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Outline of Vedanta, by Paul Deussen (1906)

Outline of Vedanta, by Paul Deussen (1906)

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A brief outline of the Vedanta system of Indian thought.
A brief outline of the Vedanta system of Indian thought.

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OUTLINE OF THE VEDANTA SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY

ACCORDING TO SHANURA

~&omssou PHILOSOPHYAT THE UNIVEBSITY OF OF
TRANIILAFED If. WOODS BY J.
INFFBUmB IN PHlCOBOPHY AT H d a V I B D U N -

BY PAUL DEUSSEN I* '

5

mm C.

B RUNKLE .

OF O * I I B m E , ~ C H U B 6 T l B

NEW YORK

THE GRAFTON PRESS
70 FIZ-rE AVENUE

COPYRIQHT, I N 5 IN QREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES BY THE QRAFTON PRESS

CONTENTS
PAGE

PREFATORY NOTE BY THE AUTHOR CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
1 RRTDAMENTAL IDEA : IDENTITY O F BRAHMAN AND T H E SOUL . 9 CONTRADICTED BY E X P E l E N C E .
8 AND BY T H E A S S U M m O N S O F T H E VEDIC IUTUAL .

vii

4. IGNORANCE AND KNOWLEDGE

6 SOOBCL O F P N O W L E W E .

CHAPTER I1 : THEOLOGY
(. m I

C AND EXOTEBIC SCIENCE

7 EBOTElUC AND EXOTERIC BRAHMAN .
8 DIFFERENCE BEIWEEN EOOTEBIC AND EXOTERIC .
0. FBOTEBIC BRAHMAN I S UNKNOWABLE

1 . NATURE O F EBOlZBIC BEAHMAN 0 1 . WTUITWE COGNITION O F m B I C BRAHMAN A9 SOUL 1 1 . EXOTERIC BRAHMAN 9 1 . EXOTERIC BRAHMAN A9 WORLD-WUL 8 14. EXOTERIC BRAHMAN AS INDIVIDUAL SOUL 16. E X O T E l C BRAHMAN A8 PERSONAL GOD
c/l

%CHAPTER I11 :COSMOLOGY
9 1 . EMPIRICAL AND MEl'APHYSICAL POINTS O F VIEW 6

1 . T H E I R RELATION TO EJOTERIC AND EXOTERIC SCIENCE 7

G la WOBLDPERIO~
.7 1 . TFIE 0

I

WORLD I S WITHOUT BEGINNING
FOB REPEATED CREATIONS O F T H E WOaLD

PO. MORAL NEC-

9 . INORGANIC NATURE: ELEXENTS 1
83. OBGANIC NATURE : SOULS

I.WON-EXISTENCE O F WORLD PROM MErAPBYgICAL POINT O F

CHAPTER IV : PSYCHOLOGY
94. T H E SOUL ALONE REAL

es. THE SOUL r n m - q c A L

WITH BBAHJIAN

vi
Z7.
48.

CONTENTS
T H E SOUL FROM T H E EMPIMCAL POINT O F VIEW

4 . T H E SOUL FBOX T H E METAPHYBICAL POINT O F VIEW 8

n% LIMITING

CONDITIONS (THE UP~DHIS)

m. MIND
so.
89.

(MANAS) AND SENBE-ORGANS (INDMYIB)

VITAL PRINCIPLE (XIJKHYA

P~I~A)

Sl. SUBTILE W)DY ( s ~ ~ K ~ M!A m ) $ A

xoau

aummcAnon

88. BPECIAL 8TATES O F T B E SOUL

CHAPTER V: MIGRATION OF THE SOUL
84. DEPABTUBE O F T B E SOUL FROM T H E BODY
85. DE6TINY O F T B E DOER O F PIOUS DEEDE

I.DE6TINY OF T B E WICKED: HELL AND T H E T H I R D PLACE
81. ~ n r r r w ~mows w o B a a r p P E a s OF BEAHBUN OF

CHAPTER VI : EMANCIPATION
88. EMANCIPATION COMES FROM K N O W L E W E

80. KNOWLEDGE BY T H E GRACE O F GOD 40. AID8 TO T H E ATl'AINMENT O F K N O W L D O E
41. ANNIHILATION OF DEEDS (KARMA)

49. ABOLITION O F MOBAL DUTIEB
48. PERSISTENCE O F T H E EMANCIPATED BODIES
01. ABBORPTION INTO BRAHMAN

PREFATORY NOTE
BYTHEAUTHOR

ON the tree of Indka u&&m there i s nofaim-er than the Upnhhada, and nofw f r u i t thun t?w Vediinta T h h qstem grew md of the teachings qf the Upani9?m&, and w m bmught to ib consummatef m by the great S h d a r a (born 788 A.D.. exactly one t h a n d years before h k spiritual kinsntan S c m w ) . Even to this day, Shankara's qstem r e p r e d the common beliqf of nearly d thoughfid Hindus, and d e m e s to be widely studied in the 0ccidtd. T o the end that it might be so studied, Ipublished w e than t&ty years ago a comp d i u m qf the qstem, uder the title "Daa System des Vediinta'' (Leipza: F.A Brockhaw, 1883), and at the c h e qf the work, I added a brief &line of Shankara's doctrine. The transkrtion qf that d i n e w m admitted to me t y m y m and for some time dbciple in Gemnany, Dr. J a m H. Wad, afler hi9 return from Benares. I have read and revked it with care, and mgpsted some changvs and additions; and I trust that it may prove to be qfservice k acquainting American studmid with Shankara.
PAUL DEUSSEN

= M~~ PU. = Chgndogya Upanishad CvetU.ABBREVIATIONS BAU. = Kena Upanishad KshU. = K5@aka Upanishad Upanishad MuU. = Brhad &anyaka Upanishad ChU. = Kaushitaki Upanishad KthU. = Prqna Upanishad Ts. = Cvetaqvatara Upanishad I g =fF5Upsnishad KU. = Tai~-ya-samhitH .

the eternal principle of d being. is identical with the Atman. i 4. but rather a Contradicted multiplicity. the eternal indivisible Brahman itself. that C. our Self. 4 T INTRODUCTION 8.7. the power which creates all wor!ds. when we judge rightly. sents not any such unity. This soul in each one of us is not a part of Brahman nor an emanation from him. 6 Ngmariipe. the self. as our inner and true essence. f f . 3 Vyavahfira. sustains them and again absorbs them. CHAPTER I HE fundamental idea of the Vedhta system. This means that ideaof the ~ystem Brahman. N8niitva. 5 Prapaiica.. impo the ear and o the eye. as most tersely expressed in the words of the Veda. incorporated in our body which has come into being and must in time be disintegrated. or the soul. is the identity of mdamentsl Brahman and the soul. "That art thou" (tat tvam mi1).10. with that in us which.OUTLINE OF THE VEDANTA SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY . fully and entirely. namely. 2 BA 17. m. 1ChU. .' a complex6 of names and by experience forms: and as a part of these. but it is. that is. we acknowledge as our own self. and "I am Brahman" (aham brahma m i a ) . a m ~ e r c q t i o t L 8 . 2 This assertion contradicts experience: which pre.

Karman. 'called avidyii or ~ ignorance. with its commands and prohibitions.'O and the Vedic ritual as well. On closer inquiry this innate avidyii is found to consist in the fact that the iitrnun. and 80 forth. * . and only a part of them. la Bhrlnti.2 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM 8. 4. namely. The converse of this avicEyii is knowledge (vidyii). as it is the result of our perceptiveand cognitive faculties. engaged in an endless round-of-rebirth: enter one body after another. the self. the assertions of which. the physical organs. and the deeds. its promises IgllorfAnce and and threats. the rest accompanying the soul in its transmigrations. These souls. (pratyqka). the body. the deeds9 done in each life necessarily determining the succeeding life and its quality. like apparitions in a dream. the soul. including immediate appreh& -- (anumiina). No less the fundamental assumption of the Vedanta system contradicts the canon of the Vedic ritual: this indeed assumes a sm-viva17 of the self beContradiction yond the body. These limiting conditions include the body. 10 Pramitna. that is. inference fi Mithyii-jfilna. are true only till one awakes. both rest on a false c o p i tion. 8 Samslra. is destroyed a t death. but i t also presupposes oi the Vedic ritual a multiplicity of individual souls discrete from Brahman." an innate i l l ~ i o n . is not able to distinguish itself from the upiidhis or limiting conditions with which it is invested. Experience. also called light cognition or universal 7 Vyatireka.

