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Hydropower Lecture Notes 11|Views: 35|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/124878656/Hydropower-Lecture-Notes-11

06/04/2014

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« HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS »

Prof. Dr. Atıl BULU

Istanbul Technical University College of Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Department Hydraulics Division

Chapter 11

The Surge Tank The surge tank is located between the almost horizontal or slightly inclined conduit and steeply sloping penstock and is designed as a chamber excavated in the mountain.

Surge tanks serve as a threefold purpose; 1. Upon the rapid closure of the turbine, water masses moving in the pressure tunnel and in the penstock are suddenly decelerated. Owing to the inertia of moving masses, F = ma, high overpressures develop at the lower end of the penstock, which are propagating upwards in the penstock in the form of pressure wave. The magnitude of the so-called water hammer, caused by the moving masses by closure, will depend upon the dimensions and elastic properties of the conduit. The overpressure due to water hammer travels along the closed conduit and is not relieved until a free water surface is reached. An important function of the surge tank can be summarized like this. The turbines to the reservoir is practically interrupted by the surge tank to prevent the pressure wave due to the water hammer at the free water surface and to free the pressure tunnel from excessive pressures. 2. The surge provides protection to the penstock against damage of water hammer. The overpressure depends upon the length of the penstock (the closed conduit). The surge tank, by interrupting the closed system of the penstock and of the pressure tunnel, reduces the overpressure due to water hammer. 3. The third purpose of the surge tank is to provide water supply to the turbines in case of starting up. The amount of water required during these changes in operating conditions is supplied by the surge tank installed in the conduit. The capacity thereof should be selected to ensure the required water supply during the most unfavorable increase in demand, until the water mass in the tunnel 1

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu

In case of rapid opening. the flow in the tunnel is smaller than the turbine demand to supply water to the turbine. The phenomenon described is the water surface oscillation. Air should be prevented from entering the penstock even in case of the deepest downsurge in the chamber. the following groups can be distinguished. water masses in the penstock are suddenly decelerated. The cycle is repeated all over again with amplitudes reduced by friction.e. The water surface in the chamber will start to drop to below of the steady-state level. A. the oscillation is damped.has attained the necessary velocity. Special surge tanks: Surge tanks with expansion chambers. Dr. Double-chamber surge tank. The height of the surge tank is governed by the highest possible water level that can be expected during operation. Surge tank with upper expansion chamber. To establish steady-flow conditions. 2 Prof. The water surface in the surge chamber will be raised to above static level. the water surface will again start to rise from the low point. Upon the rapid and partial closure of the valve following a sudden load decrease. Variations in demand initiated by a rapid opening or closure of the valve or turbine are followed with a time lag by the water masses moving in the tunnel. Restricted-orifice type (throttled) surge tanks: Simple restricted-orifice surge tank. 2. i. Double-chamber. According to the hydraulic design. Differential (Johnson type) surge tank. which may be provided with overfall. will again rise over the steady-level. Simple surge tanks designed as basins. but owing to the inertia of moving water. and one part of the continuous supply from the tunnel fills the surge tank. which may be provided with overfall. A wide variety of types has been developed in practice for the surge tank. The maximum amplitude of water surface oscillation can be observed when the water demand is suddenly stopped. Surge tank with lower expansion chamber. 3. Bulu . 1. restricted-orifice surge tank.

Bulu . Dr.3 Prof. A.

