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The Talbot effect is a near-field diffraction effect first observed in 1836 by Henry Fox Talbot. When a plane wave is incident upon a periodic diffraction grating, the image of the grating is repeated at regular distances away from the grating plane. The regular distance is called the Talbot length, and the repeated images are called self images or Talbot images. Furthermore, at half the Talbot length, a self image also occurs, but phase-shifted by half a period (the physical meaning of this is that it is laterally shifted by half the width of the grating period). At smaller regular fractions of the Talbot length, sub-images can also be observed. At one quarter of the Talbot length, the self image is halved in size, and appears with half the period of the grating (thus twice as many images are seen). At one eighth of the Talbot length, the period and size of the images is halved again, and so forth creating a fractal pattern of sub images with ever decreasing size, often referred to as a Talbot carpet. Lord Rayleigh showed that the Talbot effect was a natural consequence of Fresnel diffraction and that the Talbot length can be found by the following formula:
The optical Talbot Effect for monochromatic light, shown as a "Talbot Carpet". At the bottom of the figure the light can be seen diffracting through a grating, and this exact pattern is reproduced at the top of the picture (one Talbot Length away from the grating). Halfway down you see the image shifted to the side, and at regular fractions of the Talbot Length the sub-images are clearly seen.
is the period of the diffraction grating and
is the wavelength of the light incident on the grating.
The atomic Talbot effect
Due to the quantum mechanical wave nature of particles, diffraction effects have also been observed with atoms—effects which are similar to those in the case of light. Chapman et al. carried out an experiment in which a collimated beam of sodium atoms was passed through two diffraction gratings (the second used as a mask) to observe the Talbot effect and measure the Talbot length. The beam had a mean velocity of 1000 m/s corresponding to a de Broglie wavelength of = 0.017 nm. Their experiment was performed with 200 and 300 nm gratings which yielded Talbot lengths of 4.7 and 10.6 mm respectively. This showed that for an atomic beam of constant velocity, by using , the atomic Talbot length can be found in the same manner.
Ekstrom. Bibcode 1995PhRvA.physics..  http:/ / www. Mathias. David E. Deachapunya. html External links • Talbot's 1836 paper via Google Books (http://books. IV..google.edu/~cronin/Research/Lab/ wildthesis2. Wehinger...Talbot effect 2 Trivia The Nature Physics website has a Talbot carpet in its header. Markus (2009).. Christopher R. 9  Case. Jörg. Bridget E.1364/OE. Tannian. Stefan. "Near-field imaging of atom diffraction gratings: The atomic Talbot effect".pdf) .020966. Michael S. 17 (23): 20966–20974. Sarayut. Arndt. Mag. 11  Chapman.R14.  Lord Rayleigh 1881 "On copying diffraction gratings and on some phenomenon connected therewith" Philos. Talbot 1836 "Facts relating to optical science" No. (1995).google... Schmiedmayer. Mag. Pritchard. nature.1103/PhysRevA. "Realization of optical carpets in the Talbot and Talbot-Lau configurations". doi:10.arizona.com/books?id=O5EOAAAAIAAJ& dq=philosophical magazine rayleigh 1881 diffraction gratings&pg=PA196#v=onepage&q&f=false) • Undergraduate thesis by Rob Wild (PDF) (http://www.com/books?id=ewBbAAAAQAAJ&dq=1836 philosophical magazine&pg=PA401#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Raleigh's 1881 paper via Google Books (http://books. Hammond. com/ nphys/ index. Physical Review A 51 (1): R14–R17. Exp.51. Troy D. William B. Opt. F.17.14C. References  H. doi:10. Tomandl.51. Philos..