The entire Veda. that is. as we not very appropriately translate it). 18Karma-kii& and j?ii%na-kwda. Universal cognitionl"cannot be attained by means of worldly perceptive and cognitive frtculties. but "Vjamyag-darpna. Vediinta) or Upanishads. and only "seen" by the human authors. 17888 paragraph 4. including the gods.~ himself from the zpiidhis. The world.1' The source nor can i t be enjoined as a duty by the canon. and the Upanishads. cognitionwhichconvmgwf+omallsid~d to one point.are mere illusion l4or erroneous assumption. . The sole source of vidyii is rather revelation. and recognizes that the latter. the allembracing Brahman. including both Work-section and Knowledge-section. both its "Work-section and Knowledge-section. is of divine origin. passes away. the inspired sages or Rishis. litrrally. the B d m a q a s (theological expositions)." l8 the latter including several chapt e n scattered through the Mantras and Bramanas." whereas he himself is identical with the one and only one. p t i (or Y p t u r e . It was "breathed forthn by Brahman.INTRODUCTION 3 c o g n i t i ~ nby virtue of which the iitman distinguishes . By p t i is meant the Veda.of knowledge ical ordinances of the Veda. because both of these have their origin in avidyti and cannot lead beyond it. 5. resting on avidyii. the whole body of the Mantras (hymns and sacrificial formulas). and especially the concluding chapters of the Br~hmanas called the Veda-end ( Veda-anta.

gods. 1s Abhyudaya. men. and so forth. it survives the destruction of the universe and continues to exist in the soul of Brahman. in so far a . n Nihgeyasa. are created anew by Brahman a t the beginning of each world-cycle. animals. . In accordance with the word of the Veda which contains the eternal archetypes of all things. tha m m u m bonum. namely. a Tarka. the M&h&ata. the Knowledge-son." the one and only fruit of which is blessedness:' that is.4 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM the Veda is eternal. as the source of right cognition. they attempt to s interpret and supplement its revelation. ei the Lmbbook of Manu. nor yet through tradition or mfii. Not by reflectionas is right cognition to be attained." Both reflection and tradition can only in a secondary sense be considered the source of truth. The Veda is then revealed to them by the breath of Brahman. and so forth. The Work-section is revealed as a code of conduct having happinesslS its object. being based on the Veda. emancipation. Sm$i includsr the V d c Stitrar. Samyagdaqana. h Sdhkhya and Yoga ryatmM.

consequently. however. Brahman. 10 Karma-saqddhi. or perhaps in tha acecaading hirth. in heaven. 16 Riipe. distinguishes two forms16of Brah'Pmqa-artha. the higher6 and the lower7 knowledge. 1 Abhyudaya. 9 UpfisanH. The higher knowledge has for its object right cognition: and its one and only fruit is emancipation. 6 Puamaatman. as identief' c l with the highest Sl: namely. 1 Kramamukti. 3 SahsSra. then.CHAPTER I1 THEOLOGY 6. the cessation of the soul's transmigrafions. the lower knowledge does not aim at knowledge of Brahman. 6 Samyag4arqana. 18 Param brahma. The entire a ef content of vidyii is.'' 7. but a t his worship: and has as its fruit. two kinds of knowledge in reference to Brahman. success in undertaking~:~happiness. accordingto the grade of worship. 6 Para vidy8. The Veda. knowledge of the Jtmun or Brahman. the lower Brahman. 14 Aparam brahma. 7 AparH vidy8.18 of the lower knowledge.' but this emancipation of the soul fivm its Emterie snd transmigrations is brought about by the exoteric science recognition of the individual sl. a Mokp. There are.~ object of the l%e higher knowledge is the higher Brahman." and finally progressive ernancipati~n. . for the two concepts are interchangeable. THEsupreme aim of human beings1 is emancipation: that is. 'kman.

As the transparency of the crystal is not affected by the red colour. The imphition on Brahman of upiidhis is only an illusion. 16 Para. form. the limiting conditions or upiidhh. but becomes the lower Brahtween esoteric and exoteric man when ignoranceaS imposes on it.% formless. in essence." and limiting conditions. 18 Guna."= and so forth.a6 The esoteric Brahman is and unconditioned." It is "not gross and unknowable not subtile. and Difference belimitation." Brahman is without attributes. One and the same object cannot be with and without attributes. 2oAkfira. .* devoid of distinctions. so the essence of Brahman is not changed by the limiting conditions imposed upon it by avidyii. nirgqa. nNirupmi. % Nirgupa. forms. and the lower Brahman. 17 Apara. BA U.'~ forms. attributeless16Brahman . . it ascribes various attributes. without attributes. possessing attributes. the Veda teaches that Brahandexoteric Brahman man is devoid of all attributeql8 distinction~." T o the latter. Svatas. not short and not long. * Nirgkiira. l@ Viqesa.6 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM t man :the higher.. with and without form in itself. 8. difference. formless.i i 8 8 i. "not to be heard. sagqa. Avidy~. 9." As t o Esoteric the former. just as it is an illusion to look upon a crystal as red when it reflects a red colour. distinctions. and conditions. . 81 Upadhi. not to be touched. 26 Niniqep. The higher Brahman is. for the purpose of worship. for purposes of worship.

no imperishable. When questioned the second and the third time. 3. but it is not mentioned in the discussion of its essence. %. he 78plied. The Scriptures still further define the essence of Brahman by declaring that.6. i.The later Ve&nta attribute8 iinanda to Brahman as a third predicate undw the name %<id-iinanda. SoNeti.ii. i i 2. two attributes are not ascribed to Brahman. " I a m teaching y w indeed.17. but from the empirical point of view Brahman is rather the esoteric Brahman Non-Existent. a TS. ii. sr Ctiitanya. neti. i."" it is "not so and not form and no representation can express its essence. B A U . since both are identical. Silent is that Self. 3. It is therefore The Existent (Sot).= 10. The only thing that can be predicated of the attributeless Brahman is that i t is not non-existent. for the essence of being consists in intelli) gence. and B&va. but you do not undarstand. ml(thU. as a lump of salt has the taste of salt throughout. ." Ses Shankara on Vedtida S a r a . i. He said to him. the sage explained it to him by ailme." words and thoughts turn back from it without finding it .%In these bsertions." and became silent. "Learn Brahmun. 3 . answered the question regarding its essence by silence. in being. It is therefore "different from that which we know and from that which we do not know. Bliss ( E n ~ n d a is~ occasionally acknowledged as a predicate of the attributeless Brahman. perhaps because i t is considered a THEOLOGY " 31KU. 4. so Brahman is throughout pure intelligence. 0friend. that of intelligence.7 that is. the sage.15. 33 whm V a h k a l i bade Bcihva leach him Brahman.