Dr. The lower manometer will be the first to indicate the pressure wave starting from the lower end of the penstock. Undamped oscillations in the surge tank if frictionless conditions are assumed in the pressure tunnel 4 Prof. A. it will be seen that the two react differently to sudden changes in turbine discharges. Placing manometers at the upper and lower end of the penstock. Waves are damped by roughness conditions.Water Surface Oscillations in Simple Surge Tank The oscillating movement starts as soon as the pressure wave due to a change in the turbine reaches the surge tank after traveling the length penstock. Bulu . The upper manometer will indicate the low-frequency oscillations and will also show the water level fluctuations at the same cycle with the surge tank. Figure.

l = Pressure tunnel length. F = Surge tank cross-sectional area. the direction of the flow in the tunnel changes. Ymax = V0 lf gF (m) The departure of the water level from its initial position at any arbitrary time t (considering the downward branch of the axis y as positive).e. f The absolute value of the widest amplitude in case of the undamped mass oscillation. the water level in the surge tank is on the same elevation as the reservoir whatever the discharge of the system is. This highest value of the ymax surges occurring in the tank upon rejection of different loads will be distinguished by the notation Ymax. hydrostatic and hydrodynamic levels are identical. f = Pressure tunnel cross-sectional area. Therefore. The axis of the undamped oscillation is the hydrostatic (and at the same time hydrodynamic) equilibrium level. Bulu . the velocity in the tunnel is V = 0. It is evident that the total closure at maximum turbine discharge results in the greatest possible surges. i. V = V0 Cos 2π t (m/sec) T At the time t = T/4 (quarter period). Instantaneous total closure from the maximum discharge of Q0 (so-called total load rejection). The flow velocity in the Q pressure tunnel for the discharge Q0 is V0 = 0 . dy f 2π = − V0 Cos t dt F T (m/sec) 5 Prof. The velocity of the water level in the surge tank is. 1.In the pure theoretical case when no friction is assumed to occur in the pressure tunnel. The reservoir level may be considered unchanged. It will be assumed that the time of opening or closure turbine valves is zero (instantaneous). With the above fundamental assumptions. y = −Ymax Sin 2π t (m) T The varying velocity of water flowing in the pressure tunnel at any time t is. The penstock is supplied through a surge tank from the frictionless pressure tunnel. A. the so-called maximum surge is. the expressions for the four basic cases are given without derivation. Dr.

In case of instantaneous closure. The position of the water level at any time t is given by the expression. T 640 = = 160 sec 4 4 2π ⎞ ⎛ 360 V = V0 Cos t = 2 × Cos⎜ ×160 ⎟ = 0 T ⎝ 640 ⎠ t= U= dy 10 ⎛ 360 ⎞ =− × 2 × Cos⎜ × 160 ⎟ = 0 dt 100 ⎝ 640 ⎠ The water will stop at t = T/4 time for the maximum surge case and will begin to drop in the tank.20m gF 9. Cylindrical surge tank cross-sectional area is F = 100 m2.81× 10 gf Velocities at the maximum surge height in the tunnel and the surge tank are. Bulu . the period of the mass oscillation is.81× 100 10000 × 100 lF = 2π ≅ 640 sec 9. Ymax = V0 The period of mass oscillation. i. Y = (V0 − V1 ) lf gF (m) Where. A. The surge amplitude in case of partial instantaneous closure. Solution: Maximum surge height. T = 2π lF (sec) gf Example: The pressure tunnel length is l = 10 km with a cross-sectional area of f = 10 m2 and steady flow velocity V0 = 2 m/sec at a hydroelectric power plant. Dr.e. T = 2π lf 10000 × 10 = 2× = 20. 6 Prof.The time of the total cycle. from the maximum discharge Q0 to an arbitrary Q1 value is. V1 = Q1/f is the velocity for the reduced discharge. 2. compute the maximum surge height and the period of the oscillation assuming the ideal fluid (frictionless).

Q0 = V0 f = 2 × 10 = 20 m 3 sec Q1 = 0.5Q0. T = 2π lF gf 2π t T dy f 2π = − (V0 − V1 )Cos t dt F T (sec) Example: Using the values given in preceding example. U= The period of oscillation is also.5Q0 = 10 m 3 sec V1 = 10 = 1m sec 10 10000 × 10 lf Y = (V0 − V1 ) = (2 − 1)× = 10. Oscillations for the instantaneous partial opening from some discharge Q1 to the maximum Q0 (partial load demand) are given by. 3. compute the maximum surge for the closure from maximum discharge Q0 to 0. A.81×100 gF The period of oscillation will not change. Solution: The discharge of the full load. Bulu .y = −YSin Velocity in the pressure tunnel is. 2π t T V = V1 + (V0 − V1 )Cos Velocity in the surge tank is. y = YSin 2π t T 7 Prof.10m 9. Dr. Y = (V0 − V1 ) lf gF The momentary position of the water leveling the surge tank is given by the function.

