Th e Em pty Pl nu m : e D avid M ark s on's W ittge ns te in's M is tre s s

D av Fos t r W alace id e l
But w h at ot e r ph il oph e r h as found t e ant e h os h idot t il ion in t e part ar and re pe at d h um il y of o l us h icul e it re m e m be ring and t rack ing t e us e s of h um bl h e w ords , l ing ph il oph ical as it w e re be ne at ook os l y h our fe e t rat e r t an ov r our h e ads ? h h e — S. Cav l el Th e re is nobody at t e w indow in t e paint of h h ing t e h ous e , by t e w ay. h h I h av now concl d t at w h at I be l v d t be a e ude h ie e o pe rs on is a s h adow . If itis nota s h adow , itis pe rh aps a curt ain. As a m at e r of fact it coul act l be not ing t d ual y h m ore t an an at e m pt t im pl de pt s , w it in t e h t o y h h h room . Al ough in a m anne r of s pe ak ing al t at is re al t h lh l y in t e w indow is burnt s ie nna pigm e nt And s om e h . ye l och re . l ow In fact t e re is no w indow e it e r, in t at s am e h h h m anne r of s pe ak ing, butonl s h ape . y So t at any fe w s pe cul ions I m ay h av m ade h at e about t e pe rs on at t e w indow w oul t e re fore h h d h now appe ar t be re nde re d m e aningls s , obv l o e ious y. Unls s of cours e I s ubs e q ue nt y be com e cone l v d t at t e re is s om e body at t e w indow al ince h h h l ov r again. e I h av putt atbadl e h y. — W ittge ns te in's M is tre s s (54- 55 ) Te l th e m I h ave h ad a w ond e rfull . l ife — W ittge ns te in on d e ath b e d , '51

CER TAIN NO V S NO T O NL cry out for crit EL Y icalint rpre t ions but act l e at ual y t t dire ct t e m . Th is is probabl anal ry o h y ogous t a pie ce of m us ic t at bot o h h de m ands and de fine s t e l t ne r's m ov m e nt , s ay l e a w al Fre q ue nt y, h is e e s ik t z. l t t os e nov l t at dire ct t e ir ow n crit oo, h e s h h icalre ading conce rn t e m s e le s h v t e m at l w it w h at w e m igh t cons ide r h igh brow or int l ct is s ue s — h ical y h e l ual e

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s t prope r t art e ngine e ring, ant ue l ., ph il oph y, e t Th e s e nov l uff o , iq it os c. e s carv out for t e m s e le s an int rs t be t e e n fl -out fict and a s ort of e h v e ice w at ion w e ird ce re bralrom an à clf W h e n t e y fail as m y ow n firs t l t ing did, e . h , ong h t e y're pre t y dre adful But w h e n t e y s ucce e d, as I cl D av M ark s on's h t . h aim id W it ge ns t in's M is t s s doe s , t e y s e rv t e v al& v h ing funct of t e re h e h it anis ion re m inding us of fict ion's l it e s s pos s ibil ie s for re ach & gras p, for m ak ing im l it h e ads t rob h e art ik e , & for s anct h l ifying t e m arriage s of ce re brat & e m oh ion t ion, abs t ion & l e d l , t ce nde nt t h -s e e k ing & dail s ch lpping, ract iv ife rans rut y e m arriage s t at in our h appy e poch of t ch nicaloccl ion & e nt rt h e us e ainm e nt m ark e t s e e m incre as ing cons um m at e onl in t e im aginat ing abl y h ion. Book s I t nd t as s ociat w it t is INTER PR ET- M E ph e nom e non incl s t e o e h h ude uff l e Candide , W it d Gom brow icz's Cos m os , H e s s e 's Th e Gl s Be ad ik ol as Gam e , Sart 's Naus e a, Cam us 's St re range r. Th e s e fiv are w ork s of ge nius e of a part ar k ind: t e y s h out t e ir ge nius . M ark s on, in W it ge ns t in's icul h h t e M is t s s , t nds rat e r t w h is pe r, but h is w .o.g.'s no ls s s ucce s s ful nor— re e h o e ; part arl giv n t e rabid ant icul y e h i-int l ct is m of t e cont m porary fict e l ual e h e ion s ce ne — s e e m s it any ls s im port . It be com e an im port book t m e , e ant 's ant o anyw ay. I'd ne v r h e ard of t is guy M ark s on, be fore , in '88. And h av , s t l e h e il , re ad not ing e le by h im . I orde re d t e book m os t y be caus e of it e ponyh s h l s m ous t l;I l e t fancy m ys e l a fan of t e w ork of it nam e s ak e . Clarl it e ik o f h s e y t e book w as / in s om e w ay 'about W it ge ns t in, giv n t e t l. Th is is h is ' t e e h it e one of t e w ays an INTER PR ET-M E fict cl s t e crit h ion ue h icalre ade r in on w h at t e book 's t be s e e n as on a t rt h o e iary lv l'about t e t l: U l s e s ' e e ': h it e ys t l, it s t ure as O dys s e an/ lm ach e an m ap (s ucce e ds ); R . Gol it e s ruct Te e ds t in's Th e M ind-Body Problm (re al t rribl); Cort e e l e y e ázar's H ops cot ch (s ucce e ds e xact y t t e e xt nt one ignore s t e inv at t h op around in l o h e h it ion o it Burrough s 's Q ue e r & J ie (fails ucce s s ful (? W / t nov l l e ); unk l )). y r/ e s ik t e s e it oft n h ard t s e e t e diffe re nce be t e e n a t l and an e pigraph , h 's e o h w it e e xce pt for q uot idian fact l e t e l t r's l r, ov rt r, & at ribut d. s ik h at e onge e e t e Anot e r w ay t inv e a k ind of corre s ponde nce -int rpre t ion is t drop t e h o it e at o h nam e of a re al rs on l e brick s t rough out t e t xt as Bruce D uffy doe s in pe ik h h e , h is s o-cal d fict l e ionalbiograph y of W it ge ns t in, t e e xe crabl 19 88 Th e t e h e W orl as I Found It in w h ich , de s pit l 't is -is -m ade -up' dis cl e rs , d , e oud h aim D uffy brings t be ar s uch an ars e nalof h is t o oricalfact and al ion t at t e l us h h crit icalre ade r can't h e l but confus e t e h om os e xual y-craze d fict p h it ional 'W it ge ns t in' w it t e re aland w ay m ore com plx & int re s t W it ge nt e h h e e ing t s t in. Anot e r w ay for a nov lt l arize it re ading is t m ak e an int l e h e o ine s o e lct e ual s h ibbolt s e rv a re pe t iv narrat e funct e h e it e iv ion: e g, in Candide , Pangl s 's cont os inual'Al for t e be s t in t e be s t of al pos s ibl w orl ' is a l h h l e ds ne on s ign out front of w h at is , e xce pt for it e nd, l t e m ore t an a pois ons it l h ous l funny parody of t e m e t ys ics of L ibniz.1 y h aph e

1. . . one t at s uccum bs t t e h azard of m os t parody and ge t t e point of h o h s h L ibniz's be s t e -of-al l s ibl-w orl s t w rong, by t e w ay. -pos e ds uff h

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K at , t e m onadic narrat of W it ge ns t in's M is t s s , ge t a l of h e r e h or t e re s ot m as t r's re m ark s w rong, t e oo— t e ph il oph e r's be t e r-k now n w ords and h os t ide as are s praye d, s k e w e d, al ov r t e book , from it e pigraph about s and t l e h s o t e T at 's 'Th e w orl is e v ryt ing t at is t e cas e ' t Inv s t ionary h ract us d e h h h o e igat s pe cul ions on adh e s iv v . m agne t 't ' t at une q uiv l s um m on at e s ic ape h ocal y t e l e r W it ge ns t in's conce rns ov r w ords ' 'fam il re s e m bl s ' t one h at t e e y ance o anot e r. Cont V t , t ough , w h e n M ark s on's K at re cal l s & h ra ol aire h e l ine s conce pt incorre ct y h e r e rrors s e rv t e e nds not of funny propaganda but s l e h of bot original art and original int rpre t ion. Be caus e W it ge ns t in's h e at t e M is t s s ,2 w / t it e ponym ous m as t r, doe s m ore t an j t q uot W it ge nre r/ s e h us e t s t in in w e ird w ays , or al e l t h is w ork , or at e m pt t be s om e s ort of ude o t o dram at ion of t e int l ct izat h e l ual problm s t at occupie d and oppre s s e d e e h h im . M ark s on's book re nde rs , im aginat e l & concre t l t e v ry blak iv y e y, h e e m at e m at h ical w orl W it ge ns t in's T at re v ut d t e ract us ol ionize d ph il oph y os by s um m oning v abs t ia ract argum e nt W M is , in a w e ird w ay, t e col . h orizat of a v ry ol fil . Th ough W it ge ns t in's ph il oph icals t is far from ion e d m t e os uff de ad or arid, W M ne v rt e ls s s ucce e ds at t pos ing W 's int l ct e h e rans e l ual e conundra int t e piq uant q ual of l e d— al it bizarre l l e d— e xpe rio h ia iv be y iv e nce . Th e nov lq uick e ns W 's e arl w ork , giv s it a face , for t e re ade r, t at e y e h h t e ph il oph y doe s not & cannot conv y . . . m os t y be caus e W it ge ns t in's h os e l t e w ork is s o h ard and t e s s o l j t t figure out on a l e rallv lt at t e ak ong us o it e e h h m igranous m e nt gym nas t re q uire d of h is re ade r al but q uas h t e dire al ics l h e m ot ional im pl ions of W 's e arl m e t ys ics . H is m is t s s , t ough , icat y aph re h as k s t e q ue s t h e r m as t r in print doe s not W h at if s om e body re al h ad h ion e : l y t l e in a T at ize d w orl o iv ract us d?

I don't m e an t s ugge s t t at M ark s on's ach ie v m e nt h e re cons is t j t in o h e s us m ak ing abs t ract ph il oph y 'acce s s ibl' t an e xt uralre ade r, or t at os e o ram h W M is in it e l s im pl. Act l t ough it pros e & m onot s f e ual h y, s one are h aunt ingl pe de s t y rian, t e nov l diffract d s ys t m of al ions t e v ryt ing h e 's e e l us o e h from ant uit t As t urf are a bit t t iq y o rot ch o race out and t e conce nt ; h ric circul arity th at re pl s l ar de ve l e nt as its pl 'progre s s ion' ace ine opm ot's m ak e s a dige s t e re ading of W M a ch al nging & prot e d affair. M ark iv l e ract s on's is not a pop book , and it not de coct d ph il oph y or a D uffy-e s q ue 's e os docudram a-of-t e -w e e k . R at e r, for m e , t e nov l doe s art t & h h h e is ic e m ot ional j t t t e pol ico-e t ical im pl ions of L ig W it ge nus ice o h it h icat udw t s t in's abs t e ract m at e m at h icalm e t ys ics , m ak e s w h at is de s igne d t be a aph o m e ch anis m pule , bre at e , s uffe r, l e , e t In s o doing, it pays e m ot s h iv c. ional t ribut t a ph il oph e r w h o by al e v nce l e d in pe rs onalt e nt ov r e o os l ide iv orm e t e q ue s t h ions t m any of h is acade m ic fol e rs h av m ade int e l oo l ow e o aborat e

