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INTRODUCTION Successfully completing everyday activities depends on safe execution. Preparation and conduct during these activities reflects on performance. In no other field is this more significant than in the marine field. Safety is an encompassing subject. This text does not repeat existing electrical safety practices outlined in other references. Instead it emphasizes those standards necessary to successfully complete Army watercraft missions. Current is the measure of shock intensity. The passage of even a very small current through a vital part of the human body can kill. At about 100 milliamperes (0.1 ampere), the shock is fatal if it lasts for one second or more. Fatalities have resulted from voltages as low as 30 volts. Conditions on board a vessel add to the chance of receiving an electrical shock. The body is likely to be in contact with the metal structure of the vessel. The body's resistance may be low because of perspiration or damp clothing. Personnel must be aware that electrical shock hazards exist. Accidentally placing or dropping a metal tool, ruler, flashlight case, or other conducting article across an energized terminal can cause short circuits. The resulting arc and fire, even on relatively low-voltage circuits, may extensively damage equipment and seriously injure personnel. Touching one conductor of an ungrounded electrical system while the body is in contact with the hull of the ship or other metal equipment enclosures could be fatal. WARNING Treat all energized electric circuits as potential hazards at all times. DANGER SIGNALS Be constantly alert for any signs that might indicate a malfunction of electrical equipment. When any danger signals are noted, report them immediately to the chief engineer or electrical officer. The following are examples of danger signals:
Fire, smoke, sparks, arcing, or an unusual sound from an electric motor or contactor. Frayed and damaged cords or plugs. Receptacles, plugs, and cords that feel warm to the touch. Slight shocks felt when handling electrical equipment.
Electrical equipment that produces excessive vibrations. depending on the weather and the person's exposure to the elements. Electrical equipment that either fails to operate or operates irregularly. place the victim on his stomach with his head turned to one side. Muscular spasms may cause the hands to clasp the apparatus or wire making it impossible to let go. Cover the victim with one or more blankets. Lay the victim face up in a prone position. The feet should be about 12 inches higher than the head. Touching a shock victim who is still in contact with the energized circuit will make you another shock victim. attend othe physical injuries as they would normally be treated. Chest or head injuries require the head to be slightly elevated. refer to Ship's Medicine Chest and Medical Aid at Sea from the US Department of Health and Human Services. blanket. Avoid artificial means of warming. Rescue and Care of Shock Victims For complete coverage of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and treatment of burn and shock victims. shaking sensation. Electric shock may severely burn the skin. Stand clear of any suspected hazard. Unusually hot running electric motors and other electrical equipment. Determine the cardiopulmonary status of the casualty. coat. The following procedures are recommended for the rescue and care of shock victims: Remove the victim from electrical contact at once. unconsciousness occurs. CAUTION Do not operate faulty equipment. Then use a dry stick. and instruct others to do likewise. An odor of burning or overheated insulation. ELECTRIC SHOCK Electric shock is a jarring. . (Start CPR if spontaneous respiration or circulation is absent. but do not endanger yourself. Keep the victim warm. such as hot water bottles. If the voltage and current are sufficiently high. or any other nonconductor of electricity to drag or push the victim to safety. shirt. Help the shock victim by deenergizing the affected circuit. The head should be 6 to 12 inches lower than the feet. belt. If there is vomiting or if there are facial injuries that cause bleeding into the throat. The injured person's body heat must be conserved. Usually it feels like receiving a sudden blow. rope.) Once the person is stabilized.
