push buttons P1 and P2 .EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. based on the anser to Q. Assume that. If the positive values of the signal are uniformly quantized with a step size of 0. V -2 . If the signal to quantization noise ratio required in uniformly quantizing the signal is 43.10 V 58. for both transistors.] Statement for Linked Answer Questions 59 and 60: 56. '2' is displayed. i. signifying 'Rs. If both P1 and P2 are pressed.