he made some important early photographs of Oxford. Talbot is also remembered as the holder of a patent which. England Inventor Inventing of the calotype process Constance Talbot Ela (1836-1893) Rosamond (1837-1906) William Davenport Talbot Elisabeth Fox Strangways Died Occupation Known for Spouse(s) Children Parents Henry Fox Talbot (11 February 1800 – 17 September 1877) was a British inventor and photography pioneer who invented the calotype process. Additionally. many of them on mathematical subjects. Talbot was also a noted photographer who made major contributions to the development of photography as an artistic medium. 1864. some say. and graduated as twelfth wrangler in 1821. His work in the 1840s on photo-mechanical reproduction led to the creation of the photoglyphic engraving process. From 1822 to 1872. affected the early development of commercial photography in Britain. the precursor to photogravure. where he was awarded the Porson prize in Classics in 1820. Born 11 February 1800 Melbury. Cambridge. he had begun his optical researches. near Chippenham. Reading. To the Edinburgh Journal of Science in 1826 he contributed a . daughter of the 2nd Earl of Ilchester. Harrow School and at Trinity College. a precursor to photographic processes of the 19th and 20th centuries. Dorset. and of Lady Elisabeth Fox Strangways. which were to have such important results in connection with photography. Early life Talbot was the only child of William Davenport Talbot. Talbot was educated at Rottingdean. of Lacock Abbey. he frequently communicated papers to the Royal Society. by John Moffat. At an early period. England 17 September 1877 (aged 77) Lacock.Henry Fox Talbot 3 Henry Fox Talbot Henry Fox Talbot Henry Fox Talbot. Wiltshire. Paris. Wiltshire. and York.
" 4 Invention of calotype process Talbot said he engaged his photographic experiments beginning in early 1834. but later he lowered the fee to £4 and waived the payment for those who wished to use the process only as amateurs. especially after 1851 when Frederick Scott Archer publicized the collodion process. and to the Philosophical Magazine a number of papers on chemical subjects. he was selling individual patent licences for £20 each. One reason Talbot patented the calotype was that he had spent many thousands of pounds on the development of the calotype process over several years. Talbot obtained a patent for the calotype process. Daguerre would not reveal the manipulatory details of his process until August. Talbot licensed Henry Collen. In a business climate where many patent holders were attacked for enforcing their rights. he freely communicated the technical details of his photogenic drawing process to the Royal Society. although the daguerreotype . At first. declared his invention "free to the world". Talbot announced his discovery of the calotype. Talbot's original contributions included the concept of a negative from which many positive prints can be made (although the terms negative and positive were coined by Herschel). Talbot showed his five-year-old pictures at the Royal Institution on 25 January 1839. including one on "Chemical Changes of Colour. however. c. the miniature painter (1798–1879) as the first professional calotypist. In 1842. Daguerre's agent in England applied for a British patent a matter of days before France. when Louis Daguerre exhibited his pictures taken by the sun. This process reflected the work of many predecessors. he received the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society. or talbotype. After Daguerre's discovery was announced (without details). In 1841.Henry Fox Talbot paper on "Some Experiments on Coloured Flame". to the Quarterly Journal of Science in 1827 a paper on "Monochromatic Light". for his photographic discoveries detailed in his The Pencil of Nature (1844). most notably John Herschel and Thomas Wedgwood. Talbot's Miss Horatia Feilding. having granted Daguerre a pension. and the use of gallic acid for developing the latent image. Talbot declared that anyone using Archer's process would still be liable to get a license for calotype. Professional photographers. Within a fortnight. half sister of Talbot playing the harp. had to pay up to £300 annually. It is also significant that. In February 1841. Great Britain therefore became the only country where the payment of license fees was required to use the Daguerre process. process. In August 1841. 1842 behaviour was widely criticized. Latticed window in Lacock Abbey in 1835 by Talbot is a print from the oldest photographic negative in existence Patenting controversy The work on the Daguerre process was taking place at the same time as that of Talbot's work in England on the calotype process. well before 1839.