2H

e re aft r abbre v e d W M . e iat

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e m pt e xe rcis e . Th at is , M ark s on's W M s ucce e ds in doing w h at fe w y ph il oph e rs glan & w h at ne it e r m yriad biograph ical s k e t e s nor os e h ch D uffy's l urid re v ionis m s ucce e ds in com m unicat is ing: t e cons e q ue nce s , h for pe rs ons , of t e pract of t e ory;t e diffe re nce , s ay, be t e e n e s pous ing h ice h h w 's ol is m ' as a m e t ys ical'pos it ips aph ion' & w ak ing up one fine m orning aft r e a pe rs onall s t find your grie f apocal ic, l e ral m il nnial lav os o ypt it l y l e , e ing you t e l t and onl l ing t ing on e art , w it onl your h e ad, now , for not h as y iv h h h y onl com pany but e nv y ironm e nt & w orl an incl d be ach s l d, ine iding t ard a ow dre adfuls e a. Put ot e rw is e , M ark s on's book t ce nds , for m e , it re v w h rans s ie e nforce d s t us of 'int l ct t de force ' or 'e xpe rim e nt ach ie v m e nt at e l ual our e al e ': w h at it l ns , as an im m e diat s t im e udy of de pre s s ion & l l s s , is far t one ine oo m ov t be t e obj ct of e it e r e xe rcis e or e xorcis m . Th e w ays in w h ich ing o h e h t e book is m ov h ing, and t e form alinge nuit by w h ich it t form s m e t h y rans aph ys ics int angs t and s o re v al ph il oph y as be ing firs t and l t about o e s os as s pirit t e se are enough for m e, righ t now , t t ink of t e nov as one of t e — h o h h el h U.S. de cade 's be s t t de pl it re l iv ne glct & it cons ignm e nt by , o ore s at e e s j ournal l e t e NYTBR t s m arm y re v w by a young Carv rian.3 But add s ik h o ie e t t e nov l cre dit a dark l pyrot ch nic ach ie v m e nt in t e anim at of o h e 's s y e e h ion int l ct h is t e l ual ory— t e w ay W M s o com plt l de m ons t e s h ow one of e h eey rat t e s m art s t & m os t im port cont h e ant ribut t m ode m t ough t coul h av ors o h d e be e n s uch a pe rs onal unh appy s on of a bit — & t e book be com e s , if l y ch h you're t e im pot nt unl y s ort w h os e be l fs inform h is s t ach 's dail h e uck ie om y s t e , a s pe cialk ind of gre at book , l e ral profound, and probabl de s t d, at it l y y ine in it & t e 's ful s s , t be a q uie tcl s ic. s im l ne o as O ne re as on W M w h is pe rs , as bot a k ind of cl s ic & an int rpre t ionh as e at dire ct is t at it ch arm s & s t e ge m s are v ry indire ct It not onl a or, h s rat e . 's y s us t d m onol aine ogue by a pe rs on of ge nde r oppos it t e aut or's , it is e h h s t ure d h al ay be t e e n s h aggy-dog j e and de adl s e rious al gory. A ruct fw w ok y l e concre t e xam pl of h ow t e pros e h e re w ork s appe ars as t e s e cond e e h h e pigraph s upra. D e v s l e re pe t ion, obs e s s iv re t ice ik it e urn, fre e -/ unfre e as s ociat s w irlin an une as y s us pe ns ion t rough out Ye t t e y com m uniion h . h cat . Th is s t d indire ct e udie ion, a s us t d e rror t at pract l com pe l aine h ical y s m is pris ion, is h ow K at conv s us t at if s h e is force ne , s o m us t w e be : e ince h , t e s ubt xt e m ot e age nda unde r t e fre e w h e e l dis orde r of s h ort h e ual iv h ing is ol e d paragraph s , unde r t e fl of t ough t unde r t e cont at h it h , h inuals t ruggl e agains t t e s l h ipping s and of Engl h & t e drow ning-poolof s e l is h f-cons cious ne s s — a s e duct e orde r not onl in but v ch aos — com pe l com plt & iv y ia s ee une as y acq uie s ce nce , h e re . Th e t ch niq ue rings as t as a s ong w e can't e rue q uit pl . You coul cal t is t ch niq ue 'de e p nons e ns e ,' m e aning I gue s s e ace d lh e al inguis t fl of s t ic ow rings , s t rands , l oops and q uiffs t at t rough t e v ry h h h e m anne r of it form alcons t ion fl s t e ordinary cingul of 's e ns e ' and s ruct out h a
3v Am iz.

y H e m pe l t e R e v w 's 22 M ay I9 88 e ncycl . in h ie ical

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t rough it de fiance of s e ns e 's l it m anage s s om e h ow t 's h ow ' w h at h s im s o cannot ordinaril be 'e xpre s s e d.' Good com e dy oft n funct y e ions t e s am e h w ay.4 So doe s good adv rt ing, t e is oday.5 So doe s a s urpris ing am ount of good ph il oph y. So, us ual on a far ls s e xpl lv lt an W M 's , can gre at os l y e icit e e h fict ion. Th e s t of W M h as K at paint m e s s age s on e m pt roads : 'Som e body is art e ing y l ing in t e L re ,' e t Th e m e s s age s are for anyone w h o m igh t com e iv h ouv c. al t s e e . 'Nobody cam e , of cours e . Ev nt l I s t ong o e ual y oppe d lav t e e ing h m e s s age s .' Th e nov l e nd inv v s t e us e , not t e m e nt 6 of s uch a e 's ole h h ion, m e s s age : 'Som e body is l ing on t is be ach .' Exce pt us e on w h at & / iv h or w h om ?It probabl not righ t as I t ink I did s upra, t cal t is nov l form 's y , h o lh e 's a m onol .7 K at is t ogue e yping it It w rit e n & not s pok e n. Exce pt it not . 's t 's l e a diary or j ik ournal Nor is it a 'lt e r.' Be caus e of cours e a lt e r t w h om , . et et o if t e re 's no one e le at al Anyw ay, it s e l h s l ? 's f-cons cious l w rit e n. I pe rs ony t al h av grow n w e ary of m os t t xt t at are narrat d s e l l y e e s h e f-cons cious l as y w rit e n, as 't xt s .' But W M is diffe re nt from t e Bart ian/ t e rride an t e e h h pos -D s e l fe re nt h os t . H e re t e cons cious re ndit of indit m e nt not onl f-re ial s h ion e y rings t but s e rv s e s s e nt funct . K at is not a 'w rit r.' By v ion a rue e ial ions e e ocat paint r, h e r t e at t e t w rit r is t orough l & t rribl av ional Sh e e im h ype e h y e y ocat . is s h out int h e r t ing o yping pape r's bl ne s s . H e r m is s iv is a funct of ank e ion ne e d, not art a k ind of l m e s s age in a big bot l. I ne e d t adm it h e re — ong te o t at I h av a w e ird s pe cul s t h e ar ance w it re s pe ct t t is nov l form as h o h e 's w rit e n. I am som eone w h o t t w rit w h o righ t now m ore & m ore seem s t ries o e, t ne e d t w rit , dail and w h o h ope s ls s t at t e product of t at ne e d are o o e y; e h h s h l iv or e v n l e d t an s im pl re ce iv d, re ad, s e e n. And W M , in a ucrat e e ik h y e de e p-nons e ns ical w ay t at m uch m ore e ffe ct e t an argum e nt or h 's iv h al gory'd be , s pe ak s t w h y I'm s t ing t t ink m os t pe opl w h o s om e l e o art o h e h ow m us t w rit m us t w rit . Th e ne e d t indit , ins cribe — be it ful l e nt e e o e s fil m e xh il ing or pal iv or, as is m ore us ual ne it e r— s prings from t e arat l e iat , h h doubl y-bound panic fe l by m os t pe rs ons w h o s pe nd a l of t e up in t e ir t ot im h ow n pe rs onalh e ads . O n one s ide — t e s ide a ph il oph e r'd cal 'radical h os l l y s k e pt ' or 's ol is t ical ips ic'— t e re 's t e fe e l t at one 's h e ad is , in s om e h h ing h s e ns e , t e w h ol w orl w h e n t e im aginat h e d, h ion be com e s not j t a m ore us

on Firs t ' ? '89 s l ogan for printadv rt : 'Its e t t e s t e s s h andard by ignoring it .' 6A dis t inct of Fre ge , a W it ge ns t in-e ra t an: t m e nt a w ord or ph ras e is t ion t e it o ion o s pe ak about it w / at las t im pl q uot ion m ark s : e g 'K at ' is a four-lt e r nam e ; t , e icit at e et o us e a w ord or ph ras e is t m e nt o ion it re fe re nt e g K at is , by de faul t e m ain s : e t h , ch aract r of W it ge ns t in's M is t s s . . . e t e re 7Unls s you can e m pt your h e ad of connot ion and t e y at rans l e t e w ord l e ral at h it l y from t e At ic Gre e k — t e n it probabl h as a M ark s onian poignancy no ot e r h t h y h t rm 'd h av . . . e e
5cf Audi's

4cf 'W h o's

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conge nialbut a re alr e nv e ironm e nt t an t e Big Ext rior of l on e art . h h e ife h M ark s on's book 's firs t e pigraph , from K ie rk e gaard's Concl uding U ns cie nt ic Pos t cript inv e s & im pos e s t is firs t int rpre t ion of K at 's bind if s , it h e at e & it re l ion t h e r 't s at o yping.'8 Th e ne e d t ge t t e w ords & v s not onl o h oice y out out ide t e 16-inch diam e t r of bone t at bot birt s & im pris ons — s h e h h h t e m — but alo dow n, t t t e m ne it e r t t e ins ubs t ialcount of h s rus ing h h o h ant ry t e m ind nor t t e t ie nt v nue of cords & air & e ar, s e e m s for K at — as h o h rans e e for anyone from a Fl rt t a diaris t t a lt e r-fie nd— a ne ce s s ary aube o o et affirm at of an O ut ide , s om e Ext rior one 's w rit e n re cord can not onl ion s e t y com m unicat w it but inh abit Picas s o, h ark ing t V l q ue z as doe s e h . o e as M ark s on t K ie rk e gaard & W it ge ns t in, did big t ings for t e ide a of v ual o t e h h is art ork s as not j t 're pre s e nt ions ' but alo t ings , obj ct . . . but I can w us at s h e s t ink of no l .-pract ione r (as oppos e d t Ne w -Crit h it it o icalor pos t t ural s ruct t e oris t w h o's capt d t e t xt urge , t e e m ot h ) ure h e ual h ionalurge ncy of t xt as e bot s ign and t ing, as pe rfe ct y as h as M ark s on h e re .9 Th e ot e r s ide of t e h h l h h pre nom inat 2-bind— t e s ide re nde re d e xpl l by W M 's ope ning and e h icit y cl e — inv v s w h y pe opl w h o w rit ne e d t do as a m ode of com m unicaos ole e e o t ion. It w h at an abs t or l e L 's ract ik aing cals 'ont ogicalins e curit w h y l ol y'— w e s ign our s t im pos e it on frie nds , m ailit out in brow n m anil t uff, a rying t o ge t it print d. 'I EXIST,' is t e im pule t at t robs unde r m os t v unt e h s h h ol ary w rit ing— & al good w rit l ing. And 'I EXIST' w oul h av be e n, in m y d e ungrace fule dit orialh ands , t e t l of M ark s on's nov l But M ark s on's final h it e e. ch oice , far be t e r t an h is w ork ing K e e pe r of t e Gh os t (de e p but not t h h s nons e ns ical is probabl be t e r t an m ine . K at 's t xt one big m e s s age ), y t h e e , t at s om e one is l ing on t is be ach , is it e l obs e s s e d & al os t de fine d by h iv h s f m t e pos s ibil y t at it doe s not e xis t t at K at doe s not e xis t And t e h it h , h e . h nov l t l, if w e re flct a m om e nt s e rv s e nds as m uch t e m at as e 's it e e , e h ic al iv . W it ge ns t in w as gay. H e ne v r h ad a m is t s s .10 H e did, t ough , l e us t e e re h h av a t ach e r and frie nd, one Be rt e e rand R us s e l w h o, w it h is s t nt l , h ude 's e ncourage m e nt be fore t e '20s t h e d t e Cogit aut ogy by w h ich , h ras h o-t ol D e s cart s h ad re l v d 300 ye ars ' w ort of ne urot int l ct s of t e e ie e h ic e l ual e h w orris om e doubt t at t e y e xis t d. R us s e l point d out t at t e Cogit 'I h h e l e h h o's t ink and t erefore am ' is in fact inv id: t e t h of 'I t ink ' ent s onl t e h h al h rut h ail y h e xis t nce of t ink ing, as t e t h of 'I w rit ' yie l onl t e e xis t nce of e h h rut e ds y h e
8Th e e p. is 'W h at an e xt raordinary ch ange t e s pl . . . w h e n for t e firs t t e ak ace h im t e fact t at e v ryt ing de pe nds upon h ow a t ing is t ough t firs t e nt rs t e h h e h h h e h cons cious ne s s , w h e n, in cons e q ue nce , t ough t in it abs ol e ne s s re pl s an h s ut ace appare nt re al y.' . . . from 'Th e Tas k of Be com ing Subj ct e ' in t e Pos t cript it e iv h s — m aybe w ort not t at t e form of 'ch ange ' in t e D anis h is accus at e rat e r t an h ing h h h iv h h nom inat e , & t at w h at M ark s on re nde rs as 'e xt iv h raordinary' appe ars in s om e ot e r h t l ions as 't rribl' or 'fe arful rans at e e .' 9 . . . m aybe Be ck e t in M ol t l ... oy. 10Too, 'm is t s s ' conv ys t e e xq uis it l l s s of be ing t e l re e h e one ine h inguis t be l e d ic ov of a m an w h o coul not in e m ot d , ional pract , confe r ide nt y on a w om an v 'l e .' ice it ia ov

