GSM Channels | Telecommunications | Networks

GSM Channels

Number of channels required during call set-up (1)

 

Channel to transmit information to help the mobile station to tune into the network. Channel to transmit synchronisation information. Channel to transmit information about the network to help the mobile know about the frequencies being used in its cell as well as in surrounding cells.

 Channel to page the called party.  Channel to transmit measurements. .  Channel to transmit handover information.Number of channels required during call set-up (2)  Channel to transmit mobile station’s request to initiate call set-up.  Channel to set up a call.  Channel to transmit actual conversations.

 The paths used to carry information between a Mobile Station and a BTS is known as the Physical Channel. data or signaling information.  .  Therefore.Channel Organization Each timeslot on a TDMA frame is called a physical channel.  Physical channels can be used to transmit speech. there are 8 physical channels per carrier frequency in GSM.

while a handover instruction is transmitted using a Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) message. These different information carried on the Physical channel are classified as Logical Channels. For example. depending on the information that is to be sent. on one of the physical channels used for traffic. .   A physical channel may carry different messages. the traffic itself is transmitted using a Traffic Channel (TCH) message.

Logical Channels   Many types of logical channels exists each designed to carry a different message to or from an MS. Logical Channels are divided into two groups 1) 2) Control Channels Traffic Channels .

Control Channels  Broadcast Channels (BCH)    Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Random Access Channel (RACH) Access Grant Channel (AGCH) Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)  Common Control Channels (CCCH)     Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)    .

There are three categories of Control Channels: 6) Broadcast Control . synchronize itself with the BTS.Control Channels Control channels carry signaling information used by the MS to locate a BTS. and receive information required to perform the call setup.

 Downlink .Broadcast Channels   All Broadcast Channels are transmitted point to multi-point over the downlink Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH): Provides the frequency correction information used by the MS  The MS searches for this channels to switch on.

. First to make sure that this is the BCCH carrier.    On FCCH.FCCH contd. FCCH is transmitted downlink only. information containing only zeroes are transmitted. .. and second to allow the MS to read the frequency. This serves two purposes.

 Contains the Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) and the TDMA frame number used for synchronization of the MS to the new BTS .Synchronization Channel (SCH):  After locking to the frequency the MS synchronises with the SCH.

Broadcast Control Channel   The MS must receive some general information concerning the cell in order to start roaming. waiting for calls to arrive or making calls. The needed information is broadcast on theBroadcast Control CHannel (BCCH) and includes      List of frequencies used in the cell Frequency hopping sequence List of neighbouring cells which should be monitored by MS Location area Identity Max transmission power allowed in the cell .

Therefore. SCH and BCCH in the new cell. and BCCH the MS tunes to a BTS and synchronized with the frame structure in that cell. The BTSs are not synchronized to each other.   Using FCCH. SCH. every time the MS camps on another cell. . it must listen to FCCH.

mobile originated calls. • RACH information is transmitted over the uplink • Used for e.Common control channels Random Access Channel: • Used by a MS to request access to the system. .g.

So. At certain time intervals the MS listens to the PCH to check if the network wants to make contact with the MS. PCH information is transmitted over the downlink. MS actively listen to PCH to check contact info within certain time.Paging Channel (PCH)      Used to page the mobile station. . The reason why the network may want to contact the MS could be an incoming call or an incoming short message.

RACH can also be used if the MS wants to contact the network.    The MS listens to the PCH to determine when it is being paged. when setting up a mobile originating call. . For example. it replies on the RACH requesting a signaling channel. When the MS is paged.

Access Grant Channel (AGCH):  Used by the BTS to assign a dedicated control channel. (SDCCH)  A downlink channel only. .

• • • . ex: authentication The traffic channel (TCH) is assigned by using SDCCH. Bi-directional channel.Dedicated channels Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH): Carries signaling information between BTS and MS during call setup.

. Carries control and measurement parameters along with routine data necessary to maintain a radio link between the MS and the BTS Bi-directional channel. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH): Transmits call control data.Dedicated channels contd.. • • • . measurement reports during connection.

Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH): Carries urgent signaling information For quick control communication. Physically replaces speech.. “stealing mode” • • • .g.Dedicated channels contd.. e. handover.

Under normal conditions the subscriber does not notice the speech interruption because the speech coder repeats the previous speech block.Dedicated channels contd. .    FACCH works in stealing mode meaning that one 20 ms segment of speech is exchanged for signaling information necessary for the handover. This channel is used only if required...

User data bit rate 6-7 kbit/s.Traffic Channels  Traffic Channels carry either speech or data. Used for speech or data transmission. There are three types of traffic channels: 1) • • • Full-Rate Bi-directional channel. 6) • • • . User data bit rate 13 kbit/s Half-Rate Bi-directional channel. Used for speech or data transmission.

• Used for high quality speech transmission.3) Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) • Bi-directional channel. • User data bit rate 13 kbit/s. .

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