the daguerreotype was an opaque direct positive that could only be reproduced by copying it with a camera. This reduced the minimum exposure time in the camera from over an hour to only a minute or two. The problem was resolved in 1851 (the year of Daguerre's death) when the wet collodion process enabled glass to be used as a support. One person who tried to use the daguerreotype as a method of reproduction without Talbot's process was Levett Landon Boscawen Ibbetson. the President of the Royal Society. The calotype or talbotype (he used these names interchangeably) was Talbot's improvement of his earlier photogenic drawing process by the use of a different silver salt (silver iodide instead of silver chloride) and a developing agent (gallic acid and silver nitrate) to bring out a latent image on the exposed paper. The wet collodion negative not only brought about the end of the calotype in commercial use." By 1852. In August 1852. c. were created. having filed several lawsuits. But as good as Ibbetson's attempts were at producing something like a lithograph from the original daguerrotype. despite waxing of the negative to make the image clearer. The daguerreotype was rarely used by photographers after 1860 and had died as a commercial process by 1865. as a similar process was invented earlier by Joseph Reade. against a photographer Martin Laroche. Laroche case was the pivotal point of the story. and Charles Lock Eastlake. At that time one of his lawsuits. the lack of detail often found in calotype negatives was removed. the calotype. Disappointed by the outcome. Talbot applied for an extension of the 14-year patent. Ibbetson began experimenting with Talbot's calotype. . Daguerre secured a British patent on his own process. the end result could not compete with Talbot's process. Capt. the president of the Royal Academy. called "Le Premier Livre Imprimè par le Soleil" at a London Society of Arts exhibition. The Talbot v. because of significant differences between the two processes. and sharp images. In the verdict. the jury upheld the calotype patent but agreed that Laroche was not infringing upon it by using the collodion process. and that using the collodion process does not infringe the calotype patent anyway. still was not pin sharp like the metallic daguerreotype. Talbot agreed to waive licensing fees for amateurs.Henry Fox Talbot 5 process was supposed to be free to the world. The translucent calotype negative made it possible to produce as many positive prints as desired by simple contact printing. but he continued to pursue professional portrait photographers. but also spelled the end of the daguerreotype as a common process for portraiture. similar in detail to the daguerreotype. Ibbetson was showing his book using the Talbot calotype process. In 1854. Reading. They were simply too London Street. as the paper fibres degraded the image produced. On the other hand. In his response. was heard by the court. Talbot chose not to extend his patent. Talbot's negative/positive process eventually succeeded as the basis for almost all 19th and 20th century photography. Laroche's side argued that the patent was invalid. and in 1842 wrote to Talbot "I have been going on with experiments in the Callotype & have had some very good results as to depth of Colour. 1845 expensive. who called on Talbot to relieve his 1853 photo by Talbot patent pressure that was perceived as stifling the development of photography. The Times published an open letter by Lord Rosse.
2010-04-05. uk/ detailexhibition. Reading. he devoted much time to archaeology. Fox Talbot family grave in Lacock village churchyard In 1843-44. A. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=TLBT817WH& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". He served as Member of Parliament for Chippenham between 1832 and 1835 when he retired from Parliament. • Who's Who of Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832-1885. shtml) BBC  Having been elected to the Royal Society in 1850. Retrieved 2012-04-18. php?bcode=Ibbe-LL& pageNumber=0& pageTotal=2& referringPage=0)... dmu.  "Levett Ibbetson's correspondence with Talbot" (http:/ / foxtalbot.1877) (http:/ / www. Venn. co. eds.dmu.). With Sir Henry Rawlinson and Dr Edward Hincks he shares the honour of having been one of the first decipherers of the cuneiform inscriptions of Nineveh. Foxtalbot. uk/ cgi-bin/ search.com. edited by Michael Stenton (The Harvester Press 1976) References  Hugh Murray. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. he set up an establishment in Baker Street. Peib. Retrieved 2012-04-18. Nathaniel Whittock's bird's-eye view of the City of York in the 1850s  Venn. com/ books?id=9HeIBvQ_YvEC& pg=PA56& lpg=PA56& dq=levett+ landon+ boscawen+ ibbetson"& source=web& ots=zyVYRStPjo& sig=iu-0Vj_imIrVSd5xIB5UF_qNf-s& hl=en).). 1845) Salt print from calotype negative | 8x9 in.google. Patent 5171 (http:/ / www. He published Hermes. " Talbot. The Reading Establishment (as it was known) also produced prints from other calotypist's negatives and even produced portraits and copy prints at the studio.ac.S. bbc. ac. He was also the author of English Etymologies (1846). Books. Cambridge University Press. ac. and Illustrations of the Antiquity of the Book of Genesis (1839). being a moderate Reformer who generally supported the Whig Ministers. for the purpose of mass producing salted paper prints from his calotype negatives. uk/ history/ historic_figures/ fox_talbot_william_henry. lib. .uk.dmu. php?exbtnid=1009& inum=757& listLength=784& orderBy=exhibitnum).Historic Figures: William Henry Fox Talbot (1800 .  Ann Thomas ''Beauty of Another Order:Photography in Science'' 1997 Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-07340-2 (http:/ / books.  "Record of Ibbetson's show" (http:/ / peib. google. He died in Lacock village aged 77. .uk. William Henry Fox (http:/ / venn. J. Hugh. Retrieved 2012-04-18.History . Works Loch Katrine (cir. ac. He also held the office of High Sheriff of Wiltshire in 1840. dmu. Birmingham Museum of Art Notes • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. . Cambridge University Press. com/ patents?id=pIpDAAAAEBAJ) . ed.  U. and is buried there along with his wife and children.  BBC . (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. (1922–1958). google. or Classical and Antiquarian Researches (1838–39). J.ac. Whilst engaged in his scientific researches. cam. uk/ letters/ transcriptName. Ibbetson was well regarded in the scientific community. 2004-09-30.Henry Fox Talbot 6 Other activities Talbot was active in politics.
co.uk/talbot/t_or_ft. Mass. Dictionary of National Biography. Williamstown. William Henry Fox".uk) • Works by or about Henry Fox Talbot (http://worldcat.php?CISOOP1=all&CISOBOX1=& CISOFIELD1=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOOP2=exact&CISOBOX2=William Henry Fox Talbot& CISOFIELD2=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOOP3=any&CISOBOX3=&CISOFIELD3=CISOSEARCHALL& CISOOP4=none&CISOBOX4=&CISOFIELD4=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOROOT=all&t=a) • (http://www. Edmund F.org.ac. London: Smith.mcs.scienceandsociety.uk/letters/letters.' The Guardian. 1885–1900. 1854.uk/ Biographies/Talbot.org.html) • `Talbot' vs.org/cdm4/results.htm) • Talbot and Photogenic Drawing (http://www. • O'Connor.contentdm. by R. University of St Andrews. "Henry Fox Talbot" (http://www-history. `Fox Talbot' (http://foxtalbot..html) • Science & Society Picture Library (http://www.com/ people/mr-william-talbot) • The Fox Talbot Museum (http://www.Henry Fox Talbot 7 External links • Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Fox Talbot (http://hansard.webarchive.org/identities/lccn-n79-138724) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Talbot materials in the Digital Collections of the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. .dmu.st-andrews. John J.uk/artanddesign/picture/2012/dec/10/photography-fox-talbot) 'William Henry Fox Talbot's Open Door: Picture of the day.co. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.dmu.midley.html) • The Calotype Patent Lawsuit of Talbot v. Laroche.org/chapter02.co.uk/laroche/TalbotvLaroche.oclc. Robertson.ac.html).uk/ wayback/archive/20100311230213/http://www.nationaltrust.ac. 10 December 2012 • "Talbot.guardian. D. Wood (http://www.millbanksystems. (http://maca.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/ w-lacockabbeyvillage/w-lacockabbeyvillage-talbotmuseum..htm) • The correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot (http://foxtalbot. Elder & Co.photograms.