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t xt To pos it an 'I' t at doing t e t ink ing/ rit e . h 's h h w ing is t be g t e v ry o h e q ue s t D e s cart s h ad s t e d out im pald on. . . . But s o anyw ay, K at 's ion e art e e s it ion in W M is doubl l l Aft r h av uat y one y. e ing s pe nt ye ars 'l ing' for ook pe opl,11 s h e h as l e ral w as h e d up on s h ore , now s it nak e d & in m e ns e s e it l y s be fore a m anualt w rit r, producing w ords t at for h e r & us , re nde r onl ype e h , y t e w ords t e m s e le s 'ont ogical s e cure '; t e be l f in e it e r a re ade r for h h v ol l y h ie h t e m or a (m e t ys icalpre s e nce producing t e m w oul re q uire a k ind of h a)ph h d q uixot m K at 's l s ince l tor re s igne d. icis e ong os W h at k e e ps t e t l from be ing cut or ov rh e av is t at K at re al is h it e e e y h e l y W it ge ns t in's m is t s s , t e gh os t y curat of a w orl of h is t t e re h l or d ory, art ifact , s & m e m orie s — w h ich m e m orie s , l e TV im age s , one can acce s s but ne v r ik e re al ow n— and of f s , fact about bot t e (form e r) w orl and h e r ow n l y act s h h d m e nt h abit . H e rs is t e affe ct e s s l al s h l anguage of fact and it s e e m s ls s l e , e ik by s k il t an by t e ine v abl m iracl of s om e t ing t at h ad t be w rit e n lh h it e e h h o t t at M ark s on dire ct our m is pris ion in orde r t infus e s t e m e nt t at al h s o at s h l t e t e form of raw dat rans fe r12 w it t & de e p e m ot ak h a-t h rue ional port im . K at 's s pare , aph oris t s t e , h e r dire ct & corre ct q uot ion of 'Th e w orl e ic yl at d is e v ryt ing t at is t e cas e ,' and h e r obs e s s iv ne e d t ge t cont of t e e h h h e o rol h fact t at h av be com e h e r int rior & e xt rior l — al t is s t dire ct t e s h e e e ife lh uff s h re ade r t run, not w al, t L ig W it ge ns t in's 19 21 T at L o k o udw t e ract us ogicoPh il oph icus .13 Th e re as on w h y I, w h o am no crit & t nd t approach os ic e o book s I adm ire w it al t e h e s it h lh ancy of t e bl be fore w al , fe e lI ge t t h ind l s o as s e rt al t e fl indicat e s about K at 's pl t abov is t at s o m uch of lh at iv e igh e h W M s o clarl s e nds one t t e T at for crit e y o h ract us ical'cl arificat ion.' Th is is n't a w e ak ne s s of t e nov l Th ough it k ind of m iracul t at it not h e. 's ous h 's . And it doe s n't m e an t at W M is j t w rit e n 'in t e m argins of' t e T at h us t h h ract us in t e w ay Candide m arginal s Th e M onadol h ize ogy or Naus e a s im pl y 'dram at s ' part t re e of L re e t l néant R at e r W M , if it is any one ize h 'Êt e . h t ing for m e , is a k ind of ph il oph icals ci-fi. Ie , it an im aginat e port h os 's iv rait of w h at it w oul be l e act l t l e in t e s ort of w orl t e l & m e t d ik ual o iv y h d h ogic aph ys ics of W it ge ns t in's T at pos it . Th is s ort of w orl s t e d out t e ract us s d art , for W it ge ns t in, t be l t e o ogicalh e av n. It e nds up be ing (I opine ) a m e t e aph ys icalh e l and t e w ay it ph il oph ic pict ras pe d agains t t e s ort of l ; h s os ure h l and w orl ie w W it ge ns t in t e m an t ough t w ort w h il w as (I cl ) a ife dv t e h h h e aim

11. . . t ough s h e ne v r s ays w h at t : t at it w as at firs t for a part h e 's rue h icul pe rs on, ar h e r h us band, t e n onl e v nt l for j tanyone atal . . h y e ual y us l . 12(dat t a rans fe rre d t h e rs e l or h e r s e l o f, f-cons cious ne s s , or t w h oe v r m ay com e o e dow n t e pik e , or t bot h e rs e l and s om e one e le , or t ne it e r, or m aybe al t at h o h f s o h l h 's s uppos e d t be lftt e re is t e s and of Engl h , aw ait t s ) o e h h is ing ide 13h e re aft r abbre v e d T e iat ract us , and t e e q ual fam ous 19 53 Ph il oph ical at h l y os Inv s t ions PI or j tt e Inv s t ions , as it k now n in t e indus t e igat us h e igat 's h ry.

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big m ot at for t e dis av alof t e T at re pre s e nt d by h is m as t riv ion h ow h ract us e e w ork , 19 53 's Ph il oph icalInv s t ions .14 os e igat Bas ical t e T at is t e firs t re alat e m pt at e xpl l h ract us y h t oring t e now t ndy h re re l ion be t e e n l at w anguage and t e 're al y' it is l h it anguage 's put iv funct at e ion t capt , m ap & re pre s e nt Th e T at 's proj ct is K ant o ure . ract us e ian: w h at m us t t e w orl be l e if l h d ik anguage is ev t be possibl Th e earl W it genst 15 en o e? y t ein, m uch unde r t e s pe l of R us s e l and t e Principia M at e m at t at re v uh l l h h ica h ol t ionize d m ode rn l ogic, s aw l anguage , l e m at , as l ik h ogic-bas e d; and h e v w e d t e paradigm at funct of l ie h ic ion anguage as m irroring or 'pict uring' t e h w orl From t is l t r be l f e v ryt ing in t e T at fol s , j t as d. h at e ie e h h ract us l ow us K at 's ow n fe t h for paint , m irrors , & t e s t us of m e nt re pre s e nt e is ings h at al at ions l e m e m orie s & as s ociat ik ions & pe rce pt ions form s t e canv on h as w h ich h e r m e m oir m us t be s k e t e d. Th e W it ge ns t in of t e T at ch t e h ract us ch os e as t e paradigm of l h anguage t e t h -funct h rut ionall ogic of R us s e l & l W h it h e ad's Principia. H is ch oice m ade pract e ical s e ns e , proj ct is e : if e -w you're going t t t cons t t e w orl from h um an l o ry o rue h d anguage , you'l be l be s t off ch oos ing t e m os t pe rs picuous , pre cis e t h ype of l anguage av abl ail e — one fait fult W it ge ns t in's be l f t at t e bus ine s s of l h o t e ie h h anguage is t o s t e fact — as w e l as s e lct t e m os t dire ct & uncont e rs ialre l ion at s l e ing h rov at be t e e n a l w anguage and it w orl of re fe re nt . Th e l t r, I it rat & s t s s , s d s at e e e re is s im pl t e re l ion of m irror t m irrore d; and t e crit rion by w h ich t y h at o h e o j udge t e pe rs picuit of a s t e m e nt is e nt l & onl it fide l y t t at h y at ire y y s it o h fe at of t e w orl it de not s : cf W 's 'Th e s t e m e nt is a pict of t e ure h d e at ure h fact 16 Now , t ch nical t e R us s e l l .' e l h y, l ogic t at com pris e s l ian h anguage 's Big Pict cons is t al & onl of 3 t ings : s im pl l ure s l y h e ogicalconne ct e s l e 'and,' iv ik 'or' & 'not propos it '; ions or 's t e m e nt ': & a v w of t e s e s t e m e nt as at s ie h at s 'at ic,' m e aning t at t e t h or falit of a com plx s t e m e nt l e om h h rut s y e at ik 'L ig is affabl and Be rt udw e rand is w e l-dre s s e d' de pe nds e nt l on t e l ire y h t h v ue of it cons t ue nt at ic propos it — t e pre nom inat rut al s it om ions h e m olcul propos it is t if & onl if it is t t at L ig is frie ndl e ar ion rue y rue h udw y and it is t rue t at Be rt h rand is dappe r. Th e at ic propos it om ions t at are h l anguage 's buil ding bl s are , for bot R us s e l and W it ge ns t in, 'l ock h l t e ogical l y inde pe nde nt of one anot e r: t e y do not affe ct one anot e r's t h v ue s , ' h h h rut al

14Eg 'W h at is t e us e of s t h udying ph il oph y,' W it ge ns t in w rot t a U.S. os t e e o s t nt w h il w ork ing on t e Inv s t ions in 19 46, 'if al t at it doe s for you is t ude e h e igat lh o e nabl you t t k w it s om e pl ibil y about s om e abs t e q ue s t e o al h aus it rus ions of l ogic, e t c., and if it doe s not im prov your t ink ing about t e im port q ue s t e h h ant ions of e v rye day l ? ife ' 15Sch ol ars t nd t s ch izofy W it ge ns t in, count rpos ing t e 'e arl W of t e e o t e e h y' h T at and t e 'l e ' W of t e Inv s t ions , Bl and Brow n Book s , & ract us h at h e igat ue Ph il oph icalGram m ar. os 16Se e t e T h ract us 2.1512 & .3 & .4;e m ph as is s uppl d. at ie

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onl t e v ue s of t os e l y h al h ogicalm olculs in w h ich t e y're conj d— e g, e e h oine 'Lis ch e e rfulor B is w e l e e ld,' `It is not t e cas e t at if B is w e al y t e n l e -h h h t h h L is ch e e rful e t Exce pt h e re 's t e k ick e r: s ince l ,' c. h anguage is t e w orl h d's 'm irror,' t e w orl is m e t ys ical com pos e d onl & e nt l of t os e h d aph l y y ire y h 'fact ' t at s t e m e nt in t e l s h at s h anguage s t and for. In ot e r w ords — t e w ords h h of t e T at 's firs t & fore m os t l — t e w orl is e v ryt ing t at is t e h ract us ine h d e h h h cas e ;t e w orl is not ing but a h uge m as s of dat of l h d h a, ogical dis cre t fact l y e s t at h av no int ic conne ct t one anot e r. Cf t e T at 1.2: 'Th e h e rins ion o h h ract us w orl fals apart int fact . . .' 1.2.1 'Any one [fact can e it e r be t e cas e , d l o s ] h h or notbe t e cas e , and e v ryt ing e le re m ains t e s am e .' h e h s h T. Pynch on, w h o h as done in l e rat for paranoia w h at Säch e r-M as och it ure did for w h ips , argue s in h is Grav y's R ainbow for w h y t e paranoid it h de l ion of com plt & m alv e nt conne ct us ee e ol ion, w h ack o & unplas ant e t ough it be , is pre fe rabl at las t t it oppos it — t e conv ion t at h e e o s e h ict h not ing is conne ct d t anyt ing e le & t at not ing h as anyt ing int h e o h s h h h rins icaly t do w it you. Plas e s e e t at t is Pynch onian cont l o h e h h raparanoia w oul be t e appropriat m e t ys ic for any re s ide nt of t e s ort of w orl t e d h e aph h d h T at de s cribe s . And M ark s on's K at l e s in j t s uch a w orl w h il ract us e iv us d, e h e r obj ct e s s e pis t e 'm irrors ' it pe rfe ct y, m anage s t capt t e ps ych ic e l l l o ure h fl or bot of s ol is m and of W it ge ns t in in t e s im pl & affe ct e s s but av h ips t e h e l s urre alpros e & s h ort aph oris t paragraph s t at are alo s o dis t iv of t e ic h s inct e h T at . K at 's t xt obs e s s ion is s im pl t find conne ct ract us e e ual y o ions be t e e n w t ings ,17 any s t h rands t at bind t e h is t h h oricalfact & e m piricaldat t at are s a h al h e r w orl com pris e s . And al ays — ne ce s s aril ge nuine conne ct l d w y— ions e l h e r. Al s h e can find is an occas ionals ynch ronicit t e fact t at ude l y: h h ce rt nam e s are s im il e nough t be rich l confus ing— W il ain ar o y l Gaddis iam and Tadde o Gaddi, for e xam pl— or t at ce rt l e s & e v nt h appe ne d t e h ain iv e s o ov rl in s pace & t e . And e v n t e s e fairl t in conne ct e ap im e h y h ions t out not urn t be 're al fe at s onl of h e r im aginat o ,' ure y ion; and e v n t e s e are none t e ls s e h h e is ol e , l e d int t e m s e le s by t e ir s t us as fact W h e n K at re cals , at ock o h v h at . e l for e xam pl, t at R e m brandt s uffe re d bank rupt & Spinoza e xcom e h cy m unicat ion, & t at giv n biograph ical dat t e ir pat s m ay w e l h av h , e a, h h l e int rs e ct d at s om e point in t e Am s t rdam of t e 1650s , t e onl e ncount r e e h e h h y e s h e can e v n im agine be t e e n t e m is : e w h
'I'm s orry aboutyour bank rupt R e m brandt cy, .' 'I'm s orry aboutyour e xcom m unicat Spinoza.' ion,

Th e bas ic argum e nt h rus t h e re is t at M ark s on, by draw ing on a de finit e -t h iv at is t m e t ys ics & t figuring it int art h as ach ie v d s om e t ing om ic aph rans o , e h
17t is h

conne ct ion-urge m ore fundam e nt and s cary t an t e h um anis t s yrup of al h h ic H ow ards End's 'O nl conne ct t e l t r re fe rs t re l ions be t e e n pe rs ons , t e y ': h at e o at w h form e r t t e pos s ibil y of any e xt o h it racranial univ rs e atal . . e l .

