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What is a research paper?
A piece of academic writing that requires a critical
and thoughtful level of inquiry.
Most important aspect is acknowledging sources.
Most dangerous aspect is plagiarism.
Steps in writing a research paper
1. Choose a field, select a subject within that field 2. Limit chosen topic 3. Find sources (books, articles, journals) 4. Make a list of references. 5. Propose a working thesis 6. Take notes
▪ paraphrase ▪ summarize ▪ quote
7. Make an outline 8. Prepare referencing and bibliography 9. Do final organization 10.Do final drafting
Structure of a research paper
Cover page Contents page ( some have abstracts) Introduction Body Conclusion Bibliography
What to choose
Subjects which are
▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Familiar Interesting Source availability Contemporary
What not to choose
Subjects which are
▪ Very new ▪ Too controversial ▪ No interest
Narrowing and Limiting the Topic Introduction Body Conclusion Process Too General Still Broad Less Broad Narrow Enough 6 .
Finding and selecting sources Compiling a preliminary bibliography Selecting from the preliminary list Note basis for your first evaluation Age Relevance Generality / Specificity Reputation Bias Length 7 .
A specific statement that decides length of paper. 8 . A sentence that expresses the main idea of the paper. Definition A statement of opinion about or attitude towards the topic which will either be proved or disproved by the argument in the research paper.
9 . complex sentence making a statement about the topic. The working thesis not repetition of the topic. showing personal judgment or evaluation. only provisional can be adjusted Formulation of the thesis One.
10 . Example: Topic : Osteoporosis Thesis: Osteoporosis. treated. leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures can be detected. which is a common disease among men and women. and prevented.
Steps to paraphrase ▪ Read the selection ▪ find synonyms ▪ Write a brief outline ▪ DO NOT change the meaning of the original text 11 . Paraphrase Writing skill in which information is written in different words without changing its original meaning.
And people did die of sadness. and Brazil lost the World Cup to the Uruguayan team. ORIGINAL PARAGRAPH When the Maracana soccer stadium in Rio De Janeiro. 12 . Mere threats of defeat in a championship match can cause heart attacks and the despair of the public is so great that many beat their heads against the cement posts. the Brazilians were so disheartened one had the impression that the country itself had died. Brazil was opened to the public in 1950. Such as the Brazilian’s passion for soccer.
Brazil lost the World Cup 1. 2. C. Entire country was sad Some people died Some experience heart attacks Some beat their heads B. Brazilians are very emotional about soccer 13 . OUTLINE A. Possible defeat causes strong reaction 1. 2.
some people even died from it. Brazilians are very emotional about soccer. 14 . and others beat their heads against cement posts. Some people have heart attacks. Brazil lost the World Cup in soccer to Uruguay in Rio de Janeiro. Brazilians react very strongly to potential defeat in championship soccer games. The entire country was overcome by sadness. MODEL PARAPHRASE In 1950.
Leave out unimportant words and emphasize most important ideas. Summarize Similar to paraphrase but usually shorter Steps to Summarize: Find the main idea Keep most important supporting ideas and major details Rewrite sentences in your own words . Use transition words A third as long as the original material 15 .
the entire country was saddened. 16 . EXAMPLE SUMMARY The Brazilian people were so emotionally involved with their national soccer team that in 1950. and some people even died. when their team lost the World Cup to Uruguay. The mere possibility of defeat causes genuine physical suffering.
Collister’s belief/opinion/view/conclusion that…………. shows that… ……… ▪ It is A. ………………… 17 .D.D. Incorporating summary or paraphrase Transitional phrases ▪ A. believes that. Collister in his book / article explains that..
Explain your idea in your own words and mention other people who agree with you. . . Example ▪ It appears from the evidence that . Using anyone’s ideas without acknowledging them is plagiarism. . . . . 18 . .
. A commonly held opinion is that . .B. . . Introduce generally accepted ideas by impersonal expressions Examples: ▪ ▪ ▪ It is generally believed / held / argued / acknowledged that . . . . . . . …………. . . Every summary or paraphrase must have a source note (citation) 19 . . . N.. . . . Doctors/ teachers / scientists have said that .
original or illuminating way 20 . clever. Selection: Use quotations when ▪ writer has used a particular apt expression ▪ explained something in a very clear. Purpose: To prove or support a statement or opinion . to emphasize an idea. Quote Repetition in speech or writing of someone else’s words.
comment on and analyze the information. Note: ▪ Acknowledge source. In case of lack of originality. ▪ Do not quote just for its own sake. do not quote. 21 . but summarize or paraphrase. ▪ Do not use too many quotations. ▪ Synthesize.