WoodLooker.W. CommonsDelinker. Dfrg. Dicklyon. Gilesmhudson. 2D. Closedmouth. Soczyczi.wikipedia. Michael. IansAwesomePizza. NJW494. Elliskev. Trapolator. ABF. 13 anonymous edits Henry Fox Talbot Source: http://en. Aitias.php?oldid=537645354 Contributors: Bender235. Hex. Dicklyon. Mehmet Karatay. Jpbowen. Ironholds. RWatson13. Octahedron80. 28421u2232nfenfcenc. BrokenSphere. Tjmayerinsf. Fyyer. Hmains. Pcpcpc. Nv8200p. Loopypoo. S. Lostrealist. MarmadukePercy.Article Sources and Contributors 8 Article Sources and Contributors Talbot effect Source: http://en. Riddley. Cutler. Kaihsu. Internedko. Ocohen.msc. DerHexer. Duncan7670. DrKiernan. Beusson. Lotje. Gsl. Erween64. Andrewpmk. CardinalDan. Emperorbma. MGTom. RicDod. JackofOz.org/w/index. Ktotam. 225 anonymous edits . Mav. Johnbibby. Aa42john. Davidprior. KiwiJeff. Motmit. Chris the speller. M2545. MarkSweep. KnowledgeOfSelf. Mbell.C. Eliz81. Khazar2.wikipedia.. Mwng. D6. Nimetapoeg. Poop816. Hroðulf. Smallest step82. Missmarple. AVarchaeologist. Bmclaughlin9. Hjuk. Hoary. Gary J. Myrabella. Acroterion. Merritttttt. Peterlewis. ShakingSpirit. Pinkville. GrindtXX. Howcheng. Vanished User 1004. Iunaw. Dsp13. Verica Atrebatum.Forman. Victuallers. John. Infrogmation.J. Adam. Hydrogen Iodide. BrownHairedGirl. Morgankevinj huggle. Jack1956. DShamen. 7eden. BaldBoris. IRP. Allstarecho. Suslindisambiguator. Mrsgamp. Choess. Gurch. Ronningt. Olijven.org/w/index. Samuel Webster. Smaug123. Nicke Lilltroll. Archie530. Schwede66. Photoindex21. Kjaergaard. Squids and Chips. Lamro. Waacstats. CattleGirl. Andycjp. Silverxxx. MarioFanNo1. Giftlite. RWilliams2. Bobrayner. Bruce Collen. Mhagood213. Brother Francis. BD2412. Keraunoscopia. Agamemnon2. Suffusion of Yellow. Chris j wood. Rbrwr. J. Kjw. Minimac. Chwirkytheappleboy. DehGriff. TheMindsEye.php?oldid=537645260 Contributors: 1177clown. Saga City. Shandris. Gbazerque. Rjwilmsi. MichaelMaggs. Smallweed. Wikipelli. Grahamec. Maralia. Lockley. Keith D. Chocolatemonster818. Threefoursixninefour. Camerafiend.delanoy. CDINY. Kaihsu. Deb.
Scewing.jpg Source: http://en.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: BaldBoris File:William Fox Talbot 1853.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.png Source: http://en.php?title=File:Optical_Talbot_Carpet._1845.wikipedia.org/w/index. c. 1 anonymous edits File:London Street.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User: Dfrg.0 Contributors: User:Ronhjones File:Wikisource-logo.jpg Source: http://en.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: William Fox Talbot File:Talbot Harfe.Image Sources.php?title=File:William_Fox_Talbot_1853.org/w/index._by_John_Moffat. 1845.jpg Source: http://en. Licenses and Contributors 9 Image Sources.org/w/index. MichaelMaggs.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Infrogmation._c.org/w/index.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: MichaelMaggs File:Latticed window at lacock abbey 1835.svg License: logo Contributors: Guillom.php?title=File:Talbot_Harfe.wikipedia.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia. by John Moffat. Pe-Jo.0 Contributors: Ben Goodman File:William Henry Fox Talbot.jpg Source: http://en._Reading.php?title=File:London_Street. Jarekt.php?title=File:Fox_Talbot_grave. Rei-artur.jpg Source: http://en. INeverCry.wikipedia. Licenses and Contributors Image:Optical Talbot Carpet.php?title=File:Latticed_window_at_lacock_abbey_1835. NielsF.php?title=File:William_Henry_Fox_Talbot. Reading. 1864.php?title=File:Wikisource-logo.org/w/index.wikipedia.wikipedia._1864.org/w/index.org/w/index. Rocket000 .png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.msc File:Fox Talbot grave.org/w/index.
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