In the consciousness that our inner Self is the attributeless Brahman. attri- * Aparam brahma. 12. 4. for the Scripture saith. Of Brahman alone can freedom from pain be predicated . which consists in the withdrawing the organs of sense from everything external.The higher Brahman is converted into the lower Brahman 58 by imposing upon i t pure sa or unThe exoteric surpassable 'O determinations. The lower BrahBrahman man is to be understood in all passages where the Scriptures ascribe any sort of determination. complete satisfaction. that is."w 11.8 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM merely negative quality. lies emancipation.4. however. 40 Nirati~aya.iii. Ata 'nyad Brtam. Viquddha. as freedom from pain. perceived by the sage in the state of samriidhna. " l that is different fi-om Al Brahman. it is impossible to cognize it. and in concentrating them upon one's own inner nature. because in every act of cognition it is the knowing subject and therefore never an object. n Antar-Btman. The impossibility of cognizing the attributeless Bl-ahrnan rests on the fact that Brahman is the inner Self in everything that exists. and in the accompanying conviction of the non-reality of the whole complex of names and forms. Brahman is. . -that is subject to pain. but. As such Intuitive cognition ofesoteric ~ r s h i t is more certain than anything else man aa Soul and cannot be denied by any one. BA U. on the other hand.

. or distinguishing feature to Brahman.&through worship of the lower Brahman./ tion. The nature of Brahman is as little changed by being thus determined (to use again the oft-cited simile) as the clearness of the crystal is affected by the colour by which it is tinged. but for purposes of worship." but happiness. as well as that of works which belong to the same category. leads to full cognition and hence t o complete emancipation.* chiefly in heaven. The elaborately developed conceptions of the lower Brahman may be divided into three groups according as it is conceived pantheistically as world-soul." and the fruit of this worship. Heavenly glory. form."' Complete emancipation is not its immediate result. psychologically as principle of the individual soul. is not emancipation. For i t is ignorance which determines the higher Brahman and thereby converts it into the lower Brahman. This is called progressive ernancipa. attained after death -by way of the Path of the Gods. or the sun by its reflections moving on the surface of a body of water.u however. This is done not for the sake of cognition. since the worshippers of the lower Brahman have not yet wholly burnt away their ignorance. but nevertheless limited to the round-of-rebirths or sa6zsiira. or t h e i s t i d y as a personal God.THEOLOGY 9 bute. or space by bodies burnt in it or moving in it.

all-wishing. 9. thus npaks qriy$ilya. 48 MuU. light is his form. allsmelling. embracing the universe.13. iii. ii. embracing the universe. smaller than a grain of harky.iii. greater than heaven. To this class. &-tasting world-soul (that is. silent. silent.1. belong such passages as repl-esent Brahman as the source of all light. Several of the most important of the passages that constitute the first group may here be mentioned. life is his body. the wind its breath. amallsr than a mustard seed. than all them worMs.1. the moon and sun are called its eyes. According to what his will is i n this world. The all-effecting. Now man is f d out of will. mChU. a h l l i n g . his thoughts are truth. v." This is the well-known doctrim of $'ci@lya i n the Chandogya-Upanishad. let him then seek (the good) will. all-wishing. unperturbed-this is myaelf i n the inner heart. his r e v is injinity. vi.49as the light beyond the heavens and in the heart.*and so forth. 14. greater than the sky. 14. 15.10 T H E V E D A N T A SYSTEM 13. silent. He who knows this haa no doubt.than a h l of rice. ii. PetU. iii. all-wishing. '@dfuU. the four quarters of the sky its ears. embracing the universe. all-smelling.i. 1. also. as the ether from which all creatures proceed:' and which differentiates names and forms. and breathing i n him (the Brahman). so he will be when he has dsparted. Spirit is his substance."" Again. n silence o m should think it ar i beginning.9. the principle of all action and sensuous perception). 14. ending. unperturbed-this is myself in the i n m heart. all-tasting. 62 " I t is the ether which expanda namss and forms: that wherein they fl" . this is the Brahman. greater than the earth. Brahman is called "allefThe exoteric Brahman ss fecting. 51ChU. When I ahall @art from here I shall enter into it. KtkU. as the vital principle Verily this unwerse is Brahman . A t ChU. amallsr than agrain of millet. a m a h . Thw v a b Cciy$ilya.10. unperturbed. men than a husbd grain of millet -this is m y a l j in the inner heart. all-taating.7. All-effecting.

8-9. heaven and earth stand apart. t o o t h h ( a human body). wither shadowy nor dark. what are called mi* utss and how's.others to the Wsst. 7. B y the command of that Impsrishabk.THEOLOGY 11 from which all creatures spring. May I . 0 Qcirgi. & 1. Frequently contrasted with the vast spatial extent which the preceding conceptions suggest are the minute both are u the Brahmcrn. B A U. mii. hours. &ii. not &ant. the fathers the libation for the dead. and days remain discrete. the glory of the h u e bandman. 0 Qcirgi. without m g w r and m'thout breath. ii. 0 G(Zrgi. without taste. B y the command of that Imperishabk. heaven and earth. I go forth to the hall of the Lord of Creaturen. 14." 14. it ohourr nothing and is ohowred by no om. It u d h e r coarse w &ti&?. To the glory I have attained.25.1. 0 Qci~gt. 0 Qcirgi. to hw house fthu world). finally as the world-destroyer who reabsorbs all created things." and in which the entire world moves trembling . without npeech. years. the go& follow the sacriu h d k . #cer. all rtand apart.1-9. month. years. nsitherwind w ether. or to any other quarter. without smsll+raithout eye and without ear. iii. the bridge which keeps these worlds asunder so that they are not confounded. the glory of the w a r r k s . B y the command of that Imperishabk. a Kth U. iii. . neither short w h g .5. minutes. . never go to tha gray. 0 Qcirgi. 11. I a m the glory of the Brahmans. seanone. the Self. Ch U. i." B A U . " Ch U. neither r8d (lika#re) w f i i d f l & a water).3. the Imtnortal. B y the command of that Imperinhabk. 59 ChU. that the Brcihmarpas call the Impsrishabla. and as the power by which sun and moon. days and nights. the glory of glory. rdthout mouth and without measure. B y the command of that Impermen praise the gsneroue. 54 Kth U. 57 "This it is. sicn and moon stand apart. & as the principle of the world-order. r nome atream flow to the East f m the ~nm-mountains. as the inward ruler. without in. 4. half-month. without u&standing. 9.or outer.

db as spectator.1. As such it abides in the citadel of the The exoteric Brahmanas body. smaller than a grain of millet. 67 also as the man in the eye. so Iqvara. 6 : iv.BA U. a as vital principle.Bpbut in the V&nta system it plays an important part. Just as rain devel6ps each plant from seed. 68 KthU. a Gvet u . 18. and on his grace lo depends that true knowledge which brings emancipation. 1 .1. MK8hu. b. v. 4. anugraha.1.1.99 .each after its ownkind. 70 PrasHda. a. 18. It must be borne in mind. i. WChU. as tall as a single span. 7 .12 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM dimensions attributed to Brahman as psychical principle. v.ii. P U . as Ruler. viii. however.@ as a individual mnl dwarf. '' or an inch. 5.@ Illustrations of this sort might be multiplied. decrees to souls both what they are to do and what they are to experience. 3. and making the conditions of the new life to proceed from these deeds. in the lotus of the head. On Tqvara's consent depends the round-of-rebirths.K t h U. M ChU.3.a as big as the point of an awl. that is. "MuU.in. 8 . v. in contrast to the world 61 h'th U. io. that the personification of Brahman as Taara. 16. iii. 8. WChU. i.K8hU.9and8. ChU. i i 14. These conceptions of the conditioned Brahman culminate in the conception of him as fqvara. In the Upanishads we find The exoteric this view comparatively seldom and less Brahmanaa personal Ood fully developed. Y SO . 4.18. as a personal God. 15. See I@. guided by the deeds done in the previous existence.in. 1.1.

ii. . 13. is confined to the empirical point of view. has in the strict sense no reality.n n BAU.THEOLOGY 13 over which he is to rule. based on ignorance. &. This view.