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l e t e de finit e ant e l ik h iv i-m odram a. H e h as m ade fact s ad. For K at 's s e e xis t nce it e l is t at of an at ic fact h e r l l s s m e t ys ical e s f h om , one ine aph l y ul at . H e r w orl is 'e m pt of al but dat t at are l e t e h ols in a t e im d y' l a h ik h e re t ar pat e rn, bot de fine d & im pris one d by t e e pis t m ic s t icul t h h e rands s h e k now s onl s h e can w e av . And w e av s h e doe s , cons t l unabl t s t y e e ant y, e o op, sel f-cons cious l m im ick ing Pe ne l of t e At ic ant uit t at obs e s s e s y ope h t iq y h h e r. But K at — unl e Ul s e s ' lgit m is t s s — is pow e rls s e it e r t k nit e ik ys e re e h o int ic pat e rn int or t dis m ant e w h at h e r m ind h as fabricat d. Sh e e nds rins t o o l e up, in t is re s pe ct not Pe ne l but bot Cl e m ne s t & Agam e m non; t e h , ope h yt ra h Cl e m ne s t w h om K at de s cribe s as k il Agam e m non 'aft r h e r ow n yt ra e l ing e grie f,' t e Agam e m non 'at h is bat , e ns nare d in t at ne t and be ing s t h h h abbe d t rough it And s ince no t ings pre s e nt conne ct e it e r w it e ach ot e r or h .' h h h h w it h e r, K at 's m e m orialproj ct in W M is s e ns ibl & ine v abl e v n as it h e e e it e e re inforce s t e occl d s ol is m t at is h e r pl t V h e r m e m orial h ude ips h igh . ia proj ct K at m ak e s 'e xt rnal h is t e , e e ' ory h e r ow n. Ie re w rit s it as pe rs onal e . Eat it as m ad v Gogh 't d t e at h is ow n pigm e nt .' It is not accide nt s , an rie o s al t at M ark s on's nov l ope ns w it t e Ge ne t pre pos it h e h h ic ional 'In t e h be ginning. . . .' It is ne it e r col h orfult nor aut orialpre t ns ion t at t e ic h e h h narrat or's 'irre v re nt m e dit ions ' range from cl s icalpros ody t D ut e at as o ch oil t Baroq ue q uart t t 19 t -ce nt s o es o h ury Fre nch R e al m t pos t t urf is o -As rot bas e bal It is not an accide nt (t ough it is an al ion) t at K at h as a fe t h l . h l us h e is for fe e ding t e w arp & w oof of t h ragic h is t int fire s — s h e is t e final ory o h h is t orian, it t dian and de s t or, cre m at e ach page of H e rodot s rage ruct ing us (t e 1s t h is t h orian!) as s h e re ads it Nor is it cut or cas ualt at s h e fe e l 'as if . e h s I h av be e n appoint d t e curat of al t e w orl l ing in m us e um s and e e h or lh d...,' iv pl acing h e r ow n paint ings ne xt t m as t rw ork s . Th e curat o e or's j ob— t o re cal ch oos e , arrange : t im pos e orde r & onl s o com m unicat m e aning— l , o y e is m arv l l s yne cdoch ic of t e l of t e s ol is t of t e s urv als t e ous y h ife h ips , h iv rat e gie s appos it one 's e xis t nce as m onad in a w orl of diffract d fact e e d e . Exce pta big q ue s t ion: w h e nce f s , if t e w orl is e m pt act h d y? D ale y Arch iv Pre s s 's j e t copy for W M de s cribe s t e s ol is m of t e k e ack h ips h M is t s s as 'obv l a m e t or for ul at l l s s .' And K at is re ious y aph t e one ine im e inde e d aw ful l l t ough h e r inge nuous announce m e nt — 'Ge ne ral l one y, h y s l y, e v n t e n, I w as l l are ls s e ffe ct e by far t an t e de e p-nons e ns ical e h one y'— e iv h h fact v w h ich s h e com m unicat s is ol ion's m e aning— 'O ne of t os e s ia e at h t ings pe opl ge ne ral adm ire d about R ube ns , e v n if t e y w e re not al ays h e l y e h w aw are of it w as t e w ay e v rybody in h is paint , h e ings w as al ays t w ouch ing e v rybody e le '; 'L e r t e s at oday I w il pos s ibl m as t l y urbat '; 'Pas cal. . . re fus e ing t s it on a ch air w it out an addit o h ional air at e it e r s ide of h im , s o as not ch h t fal int s pace .' Th ough for m e t e m os t affe ct o l o h ing re ndit ion of h e r s it ion is K at 's funnys ad de s cript uat e ions of t rying t pl t nnis w it out a o ay e h

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part r,18 probabl t e m os t fe cund s ym bol of K at 's dam nat t a w orl ne y h s e ion o d l ogical at ize d in it re flct e re l ion t l l om y s e iv at o anguage as bare dat rans fe r a-t conce rn t e narrat h or's obs e s s ion, m arv l l Am e rican, w it prope rt & e ous y h y e as e m e nt & h ous e s . Th e fol ing e xce rptis conde ns e d: s l ow
I do notbe l v I h av e v r m e nt d t e ot e r h ous e . ie e e e ione h h W h at I m ay h av m e nt d are h ous e s in ge ne ral al t e be ach , but s uch a e ione , ong h ge ne ral ion w oul not h av incl d t is h ous e , t is h ous e [unl e K at 's ow n] izat d e ude h h ik e be ing now h e re ne ar t e w at r. h e Alone can s e e of itfrom [m y] uppe r re ar w indow is a corne r of it roof. . . . l s O nce I did be com e aw are of it I unde rs t , ood t at t e re w oul alo h av t be a h h d s e o road lading t itfrom s om e w h e re , of cours e . e o Ye tfor t e l of m e I w as notabl t l e t e road, and for t e l s tt e . . . . h ife e o ocat h h onge im In any cas e m y fail t l e t e road e v nt l be gan t be com e a w h ol ne w ure o ocat h e ual y o l y s ortof pe rplxit in m y e xis t nce . (88-89 ) e y e

It of cours e t m pt 's e ing, giv n t e book 's crit e h icalim pos it of W it ge ns t in ion t e as re fe re nt & m ode l& l e r, t re ad K at 's l l s s as it e l an int l ct ov o e one ine s f e l ual e m e t or, as j t a funct of t e radicals k e pt m t e T at 's l aph us ion h icis h ract us ogical at is m it e l im agine s . Be caus e , again, w h e nce and w h e re fore t e al om s f h l im port 'fact ' w h ich , for bot W it ge ns t in & K at , t e w orl 'fal apart ant s h t e e h d l s int 19 but doe s not com pris e ?Are fact — ge nuine e xis t nt — int ic t t e o' s e s rins o h Ext rior?adm it ing of count nance onl v t e frail s of s e ns e -dat & ine t e y ia h t ie a duct ion?O r, w ay w ors e , are t e y not pe rh aps pe rv rs e l de duct e , product h e y iv s of t e v h ead t at count h ery h enances t em as Ext h erior fact & as such genuinel s y ont Th is l t r pos s ibil y— if int rnal d, re al be l v d— is a t ic? at e it e ize l ie e y rack t at h m ak e s s t at s k e pt m & t e n s ol is m be fore h e ading s t ops icis h ips raigh t int ino s anit It t e l t r pos s ibil y t at inform s t e ne uras t e nia of D e s cart s 's y. 's h at e it h h h e M e dit ions & s o birt s m ode rn ph il oph y (and w it it t e dis t iv l at h os h h inct e y m ode rn 'al nat ie ion' of t e indiv h idualfrom al w h ols bot nat l e h ural& s ocial ). K at fl s w it t is Cart s ian nigh t are re pe at dl as in: e irt h h e m e y,
W h at h appe ne d aft r I s t e d t w rit about Ach ile s w as t at h al ay t rough e art o e l h fw h t e s e nt nce I be gan t t ink abouta cat ins t ad.20 h e o h , e Th e cat I be gan t t ink about ins t ad w as t e cat out ide of t e brok e n w indow in o h e h s h

18pl cont us inualre fe re nce t bunch e s of t nnis bal bouncing al ov r t e pl o e l s l e h ace m ade m e re al t nnis bal are about t e be s t m acros copic s ym bolt e re is for t e ize e l s h h h fl of at is t fact . . ux om ic . 19 T ract us 1.2 at 20Since I can't find any m ore grace fulpl ace t s t it in, lt m e inv e you, w it o ick e it h t is l as e xe m pl t s e e anot e r coolform alh orizon-e xpans ion M ark s on e ffe ct h ine ar, o h s in W M — t e m ode of pre s e nt ion is ls s 's t am of cons cious ne s s ' t an 's t am of h at e re h re cons cious ut e rance '; M ark s on's t ch niq ue h e re s h are s t e as s ociat e q ual ie s of t e h iv it J oyce an s .o.c. but diffe rs in be ing 'dire ct d'; at w h at or w h om it dire ct d be com e s e 's e t e nov l im pl , or ant pl , & account for a 'narrat e m ov m e nt t at ls s h e 's icit i-, ot s iv e ' h 's e l ar or e v n circul t an s piral ine e ar h .

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t e room ne xt t t is one , at w h ich t e t h o h h ape fre q ue nt y s crat e s w h e n t e re is a l ch h bre e ze . W h ich is t s ay t at I w as not act l t ink ing about a cat e it e r, t e re be ing no o h ual h y h h cate xce ptins ofar as t e s ound of s crat ing re m inds m e of one . h ch As t e re w e re no coins on t e fl of R e m brandt s t h h oor 's udio, e xce pt ins ofar as t e h configurat of t e pigm e ntre m inde d R e m brandtof t e m . (62) ion h h

Th e t ing is t at t e paint d coins t at foold R e m brandt & R e m brandt h h h e h e , , & Ach il s , t l oo, are al j t l e 't e cat h e re : M ark s on's narrat h as e l us ik h ' or not ing lft e xce pt 's ounds of s crat ing'— ie m e m ory & im aginat & t e h e ch ion h Engl h l is anguage — w it w h ich t cons t h o ruct any s ort of Ext rior. It fl is e s ux t at of K at 's ow n h e ad; w h y it re s is t orde r or popul ion is at ribut e t h e s at t abl o t e v ry de s pe rat h e ion w it w h ich K at t s t orde r & popul e it h e r h e rie o at : s e arch 's fe v re d pat os e ns ure s dis s at fact e h is ion. Not t at by page 63, aft r e h e t e s h ine of m e t ys icals crupul ne s s h as fade d, K at goe s back t t k h aph ous e o al ing about t e unre alcat as 're al Th e big e m ot h .' ionalt ing is t at w h e t e r h h , h h e r t at e nt of l re m inguis t cons t s as e xis t nt is out of t ic ruct e s ouch w it re al y h it or s im pl an ine v abl re s pons e t t e nov l re al y, t e s ol is t nat y it e o h e 's it h ips ic ure of t at re al y, as f as K at 's conce rne d, re m ains unch ange d. A doublh it ar e e bind t m ak e K ie rk e gaard, Sh ak e s pe are & W it ge ns t in alproud. o t e l

St l as I re ad & appre ciat W M , m ore is at s t e for K at in count nancing il , e ak e e t e pos s ibil y t at h e r ow n 'e rrors ' are al t at k e e p t e w orl e xt t an h it h lh h d ant h q ue s t ions of m e t ys ics or e v n of m adne s s . K at 's pre t y s anguine about aph e e t t e pos s ibil y of ins anit j e s about h av be e n m ad, be fore , at t e s , h it y— ok ing im 't e s out of m ind.' Act l w h at are final at s t e h e re s e e m t be is s ue s im ual y, l y ak o of e t ics , of guil & re s pons ibil y. O ne of t e t ings t at put iv l s o h t it h h h at e y t ure d W it ge ns t in in t e t e nt ye ars be t e e n t e T at and t e ort t e h w y w h ract us h Inv s t ions w as t at a l e igat h ogical at is t m e t ys ics adm it e xact y l om ic y aph s l not ing of e t ics or m oralv ue or q ue s t h h al ions about w h at it is t be h um an. o It h is t t at W it ge ns t in t e pe rs on care d about w h at m ade t ings good 's ory h t e h h or righ t or w ort w h il. H e did t ings l e v unt e r for t e Aus t h e h ik ol e h rian infant ry in 19 18 w h e n h e coul & s h oul h av 4F'd out l e giv h is h uge pe rs onal d d e , ik e inh e rit ance aw ay t pe opl (R ile am ong t e m ). A de adl s e rious as ce t o e k h y ic, W it ge ns t in l e d h is adul l in bare room s de v of e v n a l p or t e iv t ife oid e am coccyx-ne ut ch air. But it w as no accide nt t at t e T at , v ry m uch ral h h ract us e t e product of t e s am e V nna t at birt e d '. . .t o of t e m os t pow e rful h h ie h h w h and s ym pt at m ov m e nt of m ode rn cul : ps ych oanal is and at om ic e s t ure ys onal m us ic, bot v s t at s pe ak of t e h om e ls s ne s s of m ode rn m an,'21 ne v rh oice h h e e t e ls s it e l birt e d t e V nna Circl & t e ph il oph ical s ch ool of h e s f h h ie e h os L ogical Pos it is m t e Circl prom ul e d: a ce nt t ne t of Pos it is m iv h e gat ral e iv being t at t e onl ut erances t at m ade any sense at al w ere t e w el h h y t h l h l -form ed