“…………………” ▪ According to Y. “…………………. Collister wrote. Incorporating quotations Punctuation Example: ▪ A.” Transitional Phrases: Example: ▪ As X says.” 22 .D. “ There is no evidence to suggest that the earth is anything but flat.
Longer Quotations : leaving a line empty indenting the extract on both left hand and right hand Ellipsis margins using single spacing. “In 1972 …. 1990.. at Manchester University foreign students …… spent as average of 23 / 7 hours per week listening to English and only 6 hours speaking to English people …. Example…. ▪ It was found that. 45) 23 .. (Nash. p.
including only the main point(s) 24 . Differences between quoting. and summarizing Quotations: identical to the original Paraphrasing: putting a passage from source material into your own words Summarizing: putting the main idea(s) into your own words. paraphrasing.
paraphrases and summaries Provide support or add credibility to the writing Refer to work that leads up to work in progress Give examples of several points of view on a subject Agree or disagree with the thesis Highlight a particularly striking phrase. sentence. or passage by quoting the original Expand the breadth or depth of your writing 25 . Rationale for using quotations.
actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (pages). paraphrases. Example: In his famous and influential work On the Interpretation of Dreams. expressing in coded imagery the dreamer‟s unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the “dream work” (page). and quotations makes the writing smooth. According to Freud. Frequently summaries. Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious” (page). 26 .
The unacknowledged use of someone else’s words or ideas. 27 . Definition of Plagiarism Polite term for copying.
Actions that might be seen as plagiarism Buying. stealing. or borrowing a paper Using the source too closely when paraphrasing Hiring someone to write your paper Building on someone's ideas without citation Copying from another source without citing (on purpose or by accident) Deliberate plagiarism Accidental plagiarism 28 .
Intentional Copying a friend‟s work Buying or borrowing papers Cutting and pasting blocks of text from electronic sources without documenting Media “borrowing” without documentation Web publishing without permissions of creators Unintentional Careless paraphrasing Poor documentation Quoting excessively Failure to use your own “voice” 29 .
Web page. insights. thoughts. illustrations. letter. or any other medium Using information gained through interviewing Copying the exact words or a “unique phrase” • Reprinting diagrams. charts. advertisement. TV program. common sense observations or shared information. book. Need to Document Using or referring to somebody else‟s words or ideas from a magazine. and conclusions. newspaper. movie. and pictures • Writing your own experiences. song. Compiling generally accepted facts • Writing up your own experimental results 30 . observations. No Need to Document Using “common knowledge” – folklore. computer program.
or whether you have sufficient evidence to support each of your points. what order of ideas works best. you can use it to see whether your ideas connect to each other. Outlines can be useful for any paper to help you see the overall picture. For example. 31 . An outline is a formal system used to think about and organize your paper.
Detail 3. First main idea A. Supporting idea 1. Outline: a detailed plan or skeleton of paper Form of outline: Title I. Supporting idea II. Minor detail ii. Second main idea 32 . Minor detail B. Detail 2. Detail i.
Indent items correctly. Map outline to text. Put all headings in a series of same type. 33 . Relate subheadings to main headings. Put a period after each letter or number. Have at least two subheadings. Be consistent in format. Use only main ideas for main headings.
Tragedies 1. Comedies C. Henry VIII 34 . King Lear 2. Romeo & Juliet 2. Shakespeare Wrote A. Example of a Topic Outline I. History Plays 1. Hamlet B.
What is Referencing? An important part of academic writing. The Harvard and MLA styles of referencing 35 . A full list of sources cited must be included in the reference list. A way of referring to the work of others to provide evidence and support. Why Reference? To avoid plagiarism all sources used must be cited in the text. accuracy and consistency.
Indirect Citation : Rewrite idea or opinion of author in your own words as a paraphrase or a summary. 1998:4). (Brown. In Text Citation Direct Citation : Use exact words from text between quotation marks. ▪ Example: “There are not enough examples in this essay”. ▪ Example: Brown felt that a particular piece of writing was lacking in examples (1998:4). 36 .
Show number as superscript 15. Leave four spaces between the last line of text and the first footnote on each page. 37 . Footnotes/Endnotes Footnotes: at the bottom of the same page. Endnotes: citations and reference lists at end of paper Using footnotes or endnotes Put a number at the end of the sentence which requires citation. Indent first line.