in. f f 3 ParamSvthaavasthq literally. but we are nevertheless constantly meeting with the assertion that this teadung of 1 Aparii and para vidy8. however. THE duality of teachings in theology. and. the empirical point of view: teaches the creation of the world by Brahman and the transmigration of souls invested with the wpZdhiS and thus made individual. general. as we shall see. since it is the necessary postulate of the aparii vidyii. and the other in' that of -points of view psychology. denying. denies all manifoldness. point o view o practical life.CHAPTER I11 COSMOLOGY 16. f f 2 . Greatly to the detriment of clearness and consistency. The second. The system is. to the latter its relative'justification. or being able to deny. literally. the metaphysical point of view. and in so doing denies not only the creation and existence of the world.3 maintains the identity of the soul and Brahman. but also individuality and transmigration of souls. treated from the metaphysical point of view to the neglect of the empirical. the creation of the world is treated a t length and in very realistic fashion in the cosmology. one view in the province Empirical and metapllyaicsl of cosmology. The first of these. In consequence of this. in eschatology. point o v i m o hyhert reality. corresponds to two different points of view. this distinction is not everywhere strictly observed in the cosmology and in the psychology. Vyavahiira-avasthii. without. of the eschatology.

and that this empirical metaphysics . however.The relation of mology and psychology. A t times. Also it inm to the metaphysical requires that the lower knowledge of the an. and that for this reason only has the conception of causality been substituted for that of identity. 17. the arguments of the empirical point of view apply to a part of the exposition only. a clear presentation of the empirical psychology is lacking.COSMOLOGY the Scriptures in regard to the creation is merely intended to enforce the doctrine of the Brahmanhood of the world. The consistency of the system requires that the higher knowledge in theology and eschatology. however. as. and is defended against the opposite empirical point of view presupposed in eschatology. for instance. the metaphysical doctrine gives way before the empirical. realism). Nevertheless. the metaphysical doctrine of the identity of . we may get a correct idea of this side of the system from the consideration of incidental and scattered remarks.empiricsl theology and eschatology should unite with point of view the empirical point of view of the cosmology and psychology to form a general presentation of metaphysics as it appears from the empirical point of view of avidya (that is. together with the metaphysical point of view in cos. In the psychology. should make one inseparable metaphysical system.Brahman and the world is maintained throughout. in maintaining the coming into being of souls. Since.

present world of n a w and f-. Thme w roms &nilarity with the Platonic idear.9. 6ChU. 3. He $lM with powerr." Brahman creates the world. The relation of t h e p e n to Brahman appear8 to be that they are immanent in him. ni. or destruction of the world. 14. The multipb factor muat a h br 6. all-ta~ting. i. 6 . as is repeatedly asserted." and so forth. iv. One particular power weaten and ordars the world a a a whole. without which he could not create or be the cawe of the begiming. are W i c a l with the mu%iplex deaeloped statee of thin latent power. 18.7 There is no mention either of the existence of Worldperiods the individual soul before the creation of the 4 Thw multiplicity of power8 appear8 to be k r e d t e n t with the om& p t m e of Brahman wprdued in acch rtatemcntr ar "all-effecting. The conatunt factor running through the y c k r of recreated worldr w due to thw p e r in Brahman. ii. 5 ChU. 9 . chiefly because."~ by is preference cited as a proof-text in favour of the doctrine of the lower Brahman. the pasrates such a multiplicity of creative faculties. prenmvatwn. "he is alleffecting. all-smelling. Particular rout%. a multiplicity of faculties is needed. indeed. w latent i n thw original p&er. B A U . is predicated only of the which enumelower Brahman.9. however. 4. it is plain that only the lower and not the higher Brahman can be conceived as the creator of the universe. and then enters i t through the individual soul.' Such a multiplicity. all-wiahimg.m.16 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM ( should constitute a system of popular religion for the use of all those who cannot rise to the point of view of identity. are inferred from the multiplicity of efech.7.him.n a w and forma. in undeaemd form. And. According to the Upanishads. These powers. TS.KahU. 0 1 Anena jivena &tman& - . all-wishing. for creation. Above all.

each cycle repeating itself not once. but no identity of Brahman and the soul. or of a creation periodically repeated. but no beginning nor persistence nor dissolution of the world. however. In the Vedata system these two doctrines are entirely separate. In the Vedinta system \' I . the empirical element. On the metaphysical side we have identity of the soul and Brahman. for the individual soul. a t the reabsorption of the world into Brahman exist potentially as germs in latent power. as well as the elements. and transmi. 4 The Souls. On the empirical side we have a creation of the universe.I grates. exists from eternity. but countless times through all eternity. with the upahis which make it individual. from one body to another for all eternity. The metaphysical element is the identity of the soul and Brahman. transformed into a periodical and alternating unfolding of the world from Brahman and reabsorption of the same into Brahman. In this new conception the original meaning of the doctrine of creation is entirely abandoned. the germs of the empirical and of the metaphysical doctrines of the Vediinta system lie side by side as yet undeveloped. and a t each new creation come forth from him unchanged. but in the form just indicated the dogma is retained because the Veda teaches it. In this conception.COSMOLOGY 17 world. 'fie doctrine of the creation of the universe is. except in case of emancipation. the unfolding of the world of sense.

by the upiidhis in which they are enveloped. in accordance with the authority of the Scriptures. a cycle which must repeat itself without ceasing and without changing the stability of the universe. as we shall see. Only the gross body is destroyed in death. 19. on a moral necessity. 8 Indriya. and also. and accompanies it in all its transmigrations. The transmigrating soul is also accompanied by the deeds. For the system demands the eternal existence of the world. .18 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM itself there is no motive for a creation of the universe. mukhya priina. and these prevent the round-of-rebirths from coming to an end. 10 Siiksma qarira. a multiplicity * beginning of individual souls. occasionally. which it has done during life. has existed as the investment of the soul from eternity. in a wider sense.-an existence depending. but rather for its existence from eternity. manas. These souls are distinguished from Brahman. for ' Shstlra. must be counted the psychical organs9 of the subtile body lo which supports them. the gross body and the external objects. with the psychical organs. we find a periodic creation and reabsorption. Among these upiidhis. The leading idea of the empirical cosmology and psychology is the existence fr'om eternity of the roundof. separately from Brahman.^ Without beginning there has exThe world is without isted. instead of this. the subtile body. with whom metaphysically they are identical. which together with the deeds adhere to the soul.rebirth^. ritual and moral.

since deeds of remarkable goodness or badness demand several successive births as an atonement. 3. good as well as bad. without be.22 .16." that is." it is "that which ations Ofthe is to be enjoyedn (bhogvja). to its katrtva or to its activity Nama-rtipa-prapdca. both of them corresponding necessarily and exactly to its "condition of being a doer. also without end.18 . 18 Kriyg-ktiraka-phala: see Shankma on i.ginning. "retribution of the deed the repeated crevisited upon the doer.nothing more than the fruit of deeds imposed"upon the soul. 3. Very good deeds produce existence as a god. very bad deeds produce existence as an animal or plant. . Even if in this life the soul should not act a t all. but in the form of a subsequent earthly existence. 4. from the gods down to plants. 1aAdhyZropita: ree Shankcrra on b. and this not only in another world. 20.in its essence.14: i 1 1 iii. The world is. and. Without deeds no human life is possible.i . This is the reason why the round-of-rebirths extends through all spheres of existence. demands in compensation reward or punishment. and "the doern (karlar).14.1. as the common forMoral necessity for mulaU runs. it would not thereby be preserved from subsequent rebirths. 1. unless the latent power of deeds is consumed by knowledge.2. whereas the soul in it is "the enjoyer" (bhoktar).COSMOLOGY 19 every deed. 3.The unfolding of the perceptible worldUis. hence no life is possible which is not followed by another as its atonement.