21Se e W il l iam Barre t , 'W it ge ns t in t e Pil ,' in Th e Ilus ion of T ch niq ue , t t e h grim l e D oublday '78. e

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dat rans fe rring propos it a-t ions of s cie nce , t us t at cons ide rat h h ions of 'v ue ' al s uch as t os e of e t ics or ae s t e t or norm at e pre s cript w e re re al h h h ics iv ion l y j t a confus e d m is h m as h of s cie nt us ific obs e rv ion & e m ot e ut e rance , at iv t s uch t at s aying 'K il is not righ t re al am ount j t t s aying 'K il h l ing ' l y s us o l ing: Y UCK !' Th e fact t at t e m e t ys ics of t e T at not onl coul h h aph h ract us y dn't t e account of but pre t y m uch de nie d t e coh e re nt pos s ibil y of t ings l e ak t h it h ik e t ics , v ue s , s pirit it & re s pons ibil y h ad t e re s ul t at 'W it ge ns t in, h al ual y it h t h t e t is clar-h e ade d & int l ct l h one s t m an, w as h ope ls s l at odds w it h e e l ual e y e y h h im s e l 22 For W it ge ns t in w as a q ue e r s ort of as ce t H e did de ny h is f.' t e ic. body & s t e h is s e ns e s — e xce pt not as w it m os t m onk is h pe rs onal ie s , arv , h it s im pl t e nj a cons e q ue nt nouris h m e nt of t e s pirit H is big t ing s e e m s y o oy h . h t h av be e n de nying h is s e l by de nying, t rough h is e s s ays at ph il o e f h os oph icalt h , t e t ings m os t im port t h im . H e ne v r act l w rot rut h h ant o e ual y e anyt ing about t e exq uisit t h h e ensions bet een at ism & at endant sol w om t ipsism on t e one h and & dis t iv l h um an v ue s & q ual ie s on t e ot e r. But h inct e y al it h h , s e e , t is is e xact y w h at M ark s on doe s in W M ; and in t is w ay M ark s on's h l h nov l s ucce e ds in s pe ak ing w h e re W it ge ns t in is m ut , w e av e t e e ing K at 's e obs e s s ion w it re s pons ibil y (for t e w orl e m pt s s ) gorge ous l int h it h d's ine y o t e ch aract r's m andal of ce re bral h e a conundrum & s pirit pov rt ual e y. O f t e m any s pe cul v age s W M de m ands , K at 's ce nt ide nt h ar ant e ral ificat ion w it t e 'fact of h is t h h ' oricalpe rs onage is w it H e ln of Troy/ is arl — t e h e H ik h Face Th at L aunch e d 1000 Sh ips & t e body t at l be h ind t e Troj h h ay h an W ar's im pre s s iv cas ual e t y-count23 And t e v h icl for t is ide nt . h e e h ificat ion w it H e ln is a dis t iv l fe m al s e ns e of 're s pons ibil y': l e t e Il h e inct e y e it ik h iad's H e ln, K at is h aunt d by t e pas s iv s e ns e t at 'e v ryt ing is h e r faul.' e e e h e h e h t And K at 's re pe at d at e m pt at de fe nding H e ln agains t t e ch arge of e e t s e h ins t ing e xact y w h at e m pt d Ionia of m e n h av a com puliv & s h ril igat l ie e s e l ins is t nce aboutt e m t atbe s pe ak t m uch prot s t e h h oo e ing:
I h av al ays h arbore d s ince re doubt t at H e ln w as t e caus e of t at w ar, by e w s h e h h t e w ay. h A s ingl Spart girlaft r al e an , e l . As a m at e r of fact t e w h ol t ing w as unde niabl a m e rcant e propos it t h e h y il ion. Al l t years of it24 j t see w h o w oul pay t en , ust o d ariff t w h om , so as t be abl t m ak e use o o e o

22D r. J e s D . W al , unpubl h e d re s pons e t h is s on's crie s for h e l w it am l ace is o p h W it ge ns t in's M is t s s & T at L t e re ract us ogico-Ph il oph icus . os 23Alo t s rue t at K at ide nt s cl e l w it Pe ne l , Cl e m ne s t h e ifie os y h ope yt ra, Ev , e Age m e m non, & part arl Cas s andra, t e m ad proph e t s s w h o w arne d about icul y h e arm e d m e n ins ide e m pt gift . But I'm t ink ing Cas s andra's im port y s h ance is m ore a funct ion of K at 's s e l-cons cious ne s s about h e r ow n ide nt e f ificat ion w it H e ln and h e fe m inine cul pabil y, aboutw h ich m ore be l . it ow 24(t e s am e pe riod of t e K at s pe nt t e rs ing t e ancie nt & m ode rn e m pt h im e rav h y w orl , fl ds opping in m us e um s and 'l ing' for pe opl) ook e

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of a ch anne l w at r. . . . of e St l I find it e xt il , raordinary t at young m e n die d t e re in a w ar t at l ago, and h h h ong t e n die d in t e s am e pl t re e t ous and ye ars aft r t at (59 , cf 8-9 , 22) h h ace h h e h .

Is s ue s orbit H e ln & fe m ininit & guil m ark a s ort of t it in t is ing e y t rans ion h nov l& it re ading. H av I ye t m e nt d t at a not e fe at of W it ge ne s e ione h abl ure t s t in's M is t s s , m al-w rit e n, is t at t e nov l com pos e d e nt l of t e e re e t h h e 's ire y h w ords of a fe m al ch aract r?And it is in t rm s of ge nde r & aut e nt y, I e e e h icit t ink , t at M ark s on's book be com e s at once las t pe rfe ct & m os t int re s t h h e e ing. M os t 19 88is h . M os t im port as not j t a l e rary t pos it of a ant us it rans ion ph il oph ic pos it os ion but alo a t ce nde nce of re ce iv d doct . H e re s rans e rine D e s cart s & K ant & W it ge ns t in ce as e be ing ov rt crit e t e e icalt ouch s t s one and be com e s pringboards for a fl e d, m ov m e dit ion on l l s s , aw ing at one ine l anguage & ge nde r. Se e , H om e r's H e ln is 'guily' finaly not be caus e of anyt ing s h e 's done e t l h but be caus e of w h o s h e is , h ow s h e appe ars , w h at s h e l s l e ; be caus e of ook ik t e e ffe ct s h e h as , h orm onal e m ot h l y/ ional on m e n w h o're re ady t k il & l y, o l die ov r w h at t e y're m ade t fe e l K at , l e H e ln, is h aunt d by an e h o . e ik e e uns pok e n but oppre s s iv s e ns e t at '. . .e v ryt ing is h e r [ow n] faul W h at e h e h t .' e v ryt ing?H ow cl e is s h e t t e H e ln s h e inv e s ? W e l firs t off, it e h os o h e ok 25 l , 's e as y t s e e h ow radicals k e pt m — D e s cart s 's h e l & K at 's v s t e — o icis e l e e ibul yie l at once om nipot nce & m oraloppre s s ion. If Th e W orl is e nt l a ds e d ire y funct of Fact t at not onl re s ide in but h ailf ion s h y rom one 's ow n h e ad, one is j t as R e s pons ibl for t at w orl as is a m ot e r for h e r ch il or h e rs e l Th is us e h d h d, f. seem s st raigh t forw ard. But w h at ls s clar & w ay rich e r is t e pe cul 's e e h iar s l t is om nire s pons ibil y t e s w h e n t e re s pons ibl m onad in q ue s t ant h it ak h e ion is h is t orical pas s iv , pe r- & conce iv d as an obj ct and not a s ubj ct ie l y e e e e — w h e n one is a w om an, one w h o can e ffe ct ch ange & cat ys m not as an acl age nt but m e re l as a pe rce iv d e nt y . . . pe rce iv d by h is t y e it e orical act e l iv y t s t t roids w h os e gl e os e ands pos it e l gus h w it age ncy. To be an obj ct of iv y h e de s ire (by h irs ut ch aract rs ), s pe cul ion (by h irs ut aut or), one s e l t e e e at e h f h 'product of m al h e ads & s h aft is t be al os t Cl s icaly fe m inize d, ls s ' e s o m as l e Ev t an H e ln, 're s pons ibl' w it out fre e dom t ch oos e , act or fore be ar. e h e e h o , Th e [m y] t rribl bl e t as s um pt is t at re ce iv d W e s t rn pe rce pt e y ank ion h e e ions of w om e n as m oralage nt div int t os e of H e le nic & t os e of Ev s ide o h l h ian (Ev -is h ) re s pons ibil y; t e cl I can s upport is t at M ark s on, de s pit h is e it h aim h e w ors t int nt , m anage s t t e ions o rium ph ov r 400 ye ars of pos t il e -M t onic t radit ion and t pre s e nt t e H e l nic as t e m ore poignant ce rt y m ore o h l e h — ainl appos it — s it ion of w om e n in any s ys t m w h e re appe arance re m ains a e uat e 'picture ' or 'm ap' of ontol ogy. Th is pre s e ntation s e e m s ne ith e r pre - nor

pre t y cl e for re ade rs : ov r h al t e re v w e rs of W M m is nam e d t e t os e f h ie h narrat H e ln. or e

25Ev nt y ide l

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pos t m inis t it j t darne d im aginat e , inge nious e v n; and as s uch — -fe : 's us iv e de s pit s om e fail s of aut orialv ion & ne rv — fl s or fal on it ow n e ure h is e ie l s s m e rit . s Th e de gre e of s ucce s s w it w h ich M ark s on h as h e re re nde re d t e v h h oice & ps ych e & pre dicam e nt of a fe m al, pos t it is t or ot e rw is e , is a v xe d e -Pos iv h e is s ue . Som e of t e fict I t t w rit is in fe m inine v , and I cons ide r h ion ry o e oice m ys e l s e ns it e t t e t ch nical it f iv o h e / pol ical problm s inv v d in 'cros s e ole w rit ing,' and I found t e fe m al pe rs ona h e re com pe l h e l & re al Som e ing . fe m al re ade rs on w h om I'v fois t d W M re port finding it ls s s o. Th e y e e e e obj ct d not s o m uch t t e v e e o h oice & s ynt (bot of w h ich are gre at in W M ax h in a w ay I can't de m ons t e e xce pt by q uot l e 20 page s v rbat ) as t rat ing ik e im o s om e of t e bal r w ays M ark s on goe s about cont h de inual re m inding t e l y h re ade r t at K at is a w om an. Th e cons t re fe re nce s t K at 's m e ns e s , for h e ant o e e xam pl, w e re cit d as cl y. M e ns t ion doe s com e up a l , & for e e unk ruat ot re as ons t at re m ain narrat e l obs cure ; and if it is n't a cl y al ion t h iv y unk l us o Pas s ion or m art yrdom t e n it an e q ual cl y (be caus e bot uns ubt e & h 's l unk y h l ot e ) re m inde r of ge nde r: ye s , w om e n are pe rs ons w h os e v ios aginas re gul y ble d, but re pe at & dw e l on it re m inds one of bad s cie nce fict arl e ing l ing ion w h e re al ns are m ak ing cont ie inualre fe re nce t cranialant nnae t at w e re o e h , t e y & t e narrat e v h h iv oice t y al n/ ie n-e m pat ic, w oul be as unq ue s rul ie al h d t d & q uot ione idian a fact of l as e ars or nos e s or h air.26 Pe rs onal I'm ife l y ne ut on t e m e ns t ion point W h at I'm ne gat e on is t e part ar ral h ruat . iv h icul s t e gy M ark s on s om e t e s e m pl t t t e xpl K at 's 'fe m al' fe e l rat im oys o ry o ain e e ings bot of ulim at guil & of ulim at l l s s . Th e re al t or h t e t t e one ine is ic ch aract r-bas e d e xpl ion is not t ank God, j t t at K at 's be e n lft in e anat , h us h e e t e e m ot h ionall urch by al s ort of obj ct l s e ifying m e n, ps ych ic abandone rs w h o range from h e r h us band (v arious l nam e d by h e r Sim on or Te rry or y s om e t e s Adam ) t h e r final l e r, univ l cale d L n. Th e im o ov ocaly l ucie proffe re d e xpl ion is rat e r t at back in t e h al anat h h , h cyon pre -Fal days w h e n l t e w orl w as h um anl popul e d, K at be t d h e r h us band w it ot e r h d y at e raye h h m e n, & t at s ubs e q ue nt y h e r l t e boy (v h l it l arious l Sim on or, gul again y p, Adam ) die d, in M e xico, pos s ibl of m e ningit , & t at t e n h e r h us band lft y is h h e h e r, about t n ye ars ago, 't e out of m ind,' at t e s am e ps ych oh is t e im h orical point at w h ich K at 's w orl e m pt d and t e dias poric q ue s t for anyone e le e d ie h s

is not m y anal ogy, but I can't t ink of a be t e r one , e v n t ough t is is n't al h t e h h l t at good; but I s e e t e point & t t you do— it one of t os e al -be l is s ue s h h rus 's h arm l w h e re t e narrat e v h iv oice is clarl com m unicat t a re ade r w h il pre t nding not e y ing o e e t as in dial o, ogue l e 'L ik ord, Cragm ont t e v rm il of your M O TH ER t t is , h e ion at oo l ing e v n m ore l ook e urid agains t t e de ad-w h it of your pris on pal now t at t e h e l or h h circul ion's re t at urne d t t e lgs you s m as h e d t o h e rying t out a 74-car grain t o run rain in D e cat IL t at bal y ye t s om e h ow alo ch il nigh t in 19 79 '— `cl y' is about t e ur h m s l unk h be s tanal is for s t l e t is . ys uff ik h