Keep covers for all fuse boxes. When working on energized electrical equipment. Take special care to discharge capacitors properly. When working on energized equipment. Work on energized circuits only when absolutely necessary. Ensure that all tools are adequately insulated when working on energized electrical equipment. stand on a rubber mat to insulate yourself from the steel deck. Do not give drugs. Never give alcohol. junction boxes. Failure to do so may result in injury to personnel or damage to equipment if an accidental contact is made with exposed live circuits. Send for medical personnel (a doctor. Stand clear of operating radar and navigational equipment. check with the senior engineer responsible for maintaining the equipment to avoid any potential hazards. Discharge capacitors before working on de-energized equipment. If necessary. wear approved electrical insulating rubber gloves. Wear safety goggles. switch boxes. Keep the other hand clear of all conductive materials that may provide a path for current flow. such as shirt sleeves. or coffee. tea. Report any cover that is not closed or that is missing to the senior engineer responsible for its maintenance. if available) at once. . This is especially important when working in a warm space where you may perspire. food and liquids if medical attention will be available within a short time. liquids may be administered. Use small amounts of water. work with only one hand inside the equipment. opiates.) Cover as much of your body as practical with an insulating material. The power source should be tagged out at the nearest source of electricity for the component being serviced. Never work alone. but do not under any circumstances leave the victim until medical help arrives. When working on an energized circuit. and wiring accessories closed. The sulfuric acid contained in batteries and the oils in electrical components can cause blindness. (The rubber gloves used with NBC suits are not acceptable. If possible. Safety Precautions for Preventing Electric Shock Observe the following safety precautions when working on electrical equipment: When work must be done in the immediate vicinity of electrical equipment. de-energize equipment before hooking up or removing test equipment. Another person could save your life if you receive an electric shock. and other depressant substances. Sparks could damage your eyes. Injury or damage to equipment could result if improper procedures are used.
Burning electrical insulation is toxic and can kill in a matter of moments. Secure power to the affected circuits if there is an electrical fire in a compartment. refer to Marine Fire Prevention. identification tags. carbon dioxide (C02). Never work on electrical equipment while wearing rings. Use the oxygen breathing apparatus (OBA) when fighting electrical fires. If critical systems are involved that prevent power from being secured (determined by the chief engineer). DAMAGE AND FIRE Never enter a flooded compartment that has a generator actively producing power. Never use an extension cord or power hand tool without it being properly grounded. However. Ground all metal multimeters and test equipment to the hull. the ice that forms on the horn of the extinguisher will conduct electricity. WARNING Personnel exposed to a high concentration of C02 will suffocate. watches. Regularly inspect all extension cords and portable electrical equipment. or other jewelry. Some military meters have a grounding jack for this connection. WARNING The use of water in any form is not permitted. It has a nonconductive extinguishing agent and does not damage equipment. such as dry chemical. Never work on electrical equipment while wearing loose-fitting clothing. or halon. Be careful of loose sleeves and the battle dress uniform (BDU) shirttails. Firefighting and Fire Safety from the Maritime Administration. Remain calm and consider the possible consequences before performing any action. Ensure all rotating and reciprocating parts of the electric motors are adequately protected by guards. Transfer the load and secure the generator before entering. Carbon dioxide is the choice for fighting electrical fires. PORTABLE AND TEMPORARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Ensure all electrical extension cords are approved by either the chief engineer or the electrical officer. extinguish the fire using a nonconducting agent. WARNING . For more information.
always work in teams of two or more. Never start working on an electrical system until the chief engineer or electrical officer has been informed. The person performing the work. such as closed. The required position of the affected switch. The affected circuits. What may appear to be a minor repair may ultimately determine whether or not the vessel is fully operational. All vessel systems are interrelated. breaker. Figure 1-1 shows a temporary warning tag available through the supply system. secure the power to the circuit and affix a temporary warning tag to the affected circuit breaker or power source. If you must leave the repair and return at a later time. The approval and signature of the chief engineer or electrical officer. When you are engaged in electrical repairs on board a vessel. or fuse. REPAIR SAFETY Before starting any electrical work.An ungrounded portable power tool can kill. A unit's operational status reflects the vessel's operational status and its ability to get under way. always ensure that the circuit is de-energized before resuming work. Check the de-energized circuit with a multimeter. . Any tag can be used as long as it contains the following minimum amount of information: Time and date work is started. or removed. open.
. Never service batteries without proper eye protection. flush them immediately for 15 minutes and seek medical attention.Battery design forces the electrolyte to explode upwards. If battery electrolyte gets in your eyes.
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