21. . 18 P@ivi. the all-penetrating elements visible space conceived as a very subtile matter) comes forth from Brahman first. and the latter demand for their atonement the repeated creation of the universe. The connecting link between the deeds and their fruit-the latter comprising action and suffering in the subsequent existence-is not an invisible power or a d ~ f t a deeds. 15 Vayu. 17 &as.20 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM t . For souls. q$i." who retributes action and suffering to the soul in the new birth. the iikiifa (the Inorganic nature : the ether. reaching beyond exisof tence. from fire comes wat r " from water comes e. but it is rather the Tpara. In this process the subsequent element is brought forth each time. or. together with their deeds. anna. according to the deeds done in the previous existence. tejas. in a latent state as germs. must be conceived as an "outpouring" or emanation. that is. a personification of Brahman valid only for the empirical point of view. from wind comes fire. although absorbed into Brahman. . We will now consider this process in detail. according to the meaning of this word. not by means of 14 See paragraph 15. A t the time of creation. From the ether comes wind. 16 Agni. or a t least not that alone.which. The recreation of the world after its absorption into Brahman depends each time upon the same necessity as the succession of rebirths. still persist.more correctly. in the previous existence. the unfolding of the elements from Brahman.

as they occur.~~ "deep sleepna1which is part of the illusion of empirical reality.f r . in the form of the subtile 19 A systematic exposition o thb theory of the blending o the element8 f f is not found in shankara'8 C m m n t a w on the B r a h d t r a s . through hearing and touch.and earth. . Cakti-iitmanii.organic tem which we are here considering.ot the pure original elements. fire into wind. but by Brahman in the form of the elements. The ether is perceived through the sense of hearing . that is. ether into Brahman. according to the Upanishads. but only later in the Vdintasara. are n.lg 22. through hearing and touch and sight and taste and smell.3. by means of individual souls. After Brahman has created the elements. 4. sight and taste . a t the dissolution of the world earth merges into water. he enters into them. The elements. which even after the dissolution of the world have persisted p ~ t e n t i a l l y awake from this . a1 Miiyiimayi mahiisusupti: see Shankura oni. but a mixture of them.COSMOLOGY 21 the elements themselves. In reverse order. the body of a god or a human being or an animal or a plant. through hearing ie and touch and sight . wind. each with a preponderance of one or the other. The process is as follows: the seed of the elements which souls carry with them in their transmigrations. however.water. the transmi. and receive. wind into ether. through hearing and touch . according to the sys. in accordance with their deeds in the previous existence. water into fire.nature: souls grating souls.

45. gross. urine and blood and p r i i v come from water.83which were all implicated" during the transmigration. a Sampindita.14.m and speech. a complex of elements. at the same time the psychid organs. In correspondence with this tripartite division. 3. There ir no tramition fiom bang to not-baing.= The body is "the complex of organs of activity built up of names and forms. The substanca milk is the same whethm i n the form of cur& or of butter or of ghea. and among them. the soul is the lord (sviirnin) of this complex. n Nha-Mpa-w-k&rya-karaqa-samghgta : see Shankma on ii. 1. unfold themselves.22 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM MY.as the cass may be. 1. 26 What happens to the organs of the swlr of phnta w not said. indriya. Sinaihrly. faeces and flesh and manas come from the earth. we must either admit an inconsisCaws and sfect are iohtical not only i n unulterabls substances. . and subtile. ws through the accretion of similar particles P proceeding from the gross elements to the g r O S 8 body. manas and prii7. middle. are distinguished. gross elements in our body r m i n unchanged i n substance when t h q become a part of the physical fiame.22. baby irnot diferent i n substance from the yoclth. manas. Certain parliclas of a permanent substancs become more or laso 80d o h $ . or the boy from the aged man. and also when the body is resolved again into ik elements. according to this system. but alro i n adstances which are perceived to change. The growth of the body arises from the elements of which three parts. Since. however. the soul has already brought its psychid organs with it. 23 Mukhya pr@a. ws may assume that thsy ~ m i implicated."86 it is. bones and marrow and speech come from fire. then.

from the gross body. explain why a soul does not stop migrating when it enters a plant. for instance. develops. and each incarnation serves See pa~agraph 91. . Death is the separation of the soul. together with its organs and with the subtile body. but only by a series of births. and those born alive. those sprung from moisture (insects). Procreation takes place as follows: the soul of the child entering the father through the medium of nourishment r e d n s in him only as a guest. According to their origin. organisms are divided into those sprung from germs (pl&ts). but is exactly predetermined by the quantity of deed9 to be expiated.COSMOLOGY 23 tency. The length of life is not a matter of chance. However. or else assume that the growing manas and prtirp and speech bear the same relation to the innate psychical organs of like name that the gross body does to the subtile one. the organism is destroyed. those born from an egg. just as the nature of the life is predetermined by their quality. there are deeds which cannot be expiated in one life. and the soul proceeds on its further migration. Since each plant is an incarnated soul. The evolution of these substances from nourishment is made possible by the fact that each t body contains all the original elements of nature. and passing over through the medium of sperma to the body of the mother. by the aid of her blood. Only such deeds. the subtile body into the gross body.

become powers ($Ai. they persist until the next dissolution of the world. 4. The Vdas are eternal.= Here our system goes further than the Veda. The ww$ " Indra" refers not to the individual. there I is nothing separate from Brahman. Theae speciea. the saying of Parmenidea. and the places of Indra and others may next time be filled by other souls.vi." 23. that is.= Although the life of the souls of plants and of animals and of human beings is of short duration. have been born as gods are deathless. but to a bears the particuhr poeition (stkina). T4 r d n ' 6vop' k ~ l v Ilaua pparol ~asCBevro.94. siimadheyam.19. . Then they too revert to the round-of-rebirth. those souls which. BA U. The gods are mortal. by reason of superior achievements in a brevious existence." so SO the whole unithe world from verse is in fact only Brahman. i8vcrps). whower hokb this #wn name. Compare . 1. and the speck. and apart the metaphysical mint or view from Brahman has no existence. the man$wtation a (vyakti). the system proceeds logically in attributing sensation to plants also. tha form (iikriti)." is "but a name. 1. The Vedas speak of the go&. C. rmotBbres dvac 81 Brahma-vyatirekeqa. Ch U. The Shankara on iii. but the oqjsets to which they refer are not the individual. a6See = Na iha nHnH asti kimcana.4.24 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM / the purpose of an expiation. The dbtinctbn i between the indiviohl. As a l clay vessels are in reality clay. W h y then are not thegods eternal? !i'hewords of the Vedas are eternal. and as the l conversion of clay into vessels. "depending on words Nonexistence or only. but the speciea. From them the won?& are recreated after a w o r ~ i s s o l u t i o n . Viiciirambhanam v i b . like Plato's EI&s.

and imposed upon the soul by ignorance.COSMOLOGY whole unfolding of names and forms.~ of view of ultimate reality % is created. 45 SV~-iitmani eva upasahhiira-kaanain. The whole world is only an illusion* which Brahman as magicianU / evokes" from himself. . The conception of avidyn \ 44 Avidy 5. in similar fashion." and is mere false supposition 58 which is to be ' disproved by complete cognition.39just as the illusion that a rope is a snake. The variety of actiond6during the persistence of the world. cognition. and by which he is no more affected than is the magician by the illusion which he hss produced. both rest on ignorance or false cognition. the earth absorbs creatures into itself.* the whole com45 plex of p h e n ~ m e n a when we regard i t from the point ' . or that a mirage is an expanse of water. or that the trunk of a tree is a man. Brahman is the cause of the persistence of the world just as the magician is the cause of the illusion which he produces. To use a variation of this simile. maintained. Brahman is made to appear multiplex* by ignoranceu just as is the magician by his magic. 47 Bheda%akti. and the variety of potential existence" before and after the world's phenomenal appearance. is disproved on closer examination and disappears. and he is the cause of the reabsorption of the world into himself 46 just as.% springs from false . Bheda-vyavahtira.