26Th is

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al e in t e w orl at al com m e nce d, a s e arch t at ld K at t t e e m pt iv h d l h e e o h y be ach w h e re s h e now re s ide s & de cl s t no one . H e r be t aim o rayal & h e r s s on's de at & h us band's de part — al d t ov r & ov r, al it coyl h ure l ude o e e be y— are t e Ev diagnos is of h e r t gre s s ion & m e t ys ical dam nat h ian rans aph ion; 27 t e y're pre s e nt d, w it an ins is t nce im pos s ibl t ignore , as K at 's Fal h e h e e o e l acros s ge nde r, a Fal from t e grace s of a com m unit in w h ich s h e is bot l h y h age nt & obj ct int a pos t om ant W it ge ns t inian w orl of ut e r e 28 o -R ic, t e d t s ubj ct it & pat ol e iv y h ogical re s pons ibil y, int t e part ar int l ct / it o h icul e l ual e e m ot ional oralis ol ion a 19 88 U.S. re ade r as s ociat s w it m e n, m als / m at e h e al nat d v age ncy from an Ext rior w e h av t obj ct us e up, burn t e ie e ia e e o e ify, h page s of in orde r t re m ain s ubj ct , ont ogical s e cure in s h ie l & s h aft o e s ol l y d . Al t is s t I find fe cund & com pe l lh uff l a pre gnant m arriage of At ic & ing, t Ch ris t re duct ian ions of w om e n. But t e de at of h e r s on & s e parat from h h ion h e r h us band are alo in W M pre s e nt d as a v ry part ar e m ot s e e icul ional 'e xpl ion' of K at 's ps ych ic 'condit anat e ion,' a pe cul re duct of M ark iar ion s on's ow n t w h ich I k ind of obj ct Th e pre s e nt ion of pe rs onalh s t as o e . at ory pre s e nt e xpl ion, one t at t re at ns t m ak e W M j t anot e r anat h h e o us h m adw om an m onol ogue in t e O ph e l R h ys t h ia– radit ion, is obl ue & e v r iq e art , but s t lprom ine nt & ins is t nt e nough t m ak e it h ard [for m e ] t ful il e o o bl it int nt ink s e :
Pos s ibl [I w as not m ad] be fore t at [W h e n I w e nt s out ] To v it at t e grav of a y h . h is h e ch il I h ad l t. . . nam e d Adam . d os W h y h av I w rit e n t ath is nam e w as Adam ? e t h Sim on is w h atm y l t e boy w as nam e d. it l Tim e out of m ind. M e aning t at one can e v n m om e nt y forge t t e nam e of h e aril h one 's onl ch il w h o w oul be t irt by now ? ) y d, d h y (9
27cf in

t is re s pe ct h :

Aft r h e k ne w t at h e h ad fal n, out ards and dow n, aw ay from t e Ful e h l e w h l ne s s , h e t d t re m e m be r w h att e Ful s s h ad be e n. . . . rie o h l ne H e did re m e m be r, butfound h e w as s ilnt and coul nott l ot e rs . e , d e l h H e w ant d t t l ot e rs t at s h e lapt fart e s t forw ard and fe l int a Pas s ion e o el h h e h l o apartf rom h is e m brace . Sh e w as in gre at agony, and w oul h av be e n s w al e d up by t e s w e e t s s , d e l ow h ne h ad s h e notre ach e d a l it and s t im , oppe d. Butt e Pas s ion w e nton w it outh e r, and pas s e d be yond t e l it h h h im . Som e t e s h e t ough th e w as aboutt s pe ak , butt e s ilnce cont d. im h o h e inue H e w is h e d t s ay: s t ngt ls s and f m al f . o re h e e e ruit — w / m ph as is s uppl d, from V e nt 's AD 19 9 Plrom a, part of t e Ne oe ie al inus e h Pl onic Gnos t m t at funct at icis h ions as a m e t ys ical count rpoint t t e ant aph e o h iide al m of t e T at , & s ignal nice l M ark s on's art t am biv e nce about is h ract us s y is ic al w h e t e r K at 's bind is ul at l H e l nic or Ev h e t im e y l e ian. 28t is com m unit be ing not ing ot e r t an s e xuals ocie t as l ne d by t e m als h y h h h y im h e w h o w rot s cript & e pic, t e s e m als t e m s e le s int rpre t d & t figure d by e ure h e h v e e rans M ark s on. . .

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As a m at e r of fact I be l v it w as w h e n I w e nt back t M e xico, t at I [ge s s oe d a t ie e o h bl canv & t e n s t d at it for a l t e & t e n burne d it In t e h ous e w h e re ank as h are ong im h ]. h I h ad once l e d w it Sim on, and w it Adam . iv h h I am bas ical pos it e t atm y h us band [Sim on/ rry] w as nam e d Adam . (24) l y iv h Te Th e re is no l r any problm in re gard t m y h us band's nam e , by t e w ay. Ev n onge e o h e if I ne v r s aw h im again, once w e s e parat d aft r Sim on die d. (52) e e e Alh ough probabl I did lav out t is part be fore , about h av t y e e h ing t e n l e rs ak ov w h e n I w as s t l ilAdam 's w ife . (225)

I'm t d Sh iit w om e n w al s w addld & v ild in de fe re nce t t e ir ol e k e e e o h re s pons ibil y t be inv ibl & s o k e e p poor bare l e e ping-it oge t e r it o is e y-k -t h m als from be ing m adde ne d by e xpos ure t fair s e xual y. I find in W M t e e o it h s am e com plx & s cary blnd of H e l nic & Ev e e l e ian m is ogyny— H e ln e e s s e nt l guil as obj ct & Ev guil as s ubj ct t m pt s s . Th ough I ial y t y e e t y e , e re pe rs onal find t e H e l nic com pone nt m ore int re s t & a be t e r e as e l y h l e e ing t m e nt int cont m porary pol ics , I find M ark s on's v l ion be t e e n t e o e it acil at w h t o m ode l narrat e l j t d & ps ych ol w s iv y us ifie ogical ne at It is w h e n, t ough , l y . h h e s e e m s t s e t l on t e Ev as bot ch aract r-arch e t o te h ian h e ype & narrat e iv e xpl ion— as t e argum e nt t d s upra & be yond indicat s — t at h is anat h race e h W it ge ns t in's M is t s s be com e s m os t conv nt t e re e ionalas fict ion. It is h e re , t oo, t at for m e t e nov l fale rs t ch nicaly by be t h h e t e l raying it aut orial s h pre s e nce as t orough l m al, out ide K at & / w om anh ood ge ne raly. As h y e s e or l in m os t cut ing-e dge e xpe rim e nt fict , t t is t ch nicalfl s e rious l t al ions oo, h e aw y at e nuat s t e t e m at . It s e e m s v ry int re s t t m e t at M ark s on h as t e h h ics e e ing o h cre at d a K at w h o dw e l s o conv e e l s incingl in a h e l of ut e r s ubj ct it ye t y l t e iv y, cannot final h im s e l h e l but obj ct h e r— ie by 'e xpl , l y, f p e ify aining' h e r m e t aph ys icalcondit as e m ot ion ionalps ych ical re ducing h e r bot ld m is s iv t / , te e o a m ad m onol ogue by a s m art w om an driv n m ad by t e cons e q ue nce s of e h cul e s e xualage ncy, M ark s on is bas ical s ubs um ing K at unde r one of pabl l y e t e com parat e l s t rubrics v w h ich w e guys appare nt y m us t organize h iv y ock ia l & proce s s fe y m ys t ry, fe m inine pat os , St ngt ls s & Fe m al fruit e h re h e e . K at 's Fal os t ns ibl one int t e gh as t y s pirit e l e , y o h l ual m anife s t ion of a at m as cul l l ine y ogic-bound t e nt t -ce nt w ie h ury m e t ys ic, be com e s , unde r a aph h ars h re ading, l t e m ore t an a(n ine v abl? s t bl int al nat from it l h it e ) um e o ie ion t e h e roine 's rol— h e r s e l as m ot e r, w ife , l e r, be l e d. Unde r t is h e f— h ov ov h re ading, K at 's e m pt s ol is m doe s not ge t t be com e a k ind of grim e y ips o inde pe nde nce from obj ct e ificat ion: K at h as rat e r s im pl e xch ange d t e e h y h rol of re alw ife of re alm an for t e part of none xis t nt m is t s s of an e h e re abs ol e ge nius of obj ct ut e ificat 29 indis pos e d t ard h e t ros e xualunion. ion ow e And I found it w e ird t at m any of t e fe m al re ade rs w h o dis approv d h h e e t ings l e W M 's m e ns t ion-cue s as 'ringing fale ' ne v rt e ls s approv d h ik ruat s e h e e
29 'Th e

w orl is e v ryt ing t atis t e cas e . Th e w orl fal apartint fact .' d e h h h d l s o s

