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Single Carrier FDMA in LTE
By JALLA. RAVIKUMAR
Overview of SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA implementation in 3GPP LTE Peak power characteristics of SC-FDMA signals
Uplink resource scheduling in SC-FDMA systems
Summary and Conclusions
Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)
promising technique for high data rate uplink communications in
future cellular systems, which is a modified form of Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA). SC-FDMA is a modified form of OFDM with similar throughput performance and complexity.
This is often viewed as DFT-coded OFDM where time- domain data symbols are transformed to frequency-domain by a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) before going through the standard OFDM modulation..Cont. .
.Draw backs of OFDM The OFDMA waveform exhibits very pronounced envelope fluctuations resulting in a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Another problem with OFDMA in cellular uplink transmissions derives from the inevitable offset in frequency references among the different terminals that transmit simultaneously.
A major problem with OFDM and OFDMA is high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) Transmitted amplitude with large variation Requires a linear amplifier at transmitter Linear amplifies consumes high power OK at base station For mobile station.Cont.. this consumes battery LTE uses a solution for UL: SC-FDMA Single carrier transmission .
It has similar structure and performance to OFDMA. and frequency domain equalization. . DFT-spread orthogonal frequency multiplexing.Overview Overview of SC-FDMA of SC-FDMA SC-FDMA is a new multiple access technique. Utilizes single carrier modulation.
Frequency Domain Representation Of Downlink And Uplink LTE Access Technologies. .
TX and RX structure of SC-OFDMA .
Cont.. The DFT is used to multiplex uplink transmissions in specific frequency allocation blocks within the overall system bandwidth according to eNodeB scheduler instructions. . SC-OFDMA is implemented in LTE using a Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM transmission (DFTSOFDM) which is commonly referred to as a frequencydomain generalization of SC-FDMA.
SC-FDMA Process After modulation. apply FFT Each symbol is on a subcarrier Put the subcarriers on selected location and apply IFFT Back to single carrier transmission Now add CP Receiver will do the reverse .
Why “Single Carrier” “FDMA” ? .
distributed and localized. Distributed mapping scheme for (total # of subcarriers) = (data block size) x (bandwidth spreading factor) is called Interleaved FDMA (IFDMA). .Sub Carrier mapping Two ways to map subcarriers.
Number of users (Q) = 3. . Number of subcarriers (M) = 12.Sub Carrier mapping Data block size (N) = 4.
Sub Carrier mapping .
Localized Vs. Distributed Less frequency diversity Low rate user may block a high-rate (broadband) user from the channel. especially if channel dependent Larger frequency diversity Low-rate and high-rate users coexist peacefully scheduling is used .
.SC-FDMA implementation in 3GPP LTE LTE Frame Structure Two radio frame structures defined. A resource block (RB) spans 12 subcarriers over a slot duration of 0. A radio frame has duration of 10 ms.5 ms. Frame structure type 2 (FS2): TDD. thus 180 kHz per RB. Frame structure type 1 (FS1): FDD. One subcarrier has bandwidth of 15 kHz.
LTE Frame Structure Type FDD frame structure .
LTE Resource Grid .
Length of CP .
LTE Bandwidth/Resource Configuration .
16-QAM. and 64-QAM .UL Overview UL physical channels Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) UL physical signals Reference signal (RS) Available modulation for data channel QPSK.
UL Resource Block .
The second is Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) which is used to allow channel dependent (i.UL Reference Signal Two types of UL RS The first is Demodulation Reference Signals (DM-RS) which are used to enable coherent signal demodulation at the eNodeB.e. frequency selective) uplink scheduling as the DM-RS cannot be used for this purposes since they are assigned over the assigned bandwidth to a UE. .
UPLINK DEMODULATION AND SOUNDING CHANNEL REFERENCE SIGNALS (NORMAL CP MODE). .
Uplink Physical Channels Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Typical Number Of PUCCH Regions .
Peak power characteristics of SC-FDMA signals .
Channel Dependent Scheduling Another benefit for OFDMA The Base Station talks to many users at different directions Their fading channels are independent Subcarriers with high attenuation for user 1 may have good gain for user 2 .
Localized: Frequency selective gain with CDS. . Distributed: Frequency diversity.Uplink resource scheduling in SC-FDMA systems Channel-dependent scheduling Assign subcarriers to a user in excellent channel condition. Two subcarrier mapping schemes have advantages over each other.
CDS(Channel Dependent Scheduling) .
Summary and Conclusions SC-FDMA is a promising technique for high data rate uplink communication in future cellular systems. localized FDMA (LFDMA) with channel-dependent scheduling (CDS) results in higher throughput than interleaved FDMA (IFDMA). . Among the possible subcarrier mapping approaches.
Thank You .