26 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM \ or mithyii j a n a bars the way to a l further investigal tion.e (satya) so long only as the dream lasts. d -_ * a Tattva. In general.nor yet to be &@rent (anya) from him. the names in al forms are tr. This idealism which we see first appearing in the Upanishads. the illusion (miigii). by maintaining that creation signifies only the identity 'O of the universe and of Brahman. We cannot answer the question which is innate in a l of us. that the world is the effect and that Brahman is the cause. sees two moons when in fact there is but one. the question.48 ~ike-visions a dream. the non-existence of the u n i v is a relati. through defective vision. 'I'G multlpler of-phendmeKthe u n i u e e of names and forms. . % and no longer true when the sleep comes to an end. the Vediinta tries to bring into agreement with the Vedic doctrine of creation. tiidztmya. 49Ananyatva. Whence arises this ignorance? l The deepest explanation lies perhaps in the oft-recurring simile of a man who. -a thesis for the proof of which the persistence of substance in changes of its qualities serves as chief argument. but that cause and effect are identical. n? ~ oe c "-\ only.yatviibhyiim aniwacaniya. cannot be said to be the same as Brahman (td). - 1 .

it is impossible for w to entertain the idea of it3 belng capable of refutation. 3. it is rather self-88tablished.CHAPTER IV PSYCHOLOGY 94.7. but not that which is the essential nature (of him who attempt3 ths 7% futation). but also i t cannot be disproved because even the denial implies an affirmation of it. Butjuat becawe it is the Self. where this view is not applicable." Thief m of the Cogito ergo sum G found in Shankara on Ve&ntu Szitra. our true self. comparable to the illureal sion of a dream. still there is one point in the universe. . The Self. the abods of the power which acts through the m a n e of right l t l e d g e . This point is our own soul. ALTHOUGH persuaded that all the complex of we are phenomena spread before us. a " I f the Self wore a moda@ation of a m t h i n g eke. The soul cannot be different from Brahman because there is nothing existing beyond Brahman. For the knowledge of the Self is not adventitious. ii. It is 1 & iitrnan. And to refute such a selfestablished entity w impossible.= What now is the nature of this sole basis of a l cerl tainty. it would be a w e efect. of our inner self? How is it related to Brahman who comprehends all existence in himself? %. are an illusion The soul alone resting on ignorance. A n adventitious thing may be refuted. is established p r d z l s l y to that knowledge. all names and forms of which the world is composed. for it is ths essential nature of him who refutes. not established by any so-called m a n e of right knmoledge.' This self cannot be demon-' strated because it is the presupposition of every demonstration. The heat of the f i e is not subluted by thejire itself. of the soul.

all-pervading Brahman. Caitanya.pure intelligence: so is the soul also. as we might say. Neither is it a part of Brahman. According-to this. 6 Kartar. or. like Brahman. Second. TO such attributes or upiidhk?. since Brahman Brahman has no parts. 27. that the soul while in the state of samsiira is not all-pervasive and omnipresent. 4 Vibhu. From this it follows that everything established in regard to the nature of the higher Brahman applies also to the soul.28 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM E ) I not. 26. . however. sarvagata. all-knowing and allpowerful. to be considered as a transformation of Brahman. mint of view which depend on false cognition only and which include a l physical existence. it follows that everything which is a t variance with this nature is merely "attributedn to the soul through The soul from theempirical ignorance. superspatial. omnipresent. As Brahman is in essence The soul from themetaphysi. There remains then only the assumption that the soul is identical with Brahman. and cal point of view to it apply equally all those negative predicates the object of which is to keep away from Brahman all determinations which could limit his being. neither acting = nor enjoying6 nor suffering. the following facts l are due. If this is the true nature of the soul. First. but dwells in the limited space of the mnas within the heart. that each one of us is himself the whole. immutable. 6 Bhoktar. indivisible. the soul is. because Brahman is unchangeThe soul identical with able.

the . together with all the things and relations of the external world. and by these latter qualities its entanglement in the aa7biira is necessitated. Second. there is added a fourth variable element which / l a . is not included: The gross body is resolved a t death into the elements. since through the upiidhis its original omniscience and omnipotence become latent. Third.Brahman into the individual soul together with the activities and sensations of the soul. for the deeds of one life must be requited by enjoyment and action in the next succeeding life. The action. The up6dhis consist of the following : First. To this permanent psychical equipment.riikpim ~arira. the soul becomes an actor and enjoyer. just as light and heat of the fire are latent in wood. . without beginning and without end. with which the soul remains endowed from eternity and until emancipation. and so on to infinity. requires in turn a new requital. that through its union with the upiidhi9.Among these upahis. the mukhya priina. again.cmitinp iting conditions (upiidhb) imposed upon it by conditions ignorance (avidya). 28. 41 . which convert .PSYCHOLOGY 29 that it is not all-knowing and all-powerful. the manas and the indriya. the gross body. This round-of-rebirth (8-. . which forms a part of that requital. Finally. rests wholly on the fact that the soul's true nature is hidden from i t by the lim.

perception and action. dwells the soul. 11 Karma-indriya. speaking.5. and in the mamas. moving. 10 . filling it entirely and in closest union. i. the manas. These are the indriya. smelling. These ten indriya.-the soul 8 Karana. the senses. hearing. the functions of these organs." grasping. The indriya permeate the whole body.3. which the soul puts forth as tentacles during life and at death draws back into itself. and five faculties relating to action. perish with death. We will now consider these upzdhis in detail. TDeha. are governed by a central organ. 99. 9 V@i. Corresponding t o these two sides. and touch . kitryekarana-saikighHta. BAU. "having the size of an awl's point. manasa gnoti. Jfiha-indriya. conceived as self-exisMind and tent essences. which are usuallydenoted by the names of the corresponding organs of the gross body. to be sundered only by emancipation. Upon these depend the two sides of conscious life." in the heart.'O seeing. Though the gross body7 and its organs: the eye. remain bound up with the Se-rBans soul for all time. but the manas dwells. which transforms into representations the data supplied by the perceptive facultiesn and effects the accomplishment of volitions through the faculties of action. hands. ear. and so forth. tasting. generating and voiding. feet. It consequently represents both what we call understanding and what we call conscious will. UManasii hi eva wyati. the soul has five perceptive faculties.SO THE VEDANTA SYSTEM we may call the moral qualification.

still denotes "breath in the mouth. it remains in its real essence u n t o u ~ h e d . indriya and mukhya prrZna leave the body. ~ 30. so &nu causes its end by leading the soul out of the body a t death through one of the one hundred and one principal veins. being plunged into the activities of daily life. Along with the soul the . apiina inspiration.PSYCHOLOGY 31 which only through the organs to which it is bound by ignorance becomes actor and enjoyer. vylna. ." so that in spite of its . which in the Upanishads. ananviigata." As the nunas and the indriya are functions of perception and action hypostasized as special entities. Vyiim is that which maintains life while breathing is momentarily suspended. 14 SBk$i. is a hypostasis of the physical life itself which is regulated through this mukhya p r i i ~ its five branches. Less closely than to the manas and the indriya. sam-na. 16 Asanga. samiEna is the digestive principle. on which they all depend. aplm. so the rnukhya priiqa. p r i i q regulates expiration. manas. the soul seems to be attached to the mukhya pii?2a. but itself stands aloof from all the activity of the organs as pure perc e p t i ~ n a~passive spectator. and just as these four cause the persistence of life. a term. priipz. As during life they are the forces which govern the organs of the body. Of these." whereas in the Vedanta system princlvle it has come to mean "the chief breath of life. in udiim. so after the'death of the body they are the Upalabdhi.