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M ark s on's prov ion of K at 's os t ns ibl 'm ot at is e e e iv ion,' h e re . Th ough I'm com ing t acce pt t at it t e pe t dl s t o h 's h rifie y andard crit icall w / t fict ine r/ ion t e s e U.S. days : re ade rs w ant s t s about v ry part ar pe rs ons w it h orie e icul h v ry part ar q ual ie s in v ry part ar circum s t e icul it e icul ance s w h os e ge ne s is m us t on s om e lv l be pe rs onal is t e e l y-h oric & ps ych ol ogical as w e l as l 'm e re l int l ct or pol ical or s pirit , pan-h um an. Th e 's ucce s s ful y' e l ual e it ual ' st ory 't ce nds ' it t orough going indiv rans s h idual y/ it idios yncracy by s ubs um ing t e pe cul ie s of ch aract r & circum s t h iarit e ance t ce rt broad arch e t s o ain ype & m yt ope iae inh e rit d from J h e ung or Sh ak e s pe are or H om e r or Fre ud or Sk inne r or Te s t e nt Part arit birt s form ; fam il y bre e ds cont nt am . icul y h iarit e . R are l is our uncrit y ical inh e rit ance of e arl W it ge ns t inian & L y t e ogical Pos it is t m ode l s o obv iv s ious as in our acade m ic & ae s t e t pre j h ic udice t at h s ucce s s fulfict e ncl e s rat e r t an ope ns up, organize s fact rat e r t an ion os h h s h h unde rm ine s t e m , diagnos e s rat e r t an ge nuflct . At ic m yt s w e re , ye s , h h h e s t h form s of 'e xpl ion.' But it no accide nt t at gre at m yt os w as m ot e re d anat 's h h h by t e s am e cul h t ure t at birt e d gre at h is t h h ory— or t at K at div s h e r h e ide re ading- & burning-t e be t e e n cl s ical t die s & h is t s . To t e im w as rage orie h e xt nt t at m yt e nrich e s fact & h is t e h h s ory, it s e rv s a Pos it is t & fact e iv ual funct ion. But t e U.S.'s ow n e xpe rie nce w it m yt -m ak ing & m yt -w ors h ip h h h h — from W as h ingt & ch e rrie s t J s on & h ick ory t L on o ack o incol & l t n ogs o dim e nov l & W e s t as w om b & s oul t e at t e t e t t Pre s ly & es 's h re o c., c. o e D e an & M onroe & W ayne & R e agan— an e xpe rie nce t at inform s & infe ct h s t e v ry ph ys ics of re ading, t h e oday— confirm s t at m yt is final com pe l h h l y l ing onl in it oppos it t h is t & dat & t e cingul of J t Th e Fact , y s ion o ory a h um us s M a'am . O nl in t at oppos it can s t e nrich & t figure & t ce nd y h ion ory rans rans e xpl ion. K at 's idios yncrat form ul 're al pas t in W M is n't w e ak as anat e ic/ aic ' an e xpl ion; it is for m e w e ak & dis appoint be caus e it an e xpl anat ing 's anat ion. J t as it w oul h av be e n w e ak & dis appoint t h av 'e xpl d' & us d e ing o e aine part arize d K at 's fe e l of is ol ion & im pris onm e nt not v t e ide a icul e ings at , ia h t at t e t h h yping h ands s h e h ol out in s e arch of com m union form t e v ry ds h e barrie r be t e e n Se l & W orl t e y're t w f d h rying t punct , but s ay, by pl o ure , unk ing h e r dow n via s h ipw re ck on a de s e rte d is l á l TV's Giligan or and a l Gol ding's fl ord s ch ool yl boys or th e Pol 's top- 40 'M e s s age in a ice Bot l.' te I'm s t ruggl t m ak e clar, I t ink , t at it it ow n m as cul l pre j ing o e h h 's s ine y udice d im pe rfe ct ion t at il inat s h ow im port h l um e ant & am bit ious W M is as an e xpe rim e nt pie ce of l e -'80s l e rat . As a w oul al at it ure d-be w rit r I l e h ow e ik t e nov linv rt re ce iv d form ul for s ucce s s fulfict by s ucce e ding h e e s e ae ion las t w h e re it conform s t t e m m os t t t e pre cis e e xt nt t at K at is e o h : o h e h e pre s e nt d h e re as circum s t ialy & h is t e ant l oricaly uniq ue , t j t t at e xt nt l o us h e is t e nov l m ons t h e 's rous pow e r at e nuat d. It w h e n K at is las t part ar, t e 's e e icul las t 'm ot at d' by s om e art l pre s e nt d but s t e iv e ful y e andardl dige s t e y ibl Ev V e nt ian/ al inian/ t udian t pos -Fre raum a, t at h e r ch aract r & pl t are h e igh

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m os t e - & affe ct ing. For (obv ious t o t is s e e m s ) t t e e xt nt t at K at is h h o h e h e not m ot at iv ional uniq ue , s h e can be al of us , and t e e m pt diffract of l y l h y ion K at 's w orl can m ap or pict t e de s acral d & paradoxicals ol is m e d ure h ize ips of U.S. pe rs ons in a cat l-h e rd culure t at w ors h ips onl t e Trans pare nt te t h y h I, of guil y pas s iv s ol is t & s k e pt t t il e ips s ics rying t w arm s oft h ands at t e o h com put r-e nh ance d fire of dat in an Inform at e a ion Age w h e re re ce iv d e im age & e nforce d e ros re pl act e count nance or s acralm ys t ry as ace iv e e e nds , v ue , m e aning. Et Th e fam il bit & m oan t at M ark s on's nov l al c. iar ch h e prom is e s & com e s cl e t t figuring, dram at os o rans izing, m yt ol h ogizing v ia bl bal fact and d . I t ink finaly t e re as on I obj ct t W M 's at e m pt t giv K at 's l l s s h l h e o t o e e one ine a part ar 'm ot at icul iv ion' v re ce iv d fe m inine t ia e raum a is t at it j t h 's us unne ce s s ary. For M ark s on h as in t is book s ucce e de d al ady on al t e h re lh re al im port lv l of fict l y ant e e s ionalconv ion. H e h as fls h e d t e abs t ict e h ract s k e t e s of W it ge ns t inian doct ch t e rine int t e concre t t e at of h um an o h e h re l l s s . In s o doing h e 's capt d far be t e r t an ps e udobiograph y w h at one ine ure t h m ade W it ge ns t in a t t e ragic figure & a v im of t e v ry diffract d ict h e e m ode rnit h e h e l d inaugurat . M ark s on h as w rit e n an e rudit , bre at y pe e t e h t ingl ce re bralnov lw h os e pros e is crys t & w h os e v ak y e al oice riv t & w h os e es concl ion de fie s you not t cry. Pl h e 's alo, in a w ay it s e e m for al t e us o us s 'd lh w orl h e doe s n't k now , produce d a pow e rful crit d l y icalm e dit ion on l at one l s s 's re l ion t l ine at o anguage it e l s f. Th ough of cours e any w rit r's re alm ot at e iv ions are fore v r occul & obj ct e t e s of at be s t l ucid im agining, it s afe t point out t at t e pos t om is t m e t 's o h h -at aph ys icalpe ripe t t at is L W it ge ns t in's l e Ph il oph icalInv s t ions y h . t e at os e igat art at s ph il oph icalconce rns & as s um pt icul e os ions s o diffe re nt from t os e of h t e e arl T at t at t e PI am ount t ls s a re nunciat t an a k ind of h y ract us h h s o e ion h infant icide -by-bl on. For M ark s onian purpos e s , t e t re e im port udge h h ant bl ins t e nt , ne ar-diurnal diffe re nce s be t e e n 'e arl & 'l e ' W it unt rum s w y' at t ge ns t in, al conce rn W 's e nduring obs e s s ion w it l e l h anguage -& -re al y it q ue s t . O ne . PI now t e s as paradigm at of t e l ions ak ic h anguage w it w h ich h ph il oph e rs ough t t be conce rne d not t e ide alabs t ion of m at -l os o h ract h ogic, rat e r now j t ordinary day-t h us o-day l anguage in al it ge ne ralw ool s s & l s ine ch arm .30 Tw o. Th e PI's W it ge ns t in e xpe nds m uch e ne rgy & ink arguing t e agains t t e ide a of w h at be e n cal d 'priv e l h 's l e at anguage .' Th is t rm is t e e h Pragm at t W iliam J e s 's , w h om W ., not an e ne m y t w e l e , accus e d is l am o com of l ing fore v r 'for t e art ok e am ongs t it lav s .' But PI's conce rn t ook e h ich s e e o s h ow t e im pos s ibil y of priv e l h it at anguage (w h ich it doe s , pre t y m uch ) is t alo a t rribl anxie t t av t e s ol is t cons e q ue nce s of m at e m at s e e y o oid h ips ic h ical

30V ry cool l e e aborat ions on t is s ort of m ov are obs e rv e in J L Aus t H ow h e abl . . in's T D o Th ings w it W ords & St e y Cav l 'M us tW e M e an W h atW e Say? o h anl el 's '

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l ogic as l anguage -paradigm . R e cal t at t e t h -funct lh h rut ional s ch e m at of a m at -l h ogic & t e dis cre t fact t e s ch e m at pict e xis t inde pe nde nt of h e s h a ure s pe ak e rs , k now e rs , & m os t of al l t ne rs . PI's ins is t nce — as part of t e l is e e h book 's m ov m e nt aw ay from w h at t e w orl m us t be l e for l e h d ik anguage t be o pos s ibl & t ard w h at l e ow anguage m us t be l e giv n t e w ay t e w orl in al ik e h h d l it babbl & ch arm & de e p nons e ns e act l is — t at t e e xis t nce , nay t e s e ual y h h e h v ry ide a of l e anguage de pe nds on s om e s ort of com m unicat e com iv m unit 31 ... t is is about t e m os t pow e rfulph il oph icalat ack on s k e pt y h h os t ic-/ s ol is m 's bas ic coh e re nce s ince t e D e s cart s w h os e Cogit W it ge ns t in ips h e o t e h ad h e l d t s k e w e r. Th re e . Th e finalbig diffe re nce is a ne w & cl pe o inical focus on t e ne ar-Nixonian t ine s s of ordinary l h rick anguage it e l A t ne t of s f. e t e PI is t at profound ph il oph icals t can be accom pl h e d v figuring h h os uff is ia out w h y l inguis t cons t ions ge t us e d as t e y are , & t at m any/ os t ic ruct h h m e rrors of 'm e taph ys ics ' or 'e pis te m ol ogy' de rive from acade m ics ' & h um ans ' s us ce pt it t l ibil y o anguage 's ph arm ak opia of t s & de ce pt rick ions & cre at . L e W it ge ns t in is ful of gre at e xam pls of h ow pe rs ons are ions at t e l e cons t l s uccum bing t t e m e t ys ical'be w it m e nt of ordinary l ant y o h aph ch ' anguage . Ge t ing l t in it Eg, l ions l e 't e fl of t e ' cre at a k ind of t os . ocut ik h ow im e ont ogicalUH F-gh os t s e duce us int s om e h ow s e e ing t e it e l as l e a ol , o im s f ik riv r, one not j t 'fl ing' but doing s o s om e h ow e xt rnalt us , out ide t e e us ow e o s h t ings & ch ange s of w h ich t e is re al j t t e m e as ure .32 O r t e ordinary h im l us h y h pre dicat s gam e and ruls , at ach e d s im ul ous l t e g, j s & gin e e t t ane y o, ack rum m y & s oft l& O l piade , t bal ym rick us int a s pe cious Pl onic univ rs al o at e is m in w h ich t e re is s om e t ce nde nt l e xis t nt fe at com m on t h rans al y e ure o e v ry m e m be r of t e e xt ns ions of 'gam e ' or 'rul' in v ue of w h ich e v ry e h e e irt e m e m be r is a 'gam e ' or a 'rul,' rat e r t an t e fl w e b of 'fam il re s e m e h h h uid y bl s '33 t at for W it ge ns t in, pe rfe ct y j t s t e at ach m e nt of ance h , t e l us ifie h t appare nt y univ l ocal pre dicat s as not ing m ore or ls s t an a t e h e h ype of h um an be h av ior— rat e r, t at is , t an any s ort of t ce nde nt re al yh h h rans al it m apping. W it ge ns t in, by l 's e nd, conce iv d m e aningfulh um an braint e ife e act it (ie ph il oph y) as e xact y & not ing m ore t an '. . a bat l agains t iv y os l h h te t e be w it m e nt of our int l nce by m e ans of l h ch el ige anguage ' (PI 1, 109 ). Th e PI h ol t at pe rs ons m us t or at any rat do l e in a s ort of l ds h e iv inguis t dre am , ic aw as h & e nm e s h e d in ordinary l anguage & t e de ce pt e 'm e t ys ics ' h iv aph l inguis t us age & com m unicat am ong pe rs ons im pos e s . . . or cos t . ic ion s

31cf PI I, 23. . . 32Tach yons & caus al y v at it iol ions & t e Supe rpos it h ion Principl al com pl e e l icat W 's point q uit a bit and act l t e re 's v ry int re s t s t s t ing t appe ar in e , ual h y e e ing uff art o indus t m ags about de e p affinit s be t e e n ordinary-l ry ie w anguage t m porall ions e ocut & cut ing-e dge q uant m ode l . . . butanyw ay you ge tt e ide a. t um s h 33t e fam ous & h infam ous Fam il nah änl k e it n (no k idding)— cf Th e Bl ie ich e ue Book 17 & 87 & 124 or Ph il oph icalGram m ar 75 or PI I, 67. For e q ual fam ous os l y s t on gam e s & ruls s e e PI I, 65-88. uff e