4. For other circumstances only approximate mathematical and graphical methods are available. V = V0 − V0 Cos 2π t T 2π dy f U= = V0 Cos t dt F T 2π t T Water Surface Oscillations in the Surge Tank by Taking Headloss in the Pressure Tunnel (Damped Oscillations) The frictional resistance developing along the tunnel will be taken into account and its damping effect yielding damped oscillations will be dealt with. and length l. The instantaneous total opening from the rest (Q = 0) to the maximum discharging capacity of the turbines Q0 (total load demand) can be characterized by the following relations. For the examination of instantaneous closure consider the Figure below and notations used therein. Dr. Bulu . 8 Prof. y = Ymax Sin Velocities are obtained as. Ymax = V0 lf gF The movement of the water surface is. The hydrodynamic-equilibrium water level in the surge tank for this operating condition is below the hydrostatic level by. by a pressure tunnel of cross-sectional area f. 2π t T 2π dy f U= = (V0 − V1 )Cos t dt F T V = V0 − (V0 − V1 )Cos The oscillation period equation is the same. followed by a penstock conveying a discharge Q0. The reservoir is connected with a surge tank of cross-sectional area F. The maximum surge is equal to the value obtained for total closure. A. The only case of damped mass oscillations for which an exact mathematical solution can be found is the total closure.Velocities can be computed from the following relations.

Dr. Bulu .Figure ln 2 y0 = V = βV02 43 R 2 0 Where the static level is equal to that in the reservoir. Hence y0 is the hydraulic resistance of the tunnel at a flow velocity V0. A. This is the headloss due to the friction in the tunnel computed by the Manning equation as. V02 n 2 l Δh = 4 3 R The resistance factor of the tunnel is. 12 β= l ⋅ n2 R4 3 9 Prof. 1 1 ⎛ Δh ⎞ 1 V0 = R 2 3 S 0 2 = R 2 3 ⎜ ⎟ n n ⎝ l ⎠ Whence the friction headloss is. and V0 = Q0/ f.

the discharge for the turbine cannot be supplied by the pressure tunnel because of the velocity differences among the pressure tunnel and penstock. A. Dr.015 to obtain a higher β resistance factor. 2 2 gFΔh0 = εΔh0 lfV02 (1 + ymax ) − Ln(1 + ymax ) = 1 + mΔh0 m dimensional variables are always negative since ε dimensionless variables are positive and y direction is taken positive for upward direction with Δh negative values.50 m over the top of penstock in the surge tank for the minimum water level which is the case of instantaneous opening of turbines for full load. Forchhmeir equation is solved by using the Table. 10 Prof. There should be minimum water height of 1. m= The equation takes the form of. 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜1 + xmax ⎟ − Ln⎜1 + xmax ⎟ = 1 + ε ⎝ ε ⎠ ⎝ ε ⎠ For m = Damping factor. This water volume difference will be supplied by the surge tank initially so that the water level in the surge tank will drop. Bulu . In order to be on the safe side. a) Instantaneous full closure case Forchhmeir has given for the first maximum surge height for steady flow of Q0 discharge with Δh0 headloss. Air entrance to the penstock should not be permitted in order not to cause bursting of the penstock. manning roughness coefficient n should be selected high for concrete lining as n = 0.In case of instantaneous opening of turbine valves. ε= z= x= V2 l f ⋅ ⋅ 0 2 g F (Δh0 ) V V0 y Δh0 Δh0 = Head loss for the steady flow case (will get negative values since y values are taken positive for upward direction). Vogt Dimensionless Variables Tables have been prepared to compute surge amplitudes and periods for the surge tanks using dimensionless variables.