so i t carries the germ of the body itself in the fik~lna farira. Karma-Hqraya. 21 Bhfita-Bqraya. 39. 31. and which appears always unchangeable. As the soul carries with it the germ of the physical organs in the indriya. silksma prira.8l that is. lQManas. A contrary interpretation is given in Vedcinta-ucira. as it is deSubtile body scribed more explicitly by Shankara. in h u commsnt on iii. 17 Tanutva. Besides the physical substrate.ther. h i i . According to Shunkara. the subtile body. 16 Svacchatva. escorting the soul in its migration. there is attached furThe moral ~uali. To the psychical organism lg which adheres to the soul at all times in life and in death. mukhya-prea. This is the moral qualification consisting in the store of deeds " collected during life. .17but also transparency . this goes out with the soul as a moral substratea4 16Deha-bijihi bhfita-submihi. The subtile body composed of them possesses materiality.32 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM germ from which a t each new birth the organs of the body grow anew. "the (mkv yarcra) subtile parts of the elements forming the germ of the body.'"' How these subtile parts of the elements are related to the gross body is not more definitely determined. Karma-&caya.indriya. 1. The coldness of the dead body arises from the fact that the subtile body has left i t a t the same time as the other organs. From it is derived animal warmth. a flcation variable upiidhi. the elenzsnts already mixed are meant. or.2. t o accompany the soul in its transmigrations. hence it is not seen l8 in the soul's migration.

rules the whole body. having come to rest. which in union with the Special m w dwells in the heart. and thence enter the mukhya priiyx. enter the veins or the pericardium. the soul. the m a w and indriya. and death. the soul is Brahman. the activity of which continues even in deep sleep. and the soul. the soul goes forth from this temporary identification with Brahman with all its individual limitations. apart from the upiidhis. There are four states of the migratory soul: waking. In dreaming. On waking." In deep sleep the connection of the soul with the m a w is broken. thus temporarily freed from all these upiidhid. In the waking state. states perceiving and acting through the medium of themu' the m a w and the indriya. The soul. enters by means of the ether of the heart into Brahman. 38. dreaming. Since.PSYCHOLOGY 33 and absolutely conditions the future existence in enjoyment and suffering as well as in action. - I . but the m a w still remains active. this entrance into Brahman is merely another expression of complete emancipation from the zqiidhk. exactly as it was before. and while doing so sees dream-pictures built up of waking impressions. circulates by means of the veins in the body. a state of deep sleep. the i d y a ai-e at rest. surrounded by the m a w and the indriya which have entered the m a w .

35. The stations on this road Departure of the so111 ftom body . the point of the heart becomes luminous in such wise as to light up the path. and the udiina escoi-ts the soul with the zpiidhis from the body. remains shut out from both these paths. as we shall see. from the body of the ignorant. the mukhya priiqx enters the soul to which is adhering the moral qualification. the indriya first enter the manas. the soul goes through the artery of the head. The path of the fathers. h m the body of those possessing the lower knowledge. upon the path of the gods (devayiina).he who is without knowledge and without pious works. but who have done Destiny of . the doer of good deeds. the m a w then enters the rnukhya priiqa. does not go out at all. that is. Beginning a t this point. the man possessing the lower knowledge. the bad man. AT death. the soul then enters the sfikpna garira.CHAPTER V MIGRATION OF THE SOUL 34. leads the soul in compensation pious works up to the moon. The soul of a person possessing the higher knowledge. l'he performer of pious works goes upon the path of the fathers (pitryiina). which is destined for those who possess neither the higher nor the lower knowledge of Brahman. it goes through the hundred other principal veins of the body. the paths divide. After all these have come together in the heart.

since Shankara in one place refers Destiny of the to a punishment in the seven hells of Yams. However. the womb. only a portion of deeds are thus rewarded by enjoyment on the moon.MIGRATION OF THE SOUL 35 are as follows: smoke. clouds. 36. After all the deeds which find their recompense on the moon are consumed. In which category any particular deed is to be classed is not made clear. to the "third place" in which the thud place these souls are born as lower animals. the soul descends again." and finds its recompense in the succeeding birth. This intercourse lasts till the deeds are consumed. Finally. the part of the month in which the moon wanes. wicked. Although the wicked are excluded from life on the moon. The wicked. Their fate is not clearly traced. rain. the world of the fathew. and must be distinguished from the elements and souls through which it passes. the ether. the moon. another portion is left over as a remainder. do not ascend to the moon. As stations on the return there are named: ether. smoke. who have neither knowledge nor deeds. it comes forth to another life on earth. night. after i t has arrived in the womb corresponding to its deeds. the speima. plants. Hell and in another. the part of the year in which the days shorten. In the heaven of the moon the souls enjoy intercourse with the gods as reward for their deeds. At all these stations the soul remains only temporarily. not a l souls l . wind.

lower. and in K. These possessors of the lower knowledge.go after death by the path of the gods into the lower Brahman. conditioned Brahman ir apara saguga. A reduction of these statements to a consistent whole. and accordingly know Brahman. must be distinguished those who adhere to the doctrine Destiny of pious worshippers of of Brahman. . is not made in the work of Shankara. which could easily have been brought about by distinguishing different grades in the good and bad deeds to be atoned for. owing to bad conduct. Shankara interweaves them into a whole. According to the m d o g y a Upanishad ' the following regions are traversed by the soul of the man possessing 8 See paragraph 4 Lower 35. but others. From those who perform religious works8 prescribed in the old Vedic sacrificial cult.' that is. conditioned Brahman. enter the bodies of Caqtjdas and animals.36 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM - which return from there obtain a happy life. Some. owing to good conduct. but nevertheless cannot raise Brahman themselves to a right knowledge of the dogma of identity. 37. not as their own soul. knmkdge is apara vidyti. worshippers of the lower. but as a god different from themselves whom they worship. all. 6 With variations m BA U. are destined to be born again in one of the three higher castes. with the exception of those who have worshipped him under a symbol (pratika).hU. The stations of this path are differently designated in the different accounts.

later. the part of the month in which the moon waxes. the day. the lightning. the moon.O the sun. is doubtful. ii@varya. a h r its entrance into the lightning. by Brahman is here meant the lower. The guides of the soul hitherto mentioned are to be understood as divine but anthropomorphic be&gs. everth he less. conditioned Brahman who has been born himself and hence. and including the fulfilment of every wish. Although for souls 6 7 Purugo As variants: devaloka or viiyuloka. the part of the year in which the days lengthen. 'rngnavah. In the world of this Brahman souls enjoy sovereignty. the year. but as guides which it needs because i t cannot use its own organs. and Prajiipatiloka into Brahman. at the dissolution of the universe. These stations are not to be considered either as signposts or as places of enjoyment for the soul.MIGRATION OF THE SOUL 37 the lower knowledge after it has passed out of the body through the artery of the head: the flames of the fire. which also accompany them.which consists in an omnipotence like that of a god though restricted to fixed limits. the soul is received by a "man who is not like a human being. and they divide themselves among these bodies by means of a division of their upiidhis. . 8 Kgrya. Among their sovereign powers belongs the ability to animate several bodies at once. The manas serves as medium of enjoyment."' and by him is escorted through ~aru&lok+Indraloka. Whether souls also make use of the indriyas. however. perishes. which are in an enveloped condition.

it is performed in progression. or gradual emancipation.38 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM which have entered the lower Brahman by the devayanu. they enter with him into "eternal and absolute n i r v i i ~ . still Scripture says of them: "for such there is no return. this iZ+varya is finite and lasts only till the dissolution of the universe. and that a t the end of the world. when the lower Brahman also perishes. which is reached even here on earth. Opposed to this stands the immediate emancipation of the knowing one." We must therefore suppose that in the world of Brahman the higher knowledge of the s h y a g . - . " This entranceis calledprogressive emancipation (k~amamukti).h r f a m is revealed to them. because it is obtained by the intermediate grades of heavenly sovereignty. and which we have next t o consider.