Literature of Satire (Lewiston: Edwin Press. Examples 15 Ronald E. Bless Me Ultima (New York: Warner books. 38 . 155 Note: Ibid refers to the same author mentioned before. 1988) 78 16 Rodulf Anaya. 1972) 66 17 Ibid. Pepin.
articles and websites referred to in an assignment. Includes reference list plus all read material. A bibliography refers to the list of all the sources used. A reference list refers to all the books. even if not cited . 39 .
40 . separated by a comma Author‟s initials are followed by a full stop but no spacing The citation ends in a full stop Separate names by commas for more than one author Include all necessary information. Harvard style referencing rules List sources alphabetically by surname of author Chronological listing for more than one work for one author Separate elements by commas Author‟s surname appears first followed by author‟s initials. Be consistent and accurate.
1998. London. How to Write Good Essays.. & Jones. Smith. J. P. Brown. Reference lists for different entries Book Brown. London.. L. J. 41 . (Separate names for more than one author by commas). 1998. Essay Writing for University Students.
Essay Writing for University Students. Chapter or section of a book Jones P. Edited book Brown. 42 . pp12-32. ed.1997. J. (eds). & Smith. C. in Essay Writing for University Students. „Some students simply cannot write good essays‟. London. London.1998.
No.1998. Journal of Self Improvement. „Some things are better left unsaid: An introduction to the art of minding your own business‟.2. „Some things are better left unsaid: An introduction to the art of minding your own business‟. G. pp 4-15. website if any particular……… 43 .3. Electronic Journal article Brown. Journal of Self Improvement.2. 1998. No. G. Journal article Brown. Vol. [online]. Vol.3.
Available: http://www. Self improvement. „When time runs out‟.1998. „Some things are better left unsaid: An introduction to the art of minding your own business‟. 2001].selfimprovement.4 Electronic article Brown.com/brown/html[Accessed 23 June. 44 . 23rd June p. 2004. Gulf News. J. Newspaper or magazine article Greenwood. G.
Publication from a government body or organization United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network. 1999. 2000] Work with no apparent author The Economist. Available: http://www.theeconomist. 1997-1998. 1999]. 23 February. „Do economic sanctions work?‟. Report on Crime Rates in Developing Countries. Available: http://www. 45 .uncjin. [online].uk[accessed 25 March.1999.org/reports/1999/html[Accessed 5 June.
found that if farm buildings which house hens have extra amenities such as piped music and temperature control then the hens show both an increased egg-laying capacity and greater longevity (40).Either: If farm buildings which house hens have extra amenities such as piped music and temperature control then the hens show both an increased egg-laying capacity and greater longevity (Pullet et al. 40). OR Pullet et al. 46 .
Contents page and thesis statement Introduction Body Conclusion If you are using notes. place these after the conclusion (e.g. appendix. glossary. Checklist of main ingredients Your paper should include the following sections: Title Page. etc) Reference List Bibliography 47 ..
▪ to engage the reader‟s attention and interest. 48 . ▪ a statement of the thesis ▪ a summary of the problems/issues ▪ an explanation of how the paper is organized. Guidelines Introduction and Main body ▪ engage the interest of the reader ▪ show main idea and how it will be discussed.
▪ Summarize the argument . Conclusion ▪ Similar to introduction. ▪ Suggest where further interesting research could be done. ▪ Make predictions leading from the research. should be well-organized and brief. ▪ Show how/that the thesis has been proved. 49 .
course. name. Title Page (first page) Title. date Contents Page (Second Page) Outline 50 .
Endnotes. 51 . Introduction and Conclusion Glossary. Bibliography Content of body of paper shown with clear subheadings but without details. indentation (outline) Thesis Statement Abstract. Final form of contents page Spacing and underlining Headings and sub-headings – position Thesis Statement – position and punctuation Numbering system.
is it well defined? ▪ Does it summarize the issues ? how? ▪ Does it explain the approach to be used? How? ▪ Do you think it is a good introduction or not? Why? Could you improve it in any way? How? 52 . Proofreading Examine the Introduction of your paper ▪ Find the thesis.
Examine the conclusion of your paper. why? Could you improve it in any way? How? 53 . ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Does it have all the necessary required features? Does it have the thesis statement ? Does it provide a summary to the main points mentioned in your paper? Does it suggest future recommendations? Do you think it is a good conclusion or not.
” Other material such as photographs. charts. and line-drawings should be labeled ‘Figure” and be properly numbered and captioned. 54 . Binders: Generally. images. the simpler the better. Tables and Figures: Tables should be labeled ‘Table. A simple staple in the upper left-hand corner of your paper should suffice.
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