Bulu . A.11 Prof. Dr.

A.12 Prof. Dr. Bulu .

Dr. A. Bulu .13 Prof.

Bulu . A. Dr.14 Prof.

b) Partial Closure of the Turbine Valve Q0 full load discharge may be reduced to nQ0 for (n < 1). (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = (1 − mymax ) − Ln(1 − mymax ) (1 + my2 ) − Ln(1 + my2 ) = (1 + my1 ) − Ln(1 + my1 ) (1 − my3 ) − Ln(1 − my3 ) = (1 − my2 ) − Ln(1 − my2 ) (1 + my4 ) − Ln(1 + my4 ) = (1 + my3 ) − Ln(1 + my3 ) The following steps are taken for the solution of the aforementioned equations. b) By the help of Frank`s table. A. Frank`s Table can be used to calculate the surge values for partial closure. a) By using Forchhmeir method. the other y surge values are calculated by using above giving equations and the Table. Braun equations are used. Dr. Example: An hydroelectric power plant with a design discharge Q = 30 m3/sec is fed by a pressure tunnel with a diameter D = 4 m. Solution: a) Physical characteristics of the plant are. 2) ymax value is computed by Forchhmeir equation by using the Table for (mΔh0) to get (mymax) value. Compute the extreme surge heights for instantaneous full turbine closure in the surge tank with cross-sectional area F = 150 m2.In order to calculate the other extreme surge values after calculation the first ymax value. 1) ε dimensionless variable is calculated. It will be instantaneous full closure if (n = 0).57m 2 15 Prof. 3) After calculation ymax. length l = 5000 m.014. Bulu . ε= lV02 f 2 gF (Δh0 ) ymax Δh0 t 2π lF gf xmax = τ= t = T The Table has been prepared for circular simple surge tanks. The values in the Table can be defined as. and Manning coefficient n = 0. f = πD 2 4 = π × 42 4 = 12.

114 1 + mΔh0 = 1.559 mΔh0 = 0.551 mΔh0 =0. 2 2 = = −0.60 2 gF (Δh0 ) Δh0 = m= mΔh0 = (− 0.557 = 12. A. mΔh0 = 0.11m − 0.12 → mymax = -0.60) = 0.046)× (− 5.257 → mymax = -0.046 16 Prof.57 R= V02 n 2l 2.0 V0 = = = 2.57 × 2.557 ) (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = 1. Bulu .11 → mymax = -0.114 mΔh0 = 0.399 mΔh0 = 0.046 εΔh0 7.60) mΔh0 = 0.557 ) − Ln(1 + 0.80m 0.392 ε= = = 7.257 From the Forchhmeir Table.046 (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = (1 − mymax ) − Ln(1 − mymax ) (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = (1 + 0. − 0.443 = 1.81× 150 × 5.405 y1 = − 0. Dr.60m R4 3 14 3 lfV02 5000 × 12.26 → mymax = -0.114 → mymax = -0.25 → mymax = -0.114 From the Frank`s Table.557 ymax = The first minimum level.405 = −8.39 m sec f 12.39 2 × 12.557 − 0.413 mΔh0 = 0.D = 1m 4 Q 30.78 2 9.78 × (− 5.57 × 5000 = = 5.