I G 3. 0 Mighty One. 4. " Ch U.1-3. I t u the abode of that Self which ia immartul and tcnembodisd. mii. whereas the &man. mtera the highest light. This thought finds occasional expression in the Veda as well as in the system under consideration: but i t is not proclaimed with so much emphasis as we should expect.KthU. good as well 1 . That is the eupreme soul (uttama purusah). But the disembodied neither p h r e nor pain afect. the soul. 3 Mokga. and the thundsr are duembodisd. is an emancipationg from the bonds' of existence possible? Not by works: for these.aleoiii. ia thia body and always beret by death. The d o d i e d is beast by p h r s and pain. a p p e u ~in their own form ad soon ad they have approached the h i g h t light. the o the lightning. N w ad t h e . c h i d . THE question of the possibility of emancipation from individual existence. as bad. 4 Bandha. whose emancipation is con1 " Theee worldr I are i n sooth p h r e l c r o " (anand&niima te lokah): seeBAU. 3"Mortal m l y . necessitate accordingly a .9. . ' . 12. How.11. not yet by (moral) purification: for this can take place only in an object capable of change. and are the cause of the continuance of the aariwiira. w. new existence. So long ad he ia d o d i s d . Dieembodied ie the ununnd. no repulsion of ple-re and of pain ia p o d b . demand their requital. i 1 . so this compbte satisfaction (of the Self i n emancipation) a&w out of this body. a d n g from the heuvenly gpaee. 6 !hbkiira. and appears in its own form. 3 . then.CHAPTER VI EMANCIPATION 38. presupposes the pessimistic comes *om knowledge view that all individual existence is an evil. which serves a the keystone q of the Vedanta as of other Indian systems Emsncipstion of philosophy. 4.

since the 'JJJilniin m o w . 9 BA 17. 4."@i t cannot.4. but only in the recognition of something already real. 1OSee paragraph 15. dividual soul on recognizing its identity with Brahman becomes by that concept the universal spirit. knowledge of it cannot be obtained a t will. is nothing else than the knowing subject in us.PO THE VEDANTA SYSTEM \ I cerned. "ne'er canst thou see the seer of God of seeing. still concealed through ignorance. " From knowledge comes emancipation. depends consequently on the atman itself. . 7 !i'he raying is "that art thou. in the knowledge of which emancipation consists. 1. . be placed before us and examined. For this reason it is not knowable by Knowledge by the m e the senses." not "that shalt thou be. Hence in the lower knowledge. i. like an object.32. in. i. is unchangeable.9." When once the soul knows its identity with Brahman. which opposes the iitman to our own self as a pek30nal god and worships it. whether it manifests itself to us. Whether the iitman is known or not depends. In the higher knowledge. " S e Shane kara. lo knowledge appears as the grace of God. as does the perception of every object. but merely serves to remove obstacles. i i 3. and even searching in the Scripture is not enough to attain this knowledge. on one fad. Emancipation therefore cannot consist in any development or in any activity.' The in. this knowledge is emancipation. The iitmn. 8 See Shankara." 39.

patient endurance.EMANCIPATION 41 iitnuun is in reality not an object. it is true. tranquillity. but merely a negative value in the scheme of ~ a l v a t i o nThey can. renunciation. commonly enumerated in the instruction of the scbools. do not have a positive. two other means serve in a general way to promote knowledge: works and meditation.'4 and faith. Works. renunciation of the enjoyment of reward here and hereafter. From the man who enters upon Aids to the the pursuit of the higher knowledge there is attainment of knowledge demanded study of the Veda and the four requisites :distinguishing between eternal and perishable substance. religious practice recognizes certain meansU by which knowledge of the I h n may be promoted. Among such barriers are enumerated various emotional disturbances. Besides these requisites. the cause of its knowledge is not firther explicable. control of passions. . but they aid in acquiring it by destroying the barriers standing in the way of its acquisition. concentration . M. hate. attainment of the six means. longing for emancipation. The works which serve as a means in the acquisition of knowledge are useful partly in a remoter l5 and partly in a closer16 sense." such as passionate love. The six means are. and so forth.In spite of this. As remoter means are enumerated.~ not create knowledge.

On the other hand.9 18BA U.iv. penance. but sitting. the words tat tvam a. Meditation practised in the lower knowledge must be carried on not standing or lying. since the thoughts a t the hour of death are of importance in shaping the destiny beyond. In distinction from these. 17 BA U. It consists in devout contemplation of words of Scripture.SYSTEM study of the Veda. nor is it so for the performance of works.42 THE VEDANTA . . are to be continued till death. control of the passions. as well as those practised in the lower knowledge. . is to be re& peated until knowledge appears as its fruit. For meditation in the service of the higher knowledge the position of the body is of no importance. meditations which are connected with works. and. tranquillity of spirit. These are. like the process of threshing. 4.18 Besides works. For this result a longer or a shorter time is required according as a person is subject to mental dullness or doubt. and composedness. 19 Upaanii.23. pious meditationl9 serves as a means of acquiring knowledge. almsgiving. patience. the closer means are to be continued even after the attainment of knowledge. 49. and fasting.iv. renunciation. for example. 41. After the acquisition of the higher knowledge meditation is no longer needed since i t has attained its end. sacrifice. Knowledge consists in the immediate perception" "Anubhava." These are to be pursued only till knowledge is attained.

oia11 duties He will not. hence the man possessing knowledge is as little moved by pain in his own body as by that of another. For the man who has attained to this perception. this Brahman am I."81With the recognition of the non-reality of being an actor. as I once thought him. therefore neither was I formerly an actor and enjoyer. on that account.EMANCIPATION 43 of the identity of the soul with Brahman. moreover.13. instead of being in essence an actor and enjoyer. This annihilation. . 1. As for the man possessing knowledge there is no longer any world.do evil. and he who still feels pain has not yet attained perfect knowledge. or any pain. since both require requital and both cease to exist when the snrizsiira ceases. nor am I now. a non-actor and a non-enjoyer. which exists as the fruit of action. deeds past deeds are annihilated. has reference to good as well as to bad deeds. and with Annihilait to the conviction of the non-reality of the tion or phenomenal world and of the round-of-rebirth. so there Abolition are no longer any rules to direct his action. The man possessing knowledge has arrived a t the following judgement: "The Brahman who. is in truth in all the past. any body. for in him has been destroyed that illusion which is the pren See Shankara on k. 4%. nor shall I ever be. is recognized also the non-reality of one's own body. To him in the future deeds no longer cling. and the future. the present.however.

have been destroyed by za xiii. .44 THE VEDANTA SYSTEM ' liminary to all action good and bad alike. namely. When the deeds whose fruit has not yet begun to foim. Still this persistence is a mere illusion of which the enlightened Sage cannot. but by which on the other hand he can no longer be deceived. Opportune as it would have been to derive positive moral conduct from the condition just described of the man who knows himself to be the soul of the universe. 97-98. Knowledge consumes the seed of deeds. 46. since his acts do not belong to him and do not cling to him any longer. but knows that in fact there is only one. For this reason the body persist. so that there is no material left for another birth. just as the potter's wheel continues to turn after the vessel is completed." yet Shankara does not touch this question. indeed. and when those whose fruit is the Absorption into Brahman present existence. Likewise the man with defective vision sees two moons. those emancipated bodies which determine the present course of life. 44. Whether he continues to act a t all is unimportant. On the other hand. rid himself. for a time even after the awakening" has been accomplished.conduct expressing itself in works of justice and charity.-and though such a conduct may be derived from the Bhagavadgitii. 2s Prabodha. knowledge cannot destroy deeds whose cause of the persistence of seed has already sprung up.

then." As rivers run. the all-embracing S p i d . So names and forms the Enlightened Sage renouncing Enters great Brahman. THE END . and in Brahman is he merged. complete and ete~nalemancipation begins for the enlightened sage: "his vital spirits do not depart. at the moment of death. and in the ocean Renouncing name and font fm vision vanish. but he is Brahman.EMANCIPATION 45 knowledge.

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