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Th e abov s um m ary is pre t y crude . e t But act l s o, on t e s urface , is W it ge ns t in's M is t s s 's us e & re con, ual y, h t e re s t ut of t e PI's s e m inalne w pe rs pe ct e . M uch of t e ov rt m as t r/ it ion h iv h e e m is t s s re l ion h e re again inv v s re s e m bl -as -al ion [s ic]. L s in re at ole ance l us ine t e nov ll e 'Ups t , one can s e e t e oce an. D ow n h e re t e re are dune s , h e ik airs h h w h ich obs t ruct one 's v w ' are cons cious e ch oe s of t e PI's 'A ph il oph ical ie h os problm h as t e form : "I don't k now m y w ay about 34 Alo h e av y e h ."' s il al iv (s om e t e s j t pl h e av are K at 's prol d m us ings on t e l e us im us ain y) e onge h ont ogicals t us of nam e d t ings : s h e (as w oul w e al s t lre fe rs t t e ol at h d l il ) o h h ous e s h e burne d dow n as a h ous e , but s h e k e e ps w onde ring in w h at w ay a de s t d h ous e is s t la 'h ous e ,' e xce pt in v ue of l roye il irt anguage -h abit from s t e out of m ind. O r, e g, s h e w onde rs about q ue s t im ions l e 'W h e re is t e ik h paint w h e n it is in m y h e ad ins t ad of on t e w al ' & w h e t e r, w e re lt ing e h l ? h e 's s ay no copie s of Anna K are nina s t le xt (unburne d) anyw h e re , t e book il ant h w oul s t lbe cal d Anna K are nina. O r m arv l at fact l e 'O ne can driv d il l e es s ik e t rough any num be r of t ns w it outk now ing t e nam e s of t e t ns .' h ow h h h ow A l t e of t is narcis s is t e ch oing goe s a l w ay, and M ark s on is s om e it l h ic ong t e s t s om e , alus iv l on t e s urface . Again, t ough , t e m is t s s l e im ire l e y, h h h re ik t e m as t r inv e s you/ e dow n: w h at ponde rous on t e firs t pas s ope ns h e it m 's h up l e r. It t s -offs l e t e l t j t abov t at are m os t int re s t as at 's os ik h as us e h e ing inv at , ls s al ions t a ge nius t an gauzy pre figure s of M ark s on's it ions e l us o h ow n m e dit ions about & around s om e of t e t e m e s dom inant in PI. W h at at h h firs t s t e s one as h e av or ponde rous re fine s it e l aft r t e int a fragil rik y s f e im o e not of re s ignat e ion— ie w e l ch m e rz as oppos e d t naiv t or h ubris — in t s o eé m os t of K at 's s pe cul ions on t e w ay a nam e t nds t 'cre at ' an obj ct or e at h e o e e at ribut 35; al it on t e ot e r h and a t inge of e nv w h e ne v r s h e count t e be h h w y e e nance s t e pos s ibil y of t ings e xis t w it out be ing nam e d or s ubj ct d t h it h ing h e e o pre dicat ion. W h y t is bat l occupie s K at & e ngage s t e re ade r h as part y h te e h l t do w it t e act e t icalpain t at w e m ay as s um e fil d t e l s ilnce o h h ual h h l h ong e e be tw e e n th e Tractatus & PI, but it's alo attributabl to an original& s e

profound l t e offe ring m e aning rough l t point out t at w e are now it l y o h & fore v r 'dow n h e re ' in l e anguage , ins ide it on ground-lv l & t us h av no be t e r a , e e, h e t v w of t e Big Pict t an s om e one e art bound in cont t t s om e one al w h o ie h ure h h ras o oft can l dow n at t e e art bound guy & t e t rrain around h im , dis ce rning pat e rns ook h h h e t agains t back drops of ot e r bigge r pat e rns , s e e ing t e m as pat e rns of s om e t ing h t h t h l r ins t ad of as t e -bound m an's t rrain, m aze , w orl t al. . arge e h e d, ot . 35not in pas s ing t at t e m e s of nom inat e h h ion-as -e nfranch is e m e nt pre s e nce -as , priv e ge , alo run t rough m uch of t e fe m inis t t e ory w it w h ich t is nov l il s h h h h h e 's aut or re v al h im s e l fam il . . h e s f iar.

34PI I, 123, a

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de e pl s m art e xpl ion by M ark s on of s om e t ing t at m igh t be cal d 't e y orat h h l h e fe m inizat of s k e pt m .' ion icis W h ich is probabl a bad t rm t s t t row ing around in t is l e inning, y e o art h h at s ince itre q uire s de finit ions & s o on;t is is al ady pre t y l h re t ong. But re cal t t is abs t ion's am bit pre nom inat s t about H e ln & Ev lo h ract e uff e e & Cas s andra & t e T at , pl t e l y dis cus s e d s e cond h al of t e h ract us us h ongl f h doubl bind t at cingul s s ol is m : radical doubt about not onl t e e h ize ips y h e xis t nce of obj ct but of s ubje ct s e l K at 's t xt ack now ldge d w it in e e s , f. e e , e h it e l as w rit s f ing, is a de s pe rat at e m pt t re cre at & s o anim at a w orl by e t o e e d nam ing it Th e at e m pt de s pe rat unde rl s h e r ne ar-pat ol . t 's ion ie h ogic obs e s s ion w it nam e s — of pe rs ons , pe rs onage s , figure s , book s , s ym ph onie s , h bat ls , t ns & roads — and it account for w h at M ark s on com m unicat s t e ow s e s o w e l v re pe t ion & t : K at 's e xt m e ups e t w h e n s h e can't re m e m l ia it one e re be r— 's um m on,' 're cal'— nam e s w e l e nough t m ak e t e m be h av . And l l o h e h e r at e m pt at ont ogy-t ru-nom inat t s ol h ion are a m ov ing s yne cdoch e of pre t y m uch t e w h ol h is t of int l ct e nde av in t e w h it l m al t h e ory e l ual e or h ey e W e s t Sh e , no ls s t an w as W it ge ns t in, or K ant or D e s cart s , or . e h t e , e H e rodot , is w rit us ing a w orl Th e inge nious poignancy of M ark s on's d. ach ie v m e nt h e re is t at K at 's m ode rnl fe m al v age , in cons piracy e h e y e ant w it t e v ry de s pe rat h h e ion t at unde rl s h e r at e m pt at w orl ak ing,36 h ie t dm re nde rs h e r proj ct doubl doom e d. D oom 1 is w h at e v e d on s urface : e y 's ok s k e pt m & s ol is m . Ie , t at t e re is no 'w orl t s e e it e l m irrore d in icis ips h h d' o s f K at 's t xt is unh appy e nough ; but in W M , K at 's m e m oir it e l is 'w rit e n e e e s f t in s and,' it e l s ubj ct t t e 'de t riorat 37 & dry rot t at is s uch a s f e o h e ion' h dom inantre curring im age in t e l h oops of re col ct & as s e m bl h e re . l ion e y I'm going t s h ut up righ t aft r I m ak e t is ide a clar. I'm pre t y s ure W it o e h e t t ge ns t in's M is t s s is an im pe rfe ct book . Que s t e re ions of v , ov r-al ion, oice e l us & 'e xpl ion' ge t t be pus h e d as ide , t ough , be caus e of t e nov l anat o h h e 's t rrific e m ot e ional& pol icalfict it / ional& t e ore t h icalach ie v m e nt it e v e s e : ok a truth a w h ol l of book s & e s s ays be fore it h ave fum bld around: e ot e (at las t for t e m ode rn fe m al— v t e fe m al w h o unde rs t e ) h e iz h e ands h e rs e l as f bot fe m al & m ode rn— bot s ide s of t e s ol is t bind: h e h h ips ic

doing itfor m e nt s urv alnotfor int re s tor accl or t nure . . . al iv , e aim e k e e p w ait ing for fe m inis t t e oris t t s t t k ing about de t riorat h s o art al e ion as a t xt ph e nom e non; it w oul be t e s ort of w ry j e t at capt s t h s : 'de t riorae ual d h ok h ure rut e t ion' is e s s e nt l 'de cons t ion' m ade pas s iv , obs e rv d rat e r t an pe rform e d, ial y ruct e e h h t e re ade r t e ul at 'abs e nt e ' in t e pos t t uralt e m of abs e nce : one of t e h h t im e e h -s ruct ot h t ings K at 's s t h e ory unpack s is t e t rrific pow e r of w rit r-as -w it s s , ut e rl h e e ne t y pas s iv , unh e ard: it m igh t be t is , m ore t an w h at argue d in m y finalparagraph , e h h 's t at s k e pt m 's fe m inis tv h na. h 's icis is
37I

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If I e xis t not ing e xis t out ide m e , h s s But 38 If s om e t ing e xis t out ide m e , I do note xis t h s s am ount t t e s am e t ing— dam nat t gh os t ine s s am ong gh os t , curat o h h ion o l s ing a plnum of s t ue s , m is t ing e ch oe s for v s . And, t h e re bot binds e at ak oice oo, h force on t e s ubj ct j t w h at h e r ow n dram at pre dicam e nt force s on K at : h e us ic e a k ind of parodic m as cul inizat ion, one in w h ich t e R om ant Que s t for t e h ic h Abs e nt O bj ct a de s ire for at ainm e nt w / t w h ich unat ainabil y is t at e , t r/ t it h de s ire 's bre at & bre ad, re pl s an abil y t be -in-t e -w orl as ne it e r h ace it o h d h ce nt r nor ciph e r, ne it e r al s pons ibl nor im pot nt part of one gre at big e h l -re e e , Fam il L e ne s s . M ark s on's K at 's s udde n l s of int re s t in roads once y ik e os e s h e 's found t e m & in dat once s h e 's 'm as t re d' (!!) it is j t as cl y & h a e us unk im pe rfe ct & h um an & re alas , s ay, St ndh al rus h t w ind up Ch art rh ous e e 's o e t e m inut Fabrizio final nail Cll . . . And K at 's v uat h e l y s e ia. e al ion, final l y, onl of w h at uns aid, unre ad— burning page s once s h e 's re ad t e m , j t y 's h et oning fam il once s h e 's 're s pons ibl' for t e m ; probabl e v n fue l h e r is y e h y e ing e pis t e w it t e doom e d/ l l h h de icious k now ldge t at it h e ade d t ard e h 's ow not ing— s um m ons pe rfe ct y, again, t e t rribl & m ov finalpre s criph l h e e ing t ion of t e m as t r's T at . Th is , l e l t l e d, is 'Anybody w h o h e ract us oos y rans at unde rs t ands w h at I'm s aying e v nt l re cognize s t at it nons e ns e , once e ual y h 's h e 's us e d w h at I'm s aying— rat e r l e s t ps — t cl b up pas t w h at I'm h ik e o im s aying— h e m us t t at is , t row aw ay t e l r aft r h e 's us e d it 39 Th is , h h h adde e .' pas s age , l e m os t of W , is onl indire ct y about w h at it re al about It ik y l 's l y . w h is pe rs & pl . It re aly about t e plnit ays 's l h e ude of e m pt s s , t e ine h im port ance of s ilnce in t rm s of s pe e ch . M ark s on nail t is ide a (from m y e e s h m al p.o.v K at 's m onograph h as t e q ual y of s pe e ch ls s ne s s in a e .); e h it e dre am , t e col m ut ne s s urge ncy e nforce s , a ps ych ic s t t r. If it t h e r h d e ut e 's rue l r goe s nopl , it alo t adde ace 's s rue nobody's going t t row e it e r book o h h aw ay.

38I w on't w as t anybody's t e s h out e im ing about w h at a m arv l inv rs ion of t e e ous e h Cogit & O nt ogical o ol Argum e ntt is is . h 39 T ract us 6.54 at

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CAR O L BO O TH O L N dire ct t e Univ rs it of Cal SO s h e y ifornia-Irv ine W rit ing Proj ct Sh e h as w rit e n t o book s on com pos it and crit t ink ing. e . t w ion icalh SUSAN PO Z NAR is com plt h e r Ph .D . in Engl h at Nort Carol St e e ing is h ina at Univ rs it e y. ILAN STAV ANS is a M e xican w rit r w h o t ach e s at Col bia Univ rs it e e um e y and at Cit Univ rs it of Ne w York . H e is t e aut or of t e nov l al y e l y e y h h h e T ia cie l and a col ct of fict ious book re v w s , and is curre nt y as s e m bl o l ion e it ie l ing an ant ol of J w is h -L in Am e rican fict h ogy e at ion. E V IN E. SUL IV publ h e d h e r firs t nov l Th e D e ad M agician, l t EL L AN is e , as ye ar. Sh e t ach e s t ch nical rit atSt e e w ing anford Univ rs it e y. J SEPH TABBI h as re ce nt y publ h e d art e s on W iliam Gaddis in O l is icl l M ode rn Fict St ion udie s and Am e rican Not s & Q ue rie s . Th is fal h e j e l oins t e facul of M arq ue t e Univ rs it h t y t e y. D AVID FO STER W ALLACE is t e aut or of Th e Broom of t e Sys t m (a h h h e nov l and Girlw it Curious H air (s h ortfict e) h ion). STEV W EISENBUR GER is t e aut or of A "Grav y's R ainbow " Com EN h h it panion and num e rous art e s on Am e rican fict icl ion, and h as re ce nt y l com plt d a book on s at . H e t ach e s att e Univ rs it of K e nt y. ee ire e h e y uck L IE H . W H ITTEN, J ., a form e r s yndicat d j ESL R e ournal t is t e aut or of is , h h s e v ralnov l, m os t re ce nt y Th e L t D is cipl. H e h as alo publ h e d e e s l os e s is poe t and t l ions of Baude l . ry rans at aire H EID I Z IEGL t ach e s Am e rican l e rat ER e it ure at t e Univ rs it of St t . h e y ut gart Sh e is t e aut or of a m onograph on J n Bart and e dit d t e innov iv h h oh h e h at e ant ol h ogy Facing T xt : Encount rs be t e e n Cont m porary W rit rs and e s e w e e Crit . ics