36 7. 0.519 = 1.682 + 0.405 y2 = Second minimum level.Second maximum level. Bulu .046 Third maximum level. τ = 0.318 − 0.300 = 0.046 b) Franks Table will be used for surge calculations for instantaneous closure. 1 = 0.40 → x = 1.88 . Dr.405) − Ln(1 + 0.383 = 1.35 → x = -2. n = 0.046 (1 − my3 ) − Ln(1 − my3 ) = (1 − my2 ) − Ln(1 − my2 ) 1 + mΔh0 = (1 + 0.065 mΔh0 = 0.78 The first maximum level for n = 0.318) − Ln(1 − 0. τ = 0.24 .78 → 1 ε = 1 = 0.318 y3 = = −6.91m 0. (1 + my2 ) − Ln(1 + my2 ) = (1 + my1 ) − Ln(1 + my1 ) 1 + mΔh0 = (1 − 0.293 ε 1 ε 1 = 0.318 y4 = 0.114 → my2 = -0.114 The same mΔh0 value has been obtained coincidentally. A.80m 0.065 mΔh0 = 0. mΔh0 = 0.91m 0.17 .595 + 0.405) 1 + mΔh0 = 1.405) − Ln(1 − 0.405 = 8. (1 + my4 ) − Ln(1 + my4 ) = (1 − 0. ε = 7.36 → x = -2.065 → my3 = -0.114 mΔh0 = 0.065 → my4 = -0.294 ε 17 Prof. τ = 0.318) 1 + mΔh0 = 0.405) 1 + mΔh0 = 0.318 = 6.

60 ) = 2. τ = 0. Dr.030 = 0.57 × (− 5.57 gf Δh0 = -5.36 → x = 0.520 = 0.40 → x = +1.031 ε 1 ε 1 ε 18 Prof. τ = 1.037 = 0.46m tinf1 = 490 × 0.294 × 490 = 144 sec First inflection point. T = 2π 5000 × 150 lF = 2π = 490 sec 9.79m tmin1 = 490 × 0.805 = 0.35 → x = -0. 1 = 0. 1 = 0.44 ) × (− 5.35 → x = 0. τ = 0. τ = 0.799 ymin1 = 1.40 → x = 0.60 ) = −8.248 .45 . Bulu .521 yinf1 = (− 0.44 .256 . A. τ = 1.57 .35 → x = +1. 1 = 0.Oscillation period.15m tmax = τ × T = 0.797 = 0.81× 12.36 → x = 0. τ = 0.17 )× (− 5.60m ymax = xmax × Δh0 = (− 2.34 .218 .799 = 392 sec ε 1 ε 1 ε Second inflection point.521 = 255 sec ε 1 ε 1 ε First minimum level.40 → x = -0.60 ) = 12. τ = 1. τ = 0.36 → x = +1.41 . τ = 0.63 .525 = 0.

79 The values are close for the both methods.40 → x = -1.274 .256 × (− 5.15 -8.309 = 0.031 = 505 sec Second maximum level.35 → x = -1. τ = 1.yinf 2 = 0. y ymax y1 Forchheimer 12.60 ) = 7.43m tinf2 = 490 × 1.274 )× (− 5. Dr. 19 Prof.302 ymax2 = (− 1. Bulu .13m tmax 2 = 1.11 -8.224 .025 .300 = 0.80 Frank 12. τ = 1.302 × 490 = 638 sec ε 1 ε 1 ε Placing the surge values to the table.36 → x = -1. τ = 1. 1 = 0. A.60 ) = 1.

Discharge increase from nQ0 to Q0 20 Prof. A. Bulu .Table 18. Dr.

The crosssectional area of the cylindrical surge tank is F = 150 m2. Solution: a) Q0 = 10 m3/sec.57 gf ε T = 2π First minimum surge tank level for n = 0 by using Table 18. Since l.12 68.81× 150 × 0. The column with 1 = 0 value corresponds to ε→∞.80 m sec f 12. Dr. Instantaneous partial opening case may be computed to find out the surge heights by using Frank`s Table 18. Example: An hydroelectric power plant with a pressure tunnel of the length l = 5000 m.57 × 0. 21 Prof. b) Instantaneous discharge increase from 10 m3/sec to 30 m3/sec. V02.81× 12.802 × 0.87 5000 × 150 lF = 2π = 490 sec 9. there will be no discharge feeding the penstock which is (n =0) case.63m R 14 3 f = πD 2 = π × 42 = 12. Bulu . A. this ε→∞ corresponds to Δh0 = S0l → 0 which is the ideal fluid case. diameter D = 4 m. Calculate the extreme surge levels by using Frank tables for.014 2 × 5000 Δh0 = 4 3 = = 0.632 = 1 = 0. a) Instantaneous discharge increase from 0 m3/sec to 10 m3/sec. f. If the turbines are not running.c) Instantaneous Opening of the Turbines The discharge increase to the turbines by instantaneous opening is done from nQ0 to Q0 (n < 1).57 V02 n 2l 0. The x and τ values of this column can only be used for ideal fluids which is no friction losses would occur in the plant. 4 4 D 4 R = = = 1m 4 4 Q 10 V0 = = = 0. and Manning coefficient n = 0.57m 2 ε= 1 V2 l f 5000 × 12.014 is feeding the turbines.87 g F (Δh0 ) 9.80 2 ⋅ ⋅ 0 2 = = 68. F are physical ε magnitudes.

τ = 1.74 × (− 0.60 2 22 Prof.76 . τ = 0.39 2 × 0. f = 12.12 → x = -3.00 .763 ε 1 ε y max1 = (− 3. τ = 0.63) = 2.255 = 0.52m ε 1 ε τ = 490 × 0.15 → x = 3.60m R 14 3 V02 l f 5000 ×12.760 = 0. 1 ε 1 = 0.15 → x = 6. A.00m ε 1 ε τ = 490 ×1. 1 ε 1 = 0.13 .261 = 0.81× 150 × 5. R = 1 m.256 y min1 = 8.10 → x = 5. τ = 1.15 .75 .57 V 2 n 2 l 2. τ = 0. τ = 0.10 .265 y min 2 = 4. τ = 0.265 = 620 sec b) Instantaneous discharge increase from Q = 10 m3/sec to Q0 = 30 m3/sec.76 × (− 0.85 .39 m sec V0 = 12.10 → x = 10.1 ε 1 = 0.57 × 2.80 .63) ≅ −3.12 → x = 8.74 .78m g F (Δh0 )2 9. 30 = 2.272 = 0.39 2 ε= ⋅ ⋅ = = 7.63) = −5.85)× (− 0.10 → x = -5.258 = 0.014 2 × 5000 Δh0 = 0 4 3 = = 5.15 → x = -2.12 → x = 4. τ = 1.256 = 125 sec First maximum level. Dr.763 = 374 sec Second minimum level.43m τ = 490 × 0. Q0 = 30 m3/sec .768 = 0. τ = 0. Bulu .57 m2 .

85 .5 → ε 1 = 0.36 → x = 0.853 = 0. τ = 0.838 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε = 0.272 ε n=0 → n=0 → n = 0.17 .333.276 1 ε 1 = 0. τ = 0.79 .40 → x = 0.83 . 7. and n values using Table 18.55 .832 23 Prof. Bulu .817 = 0. 1 n=0 → = 0. τ = 0.71 .80 .297 n = 0.35 → x = 1.5 → n = 0.306 n = 0. τ = 0.17 × (− 5.36 → x = 2.40 → x = 2.52 .40 → x = 0. Dr.40 → x = 1.833 = 0.333 30 Interpolation will be done for the required ε . τ = 0.820 = 0. A. τ = 0.15m t min1 = 0.333 → ε 1 = 0.36 . τ = 0. → τ = 0. τ = 0.35 → x = 0. n=0 → n=0 → n=0 → n = 0.68 .1 ε = 1 = 0.60 ) = −12.78 .36 → x = 0.290 y min1 = 2. τ = 0.89 .5 → n = 0.5 → 1 ε = 0. τ = 0. τ = 0.61 .36 → x = 0.29 × 490 = 142 sec First maximum surge tank level. τ = 0.834 = 0.96 .36 → x = 2.36 → x = 1. Minimum surge tank level for n = 0.299 ε = 0.5 → n = 0. τ = 0.35 → x = 0.333 → 1 = 0.35 → x = 2.78 1 n= 10 = 0.06 .5 → n = 0.273 ε 1 = 0.

60) = −3.09 .e.40 → x = 1. F > Fthm = k lf 2 gβH 0 (m2) k = Factor of safety.98m t = 490 × 0. H0 = H – βV02 = H – Δh0 = net head (by neglecting the headloss in the penstock) (m).16m t = 490 ×1. τ = 1. Dr. the limit crosssectional area of the surge tank is. τ = 1.36 → x = 1.40 → x = 1.35 → x = 1. l = Length of the tunnel (m).04 . A.16 .345 = 0. τ = 1. i.10 × (− 5. Substituting the damping factor m.36 → x = 1.370 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 = 0. According to the Thoma equation suggested in small oscillations. β = Resistance factor of the pressure tunnel (sec2/m).35 → x = 1.08. m= 2 gFβ lf The minimum value of head succeeding surge stability in case of a given cross-sectional area F of the surge tank is. τ = 1.y max1 = 0. 24 Prof. They stated that in order to prevent the development of unstable oscillations the crosssection of the surge tank should exceed a critical value.35 = 0.5 → n = 0.60) = −6. Vogt.333 → 1 = 0. to the power output to be succeeded after opening (m/sec).36 = 666 sec Stability Conditions of the Surge Tanks ε Stability conditions of the surge tanks were first established by D. V0 = Pressure tunnel velocity for the new dynamic equilibrium level. τ = 1. τ = 1. Thoma and F.71× (− 5.36 ε 1 ε 1 y min 2 = 1.364 = 0.15 .393 = 0.10 . n=0 → n=0 → n=0 → n = 0.5 → n = 0. Bulu .832 = 408 sec Second minimum surge tank level.

we obtain. to the form of. as well as on the safety factor k. Substituting the pairs of values k = 1. the lower the friction factor β. Dr. n = 0. R = D/4 as hydraulic radius.8. is considerable between extreme F2/F1 = 2.5. β= Fthm n 2l R4 3 R4 3 f lfR 4 3 =k =k 2 gH 0 n 2 l 2 gH 0 n 2 Is obtained. the larger the crosssectional area of the surge tank. the deviation depending on the choice of the friction coefficient n.5 × ≅ 50 H0 160 × 0.5 to 1.62 × H 0 n 2 F =k D10 3 160 H 0 n 2 A safety factor k of 1. the mean value n = 0. f = πD2/4 cross sectional are.0106.8 × ≅ 100 H0 160 × 0. n = 0.0133 may be applied. Limit values of F are thus obtained by simultaneous assumption of the highest safety factor k and lowest Manning coefficient n. A.F= klf mlf = 2 gβH 0 2 gβ k m H0 = Assuming local headlosses can be neglected with respect to friction losses. which can be simplified in case of a circular pressure tunnel cross-section. D 4 3πD 2 F =k 43 4 × 4 × 19. For a lining carried out with steel.014 2 H 0 D10 3 D10 3 1. and with the substitution.0143 – 0. As can be seen from the equation. F1 = F2 = D10 3 D10 3 1.014 as well as k = 1. Bulu .8 may be adopted. 25 Prof.0106 2 H 0 F2 =2 F1 In case of a concrete lined pressure tunnel.

F = k∗ For a circular cross-section. Jaeger. Bulu . 26 Prof. A. D10 3 F =k 160n 2 H 0 ∗ R4 3 f lf = k∗ 2 gβH 0 2 gn 2 H 0 The safety factor is. the cross-sectional area necessary for stability should not be less than. Dr. demonstrating that the safety factor can n0 longer be considered constant.For great amplitudes the Thoma equation was modified by Ch. k ∗ = 1 + 0.482 y max H0 ymax is the amplitude of the undamped (frictionless) surge. According to Jaeger.

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Hydropower Lecture Notes 12

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